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Sample records for inca empire peru

  1. Microscopic Rocks and Expansive Empires: Investigating Inca Ceramics from Cuzco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Ixer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High quality polychrome ceramics are an iconic aspect of Inca material culture. This ‘Cuzco Inca’ pottery appears suddenly in the archaeological record: but it draws upon technological and stylistic aspects of earlier local pottery and we discuss the specifics of how these pre-Inca traits were combined to form the distinctive new state ceramics. Using ceramic petrography, the dominant fabric of Cuzco Inca pottery is compared with those of two pre-Inca wares, Killke and Lucre. Andesite temper, identified in the Lucre and Cuzco Inca fabrics, is compared with samples of andesite from local geological outcrops. This suggests that Lucre pottery was made using similar materials to Cuzco Inca and was a technological precursor. Because these materials and technological knowledge would only have become available to the Inca after their conquest of the Lucre cultural area, this ceramic evidence has important implications for our understanding of Imperial expansion and state intervention in craft-production.

  2. The Inca healer: empirical medical knowledge and magic in pre-Columbian Peru

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    Elferink, Jan G. R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of medical practitioners among the Incas is addressed, based on archeological findings and especially the writings of the Spanish chroniclers. In Inca medicine a large role was reserved for religion and magic but at the same time an extensive knowledge of medicinal plants was available. As a consequence there were several types of healers who cured with a mixture of medicinal plants and religious-magic ceremonies. The hampicamayoc or ‘official in charge of medicines’ was the one who resembled somewhat the European physician of that time and was the most important type of healer. He relied largely but certainly not exclusively on the use of medicinal plants. There were also healers who cured mainly with religious-magic procedures. Surgery must have been important for the Inca healer but this is hardly reflected in the work of the Spanish chroniclers.La posición social de los profesionales de la medicina en la Cultura Inca se conoce gracias a los hallazgos arqueológicos y, sobre todo, gracias a los escritos de los cronistas españoles. En la medicina Inca, la religión y la magia ocupaban un papel destacado, aunque también era importante el conocimiento de las plantas medicinales. En consecuencia, existieron distintos tipos de curanderos que curaban con una mezcla más o menos mayor de plantas medicinales y ceremonias religiosas y mágicas. El hampicamayoc o «funcionario encargado de los medicamentos» sobresalía entre los curanderos y tenía cierto parecido con el médico europeo de la época. Su actuación se basaba sobre todo, aunque no exclusivamente, en el uso de plantas medicinales. Otros, en cambio, curaban básicamente con procedimientos mágicoreligiosos. La cirugía debió ser importante para el sanador Inca pero este hecho apenas se refleja en la obra de los cronistas españoles.

  3. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  4. Pre-Inca Astronomy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Huacas (shrines) and ushnus (ceremonial platforms) are ever-present elements of millennia-old Andean cosmology extending backward to 3100 BCE. Major themes of Pan-Andean cosmology include sacred mountains, the power of water, the solstice sun, as well as shamanic-like movement across the three worlds of the cosmos. Common features of many pre-Inca sites are monumental platforms and sunken circular plazas, and stairways with axes established by bi-lateral symmetries oriented along solstice lines. This style of ritual architecture first appeared in Chupacigarro/Caral, other sites in the Norte Chico area, and Sechin Bajo in the Casma Valley. Ceremonial plazas provided opportunities for public viewing of ritual ceremonies on the tops of platforms, which may have been understood as sacred mountains. Mounds and temples of the Casma Valley, such as Sechin Alto, Sechin Bajo, and Chankillo, developed an explicit astronomy associated with June and December solstices. The ritualistic use of water, which is typically associated with visual astronomy at Inca sites, appeared at Chavin de Huantar and later in Tiwanaku.

  5. Inca Volcanic Stone Provenance in the Cuzco Province, Peru

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    Patrick N. Hunt

    1990-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of andesite and basalt as architectual ashlars by Inca stonemasons has been widely discussed throughout the literature. Most of these archaeological or architectural studies are in agreement that that primary Inca quarrying centers in the Cuzco area are in the Rio Huatanay valley at Rumiqolqa and Huaccoto, both to the southeast of Cuzco.

  6. Putting the rise of the Inca Empire within a climatic and land management context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepstow-Lusty, A. J.; Frogley, M. R.; Bauer, B. S.; Leng, M. J.; Boessenkool, K. P.; Carcaillet, C.; Ali, A. A.; Gioda, A.

    2009-07-01

    The rapid expansion of the Inca from the Cuzco area of highland Peru (ca. AD 1400-1532) produced the largest empire in the New World. Although this meteoric growth may in part be due to the adoption of innovative societal strategies, supported by a large labour force and a standing army, we argue that it would not have been possible without increased crop productivity, which was linked to more favourable climatic conditions. Here we present a multi-proxy, high-resolution 1200-year lake sediment record from Marcacocha, located 12 km north of Ollantaytambo, in the heartland of the Inca Empire. This record reveals a period of sustained aridity that began from AD 880, followed by increased warming from AD 1100 that lasted beyond the arrival of the Spanish in AD 1532. These increasingly warmer conditions would have allowed the Inca and their immediate predecessors the opportunity to exploit higher altitudes (post-AD 1150) by constructing agricultural terraces that employed glacial-fed irrigation, in combination with deliberate agroforestry techniques. There may be some important lessons to be learnt today from these strategies for sustainable rural development in the Andes in the light of future climate uncertainty.

  7. Putting the rise of the Inca Empire within a climatic and land management context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Chepstow-Lusty

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of the Inca from the Cuzco area of highland Peru (ca. AD 1400–1532 produced the largest empire in the New World. Although this meteoric growth may in part be due to the adoption of innovative societal strategies, supported by a large labour force and a standing army, we argue that it would not have been possible without increased crop productivity, which was linked to more favourable climatic conditions. Here we present a multi-proxy, high-resolution 1200-year lake sediment record from Marcacocha, located 12 km north of Ollantaytambo, in the heartland of the Inca Empire. This record reveals a period of sustained aridity that began from AD 880, followed by increased warming from AD 1100 that lasted beyond the arrival of the Spanish in AD 1532. These increasingly warmer conditions would have allowed the Inca and their immediate predecessors the opportunity to exploit higher altitudes (post-AD 1150 by constructing agricultural terraces that employed glacial-fed irrigation, in combination with deliberate agroforestry techniques. There may be some important lessons to be learnt today from these strategies for sustainable rural development in the Andes in the light of future climate uncertainty.

  8. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Inca Astronomy and Calendrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, David S. P.; Bauer, Brian S.

    Half a millennium ago in the central Andes of Peru, the movements of the sun, moon, and stars were watched and interpreted by the Inca. The astronomical observations made in and near the former capital, Cuzco, formed the nuclei of the most important public rituals of the empire. As the regulator of time, the ruling Inca scheduled the rituals that bound this society together. In this article, we review the major astronomical observations that were made by the Inca and discuss their importance in defining the ritual calendar.

  10. PERIPHERY/CORE RELATIONS IN THE INCA EMPIRE CARROTS AND STICKS IN AN ANDEAN WORLD SYSTEM

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    Lawrence A. Kuznar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Inca Empire exhibited labor exploitation and the rational extraction of resources from peripheral polities by a core polity. These characteristics fit the general definition of a world empire, although core/periphery relations were diverse. The nature of core/periphery relations depended on several attributes of the conquered polity including population size, political power, natural resources, and distance from the Inca core at Cuzco. A dynamic picture of core/periphery relations emerges as the outcome of Inca demands for labor and raw materials, and peripheral peoples' desire for control over their autonomy while seeking benefits from the Inca state.

  11. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanzalová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993. He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005 deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007 documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices, which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another

  12. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993). He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005) deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007) documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices), which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation

  13. New discoveries on astronomical orientation of Inca site in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolína Hanzalová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen. (1  He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2 deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (3 documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images were used to estimate the astronomical-solar-solstice orientation, together with terrestrial images from Salazar and Salazar (2. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the actual horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices, which were for Incas people very important. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with objects in Ollantaytambo. First, we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths.  We tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn´t connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation point. By Salazar and Salazar (2 we found observation

  14. Couriers in the Inca Empire: Getting Your Message Across. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This lesson shows how the Inca communicated across the vast stretches of their mountain realm, the largest empire of the pre-industrial world. The lesson explains how couriers carried messages along mountain-ridge roads, up and down stone steps, and over chasm-spanning footbridges. It states that couriers could pass a message from Quito (Ecuador)…

  15. Large scale shallow landslides hazard assessment of the Inca Historical Sanctuary area (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonaco, G.; Margottini, C.; Martini, G.; Paolini, S.; Spizzichino, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Inca Historical Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Peru) is a large archaeological area (ca. 30 sq km) located in the Andean chain in the region of Cuzco, in the high Eastern Cordillera, a Permo-Liassic rift system including a variety of rock types, dominantly granites and granodiorites. The seismicity of the area is mainly connected to the main Quaternary faults systems of the Cuzco region that have caused in the past the most destructive earthquakes, generally characterised by superficial hypocentres. The sanctuary , located along the Urubamba River Valley (NW orientation), includes, besides the well-known Machu Picchu citadel, several "minor" archaeological sites, located in the forest area, reciprocally connected by the "Inca trail". The elevation varies from 4,000 to 1,700m a.s.l. The slope gradient is generally very high, with average slope angle >40°. Due to geological and sub-tropical climate characteristics, the granitoid rocks usually develop a heavily weathered soil cover of 1-2m depth along the slopes. Geomorphological evidences from bibliography, field surveys and aerial photo analysis report shallow landslides (mostly debris flows) triggered by heavy rainfall as the most frequent landslide types. Landslides potential failure surface usually corresponds to the contact between soil cover and granitoid bedrock (1-2m depth). Slope movements are triggered by pore pressure increase due to rapid infiltration of rainfall along the slopes that usually exhibit a scarcely developed drainage system. After the initial mobilisation, a rapid failure and displacement occur in a chaotic mixture of coarse and fine materials, from silty-sands to rock blocks. Shallow landslides may cause severe damage to the archaeological sites of the Inca sanctuary that present slope deformation and active strain processes in the ancient structures. The general homogeneity of the area in terms of outcropping soil types, morphology and climate conditions promote shallow landslides

  16. The metallurgic furnaces at the Curamba Inca site (Peru): a study by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huaypar, Yezena; Vetter, Luisa; Bravo, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The Inca site at Curamba is located in the Province of Apurimac in the southern highlands of Peru where, according to some historians, several thousand furnaces used for ore smelting were found. For this work, four samples of burned soil were gathered from these furnaces and classified as Curamba1, Curamba2, Curamba3, and Curamba4, and studied using transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The mineralogical composition of the samples was determined by XRD and the structural sites in the minerals occupied by iron cations were characterized by TMS. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the maximum temperature reached in these furnaces using the refiring technique of the samples in an oxidizing environment and monitoring the structural modifications at the iron sites by changes in the Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. The TMS results of Curamba2 show that the maximum temperature reached in this furnace was about 900 deg. C, in agreement with the mineralogical composition found by XRD. In the case of Curamba1 and Curamba4 the maximum temperature estimated was about 400 deg. C.

  17. Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    This publication provides a brief account of Peru's geographic, history, government, and political and economic conditions. With an area of 1.28 million sq. km., Peru is the third largest country in South American and is home to 20.2 million inhabitants (6 million live in the capital city of Lima). The population is 45% Indian, 37% mestizo, 15% white, and 3% black, Asian, and other. The 2 official languages are Spanish and Quechua. Its literacy rate stands at 79%, and its infant mortality rate and life expectancy measure 91/1000 and 60.8 years respectively. Peru's pre-Colombian period notes the impressive achievements of the Inca civilization, which was conquered by Spain in 1531. The country gained its independence from Spanish rule in 1821. The article also mentions Peru's turbulent contemporary history, with territorial disputes, a strong military presence, and a series of coups that have interrupted civilian constitutional governments. As recently as 1985, Peru had its first exchange of power from 1 democratically elected leader to another in 40 years, when 36 year-old Alan Garcia Perez became president. Leader of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), GArcia espouses leftist but not non-communist politics, and is well-known for his message of anti-imperialism and Latin American integration. Peru's has seen terrorist activity from 2 marxist organizations, the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (The Shining Path) and the MRTA-MIR (Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement-Movement of the Revolutionary Left. In 1986, Peru's economy had a $17 billion Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a per capital GDP of $839, and an inflation rate of 62.9. The article also provides information concerning US economic assistance to Peru, as well as an assessment of US-Peruvian relations.

  18. Peru v. Yale: A Battle Rages over Machu Picchu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    In early 1916, the legendary Yale University archaeologist Hiram Bingham III completed his third and final expedition in southern Peru. He shipped home 74 boxes of artifacts from Machu Picchu, a spectacular site in the Andes that is believed to have been the last major settlement of the Inca empire. Those boxes were supposed to be on temporary…

  19. Enclaves of genetic diversity resisted Inca impacts on population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Chiara; Sandoval, José R; Valqui, Jairo; Shimelman, Aviva; Ziemendorff, Stefan; Schröder, Roland; Geppert, Maria; Roewer, Lutz; Gray, Russell; Stoneking, Mark; Fujita, Ricardo; Heggarty, Paul

    2017-12-12

    The Inca Empire is claimed to have driven massive population movements in western South America, and to have spread Quechua, the most widely-spoken language family of the indigenous Americas. A test-case is the Chachapoyas region of northern Peru, reported as a focal point of Inca population displacements. Chachapoyas also spans the environmental, cultural and demographic divides between Amazonia and the Andes, and stands along the lowest-altitude corridor from the rainforest to the Pacific coast. Following a sampling strategy informed by linguistic data, we collected 119 samples, analysed for full mtDNA genomes and Y-chromosome STRs. We report a high indigenous component, which stands apart from the network of intense genetic exchange in the core central zone of Andean civilization, and is also distinct from neighbouring populations. This unique genetic profile challenges the routine assumption of large-scale population relocations by the Incas. Furthermore, speakers of Chachapoyas Quechua are found to share no particular genetic similarity or gene-flow with Quechua speakers elsewhere, suggesting that here the language spread primarily by cultural diffusion, not migration. Our results demonstrate how population genetics, when fully guided by the archaeological, historical and linguistic records, can inform multiple disciplines within anthropology.

  20. The complete mitogenome of a 500-year-old Inca child mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Roewer, Lutz; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2015-11-12

    In 1985, a frozen mummy was found in Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina). Archaeological studies identified the mummy as a seven-year-old Inca sacrifice victim who lived >500 years ago, at the time of the expansion of the Inca Empire towards the southern cone. The sequence of its entire mitogenome was obtained. After querying a large worldwide database of mitogenomes (>28,000) we found that the Inca haplotype belonged to a branch of haplogroup C1b (C1bi) that has not yet been identified in modern Native Americans. The expansion of C1b into the Americas, as estimated using 203 C1b mitogenomes, dates to the initial Paleoindian settlements (~18.3 thousand years ago [kya]); however, its internal variation differs between Mesoamerica and South America. By querying large databases of control region haplotypes (>150,000), we found only a few C1bi members in Peru and Bolivia (e.g. Aymaras), including one haplotype retrieved from ancient DNA of an individual belonging to the Wari Empire (Peruvian Andes). Overall, the results suggest that the profile of the mummy represents a very rare sub-clade that arose 14.3 (5-23.6) kya and could have been more frequent in the past. A Peruvian Inca origin for present-day C1bi haplotypes would satisfy both the genetic and paleo-anthropological findings.

  1. Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.

    1989-01-01

    Version 3.12 of INCA provides user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems. System configuration and parameters easily adjusted, enabling INCA user to create compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in convenient manner. Full complement of graphical routines makes output easy to understand. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  2. Library of INCA

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Aeron

    2013-01-01

    LIBRARY OF INCA. Åpning: 25. august 2012. (18.00 til 21.00) Utstillingsperiode: 25. august - 22. september. Utstillere: Aurora Harris, Frido Evers, Lina Persson, Per-Oskar Leu, Cary Loren, Inger Wold Lund, Hamilton Poe. Kuratorer: Aeron Bergman and Alejandra Salinas. Visningssted: INCA - Institute for Neo Connotative Action, Detroit, USA.

  3. INCA- INTERACTIVE CONTROLS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z

  4. Counting and Arithmetic of the Inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Catepillán

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Inca Empire - the greatest pre-Columbian empire on the American continent - extended from Ecuador to central Chile for more than five thousand miles. Its capital was Cuzco established in the high Peruvian Andes. This highly advanced civilization developed a counting system used to run the empire - in particular, to build the 14,000 mile road structure and monumental architecture. Some of the algorithms believed to be used by the Inca to do computations using a yupana, an ancient calculating device, will be presented, as well as classroom activities for the course “Mathematics in Non-European Cultures” for non Mathematics and Science majors offered at Millersville University of Pennsylvania.

  5. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro Calogero; Vinton Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas cau...

  6. Inca Royal Estates in the Sacred Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    The royal estates lying between Cusco and Machu Picchu illustrate the remarkable variety by which the sun was honored and worshipped in the Inca Empire. The terraced basins of Moray combine the sun at both solstices and, perhaps, the zenith sun, with flowing water and offerings to Pachamama. The complex astronomy at Urubamba involves the palace of Quespiwanka, horizon pillars, solstices, and mountain worship. Ollantaytambo contains horizontal shadow-casting gnomons with a major water shrine.

  7. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  8. Value Relevance Change Under International Accounting Standards: An Empirical Study of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhui Liu; Lee J. Yao; Michelle Y. M. Yao

    2012-01-01

    In face of broad adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is considering its quality and acceptability. This paper reports a study that examines changes in value relevance with a sample of Peru firms mandated to use international accounting standards between 1999 and 2007. The period under study is broken into a period of International Accounting Standards (IAS) between 1999 and 2001, a period of early IFRS between 2002 and 2...

  9. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Calogero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  10. INCAS TRISONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin MUNTEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  11. Moessbauer studies of Inca ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.; Wagner, F.E.; Marticorena, B.; Salazar, R.; Schwabe, R.; Riederer, J.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain information on the firing of Inca ceramics, 7 samples from different locations were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy including a detailed laboratory refiring procedure. The glaze typical for the surface of this ware was studied by Moessbauer scattering. (Auth.)

  12. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  13. An empirical approach to the credit risk assessment of a microfinance institution in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lara Rubio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of micro-credit along with the excellent conditions to carry out microfinance activity in the economy and financial system of the Republic of Peru are pushing for Microfinance Institutions (IMF increased competition with banks in this segment business. Like in commercial banks, in microfinance questions such as: is this customer profitable?, What is the credit limit that I must accept to his/her application?, What interest rate should I charge to him/ her?, How I can reduce the risk default?, etc., are matters to be assessed properly. We propose a method that could facilitate improvement in customer qualification between failed and not failed. To this end, we propose a methodology that analyzes credit risk in the provision of microcredit through the design of a credit scoring model that we apply to a Development Agency for Small and Micro Enterprise (EDPYME, which is an IMF under the supervision by the Banking and Insurance Superintendency (SBS.

  14. INCAS SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu STOICA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The INCAS Subsonic Wind Tunnel is a closed circuit, continuous, atmospheric pressure facility with a maximum speed of 110 m/s. The test section is octagonal ,of 2.5 m wide, 2.0 m high and 4 m long. The tunnel is powered by a 1200 kW, air cooled variable speed DC motor which drives a 12 blade, 3.5 m diameter fan and is equipped with a six component pyramidal type external mechanical balance with a 700 Kgf maximum lift capacity.The angle of attack range is between -45º and +45º while the yaw angle range is between -140º and +216º .The data acquisition system has been modified recently to allow the recording of all test data on a PC - type computer using LABVIEW and a PXI – type chassis containing specialized data acquisition modules.The tunnel is equipped with a variable frequency electrical supply system for powered models and a 10 bar compressed air supply for pneumatic flow control applications.In the recent years the subsonic wind tunnel has been intensively used for tests within several European projects (AVERT, CESAR and others.

  15. Burning down the brewery: Establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baúl, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Michael E.; Nash, Donna J.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; deFrance, Susan D.; Miranda, Ana; Ruales, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning. PMID:16293691

  16. The application of Inca khipuas an accountability and managerial control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Schmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study aims to present the mechanisms of control and accountability used in the Inca society. Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, a bibliographical and documental analysis regarding the use of khipus in this civilization was carried out, applying a qualitative approach. Findings – The results of the study indicate that the Inca khipu was the main instrument of tax registration and management adopted by the Inca empire. The Khipucamayocs were responsible for the production of the Khipu, asserting that the information generated and consolidated in the imperial khipu was correct, considering that these professionals paid with their lives in case of errors. Originality/value – The main contributions to accounting are related to the understanding of the origin of the development of tax control and accountability tools created in the Inca Empire, before the Spanish invasions, that contributed significantly to the development of the first American societies

  17. Protocol and data INCA trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelser, L.M.; Frankena, K.; Toorman, J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Dubios, R.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.; Haagen, T.A.; Rommelse, N.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    The file INCAdata.csv contains the data collected during the INCA study (100 records with 152 variables). The data have been analysed and outcomes were published by Pelsser et al (2011): "Effects of a restricted elimination diet on the behaviour of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity

  18. La réinvention des routes incas : représentations et construction de la mémoire au Pérou (2001-2011 The Reinvention of the Inca Roads: Representations and Construction of Memory in Peru (2001-2011 La reinvención de las rutas incas: representaciones y construcción de la memoria en el Perú (2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Jallade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Le « Qhapaq Ñan » (chemin principal andin constitue un exemple éclairant d’institutionnalisation de la mémoire au Pérou, marqué par quatre facteurs : le rôle central dévolu aux scientifiques et aux organisations internationales favorise l’irruption de logiques de développement et de patrimonialisation ; l’État péruvien privilégie une représentation symbolique du territoire au profit d’un public de plus en plus globalisé; la « Marche pour la paix », une commémoration politique ancrée dans le contexte local, a été marquée par un succès populaire important, mais non relayé par les élites ; enfin les projets de tourisme soutenable fondés sur des objectifs de conservation et d’authenticité ont échoué à donner une réalité concrète à leurs propositions. Ces différentes stratégies n’ont jamais réussi à impliquer durablement les communautés riveraines, et ce malgré les objectifs affichés à l’origine. Elles témoignent des enjeux contradictoires de la représentation des Andes péruviennes dans le contexte d’un pays pluriculturel.The «Qhapaq Ñan» (main Andean road is a unprecedented example of institutionalization of memory in contemporary Peru, characterized by four aspects: the central role given to scientists and international organizations favors the emergence of patterns of development and heritage listing; the Peruvian State tends to stress a symbolic representation of territory for the benefit of a globalized audience; the «Peace march», a political initiative well grounded in the local context, was rewarded by significant popular success, but the elite did not follow it up; finally, sustainable tourism projects based on conservation and authenticity goals have failed to put their proposals in practice. The original objectives stressing participation of local communities were not achieved on a lasting basis. These findings underline conflicting issues of representation of the

  19. New multivariable capabilities of the INCA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1989-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly, efficient environment for the design and analysis of control systems, specifically spacecraft control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. The (INCA) program was initially developed as a comprehensive classical design analysis tool for small and large order control systems. The latest version of INCA, expected to be released in February of 1990, was expanded to include the capability to perform multivariable controls analysis and design.

  20. The modern conception of the INCA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Ammosov, V.V.; Chechin, V.A.; Chubenko, A.P.; Erlykin, A.D.; Ladygin, E.A.; Merzon, G.I.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.; Murashev, V.N.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Ryabov, V.A.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Saito, T.; Sobolevskii, N.M.; Shchepetov, A.L.; Starkov, N.I.; Trostin, I.S.; Tsarev, V.A.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhdanov, G.B.; Zhukov, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The goals and status of the INCA Project are presented. New technique based on the ionization-neutron calorimeter (INCA) and designed to study the energy spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic radiation in the 'knee' region as well as the spectrum of primary electrons in the range 0.1-10 TeV is discussed

  1. Radiocarbon dating of the Peruvian Chachapoya/Inca site at the Laguna de los Condores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.M.; Kutschera, W.; Seidler, H.; Steier, P.; Guillen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An archaeological site with several funerary houses built in the cliffs of the Laguna de los Condores by the Chachapoya people was discovered in 1997 in the cloud forest at a sea level of 2500 m in the Amazonas/San Martin area in Peru. The Chachapoya people and their culture is not fully understood until now and some myths entwine around the origin of that South American ancient civilisation. The Chachapoya are described as people of warriors, which were finally subdued by the Incas. A typical characteristic of their culture is the special burial of their dead in funeral bundles containing the remains of the bodies. At the Laguna de los Condores more that 200 mummies have been found and transferred to Leymebamba. During the rescue work of the mummies, which were in danger to be destroyed by looters, it turned out that two different burial patterns could be detected. It is assumed, that after conquering of the Chachapoyas, the Inca people took over also the burial cliff houses and used it for their own burials. The Incas themselves were subdued by the Spanish Conquistadors in 1532 AD. In order to shed light on the transition from the Chachapoya to the Inka dominance, which is connected with the history of the Laguna de los Condores funeral site, a multidisciplinary project between archaeologists, anthropologists and physicists has been started. VERA contributes to this project with several radiocarbon dates of archaeological objects and of the mummies from this Chachapoya/Inca site. (author)

  2. The INCA project: present status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Ammosov, V.V.; Chechin, V.A.; Chubenko, A.P.; Erlykin, A.D.; Ladygin, E.A.; Merzon, G.I.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.; Murashov, V.N.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Ryabov, V.A.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Saito, T.; Sobolevskii, N.M.; Shchepetov, A.L.; Starkov, N.I.; Trostin, I.S.; Tsarev, V.A.; Wolfendale, A.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhdanov, G.B.; Zhukov, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific objectives, foundations, status, and outlook of the INCA Project are presented. Fundamentally new technique based on the ionization-neutron calorimeter (INCA) and designed to study local nearby sources of high-energy cosmic rays by direct measuring the spectrum and composition of the nuclear component in the 'knee' region and the spectrum of primary electrons in the energy range 0.1-10 TeV with the proton-background suppression factor up to 10 7 is discussed. Experimental data on exposition of the INCA prototypes to electron, pion, and proton beams at various energies and corresponding simulation results are presented. Prospects are considered

  3. The U.S. Andean drug strategy: why it is failing in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cutting, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis will demonstrate Peru's inability to physically operate and politically control large sections of the country, is the result of eroded internal state sovereignty. The decline of Peru's internal sovereignty is a function of economic, ethnic, and social clevages which have remained virtually unchanged since the Spanish Conquest of the Inca in 1533. As a result, Peru evolved into a polarized society, which...

  4. Tupamaro de Caxamarca: tonadas sobre la muerte del Inca Atahualpa contenidas en el códice Martínez Compañón (1782-85 Tupamaro de Caxamarca: Tunes about the Death of the Inca Atahualpa contained in the Codex Martínez Compañón (1782-85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Palmiero

    2011-12-01

    ágicos hechos de Cajamarca. Pero más allá de determinar si algunas de las tonadas del Códice pudieran ser parte de una representación de la captura y muerte de Atahualpa de finales de la colonia, nos interesó interpretar estos cantos como signos portadores de un discurso colonial propio en dos sentidos: la relectura de hechos históricos cuales la captura y la muerte de Atahualpa; la persistencia de códigos andinos en la rememoración de ciertos rituales como el "llanto ceremonial". En este sentido se consideró, para el análisis musical, la existencia de un tono -visto en un primer momento como elemento perteneciente a un sistema de tonos incaicos cercano al sistema de modos eclesiásticos-, que llamaremos "llanto del Inca", su relación con el llanto ceremonial incaico y su rol en la transmisión de significados ligados a la ritualidad andina colonial.Throughout the colonial period a memory of the history of the Andean tribes was created. This memory considered the Inca empire as its main reference and the Inca as its natural symbol. From the narration of the facts of the Inca history, particularly those referring to the Spanish conquest, sprang up the myth of the Inca death to which contributed both conquerors and those who were conquered. During the eighthteenth century the death of the Inca was presented in numerous theatrical performances accompanied with music. The codex Martínez Compañón (1782-85 consists of nine volumes with about 1500 color plates depicting different aspects of both the social life and the natural phenomena of the Trujillo zone in Peru. Thirty eight plates, included in volume II, are related directly or indirectly with music of oral tradition of the period. The original folio numbers of these plates are all preceded by the letter E, standing for '"estampa" (plate. A total of twenty scores appear between E. 176 though E. 193. Judging from the title the text of the following two tunes -"E 188: Allegro tonada El tupamaro, Caxamarca" and "E. 191

  5. Identidad y ética en los Comentarios reales de los incas del Inca Garcilaso de la Vega

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Julio Casado

    2003-01-01

    Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. Historiografi. Renæssance. Spaniens erobring af Amerika. Etik. Paul Ricoeur......Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. Historiografi. Renæssance. Spaniens erobring af Amerika. Etik. Paul Ricoeur...

  6. Fatal Ichthyocotylurus erraticus infestation in Inca terns (Larosterna inca) in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Wouter; Hoyer, Mark; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno; Ijzer, Jooske; de Jong, Sara; Cremers, Herman; Kik, Marja

    2014-06-01

    In a breeding group of Inca terns (Larosterna inca), 14 birds died without antemortem signs of illness. Other than a poor body condition and a bloody cloaca, no symptoms were observed. Gross necropsy revealed severe segmental hemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional trematodes in most birds. Histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenum and cross-sections of trematodes in the lumen. The parasites were identified as Ichthyocotylurus erraticus, a trematode of fish-eating birds. The cause of the infestation most likely was the feeding of unfrozen fresh fish. We describe the first case of a lethal I. erraticus infestation in Inca terns.

  7. El Camino del Inca en el Norte Chico chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Dentice Bacigalupe

    2011-09-01

    Determine the prehispanic path "Camino del Inca" between the Santa Gracia gully and Vicuña municipality as well as its touristic use. This study is situated in Olla de Caldera, district of La Serena, IV Region, Chile, inhabited by a farming community result from the pre-Hispanic territorial occupations which were successively adapted and transformed since the days of the conquest. In the place there are archaeological and mining sites from the Incaic period, with lots of roads currently used just by locals. The study proposes an Inca path network in the area, refuting the hypothesis of the two North-South parallel paths. The area has no traces of main roads. The IV Region solves the trace with connected trails of varying magnitude. It is difficult to know the origin of these paths. So, we can not confer them an Incaic character with certainty since the roads have been used permanently through time. However, the methodology used in this study, allows to recognize its origins in the field. The review of original documents, particularly of those chroniclers which took part of the conquest, give us us the data extrapolation and the re-interpretation of the facts at its context, narrated by Spaniards, as Pedro Cieza de Leon and Cristobal de Molina, and by indigenous witnesses of the Inca Empire, as Huaman Poma de Ayala and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. The study collects the original sources in a permanent exercise of contextualization. This study reviews historical and geographical records, contrasting archeological and toponymical data: Indian names of places related to transit and supply are combined and concatenated to test paths on the field. The study addresses the topography and means of transport to contrast them with well-known pre-Hispanic customs to infer their possible origin. We have studied the available maps from the voyages of conquest, especially those of Diego de Almagro and Pedro de Valdivia, passing through the colonial and republican mining boom, to

  8. Bismuth bronze from machu picchu, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R B; Rutledge, J W

    1984-02-10

    The decorative bronze handle of a tumi excavated at the Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru, contains 18 percent bismuth and appears to be the first known example of the use of bismuth with tin to make bronze. The alloy is not embrittled by the bismuth because the bismuth-rich constituent does not penetrate the grain boundaries of the matrix phase. The use of bismuth facilitates the duplex casting process by which the tumi was made and forms an alloy of unusual color.

  9. Counting and Arithmetic of the Inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Catepillán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El Imperio Inca ¿ el imperio pre-Colombino más grande del continente Americano ¿ se extendió desde Ecuador hasta Chile central por más de cinco mil millas. La capital fue Cuzco, la que fue establecida en las Alturas de los Andes Peruanos. Esta civilización altamente avanzada desarrolló un sistema contable para organizar el imperio ¿ en particular, para construir una red de caminos de 14.000 millas y una arquitectura monumental. Algunos de los algoritmos que se creen haber sido usados por los Inca para hacer cálculos fue la "yupana". Este antiguo artefacto de cálculo será presentado, entre otras actividades del curso "Matemáticas en Culturas No-Europeas" para estudiantes de todas las áreas de concentración, excepto Matemáticas y Ciencia, ofrecido en la Universidad de Millersville en Pennsylvania.

  10. Normal IncA Expression and Fusogenicity of Inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis Isolates with the incA I47T Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie; Eijk, Paul P.; van Marle, Jan; de Witte, Moniek A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Dankert, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types expressed IncA in the membrane of one large single inclusion. In conclusion, the incA I47T mutation is not associated with the nonfusogenic phenotype.

  11. Machu Picchu, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The ruins of Machu Picchu, rediscovered in 1911 by Hiram Bingham, are one of the most beautiful and enigmatic ancient sites in the world. While the Inca people utilized the Andean mountain top (2800 m elevation), erecting massive stone structures from the early 1400's, legends and myths indicate that Machu Picchu (meaning 'Old Peak' in the Quechua language) was revered as a sacred place from a far earlier time. The Inca turned the site into a small (12 square kilometers) but extraordinary city. Invisible from the Urubamba River valley below and completely self-contained, surrounded by agricultural terraces sufficient to feed the population, and watered by natural springs, Machu Picchu seems to have been utilized by the Inca as a secret ceremonial city. The Spaniards never found Machu Picchu, even though they suspected its existence. The mountain top sanctuary fell into disuse and was abandoned some forty years after the Spanish took Cuzco in 1533. Supply lines linking the many Inca social centers were disrupted and the great empire came to an end.This image was acquired on June 25, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example

  12. Interrelationship between Polymorphisms of incA, fusogenic properties of Chlamydia trachomatis strains, and clinical manifestations in patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Spaargaren, Joke; Langerak, Ankie A. J.; Merks, Judith; Morré, Servaas A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2005-01-01

    IncA variation among Dutch Chlamydia trachomatis isolates was investigated. Of 98 strains, two carried an incA with a premature stop codon, lacked IncA, and were nonfusogenic, while 96 contained an intact incA, expressed IncA, and were fasogenic. Among these 96 strains, nine IncA sequence types were

  13. A CASE REPORT OF QUADRANGULAR INCA BONE. Un caso de hueso cuadrangular inca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Verma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Los huesos wormianos son estructuras osificadas que se encuentran dentro de las suturas. En frecuencia que varían extensamente entre grupos étnicos diferentes hay más predominio entre mujeres. En el presente estudio reportamos el caso de un verdadero hueso cuadrangular interparietal o hueso inca en el cráneo humano adulto. Los huesos de wormian interparietal o los huesos epactal se diferencian de los huesos suturales sobre la base de su posición. Los huesos wormianos interparietales están localizados dentro de la región interparietal, mientras los huesos suturales son formados a partir de centros de osificación adicionales que pueden ocurrir en o cerca de las suturas. La osificación inadecuada de la región interparietal lleva a la formación de los huesos wormianos. Ellos también pueden estar relacionados con factores genéticos. El hueso interparietal es formado por la separación del segmento intermedio del plato lateral por la sutura occipital transversa, por lo tanto este hueso es formado por las placas intermedias y laterales que pueden ser únicas o múltiples. La localización de tales huesos está, sobre todo, en la parte central superior de la región interparietal. La ocurrencia de la variable del inca es rara es seres humanos. El conocimiento del hueso del inca puede ser útil a las clínicas, disciplinas de la neurocirugía, ortopedia, antropología, radiología y para los expertos forenses. Wormian bones are ossified structures that are found within the sutures. Incidence of which varies widely among different ethnic groups with more prevalence among females. In the present study we hereby report a case of single true quadrangular interparietal or inca bone in adult human skull. Wormian interparietal bones or epactal bones differ from the sutural bones on the basis of their location. The wormian interparietal bones are located within the interparietal region, while the sutural bones are formed from additional

  14. New bird distribution records for Lambayeque, Peru: Nomonyx dominicus (Linneaus, 1766) (Anatidae) and Incaspiza pulchra (Sclater, 1886) (Emberizidae)

    OpenAIRE

    LoPresti, Eric; Angulo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    New records of the Great Inca-finch (Incaspiza pulchra) and the Masked Duck (Nomonyx dominicus) from 2011 and 2012 in the department of Lambayeque, Peru are presented and discussed. Several Masked Ducks were discovered in seasonal wetlands near the town of La Viña. Single individuals (possibly the same) of the inca-finch were found in both 2011 and 2012 on Cerro Chalpón, near the city of Motupe, and frequent handouts offered by pilgrims to a shrine on the hill. Both these records represent si...

  15. Radiology in archaeological studies of incas mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previgliano, Carlos H.; Ceruti, Constanza; Arias Araoz, Facundo; Gonzalez Diez, Josefina; Reinhard, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to determine the imaging findings in three 500-year-old Inca mummies and how modern radiology can be used in other sciences such as archaeology. Material and Method: Three naturally mummified children were studied using conventional radiography, dental radiography, CT and puncture biopsies. Working sessions were limited to 20 minutes to prevent thawing of the corpses and radiological techniques were adjusted to their particular anatomic position. Results: CT images showed shrinkaged internal organs due to dehydration. The fatty tissue of the bodies was visibly white because of the transformation of it into adipocere, favoring white matter/gray matter differentiation at the central nervous system. The lungs were expanded in the three corpses and right lung and maxillary sinus pathologies were determined in the older girl. Chronological ages of the three children at the time of their deaths were established. DNA studies determined no family links among them. The spleen was not seen in any case. Conclusions: Modern radiology is an excellent tool in archaeological research. Nutritional state, ages and pathologies of the three mummies were evaluated. (author) [es

  16. Inca Trail porters: the health of local tourism employees as a challenge for travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2003-01-01

    Trekking is an activity that forms part of the increasing adventure and outdoor tourism. High altitude trekking in the Himalayas or Andes has been popular for some time. For longer treks, porters are employed to carry necessary equipment. Porters' working conditions are unfortunate and subsequent health problems considerable. Although Himalayan porters have received some attention in the press and research literature, porters on the popular Inca Trail in Peru have been neglected. In light of the growing awareness of health problems of local tourism employees, the purpose of this study was to describe Inca Trail porters' working conditions and their reports on their related health status to provide baseline information for further research and strategies for improvement. For this descriptive study, 101 Inca Trail porters were interviewed (August/September 2001) using a structured interview schedule. Porters were between 17 and 68 years old; estimated body weight ranged from 50 kg to 76 kg. The usual portering job lasts for 4 days with 9 to 10 hours of carrying per day. Estimated weight of loads ranged from 20 kg to 45 kg. Major concerns were lack of fuel, clothes, shelter, and equipment but foremost the lack of sufficient food provisions. A third described their general health as poor or very poor and attributed this to work. Health complaints included respiratory infections, kidney problems, or rheumatism. Thirty-eight porters recalled injuries while on the trail and over 90% had fallen ill on the job with cold, "majurki," and stomach pain due to lack of food or cold food being named most often. Porters' demands for improvement included increased pay and appropriate and sufficient food. The porters' working conditions and subsequent health problems need to be addressed. A range of stakeholders is responsible for the porters' conditions and are in a position to improve current situations. Specific responsibility for health care lies with travel health professionals

  17. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumel, Stephanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-01-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  18. Patrimony and partnership: conserving the khipu legacy of Rapaz, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Peters

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Khipu, cord objects used for recordinginformation, are associated with the Incas; however, in two known cases, khipu survive in Peru as communal patrimony, still in ritual use. This article describes the khipu of San Cristóbal de Rapaz and a project of in situ conservation, conducted in collaboration with the local community. It was necessary to develop a strategy to protect the khipu, while allowing their continued use in sacred rituals. This challenged the basic principles of preventive conservation, but through the collaborative process compromises were achieved, acceptable both to conservators and to the community, which has now resumed responsibility for preservation of the patrimony.

  19. Cholos, incas y fusionistas: El nuevo Perú y la globalización de lo andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelou Ypeij

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   Cholos, incas and fusionistas: The New Peru and the Globalization of 'Lo Andino'This Exploration deals with the cultural changes in Peru from the year 2000. Peru has become a society with more economic, political, social and global opportunities. Within this context, significant cultural changes can be noted. This essay explores cultural expressions such as the weaving associations of the women of Chinchero, the Peruvian cuisine and the rock band Uchpa. All have in common that they reinterpret 'lo andino', or what it is to be Andean, and that they integrate globalized elements. Based on this, a new identity becomes apparent which surpasses the known categories of ethnicity and class.Resumen:Esta exploración trata sobre los cambios culturales en Perú a partir del año 2000. Perú se ha convertido en una sociedad con más oportunidades económicas, políticas, sociales y globales. En este contexto se pueden notar cambios culturales significantes. El ensayo explora expresiones culturales como las asociaciones de tejidos de las mujeres de Chinchero, la gastronomía peruana y la banda de rock Uchpa. Todas tienen en común que reinterpretan lo andino y que integran elementos globalizados. Basándose en ello, surge una nueva identidad que sobrepasa las conocidas categorías de etnicidad y de clase.

  20. The case of Inca´s National Tumor Bank management system in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies can provide the basis for new directions in cancer research, supplying tools that identify subtle but important signs from the analysis of clinical, behavioral, environmental and genetic data. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the system developed for managing Banco Nacional de Tumores (SISBNT – National Tumor Bank System - highlighting its role in the technological innovation of Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA – Brazilian National Cancer Institute. It is a qualitative empirical theoretical paper, descriptive and exploratory in nature, based on the single case study method and on participant observation. The results show the importance of good practices in information management for the full operation of a biobank in a research-oriented pharmaceutical company. There is also evidence that the implementation of SISBNT has contributed to the improvement of cancer treatment quality and to the support of efforts towards the organization of the integration of clinical, translational and basic research. The non-use of data mining techniques for the identification of molecular patterns and structures associated with the different types of cancer undergoing study at INCA seems to occur due to the early stage of Bioinformatics and translational research, as well as the National Tumor Bank, in the institution.

  1. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2015-01-01

    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers.

  2. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2015-01-01

    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers. PMID:26345378

  3. The Location of Lake Titicaca's Coastal Area During the Tiwanaku and Inca Periods: Methodology and Strategies of Underwater Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaere, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    For more than 30 years, numerous research projects have revealed the dense and complex human settlement of the lacustrine basin of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and Peru. Physical evidence of such establishments has been discovered in plains, valleys, and highlands connected to the lake. These remains confirm human occupation and development in this environment, particularly during the Tiwanaku (AD 500-1150) and Inca (AD 1400-1532) Periods. The research project discussed in this paper includes consideration of submerged areas through underwater archaeology. This investigation involves analysis of two areas that have evidence of ancient human occupation but are poorly documented: the coastal and lacustrine regions. Due to its dominance in the landscape, Lake Titicaca has always been a major feature in the life and identity of populations of this vicinity. These inhabitants have developed socio-economic and ritual behaviours directly associated with the lake that have left cultural and material prints that are the foci of the present study.

  4. Los palacios en la Costa Central durante los periodos Tardíos: de Pachacamac al Inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    tradición local como referentes del ordenamiento político de la llamada provincia inca de Pachacamac -al menos en la parte correspondiente al río Rímac- pone en evidencia un tema siempre actual en la discusión arqueológica: ¿cuáles fueron las características de la dominación política resultado de la ocupación inca de esta parte del Tahuantinsuyo? y ¿cuál fue la reacción de las elites locales ante el nuevo orden representado por este acontecimiento? El presente artículo desarrolla este tema a partir de la definición de los atributos formales de los palacios, la descripción y uso de los artefactos asociados a los mismos, así como del análisis de las fuentes históricas que dan cuenta de las características particulares de la sociedad prehispánica tardía de la Costa Central. PALACES ON THE CENTRAL COAST DURING THE LATE PERIODS: FROM PACHACAMAC TO THE INCA. Recent studies on the central coast of Peru have shown that during the Late Intermediate Period (11th to 15th centuries A.D. the architecture of power was closely linked to a certain type of building: an elite residence or palace. The evidence also indicates that after the Inca occupation of the above-mentioned region (15th century this kind of building retained its effectiveness as a distinctive symbol of the political power of the governing elites, i.e. the curacas. The fact that local-style palaces continued to exist as referents of the political ordering of the so-called Inca province of Pachacamac (at least in the Rimac area, throws light on a topic that is still current in archaeological debate: What were the characteristics of the political domination that resulted from the Inca occupation of this corner of Tawantinsuyu? And what was the reaction of the local elites when faced with the new order that arose from this event? The present article develops this topic via the definition of the formal attributes of palaces, their description and the use of artefacts associated with them, as well as

  5. The Making of the Hero in the Land of the Cinnamon Tree: Gonzalo Pizarro in the Royal Commentaries of Garcilaso Inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Zanelli Velásquez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior to his rebellion against the Spanish Crown in 1544, Gonzalo Pizarro (Francisco’s younger brother accomplished the Conquest of Charcas (present-day northwestern Bolivia, survived the siege of Cuzco by Manco Inca and attempted the failed exploration of the mythical «Land of the Cinnamon Tree», located somewhere in the Amazonian basin, according to Garcilaso’s historical account. During this doomed expedition, Pizarro endured treason, lost companions and was defeated by the forces of an aggressive environment. However, he ma­naged to emerge as the legendary political and military leader that rebelled against the first Viceroy of Peru, Blasco Nuñez Vela in 1546. Nuñez Vela would be defeated in battlefield and later executed. Gonzalo Pizarro’s pretension of becoming king of Peru by virtue of a political alliance with the surviving Incas would be seen in Garcilaso’s account as a proof of Pizarro’s heroic stature, albeit a tragic one.

  6. historia en el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Majfud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen varios elementos ideológicos en la narración histórica del Inca Garcilaso de la Vega y una concepción de progreso de la historia que se opone a la más antigua de Hesíodo y de la Iglesia. En sus Comentarios Reales de los Incas procura una reivindicación de su pueblo original, en un contexto español; para ser aceptado, se propone no reescribir directamente la historia oficial, pero trastoca los significados de aquellos “hechos” narrados con anterioridad por los españoles en su Perú natal. Al mismo tiempo, realiza un mestizaje cosmológico que servirá como herramienta para confirmar su concepción de la historia y reivindicar, al mismo tiempo, sus orígenes étnicos y culturales. Pero, en gran medida, su perspectiva religiosa e intelectual ya pertenece a España. El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega no reconoce el panteísmo de los preincaicos y lo rechaza desde una perspectiva cristiana que separa al hombre de la naturaleza, lo que demuestra su concepción europea de la divinidad. Desprecia las culturas preincaicas porque adoraban lo inferior a ellos, mientras que los Incas –como los cristianos– adoraban lo superior y la unidad: el Sol. Más aún, Garcilaso de la Vega identifica, sin nombrarlo, al Sol con Dios y a Pachacámac con el Espíritu Santo. Jesu Christo será la culminación del progreso hacia la perfección de la Trinidad. La consecuencia es una concepción progresista de la historia que incluye a los incas y todos los pueblos (imperfectos que los precedieron. Pasa por encima del rito, del dogma y de las formas para encontrar en el pueblo inca un destino común a la civilización cristiana. Con ello también revela un componente humanista de una historia que se desarrolla con un objetivo universal y mestizo. No por casualidad, se nombra “Inca” con un apellido español, de la Vega, y lucha por conciliar ambas tradiciones: es un proyecto histórico, una voluntad de síntesis y una reivindicación personal.

  7. Normal IncA expression and fusogenicity of inclusions in Chlamydia trachomatis isolates with the incA I47T mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; van der Ende, A.; Eijk, P. P.; van Marle, J.; de Witte, M. A.; Ossewaarde, J. M.; van den Brule, A. J.; Morré, S. A.; Dankert, J.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the incA I47T mutation in Chlamydia trachomatis and the nonfusogenic phenotype, the incA genes of 25 isolates were sequenced. Four major sequence types were identified. Seven isolates (28%) had the I47T mutation. Isolates representing the four sequence types

  8. 'Inca City' is Part of a Circular Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-319, 8 August 2002 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Inca City' is the informal name given by Mariner 9 scientists in 1972 to a set of intersecting, rectilinear ridges that are located among the layered materials of the south polar region of Mars. Their origin has never been understood; most investigators thought they might be sand dunes, either modern dunes or, more likely, dunes that were buried, hardened, then exhumed. Others considered them to be dikes formed by injection of molten rock (magma) or soft sediment into subsurface cracks that subsequently hardened and then were exposed at the surface by wind erosion. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has provided new information about the 'Inca City' ridges, though the camera's images still do not solve the mystery. The new information comes in the form of a MOC red wide angle context frame taken in mid-southern spring, shown above left and above right. The original Mariner 9 view of the ridges is seen at the center. The MOC image shows that the 'Inca City' ridges, located at 82oS, 67oW, are part of a larger circular structure that is about 86 km (53 mi) across. It is possible that this pattern reflects an origin related to an ancient, eroded meteor impact crater that was filled-in, buried, then partially exhumed. In this case, the ridges might be the remains of filled-in fractures in the bedrock into which the crater formed, or filled-in cracks within the material that filled the crater. Or both explanations could be wrong. While the new MOC image shows that 'Inca City' has a larger context as part of a circular form, it does not reveal the exact origin of these striking and unusual martian landforms.

  9. Control system design and analysis using the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly efficient environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. Moreover, the results of the analytic tools imbedded in INCA have been flight proven with at least three currently orbiting spacecraft. This paper describes the INCA program and illustrates, using a flight proven example, how the package can perform complex design analyses with relative ease.

  10. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  11. La vida pública de un príncipe inca residente en Quito, siglos XV y XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte relate la vie et les actions d'un prince inca, originaire du Cuzco, qui par décision des derniers souverains de l'Empire avait d’importantes charges administratives et politiques dans le royaume de Quito. Est joint à ce texte une information inédite de 1562 où l'on découvre que de telles personnes jouissaient de la concession de petites propriétés de type féodal, qui incluait la propriété des terres travaillées par les yanaconas et considérées comme leurs biens propres par ces nobles. De même, il est expliqué comment cette noblesse indigène s'est adaptée à la machine coloniale espagnole afin de ne pas perdre ses privilèges. Se refiere aquí a la vida y hechos de un príncipe inca, oriundo del Cuzco, que por disposición de los últimos soberanos del imperio desempeñó altos cargos administrativos y políticos en el reino de Quito. Se acompaña el texto de una información inédita de 1562, bastante notable debido a que descubre que tales personajes gozaban de la concesión de pequeños feudos, que incluía la propiedad de tierras trabajadas por yanaconas que dichos nobles consideraban como suyos. También se refiere cómo esta nobleza indígena pasó a acomodarse en la maquinaria colonial española para no perder sus privilegios señoriales. This text describes the life and activities of an Inca prince, originally from Cuzco, who, by order of the last rulers of the Inca Empire, had been charged with important administrative and political responsibilities in the Kingdom of Quito. The text is accompanied by an unpublished document dating from 1562 which is of considerable interest since it reveals that personalities such as this prince were privileged by the concession of small, feudal - type properties, which also included the ownership of land worked by yanaconas who were considered by these nobles as being part of their personal property. The document also refers to the way in which this native nobility went on to

  12. Inca: a novel p21-activated kinase-associated protein required for cranial neural crest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Xu, Yanhua; Hoffman, Trevor L; Zhang, Tailin; Schilling, Thomas; Sargent, Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    Inca (induced in neural crest by AP2) is a novel protein discovered in a microarray screen for genes that are upregulated in Xenopus embryos by the transcriptional activator protein Tfap2a. It has no significant similarity to any known protein, but is conserved among vertebrates. In Xenopus, zebrafish and mouse embryos, Inca is expressed predominantly in the premigratory and migrating neural crest (NC). Knockdown experiments in frog and fish using antisense morpholinos reveal essential functions for Inca in a subset of NC cells that form craniofacial cartilage. Cells lacking Inca migrate successfully but fail to condense into skeletal primordia. Overexpression of Inca disrupts cortical actin and prevents formation of actin "purse strings", which are required for wound healing in Xenopus embryos. We show that Inca physically interacts with p21-activated kinase 5 (PAK5), a known regulator of the actin cytoskeleton that is co-expressed with Inca in embryonic ectoderm, including in the NC. These results suggest that Inca and PAK5 cooperate in restructuring cytoskeletal organization and in the regulation of cell adhesion in the early embryo and in NC cells during craniofacial development.

  13. Political-Philosophical Perspectives about the Notions of Indian, Inca, and Mestizo on the «Comentarios reales de los Incas»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Javier Viveros Espinosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay posits certain political-philosophical perspectives on the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega’s Primera parte de los Comentarios reales de los Incas (1609. To this purpose we will develop two hermeneutical movements. The first refers to a theoretical and methodological questioning related to the notion of Indian as a discursive construction during colonial times in the Andes area. The second deploys a critical exercise grounded on the interaction between the notions of Indian, Inca, and Mestizo, which is focused on how they build alternative subjectivities. Both movements consolidate an interpretation about the Inca Garcilaso’s political-philosophical reflections, remarking his proposals of a bifurcated modern civilizational project in the New World.

  14. Human antibody and antigen response to IncA antibody of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P Y; Hsu, M C; Huang, C T; Li, S Y

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of C. trachomatis worldwide has underscored the importance of identifying specific immunogenic antigens in facilitating diagnosis as well as vaccine development. The aim of this study is to evaluate IncA antibody and antigen production in natural human infections. Our temporal expression study showed that IncA transcription and protein expression could be detected as early as 4 hours after the start of infection. Antibody responses could be detected in urine and genital swab samples from C. trachomatis-positive patients. It is especially interesting to note that the IncA antigen could be detected in urine. In conclusion, we have identified IncA as an important antigen in human. The potential applicability of the IncA antibody or antigen in the diagnosis as well as to vaccine development for C. trachomatis is also discussed.

  15. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  16. INCA project for investigation of primary cosmic radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Erlykin, A.D.; Zhdanov, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific purposes of the INCA project and application of the ionization-neutron calorimeter for direct measurements of the cosmic rays spectrum and composition in the knee area and the primary electrons spectrum by 10 14 - 10 13 eV are discussed. The new effective method for the primary electrons and protons separation with the complex rejection coefficient of 10 -5 - 10 -6 is proposed for studying the primary electrons spectrum by E e > 1 TeV. The experimental and calculation data are in good agreement [ru

  17. Motives and Effectiveness of Forex Interventions; Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Melesse Tashu

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses empirically the motives and effectiveness of forex interventions in Peru. While the central bank of Peru states that its forex interventions aim only at containing excessive exchange rate volatility, the results of this paper show that, in practice, the interventions seem to have aimed at “leaning against the wind” as well. The results also show that forex sales, but not forex purchases, react to volatility, indicating asymmetry in the central bank’s reactions to episodes ...

  18. Inhibitor of CDK interacting with cyclin A1 (INCA1) regulates proliferation and is repressed by oncogenic signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumer, Nicole; Tickenbrock, Lara; Tschanter, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The cell cycle is driven by the kinase activity of cyclin/CDK complexes which is negatively regulated by CDK inhibitor proteins. Recently, we identified INCA1 as interaction partner and substrate of cyclin A1 in complex with CDK2. On a functional level, we identified a novel cyclin binding site...... in the INCA1 protein. INCA1 inhibited CDK2 activity and cell proliferation. The inihibitory effects depended on the cyclin-interacting domain. Mitogenic and oncogenic signals suppressed INCA1 expression, while it was induced by cell cycle arrest. We established a deletional mouse model that showed increased...... CDK2 activity in spleen with altered spleen architecture in Inca1-/- mice. Inca1-/- embryonic fibroblasts showed an increase in the fraction of S-phase cells. Furthermore, blasts from ALL and AML patients expressed significantly reduced INCA1 levels highlighting its relevance for growth control...

  19. Maintenance of leukemia-initiating cells is regulated by the CDK inhibitor Inca1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bäumer

    Full Text Available Functional differences between healthy progenitor and cancer initiating cells may provide unique opportunities for targeted therapy approaches. Hematopoietic stem cells are tightly controlled by a network of CDK inhibitors that govern proliferation and prevent stem cell exhaustion. Loss of Inca1 led to an increased number of short-term hematopoietic stem cells in older mice, but Inca1 seems largely dispensable for normal hematopoiesis. On the other hand, Inca1-deficiency enhanced cell cycling upon cytotoxic stress and accelerated bone marrow exhaustion. Moreover, AML1-ETO9a-induced proliferation was not sustained in Inca1-deficient cells in vivo. As a consequence, leukemia induction and leukemia maintenance were severely impaired in Inca1-/- bone marrow cells. The re-initiation of leukemia was also significantly inhibited in absence of Inca1-/- in MLL-AF9- and c-myc/BCL2-positive leukemia mouse models. These findings indicate distinct functional properties of Inca1 in normal hematopoietic cells compared to leukemia initiating cells. Such functional differences might be used to design specific therapy approaches in leukemia.

  20. African Journals Online: Peru

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. African Journals Online: Peru. Home > African Journals Online: Peru. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me

  1. Water quality improvements from afforestation in an agricultural catchment in Denmark illustrated with the INCA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup-Birk, A.; Gundersen, P.

    2004-01-01

    (INCA) model. The model was calibrated on the Horndrup catchment in the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, which is dominated by agricultural land use but also covered by 18% of forest land. The dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the stream water were simulated successfully by INCA over a three...... were not simulated. To simulate the N dynamics over longer time-scales, appropriate for the study of afforestation, it is suggested that the INCA model be run with transient scenarios and linked to more detailed plant and soil models...

  2. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    vector of urban plague in Peru is the Oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis. The human flea, Pulex irritans, although biologically an inefficient vector...TEL: (215) 688-4400 Peru - 10 Instituto Nacional de Hygiene Lima, Peru Peru – 11 Institutos Nacionales de Salud Departamento de Animales

  3. Powers of nostalgia: Ollanta and the neo-Inca movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cordiviola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the indigenous rebellions and its evolution in Perú during the XVIII century as well as the functions and impact that nostalgia and utopia had against the mastery of Spanish, keeping in mind that both, nostalgia and utopia, were used like instruments against this movement. The uprising increases due to the abuse of power and the constant inequalities of imperial economy in and around the viceroyalty based on specific unions between social actors. By the year 1780, they conformed a group called broad Inca nationalist movement whose clear expression was showed in the insurrection promoted by Tupac Amaru. We are going to present the possible interpretations to study the evolution of this movement through this project which is related to the history context OLLANTAY. Simultaneously we are going to take advantage of it in order to analyze other texts and arts.

  4. CASSINI S MIMI INCA SENSOR CALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) obtains remote images of the global distribution of energetic ions for energies from 7 keV/nucleon to 8 MeV/nucleon, discriminated...

  5. CASSINI E/J/S/SW MIMI INCA SENSOR UNCALIBRATED DATA V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument(MIMI) Imaging Neutral Camera (INCA) uncalibrated data set includes all data collected from the MIMI Data Processing...

  6. A thermo mechanical benchmark calculation of a hexagonal can in the BTI accident with INCA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The thermomechanical behaviour of an hexagonal can in a benchmark problem (simulating the conditions of a BTI accident in a fuel assembly) is examined by means of the INCA code and the results systematically compared with those of ADINA

  7. CASSINI E/J/S/SW MIMI INCA SENSOR UNCALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument(MIMI) Imaging Neutral Camera (INCA) uncalibrated data set includes all data collected from the MIMI Data Processing...

  8. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY IN PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Roman-Gonzalez, Avid; Vargas-Cuentas, Natalia Indira

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In recent years, Peru is trying to venture into the space age. Different universities as The Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru (PUCP), Universidad Alas Peruanas (UAP), and the Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria (UNI); they designed the first Peruvian nanosatélites. These nanosatélites were CubeSats; it is a cubic shape and measures 10 × 10 × 10 cm with a mass of 1 kg approximately. In other hand, Peru signed a contract for the purchase of a remote sensing satell...

  9. El cantar fúnebre atribuido al Inca Yupanqui. Estudio semántico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ballón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chroniclers of the Spanish conquest of the Andes gathered in their texts some traces of the colonized people’s ancestral oral tradition. Thus, Juan de Betanzos included in his Suma y narración de los incas ([¿1551?] 1987 a funeral chant ascribed to Tupac Inca Yupanqui. In this article, I present a semantic and semiolinguistic interpretation of this chant.

  10. Archaeological, radiological, and biological evidence offer insight into Inca child sacrifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Brown, Emma L.; Villa, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Examination of three frozen bodies, a 13-y-old girl and a girl and boy aged 4 to 5 y, separately entombed near the Andean summit of Volcán Llullaillaco, Argentina, sheds new light on human sacrifice as a central part of the Imperial Inca capacocha rite, described by chroniclers writing after...... of social control and political legitimation pursued by the expansionist Inca state before European contact....

  11. O inca pano: mito, história e modelos etnológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Calavia Sáez

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Os mitos relativos ao Inca recolhidos na Amazônia entre vários grupos de língua pano têm sido entendidos como memórias de um passado remoto regido por uma aristocracia quechua ou como expressão de uma estrutura identitária ou cosmológica em que o Inca significaria o Branco ou uma alteridade celestial. Tais interpretações, apesar de seu valor heurístico, limitam nossa compreensão dos aspectos estruturais e históricos do Inca Pano. Propõe-se aqui entender o Inca também como um símbolo eficiente, vinculado a modelos sociológicos e/ou artísticos de alto valor distintivo: povos como os Shipibo-Conibo e os Kaxinawá cristalizam em torno dessa figura uma tradição que os destaca do conjunto dos grupos nawa vizinhos.The Amazonian myths collected among certain Panoan-speaking peoples which make reference to the Inca figure have generally been subject to one of two interpretations. They are either seen to recall a remote past in which these peoples may have been ruled by Quechua aristocrats or they are seen to be structural aspects of identity or cosmology, in which the Inca would be representative of the White man or of some celestial alterity. These interpretations, in spite of their heuristic value, serve to limit our understanding of structural and historical aspects of the Pano Inca. This article proposes that we also try to understand the Pano Inca as an effective symbol, related to social and/or artistic models with their own distinctive values: people such as the Shipibo-Conibo and the Kaxinawa have shaped around this figure a tradition which sets them apart from the neighbouring Nawa groups.

  12. WARI E INCA: EL SIGNIFICADO DE VILCABAMBA (Avance/Advance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidio M. Valdez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the unprecedented discovery of an elite Wari burial (circa AD 550-1000 in the tropical region (Vilcabamba northwest of Cuzco (Peru, this past March the Peruvian Ministry of Culture-Cuzco organized the First Colloquium named Tras las Huellas de los Wari. The colloquium was aimed at discussing the archaeological implications of the new findings from Vilcabamba.

  13. Terrorism in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos Hernandez, Dora H; Church, Adam L

    2003-01-01

    Two major domestic terrorist groups have plagued Peru over the past 20 years, the Sendero Luminoso or "Shining Path" (SL) and the Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA). On 28 August 2003, the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission reported that an estimated 69,280 persons were killed in the internal conflict in Peru from 1980 to 2000. Most of the victims were farmers (56%), most attacks occurred in rural settings (79%), and the SL was responsible for most of the deaths (54%). Aggressive anti-terrorism efforts by police and military during this period, often at the expense of basic human rights, also contributed to this large burden of terrorism on Peru. During the 1990s, terrorist attacks in Peru had spread to its urban areas. On 17 December 1996, 22 members of MRTA took over the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, holding 72 hostages until the grounds were stormed by Peruvian special forces on 23 April 1997. Until recently, emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events in Peru were largely underdeveloped. In the last five years, Peru has taken two key steps towards developing a mature emergency response system, with the establishment of the country's first emergency medicine residency training program and the construction of the first dedicated trauma center in Lima.

  14. Six stirrup handled Moche ceramic vessels from pre-Colombian Peru: a technical study applying PIXE spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swann, C.P.; Caspi, Sara; Carlson, Janice

    1999-01-01

    Much has been said recently concerning the Moche culture of Peru (100 B.C. to 700 A.D. ) which preceded the more widely known Inca society. Since there was no written language, what is known about the Moche people has been through the artifacts produced, their design and craftsmanship. This study concerns the PIXE analysis of the matrix and the red and white surface patterns of six stirrup handled earthenware vessels. The results suggest different techniques were applied for producing the coloring and surface designs and that a common source of clays was not used in the construction

  15. El testimonio inca de la conquista del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce témoignage de Cayo Inga est un document important qui retrace les succès des premières années de la pénétration espagnole au Pérou, de la côte de Tumbes à la ville de Cuzco. Sa valeur exceptionnelle tient à la qualité de l'informateur-membre du lignage inca et au fait qu'il ait été un témoin personnel des faits qu'il décrit. Par ce manuscrit, nous savons que Waskar Inga connut opportunément l'invasion étrangère à partir de la côte de Tumbes et que les Espagnols exigèrent une rançon au captif Atao Wallpa lui promettant de relâcher après. Nous sommes également renseignés sur le fameux pillage du temple de Pachacamac, sur la dramatique demande d'Atao Wallpa suppliant d'être exilé en Espagne et sur l'emprisonnement de Mango Inga Yupangui. Enfin, ce manuscrit éclaircit quelques faits quant aux sièges de la ville de Cuzco et de celle de Lima en 1536. El testimonio de Cayo Inga, es un documento excepcional para rehacer los sucesos de los primeros años de la penetración española en el Perú, de la costa tumbesina a la ciudad del Cuzco primero por la calidad del informante miembro del linaje Inca y segundo por su presencialidad en el lugar de los hechos. Este manuscrito, aclara que Waskar Inga conoció oportunamente la invasión de la costa tumbesina por los extranjeros y refiere que los españoles exigieron al cautivo Atao Wallpa un rescate, prometiéndole soltarlo después. Reseña a la vez el famoso saqueo del adoratorio de Pachacamac, el dramático pedido de Atao Wallpa para que lo exiliaran a España y el prendimiento de Mango Inga Yupangui, finalmente aporta datos sobre los asedios de la ciudad del Cuzco y de Lima en 1536. Cayo Inga's testimony is a document of exceptional value in the retracing of the events of the first years of the Spanish invasion and occupation of the country from Tumbes to Cuzco. It is remarkable for the quality of the source of information, since the reporter was both a member of the Inca

  16. INCA-CE: a Central European initiative in nowcasting severe weather and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, A.; Pistotnik, G.; Bica, B.

    2012-04-01

    The INCA-CE (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis - Central Europe) project aims at implementing a transnational weather information system as well as applications for different socio-economic sectors to reduce risks of major economic damage and loss of life caused by severe weather. Civil protection and also stakeholders from economic sectors are in a growing need of accurate and reliable short-term weather forecasts. Within INCA-CE, a state-of-the art nowcasting system (INCA) is implemented at weather services throughout the European Union's CE (Central Europe) Programme Area, providing analyses and short term forecasts to the aforementioned end-users. In a coherent approach, the INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) system will be adapted for implementation and use in a number of partner countries. Within transregional working groups, the gap between short-term weather information and its downstream activities in hydrological disaster management, civil protection and road management will be bridged and best practice management and measure plans will be produced. A web-based platform for outreach to related socio-economic sectors will initiate and foster a dialogue between weather services and further stakeholders like tourism or the insurance sector, flood authorities for disaster management, and the construction industry for cost-efficient scheduling and planning. Furthermore, the project will produce a compact guideline for policy makers on how to combine structural development aspects with these new features. In the present paper, an outline of the project implementation, a short overview about the INCA system and two case studies on precipitation nowcasts will be given. Moreover, directions for further developments both within the INCA system and the INCA-CE project will be pointed out.

  17. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  18. Cuzco: a dessacralização da cidade imperial dos incas no romance de José María Arguedas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Cassia Pinheiro Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse texto tem seu embasamento nas leituras e pesquisas que tiveram início em Cursos de Mestrado e Doutorado, culminando nas pesquisas hoje em um Programa de Pós-Graduação Interdisciplinar. Desde então, as leituras sobre a construção de uma América Latina mestiça e extremamente rica, mesmo empobrecida por diversos fatores de exploração que tiveram início com a chegada dos europeus ao continente, continuam a fazer parte dos estudos, projetos, aulas que estão sendo desenvolvidos. Os Rios profundos, o romance de José Maria Arguedas (1911-1969 que teve a primeira edição em 1958, começa nos apresentando Cuzco, a capital do império incaico, cidade considerada sagrada pelos indígenas. Sua fundação, em que se confundem a história concreta e a formação social do povo inca com o imaginário e o simbólico do homem andino, nos remete ao mito de origem desse povo em suas várias maneiras de ser apresentado. Com o processo colonizador implantado pelos espanhóis, acontece a construção de Lima, que passa a ser a capital do Peru. Para os descendentes do incanato essa mudança é aceita como uma divisão: Cuzco continuou a ser considerada a capital do império para eles. O presente artigo pretende apresentar a maneira pessoal de José María Arguedas olhar para a cidade sagrada dos incas em seus textos, sendo que, nesse artigo, a abordagem será feita a partir do romance Los ríos profundos, apenas.

  19. EL INTÉRPRETE FELIPILLO ENTRE INCAS Y CONQUISTADORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Plötz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca contribuir a la investigación de los papeles atribuidos al mediador lingüístico y, por extensión, transcultural, como son los de traidor, el que no dice todo lo que sabe persiguiendo intereses propios, y otros más. Se establecen unas pautas que caracterizan las situaciones comunicativas conflictivas a lo largo de la historia. Asimismo, se propone una línea de investigación traductológica, interesada en la realización de la mediación lingüística misma y sus circunstancias, como aporte a la historia de la traducción. El caso al que se aplica este programa en el presente artículo es el enfrentamiento entre los incas y los conquistadores europeos en el Perú, en el cual actuaron unos intérpretes indígenas sobre los que se ha producido y se sigue produciendo toda una gama de proyecciones y atribuciones.

  20. Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, but both groups showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. Putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved putative human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era.

  1. Establishing homology between mitochondrial calcium uniporters, prokaryotic magnesium channels and chlamydial IncA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andre; Vastermark, Ake; Saier, Milton H

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporters (MCUs) (TC no. 1.A.77) are oligomeric channel proteins found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. MCUs have two well-conserved transmembrane segments (TMSs), connected by a linker, similar to bacterial MCU homologues. These proteins and chlamydial IncA proteins (of unknown function; TC no. 9.B.159) are homologous to prokaryotic Mg(2+) transporters, AtpI and AtpZ, based on comparison scores of up to 14.5 sds. A phylogenetic tree containing all of these proteins showed that the AtpZ proteins cluster coherently as a subset within the large and diverse AtpI cluster, which branches separately from the MCUs and IncAs, both of which cluster coherently. The MCUs and AtpZs share the same two TMS topology, but the AtpIs have four TMSs, and IncAs can have either two (most frequent) or four (less frequent) TMSs. Binary alignments, comparison scores and motif analyses showed that TMSs 1 and 2 align with TMSs 3 and 4 of the AtpIs, suggesting that the four TMS AtpI proteins arose via an intragenic duplication event. These findings establish an evolutionary link interconnecting eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) transporters with chlamydial IncAs, and lead us to suggest that all members of the MCU superfamily, including IncAs, function as divalent cation channels. © 2014 The Authors.

  2. Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Giuffra, Valentina; Cano, Raul J

    2017-11-07

    Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing, but both groups showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. Putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved putative human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era.

  3. Nuclear technology in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with the Nuclear Energy in Peru. It consists of ten chapters. In the first chapter is presented a rapid overview on nuclear science history. The second chapter describes the nuclear proliferation and the nuclear competition in South America. The nuclear organization in Peru, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, and the main centers are described in the third chapter. The following chapters deals with peruvian advances in nuclear medicine, agriculture and food, nuclear application to industry, hydrology, earth sciences and environmental considerations. In the last chapter, the perspectives for nuclear science and technology in Peru are described from the inter institutional cooperation point of view. This book also includes appendix and bibliography. (author)

  4. Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Humberto; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Falconí, Eduardo; Bravo, Francisco; Donaires, Ninoska; Van Marck, Eric; Portaels, Françoise

    2008-03-01

    Eight adult patients (ages 18-58, 5 women) with Buruli ulcer (BU) confirmed by at least 2 diagnostic methods were seen in a 10-year period. Attempts to culture Mycobacterium ulcerans failed. Five patients came from jungle areas, and 3 from the swampy northern coast of Peru. The patients had 1-5 lesions, most of which were on the lower extremities. One patient had 5 clustered gluteal lesions; another patient had 2 lesions on a finger. Three patients were lost to follow-up. All 5 remaining patients had moderate disease. Diverse treatments (antituberculous drugs, World Health Organization [WHO] recommended antimicrobial drug treatment for BU, and for 3 patients, excision surgery) were successful. Only 1 patient (patient 7) received the specific drug treatment recommended by WHO. BU is endemic in Peru, although apparently infrequent. Education of populations and training of health workers are first needed to evaluate and understand the full extent of BU in Peru.

  5. El Sistema Vial Inca y los desafíos para su conservación en tiempos modernos

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Canales, Moisés

    2013-01-01

    El Estado peruano, a través del Ministerio de Cultura, desarrolla dentro de su política cultural una estrategia para la identificación, protección, conservación y puesta en uso social del Sistema Vial Inca, el mayor monumento de la historia americana construida por el Estado Inca en el Siglo XV.

  6. Internal migration in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J

    1989-01-01

    "E. G. Ravenstein proposed 'laws of migration' to explain the movement of population in the British Isles from data in the 1881 census. Here, migration in Peru is studied using data from the 1981 census to ascertain the extent to which Ravenstein's 'laws' hold for a different country at a different time.... In conclusion, it is a salutory exercise to apply Ravenstein's seven laws and other findings to Peru and to see how, in a different environment a good time ago, someone could produce a model with wide applicability." excerpt

  7. Tras las huella del silencio: Potosí, los incas y Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Platt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Por qué los señores aymaras de Charcas y el Inca Paullo, después de entregar las minas de plata de Porco a Hernando Pizarro en 1538, guardaron silencio sobre Potosí (distante a unas pocas leguas, que no se descubrió hasta abril de 1545? Reuniendo un mosaico de datos aparentemente inconexos, este artículo revisa las versiones corrientes del descubrimiento del cerro e interroga un curioso silencio presente en las fuentes. Reconstruyendo una red previamente desconocida de incas y españoles, se propone que, más que el hallazgo providencial de un yanacona aislado (la versión recibida, Potosí se manifestó como continuación de la política de “obediencia” subyacente en la entrega de Porco, ahora dirigida por el rival del Inca Paullo: el Inca Manco refugiado en Vilcabamba. Esta política de Manco buscaba apoyar al Rey y las Nuevas Leyes (1542 en contra de la amenaza mayor representada por Gonzalo Pizarro y los encomenderos. El artículo comenta, asimismo, la promoción toledana de la “leyenda providencial”, retomando en cambio la interpretación de Guaman Poma de la entrega de Potosí como una iniciativa de los incas, quienes lo habrían fundado bajo Inca Túpac Yupanqui. Esta versión concuerda con las últimas investigaciones geológicas y arqueológicas.

  8. Teaching the History of Colonial Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…

  9. ¿Borradores utópicos del pasado? El poema Apu Inca Atawallpaman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne Marie Ejdesgaard; Schilling Cueto, Chandra Eugenie A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the perceptions of the relationship between the human being and the nature which comes forward in the poem Apu Inca Atawallpaman as possible utopian drafts or another knowledge from the past using for our analysis the concepts of Eduardo Gudynas and Walter Mignolo. We suggest in accord......We discuss the perceptions of the relationship between the human being and the nature which comes forward in the poem Apu Inca Atawallpaman as possible utopian drafts or another knowledge from the past using for our analysis the concepts of Eduardo Gudynas and Walter Mignolo. We suggest...

  10. My Classroom: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…

  11. Peru : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Peru, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, drawing on international experience and best practices in that field. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting & ...

  12. Religious Regimes in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spier, Fred

    1994-01-01

    This inquiry deals with religion and politics in Peru from the beginning of agrarisation, c. 8000 B.C. up until AD 1991. Of central importance for the analysis are state formation and development, the relations between church and state, the internal and external relations within and among the

  13. Spotlight on Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Lima's population grew from 1 million to 7 million during 1969-89, almost entirely due to rural-urban immigration. Other urban areas such as Iquitos experienced similar growth over the period. National, regional, and municipal governments have been working to restore civil order in the country and to bring basic health, sanitation, and education programs to the population. However, language, attitudinal, and cultural differences impede progress in this diverse and changing country. Peru's young population of median age 21 years presents a challenge to the development and implementation of effective reproductive health care programs for the country. Pathfinder's work in Peru is helped by current President Alberto Fujimori's strong and active support for family planning. In the face of strong opposition from the Roman Catholic Church, President Fujimori has held onto his conviction and commitment to reduce levels of maternal morbidity and mortality in Peru by increasing the accessibility of family planning programs. Pathfinder's work in Peru with the US Agency for International Development (USAID) includes the 5-year program Project 2000 designed to improve maternal and child health in 12 priority regions of the country. Pathfinder is also working with USAID to link family planning to postpartum services in 30 public hospitals throughout the country. New programs will be launched with contributions from individuals and foundations.

  14. Diabetes Mellitus in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Jaime E

    2015-01-01

    Peru is an upper medium-income developing country with an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, including diabetes. To review and describe the epidemiology, drivers, and diabetes care plan in Peru. The medical literature was reviewed based on systematic searching of PubMed, Scielo, and various gray literature from the International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organization, and local Peruvian agencies. In Peru, diabetes affects 7% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 96.8% of outpatients visits with this condition. Type 1 diabetes has an incidence of 0.4/100,000 per year, and gestational diabetes affects 16% of pregnancies. The prevalence of glucose intolerance is 8.11% and that of impaired fasting glucose 22.4%. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in adults is 34.7%, 17.5%, and 25%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is greater in women and the elderly and at urban and low-altitude locations. Diabetes is the eighth cause of death, the sixth cause of blindness, and the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease and nontraumatic lower limb amputation. In Peru, diabetes accounts for 31.5% of acute myocardial infarctions and 25% of strokes. Infections, diabetic emergencies, and cardiovascular disorders are the main causes for admissions, with a mortality rate Peru that exposes difficult challenges and shortcomings. The national strategy for tackling diabetes includes promotion of healthy lifestyles; training primary care physicians and providing them with evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, safe and effective medications, and tools for monitoring treatment; and, finally, construction of a comprehensive health care network for early referral in order to prevent, detect, and treat diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Is Localized to the Inclusion Membrane and Is Recognized by Antisera from Infected Humans and Primates†

    OpenAIRE

    Bannantine, John P.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    1998-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed IncA, IncB, and IncC, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. In this report we demonstrate that IncA is also produced by Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis IncA is structurally similar to C. psittaci IncA and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients and from experimentally infected monkeys both recognized C. trachomatis IncA.

  16. Radiocarbon dating of the Peruvian Chachapoya/Inca site at the Laguna de los Condores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, Eva Maria; Guillen, Sonia; Kutschera, Walter; Seidler, Horst; Steier, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In 1997 a new archaeological site was discovered in the Peruvian tropical rain forest. The site is located in an area which has been occupied by the Chachapoya, a pre-Incan people, from about 800AD on. The site comprises a large funerary place with several mausoleums built in the cliffs next to the Laguna de los Condores. More than 200 human mummies and funerary bone-bundles together with numerous grave artefacts have been found there. Although the site has been ascribed to the Chachapoya, the mummification method used is very similar to the one applied by the Inca. As part of an ongoing multidisciplinary project to explore the history of this site and of the Chachapoya people, twenty-seven (27) 14 C-AMS age determinations were performed. Samples, bones and textile wrappings as well as samples from a funerary bone bundle plus associated grave artefacts were dated. The 14 C data show that the site originates from the Chachapoya pre-Inca period and that in addition, it was used as a funerary place during the subsequent Inca occupation era. The radiocarbon results indicate that the Chachapoya may have changed their burial tradition due to the colonization by the Inca

  17. Los tambos Inca: el caso de Camata Tambo valle alto de Moquegua

    OpenAIRE

    Chacaltana Cortez, Sofía; Ministerio de Cultura

    2013-01-01

    Camata Tambo está ubicado en la parte alta del valle alto de Moquegua. Por este tambo pasa un camino Inca que viene del altiplano y continúa hacia el centro provincial de Sabaya ubicado a 1 km valle abajo.

  18. Story Starters on the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas. A Creative Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Steve; Henrich, Jean

    Designed to supplement an established language arts and social studies program, this books deals with the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Latin America. All of the "Story Starter" books are intended to give a variety of vocabulary and story ideas to help with the writing process. Each of the books is divided into four main sections: (1) an…

  19. An α-Helical Core Encodes the Dual Functions of the Chlamydial Protein IncA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Wesolowski, Jordan; Bauler, Laura D.; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Hackstadt, Ted; Paumet, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium that establishes residence within parasitophorous compartments (inclusions) inside host cells. Chlamydial inclusions are uncoupled from the endolysosomal pathway and undergo fusion with cellular organelles and with each other. To do so, Chlamydia expresses proteins on the surface of the inclusion using a Type III secretion system. These proteins, termed Incs, are located at the interface between host and pathogen and carry out the functions necessary for Chlamydia survival. Among these Incs, IncA plays a critical role in both protecting the inclusion from lysosomal fusion and inducing the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Within IncA are two regions homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) domains referred to as SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD1) and SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD2). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we have discovered the functional core of IncA that retains the ability to both inhibit SNARE-mediated fusion and promote the homotypic fusion of Chlamydia inclusions. Circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that this core region is composed almost entirely of α-helices and assembles into stable homodimers in solution. Altogether, we propose that both IncA functions are encoded in a structured core domain that encompasses SLD1 and part of SLD2. PMID:25324548

  20. Stable isotope and DNA evidence for ritual sequences in Inca child sacrifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Taylor, Timothy; Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2007-01-01

    Four recently discovered frozen child mummies from two of the highest peaks in the south central Andes now yield tantalizing evidence of the preparatory stages leading to Inca ritual killing as represented by the unique capacocha rite. Our interdisciplinary study examined hair from the mummies...

  1. An α-helical core encodes the dual functions of the chlamydial protein IncA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Wesolowski, Jordan; Bauler, Laura D; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Hackstadt, Ted; Paumet, Fabienne

    2014-11-28

    Chlamydia is an intracellular bacterium that establishes residence within parasitophorous compartments (inclusions) inside host cells. Chlamydial inclusions are uncoupled from the endolysosomal pathway and undergo fusion with cellular organelles and with each other. To do so, Chlamydia expresses proteins on the surface of the inclusion using a Type III secretion system. These proteins, termed Incs, are located at the interface between host and pathogen and carry out the functions necessary for Chlamydia survival. Among these Incs, IncA plays a critical role in both protecting the inclusion from lysosomal fusion and inducing the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Within IncA are two regions homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) domains referred to as SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD1) and SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD2). Using a multidisciplinary approach, we have discovered the functional core of IncA that retains the ability to both inhibit SNARE-mediated fusion and promote the homotypic fusion of Chlamydia inclusions. Circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that this core region is composed almost entirely of α-helices and assembles into stable homodimers in solution. Altogether, we propose that both IncA functions are encoded in a structured core domain that encompasses SLD1 and part of SLD2. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Preclinical evaluation of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl Ak; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the (111)In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X ((111)In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the (111)In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer.

  3. Preclinical evaluation of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl AK; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the 111In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X (111In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the 111In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the 111In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer. PMID:24982817

  4. A Functional Core of IncA Is Required for Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary M; Noriea, Nicholas F; Bauler, Laura D; Lam, Jennifer L; Sager, Janet; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Hackstadt, Ted

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the etiological agent of a variety of human diseases, including blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. Chlamydiae replicate within a membrane-bound compartment, termed an inclusion, which they extensively modify by the insertion of type III secreted proteins called Inc proteins. IncA is an inclusion membrane protein that encodes two coiled-coil domains that are homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) motifs. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that a functional core, composed of SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD-1) and part of SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD-2), is required for the characteristic homotypic fusion of C. trachomatis inclusions in multiply infected cells. To verify the importance of IncA in homotypic fusion in Chlamydia, we generated an incA::bla mutant. Insertional inactivation of incA resulted in the formation of nonfusogenic inclusions, a phenotype that was completely rescued by complementation with full-length IncA. Rescue of homotypic inclusion fusion was dependent on the presence of the functional core consisting of SLD-1 and part of SLD-2. Collectively, these results confirm in vitro membrane fusion assays identifying functional domains of IncA and expand the genetic tools available for identification of chlamydia with a method for complementation of site-specific mutants. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The chlamydial inclusions are nonfusogenic with vesicles in the endocytic pathway but, in multiply infected cells, fuse with each other to form a single large inclusion. This homotypic fusion is dependent upon the presence of a chlamydial inclusion membrane-localized protein, IncA. Specificity of membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells is regulated by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor) proteins on the cytosolic face of vesicles and target

  5. Medical acupuncture enhances standard wilderness medical care: a case study from the Inca Trail, Machu Picchu, Peru, April 2, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B L

    1997-08-01

    This case report shows the integration of medical acupuncture into the standard medical care of a wilderness emergency situation. Despite conventional medical attention, a trekker suffering from an extremely painful conjunctivitis continued to suffer severe eye pain. The addition of medical acupuncture to his care resolved his eye pain promptly, enabling him to continue his trekking activities without further distress. Acupuncture has many potential applications to enhance the effects of standard medical care in wilderness and third world travel settings.

  6. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  7. Giant Otters in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk C.; Staib E.

    1992-01-01

    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  8. INFORTUNIO Y VIRTUD: PETRARCA, VIVES Y EL INCA GARCILASO DE LA VEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarissa Carneiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza la relación entre infortunio y virtud en La Florida del Inca (1605 del mestizo cuzqueño Garcilaso de la Vega, estableciendo un diálogo con la filosofía moral del Renacimiento, en especial con De remediis utriusque fortunæ (1366 de Francesco Petrarca e Introductio ad sapientiam (1524 de Juan Luis Vives. Se destaca el relieve que adquieren, en la crónica primeriza del Inca, la valoración de la fortuna adversa, la preocupación por la “depravación” de los juicios, causada por el gobierno de las pasiones, y el aprovechamiento de la sabiduría de los indios como ejemplos de virtud para los cristianos. Se vincula, finalmente, la vertiente moral de la crónica del Inca con el ideal político y filosófico de la concordia entre el Viejo y el Nuevo Mundo.This essay aims to analyze the relationship between misfortune and virtue in La Florida del Inca (1605 by the mestizo Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, considering its dialogue with the moral philosophy of the Renaissance, in particular with De remediis utriusque fortunæ (1366 by Francesco Petrarca and Introductio ad sapientiam (1524 by Juan Luis Vives. The analysis emphasizes the importance of the value of misfortune, the consequences of the corruption of judgment, caused by the governance of passions, and the use of Indian wisdom as examples of virtue to Christian readers of the chronicle. Finally, the essay establishes a relationship between the moral positions of the text and its political and philosophical ideals of concord between the Old and New World.

  9. Inca of the blood, Inca of the soul: embodiment, emotion, and racialization in the Peruvian mystical tourist industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the context of the globalizing New Age movement and of the "turismo mistico" (mystical tourism) industry emanating from Peru, white and mestizo New Age practitioners and tourists fashion ideologies emphasizing the spiritual energy which supposedly resides in Quechua bodies, even as they freely appropriate Quechua cosmology and ritual for a hybridized New Age Andean spirituality. This case shows how racialized structural inequalities are expressed and experienced by tourists and New Age movement leaders through particular, essentialist representations of the body and through a common repertoire of emotional responses to inequality, commodification, and privilege. The paper provides an ethnographic account of how racialization may be perpetuated, negotiated, and resisted through religious systems, particularly through the work of constructing ideologies and experiences of the body and of emotional subjectivity.

  10. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  11. The Epidemiology of Bartonellosis in Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chamberlin, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Bartonellosis has caused debilitating illness and death since pre-Inca times. It is a vector-borne infectious disease found in the medically underserved communities of the high Andean mountain valleys of South America...

  12. The inhibitor of growth protein 5 (ING5 depends on INCA1 as a co-factor for its antiproliferative effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available The proteins of the Inhibitor of Growth (ING family are involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chromatin remodeling. For ING5, its actual role in growth suppression and the necessary partners are not known. In a yeast-two-hybrid approach with human bone marrow derived cDNA, we identified ING5 as well as several other proteins as interaction partners of Inhibitor of cyclin A1 (INCA1 that we previously characterized as a novel interaction partner of cyclin A1/CDK2. ING5 expression in leukemic AML blasts was severely reduced compared to normal bone marrow. In line, ING5 inhibited bone marrow colony formation upon retroviral transduction. However, Inca1(-/- bone marrow colony formation was not suppressed by ING5. In murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells from Inca1(+/+ and Inca1(-/- mice, overexpression of ING5 suppressed cell proliferation only in the presence of INCA1, while ING5 had no effect in Inca1(-/- MEFs. ING5 overexpression induced a delay in S-phase progression, which required INCA1. Finally, ING5 overexpression enhanced Fas-induced apoptosis in Inca1(+/+ MEFs, while Inca1(-/- MEFs were protected from Fas antibody-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that ING5 is a growth suppressor with suppressed expression in AML whose functions depend on its interaction with INCA1.

  13. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  14. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society

  15. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ronzone

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  16. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  17. Archaeological, radiological, and biological evidence offer insight into Inca child sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Brown, Emma L; Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels; Healey, Andrew; Ceruti, Maria Constanza; Reinhard, Johan; Previgliano, Carlos H; Araoz, Facundo Arias; Diez, Josefina Gonzalez; Taylor, Timothy

    2013-08-13

    Examination of three frozen bodies, a 13-y-old girl and a girl and boy aged 4 to 5 y, separately entombed near the Andean summit of Volcán Llullaillaco, Argentina, sheds new light on human sacrifice as a central part of the Imperial Inca capacocha rite, described by chroniclers writing after the Spanish conquest. The high-resolution diachronic data presented here, obtained directly from scalp hair, implies escalating coca and alcohol ingestion in the lead-up to death. These data, combined with archaeological and radiological evidence, deepen our understanding of the circumstances and context of final placement on the mountain top. We argue that the individuals were treated differently according to their age, status, and ritual role. Finally, we relate our findings to questions of consent, coercion, and/or compliance, and the controversial issues of ideological justification and strategies of social control and political legitimation pursued by the expansionist Inca state before European contact.

  18. Archaeological, radiological, and biological evidence offer insight into Inca child sacrifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Brown, Emma L.; Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels; Healey, Andrew; Ceruti, Maria Constanza; Reinhard, Johan; Previgliano, Carlos H.; Araoz, Facundo Arias; Gonzalez Diez, Josefina; Taylor, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Examination of three frozen bodies, a 13-y-old girl and a girl and boy aged 4 to 5 y, separately entombed near the Andean summit of Volcán Llullaillaco, Argentina, sheds new light on human sacrifice as a central part of the Imperial Inca capacocha rite, described by chroniclers writing after the Spanish conquest. The high-resolution diachronic data presented here, obtained directly from scalp hair, implies escalating coca and alcohol ingestion in the lead-up to death. These data, combined with archaeological and radiological evidence, deepen our understanding of the circumstances and context of final placement on the mountain top. We argue that the individuals were treated differently according to their age, status, and ritual role. Finally, we relate our findings to questions of consent, coercion, and/or compliance, and the controversial issues of ideological justification and strategies of social control and political legitimation pursued by the expansionist Inca state before European contact. PMID:23898165

  19. Alcoholism in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, J; Silva, J A; Sasao, T; Wang, C; Nguyen, L

    1993-07-01

    Alcoholism is a problem of worldwide concern. Full appreciation of this international problem requires that adequate diagnostic measures be constructed and that comparable measures for different cultures be available so that valid differences in prevalence across cultures can be detected. A Spanish-language version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) has been used for epidemiologic studies of alcohol abuse and dependence in Los Angeles Mexican-Americans and mainland Puerto Ricans, and the authors used the same instrument to conduct a similar study in Peru. A population sample (N = 815) from the Independencia district of Lima, Peru, was chosen for interviews with a revised form of the Spanish translation of the DIS. Lifetime prevalence rates of alcoholism and other DSM-III diagnoses were determined. The prevalence of alcohol abuse or dependence was higher among the men (34.80%) than among the women (2.46%), but the onset for women was earlier. Alcoholism was strongly associated with antisocial personality disorder and with drug abuse or dependence. The prevalence of alcoholism for the Peruvian men is higher than prevalences for men in U.S. studies, but the prevalence among the Peruvian women is one of the lowest reported. The high prevalence among men is likely due to cultural mores but may also be linked to the stresses found in impoverished societies undergoing rapid social, cultural, and economic change.

  20. Solar energy in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, H.

    1981-12-01

    The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

  1. Dynamic intensity-modulated non-coplanar arc radiotherapy (INCA) for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krayenbuehl, Jerome; Davis, J. Bernard; Ciernik, I. Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To define the potential advantages of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) applied using a non-coplanar dynamic arc technique for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was planned in ten patients with head and neck cancer using coplanar IMRT and non-coplanar arc techniques, termed intensity modulated non-coplanar arc EBRT (INCA). Planning target volumes (PTV1) of first order covered the gross tumor volume and surrounding clinical target volume treated with 68-70 Gy, whereas PTV2 covered the elective lymph nodes with 54-55 Gy using a simultaneous internal boost. Treatment plan comparison between IMRT and INCA was carried out using dose-volume histogram and 'equivalent uniform dose' (EUD). Results: INCA resulted in better dose coverage and homogeneity of the PTV1, PTV2, and reduced dose delivered to most of the organs at risk (OAR). For the parotid glands, a reduction of the mean dose of 2.9 (±2.0) Gy was observed (p 0.002), the mean dose to the larynx was reduced by 6.9 (±2.9) Gy (p 0.003), the oral mucosa by 2.4 (±1.1) Gy (p < 0.001), and the maximal dose to the spinal cord by 3.2 (±1.7) Gy (p = 0.004). The mean dose to the brain was increased by 3.0 (±1.4) Gy (p = 0.002) and the mean lung dose increased by 0.2 (±0.4) Gy (p = 0.87). The EUD suggested better avoidance of the OAR, except for the lung, and better coverage and dose uniformity were achieved with INCA compared to IMRT. Conclusion: Dose delivery accuracy with IMRT using a non-coplanar dynamic arc beam geometry potentially improves treatment of head and neck cancer

  2. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  3. Compatibility and entry exclusion of IncA and IncC plasmids revisited: IncA and IncC plasmids are compatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Stephanie J; Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2018-02-24

    In an early study, IncA and IncC plasmids that were reported to be compatible were grouped as the "A-C complex" based on similarities and on strong entry exclusion. However, recently, the term IncA/C has been used frequently to describe plasmids belonging to both of these two groups. Granted that the supporting data was not included in the original reports and that the consensus iteron sequences have since been shown to be essentially identical, we have addressed the question again. The original IncA plasmid, RA1, and the IncC plasmid pRMH760, were introduced into the same cell by transformation, and were found to be maintained stably for over 100 generations in the absence of selection for either plasmid, i.e. they were compatible. We conclude that use of the term IncA/C for this important plasmid group is indeed incorrect and it causes unnecessary confusion. Granted the importance of IncC plasmids in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, we recommend that use of the misleading terms IncA/C, IncA/C 1 and IncA/C 2 should cease. In addition, RA1 and pRMH760 were shown to each completely prevent entry of the other via conjugative transfer into the cell they reside in. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. May 1970 Huaraz, Peru Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1970, an earthquake-induced rock and snow avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru, buried the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 66,794...

  5. Trends in food and nutritional intakes of French adults from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-04-01

    Two independent cross-sectional dietary surveys (the Individual and National Food Consumption Surveys, INCA), performed in 1998-99 (INCA1) and in 2006-07 (INCA2) on nationally representative samples of French people, were used to analyse trends in the dietary habits and nutritional intake of French adults. Food consumption was recorded through 7-d dietary records, and nutritional intakes were assessed using the French food composition database. After exclusion of under-reporters, analyses were performed on 3267 adults, aged 18-79 years: 1345 from INCA1 and 1922 from INCA2. The trends highlighted over the 8-year period showed a decrease in consumption of dairy products, meat, bread, potatoes, pastries/croissant-like pastries/cakes/biscuits and sugar/confectionery. In contrast, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, rice, ice cream and chocolate increased. Other food groups, like fish and snacking foods, remained stable. Food choices were mostly age specific. These age differences remained consistent over the years and underlined two opposite dietary trends: a 'traditional' one mainly followed by the elderly, and a 'snacking and convenience' one mainly adopted by young adults. The overall trends in food consumption did not influence the mean energy intake, but did slightly modify the contribution of each macronutrient to energy intake. These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake.

  6. The function of female and male ornaments in the Inca Tern: evidence for links between ornament expression and both adult condition and reproductive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velando, A.; Lessells, C.M.; Marquez, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Inca Terns Larosterna inca are medium-size seabirds that breed along the Peruvian and Chilean coast. They are monogamous and both sexes incubate and contribute to chick provisioning. The sexes are similar in appearance and have elaborate ornaments, including a long white moustache of feathers and

  7. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Peru: population and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.

  9. An assessment of the fine sediment dynamics in an upland river system: INCA-Sed modifications and implications for fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Attila N; Butterfield, Dan; Futter, Martyn N; Rankinen, Katri; Thouvenot-Korppoo, Marie; Jarritt, Nick; Lawrence, Deborah S L; Wade, Andrew J; Whitehead, Paul G

    2010-05-15

    There is a need for better links between hydrology and ecology, specifically between landscapes and riverscapes to understand how processes and factors controlling the transport and storage of environmental pollution have affected or will affect the freshwater biota. Here we show how the INCA modelling framework, specifically INCA-Sed (the Integrated Catchments model for Sediments) can be used to link sediment delivery from the landscape to sediment changes in-stream. INCA-Sed is a dynamic, process-based, daily time step model. The first complete description of the equations used in the INCA-Sed software (version 1.9.11) is presented. This is followed by an application of INCA-Sed made to the River Lugg (1077 km(2)) in Wales. Excess suspended sediment can negatively affect salmonid health. The Lugg has a large and potentially threatened population of both Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). With the exception of the extreme sediment transport processes, the model satisfactorily simulated both the hydrology and the sediment dynamics in the catchment. Model results indicate that diffuse soil loss is the most important sediment generation process in the catchment. In the River Lugg, the mean annual Guideline Standard for suspended sediment concentration, proposed by UKTAG, of 25 mg l(-1) is only slightly exceeded during the simulation period (1995-2000), indicating only minimal effect on the Atlantic salmon population. However, the daily time step simulation of INCA-Sed also allows the investigation of the critical spawning period. It shows that the sediment may have a significant negative effect on the fish population in years with high sediment runoff. It is proposed that the fine settled particles probably do not affect the salmonid egg incubation process, though suspended particles may damage the gills of fish and make the area unfavourable for spawning if the conditions do not improve. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. N fluxes in two nitrogen saturated forested catchments in Germany: dynamics and modelling with INCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Langusch

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The N cycle in forests of the temperate zone in Europe has been changed substantially by the impact of atmospheric N deposition. Here, the fluxes and concentrations of mineral N in throughfall, soil solution and runoff in two German catchments, receiving high N inputs are investigated to test the applicability of an Integrated Nitrogen Model for European Catchments (INCA to small forested catchments. The Lehstenbach catchment (419 ha is located in the German Fichtelgebirge (NO Bavaria, 690-871 m asl. and is stocked with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. of different ages. The Steinkreuz catchment (55 ha with European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as the dominant tree species is located in the Steigerwald (NW Bavaria, 400-460 m asl.. The mean annual N fluxes with throughfall were slightly higher at the Lehstenbach (24.6 kg N ha-1 than at the Steinkreuz (20.4 kg N ha-1. In both catchments the N fluxes in the soil are dominated by NO3. At Lehstenbach, the N output with seepage at 90 cm soil depth was similar to the N flux with throughfall. At Steinkreuz more than 50 % of the N deposited was retained in the upper soil horizons. In both catchments, the NO3 fluxes with runoff were lower than those with seepage. The average annual NO3 concentrations in runoff in both catchments were between 0.7 to 1.4 mg NO3-N L-1 and no temporal trend was observed. The N budgets at the catchment scale indicated similar amounts of N retention (Lehstenbach: 19 kg N ha-1yr-1 ; Steinkreuz: 17 kg N ha-1yr-1. The parameter settings of the INCA model were simplified to reduce the model complexity. In both catchments, the NO3 concentrations and fluxes in runoff were matched well by the model. The seasonal patterns with lower NO3 runoff concentrations in summer at the Lehstenbach catchment were replicated. INCA underestimated the increased N3 concentrations during short periods of rewetting in late autumn at the Steinkreuz catchment. The model will be a helpful tool for the

  11. Water quality improvements from afforestation in an agricultural catchment in Denmark illustrated with the INCA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bastrup-Birk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agricultural land use across Europe has altered nitrogen (N budget of catchments substantially, causing widespread N pollution of freshwater. Although the N cycle in forests has changed due to increased N deposition, most forest soil waters in Europe have low nitrate concentrations. The protective function of forests on water quality has led to increasing interest in the planting of new forests on arable land as a measure to protect valuable or sensitive freshwater resources. The paper illustrates the effects of afforestation on water and N cycling using the Integrated Nitrogen Catchment (INCA model. The model was calibrated on the Horndrup catchment in the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, which is dominated by agricultural land use but also covered by 18% of forest land. The dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the stream water were simulated successfully by INCA over a three-year period. The simulation of the dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the soil water is closely linked to the simulation of the hydrological dynamics and especially to the rainfall. The best fit was achieved for both arable and forest land during the wettest year of the study period. The model was then used to simulate the effect of afforestation of a catchment dominated by agriculture on N fluxes with seepage and runoff. Scenarios of whole catchment conversion to forest were run, based on observations of evapotranspiration and N deposition from other Danish sites. The simulated conversion to mature forest reduced runoff by 30–45% and reduced the nitrate concentrations in the soil water by 50–70%. The simulated effect of afforestation on N leaching was an almost direct reflection of the change in the N input: substantial changes in the plant demand and soil N dynamics over the afforestation period were not simulated. To simulate the N dynamics over longer time-scales, appropriate for the study of afforestation, it is suggested that the INCA model be run

  12. New paleoparasitological investigations from the pre-inca to hispanic contact period in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Mônica Vieira; da Silva, Lucélia Guedes Ribeiro; Silva-Pinto, Verónica; Mendez-Quiros, Pablo; de Miranda Chaves, Sergio Augusto; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2018-02-01

    Paleoparasitological studies have demonstrated that changes in environment or culture are reflected in the patterns of parasitic infection diseases in populations worldwide. The advent of agriculture and animal domestication, with its accompanying reduction in human mobility and expanding population involves changes in or emergence of, parasites, the so-called first epidemiological transition. Cultural processes related to territory occupation contribute to both loss and acquisition of parasites. The archaeological site Lluta 57 in the Lluta Valley, Chile, provides a chronology of the transition from the pre-Inca or Late Intermediate Period (LIP), through the Late or Inca Period (LP), to the Hispanic Contact Period (HCP), providing the possibility of evaluating this epidemiological transition. The aim of this study was to conduct a paleoparasitological investigation of to gain insight into the dynamics of parasitism in Lluta people throughout the Inca expansion. Fourteen human coprolites from the three periods were rehydrated, submitted to spontaneous sedimentation, and examined by light microscopy for the presence of intestinal parasite eggs, pollen grains, and micro-remains. Eggs of four parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus sp., Trichuris sp., and Eimeria macusaniensis were recovered. Frequency, diversity, and number of parasite eggs per sample increased over the studied time period. Trichostrongylus sp. and E. macusaniensis were recorded in the region for the first time. Enterobius vermicularis eggs, absent in the LIP, were present as a hyper-infection in LP. The presence of E. macusaniensis is likely related to exploitation of llamas, which were used for food and transport and as sacrificial offerings. The paleobotanical analysis revealed ten families of pollen grains, as well as phytoliths and floral remains. In contrast to parasitological results, a diachronic pattern was not detected. Evolution of the settlements, with the advent of larger

  13. INCA: method of analyzing in-core detector data in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, T.G.; Terney, W.B.; Marks, G.H.

    1975-04-01

    A method (INCA) is described by which signals from fixed in-core detectors are related to estimates of the three dimensional power distribution in an operating reactor core and to the maximum linear heat rate in the core. A description of the large library of data accompanying the method is provided. A detailed examination of the analytical verifications performed using the method is presented, and a summary of the uncertainty associated with the method is given. The uncertainty assigned to the maximum linear heat rate inferred by the method from operating reactor data is found to be 5.8 percent at a 95/95 confidence level. (U.S.)

  14. Stable isotope and DNA evidence for ritual sequences in Inca child sacrifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Taylor, Timothy; Ceruti, Maria Constanza; Chavez, Jose Antonio; Reinhard, Johan; Grimes, Vaughan; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Cartmell, Larry; Stern, Ben; Richards, Michael P.; Worobey, Michael; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Four recently discovered frozen child mummies from two of the highest peaks in the south central Andes now yield tantalizing evidence of the preparatory stages leading to Inca ritual killing as represented by the unique capacocha rite. Our interdisciplinary study examined hair from the mummies to obtain detailed genetic and diachronic isotopic information. This approach has allowed us to reconstruct aspects of individual identity and diet, make inferences concerning social background, and gain insight on the hitherto unknown processes by which victims were selected, elevated in social status, prepared for a high-altitude pilgrimage, and killed. Such direct information amplifies, yet also partly contrasts with, Spanish historical accounts. PMID:17923675

  15. Mechanical analysis of the dry stone walls built by the Incas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the retaining walls in the agricultural terraces built by the Incas are analyzed from a mechanical point of view. In order to do so, ten different walls from the Lower Agricultural Sector of Machu Picchu, Perú, were selected using images from Google Street View and Google Earth Pro. Then, these walls were digitalized and their mechanical stability was evaluated. Firstly, it was found that these retaining walls are characterized by two distinctive features: disorder and a block size distribution with a large size span, i.e., the particle size varies from blocks that can be carried by one person to large blocks weighing several tons. Secondly, it was found that, thanks to the large span of the block size distribution, the factor of safety of the Inca retaining walls is remarkably close to those that are recommended in modern geotechnical design standards. This suggests that these structures were not only functional but also highly optimized, probably as a result of a careful trial and error procedure.

  16. What is the Radiotherapy Quality Program of the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - INCa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Castelo Branco Viegas, C.; Salomon de Souza, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiotherapy Quality Program (PQRT) of Cancer National Institute (INCA) has been functioning since 1999 as a pilot program with only 33 participant institutions. Due to the optimal obtained results the program becomes a part of the INCA National Programs and his activities were extended to all radiotherapy services which attend the Health Unique Systems (SUS), approximately 130 institutions corresponding to 90 percent of the radiotherapy services available in Brazil. The PQRT main objective is to make the radiotherapy to be evaluated as planned, in accordance with quality assurance international standards. The principal activities of the PQRT are: local evaluation, TLD postal evaluation under reference and non-reference conditions, and training and development of research projects. The Local Evaluation System has already evaluated 85 teletherapy equipment (38 Co-60 and 47 linear accelerators), executing dosimetric, electric, mechanic and safety tests. The TLD postal system used for the 33 participants until 2002 was the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for reference conditions. Five evaluations has already been performed with this simply system. Since 2003, the postal evaluation of the PQRT is using his own system, developed for reference and non-reference conditions, applied to 58 beams (18 Co-60 and 40 linear accelerators). The PQRT ras already performed 400 evaluations under reference conditions (190 Co-60 and 210 linear accelerators). 18 courses have been provided for the participants, covering his main practical problems. In addition, some studies and research has been performed

  17. INCA Modelling of the Lee System: strategies for the reduction of nitrogen loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, N. J.; Paddison, T.; Whitehead, P. G.

    The Integrated Nitrogen Catchment model (INCA) was applied successfully to simulate nitrogen concentrations in the River Lee, a northern tributary of the River Thames for 1995-1999. Leaching from urban and agricultural areas was found to control nitrogen dynamics in reaches unaffected by effluent discharges and abstractions; the occurrence of minimal flows resulted in an upward trend in nitrate concentration. Sewage treatment works (STW) discharging into the River Lee raised nitrate concentrations substantially, a problem which was compounded by abstractions in the Lower Lee. The average concentration of nitrate (NO3) for the simulation period 1995-96 was 7.87 mg N l-1. Ammonium (NH4) concentrations were simulated less successfully. However, concentrations of ammonium rarely rose to levels which would be of environmental concern. Scenarios were run through INCA to assess strategies for the reduction of nitrate concentrations in the catchment. The conversion of arable land to ungrazed vegetation or to woodland would reduce nitrate concentrations substantially, whilst inclusion of riparian buffer strips would be unsuccessful in reducing nitrate loading. A 50% reduction in nitrate loading from Luton STW would result in a fall of up to 5 mg N l-1 in the reach directly affected (concentrations fell from maxima of 13 to 8 mg N l-1 , nearly a 40 % reduction), whilst a 20% reduction in abstractions would reduce maximum peaks in concentration in the lower Lee by up to 4 mg l-1 (from 17 to 13 mg N l-1, nearly a 25 % reduction),.

  18. Shadow corrosion testing in the INCA facility in the Studsvik R2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, A.C.; Lassing, A.

    1999-01-01

    Shadow corrosion is a phenomenon which occurs when zirconium alloys are in contact with or in proximity to other metallic objects in a boiling water reactor environment (BWR, RBMK, SGHWR etc.). An enhanced corrosion occurs on the zirconium alloy with the appearance of a 'shadow' of the metallic object. The magnitude of the shadow corrosion can be significant, and is potentially limiting for the lifetime of certain zirconium alloy components in BWRs and other reactors with a similar water chemistry. In order to evaluate the suitability of the In-Core Autoclave (INCA) in the Studsvik R2 materials testing reactor as an experimental facility for studying shadow corrosion, a demonstration test has been performed. A number of test specimens consisting of Zircaloy-2 tubing in contact with Inconel were exposed in an oxidising water chemistry. Some of the specimens were placed within the reactor core and some above the core. The conclusion of this experiment after post irradiation examination is that it is possible to use the INCA facility in the Studsvik R2 reactor to develop a significant level of shadow corrosion after only 800 hours of irradiation. (author)

  19. Mechanical analysis of the dry stone walls built by the Incas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jaime; Vallejo, Luis E.; Estrada, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the retaining walls in the agricultural terraces built by the Incas are analyzed from a mechanical point of view. In order to do so, ten different walls from the Lower Agricultural Sector of Machu Picchu, Perú, were selected using images from Google Street View and Google Earth Pro. Then, these walls were digitalized and their mechanical stability was evaluated. Firstly, it was found that these retaining walls are characterized by two distinctive features: disorder and a block size distribution with a large size span, i.e., the particle size varies from blocks that can be carried by one person to large blocks weighing several tons. Secondly, it was found that, thanks to the large span of the block size distribution, the factor of safety of the Inca retaining walls is remarkably close to those that are recommended in modern geotechnical design standards. This suggests that these structures were not only functional but also highly optimized, probably as a result of a careful trial and error procedure.

  20. Machu Picchu: problemas de conservación de un sitio inca de ceja de selva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available MACHU PICCHU: PROBLÈMES DE CONSERVATION D’UN SITE INCA DU PIEDMONT AMAZONIEN. Cet article présente la synthèse des diverses études (géomorphologie, géologie et conservation de l’architecture du site inca de Machu Picchu. Ces études ont mis en évidence les principaux facteurs de détérioration qui sont dus aux divers effets de l’eau sur l’architecture et sur le milieu environnant. La croissance de la végétation naturelle représente aussi un important facteur de détérioration qui vient s’ajouter aux effets néfastes des pluies très abondantes. Diverses mesures de protection peuvent aider à contrôler ces détériorations. D’autres facteurs, comme l’arrivée assez récente d’une végétation non autochtone et l’affluence d’un trop grand nombre de visiteurs, constituent des menaces supplémentaires. La protection du principal site archéologique et touristique du Pérou est toutefois possible en prenant des mesures adéquates contre ces agressions pour réduire autant que possible les détérioratons observées. Se presenta una síntesis de los diversos estudios (geomorfología, geología y conservación de la arquitectura realizados en el sitio inca de Machu Picchu. Estos estudios han puesto en evidencia los principales factores de deterioro que se deben a los diversos efectos del agua sobre la arquitectura y sobre el entorno. También, el desarrollo importante de la vegetación natural representa otro factor de deterioro, que se suma a los efectos nefastos del agua. Varias medidas de protección podrían mejorar el control de estos deterioros. Otros factores, tales como el crecimiento de una vegetación alógena o como la llegada de visitantes demasiado numerosos, constituyen amenazas suplementarias. Sin embargo, el principal sitio arqueológico y turístico del Perú se puede conservar con medidas adecuadas que permitirían reducir los deterioros, logrando una notable mejora de la situación actual. MACHU PICCHU

  1. Pseudotectites from Colombia and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, R.; Sitter-Koomans, de C.

    1955-01-01

    In a previous note on “Americanites” (Martin, 1934) from Colombia and Peru, the writer came to the conclusion, on the basis solely of published data, that it was very likely that these so-called tectites are in reality obsidian of terrestrial origin. He stated, however, that “before it is possible

  2. Peru. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Intended for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Peru's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics included are the people, geographic regions, festivals and celebrations, the economy, natural resources, Lake Titicaca,…

  3. Mathematical Contributions of the Mayas, Aztecs & Incas: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Janet

    Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the mathematical achievements of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Indians. The number systems, notation, and calendar techniques of…

  4. [Counterfeit pharmaceuticals in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exebio, Luis E Moreno; Rodríguez, Javier; Sayritupac, Freddy

    2010-02-01

    To determine the quantity of counterfeit pharmaceutical drugs found by the National Quality Control Center (Centro Nacional de Control de Calidad (CNCC), Instituto Nacional de Salud, Peru) during the period from 2005&2008, and the types and properties of these drugs. A form was created to amass the relevant data collected directly from CNCC reports. The reports underwent a review and analysis process, and where counterfeiting was confirmed, it was categorized by type into one of four groups. The percentage of counterfeit drugs relative to the total drugs evaluated was: 3.0% in 2005, 5.0% in 2006, 7.3% in 2007, and 9.2% in 2008. The main groups of counterfeit drugs, classified according to the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, were: alimentary tract and metabolism, 34.5% (29.1%-39.8%); antiinfectives for systemic use, 21.1% (16.5%-25.7%); nervous system, 17.1% (12.8%-21.3%); and musculo-skeletal system, 15.4% (11.3%-19.5%). The most common type of forgery occurred in cases where the drug contained the correct amount of active ingredients, but the manufacturer was one other than the one indicated (62.4% of the total counterfeit drugs); and medications that did not contain any active ingredient (22.4%). Of the counterfeit drugs, 61.0% (56.0%-67.0%) were national brands and 39.0%, (33.0%-44.0%) were imported. The pharmaceutical formulations with the highest rate of forgery were tablets, 66.0% (60.0%-71.0%); injectables, 19.0% (14.0%-23.0%); and capsules 7.0% (4.0%-10.0%). From 2005-2008, drug counterfeiting had an average annual variation of 45%. Drug counterfeiting was shown to be most prevalent among national brands - as opposed to imported medications - although the types and formulations of the fake drugs attest to a certain level of sophistication employed in the forgery process. The counterfeiting of life-saving drugs, such as antimicrobials, signifies a serious public health threat.

  5. Inglorious Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2017-01-01

    Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00......Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00...

  6. Functional interaction between type III-secreted protein IncA of Chlamydophila psittaci and human G3BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, Nicole; Litsche, Katrin; Franke, Claudia; Sachse, Konrad; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2011-01-31

    Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. These obligate intracellular bacteria are distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle, which includes proliferation in a membrane-bound compartment termed inclusion. All Chlamydiaceae spp. possess a coding capacity for core components of a Type III secretion apparatus, which mediates specific delivery of anti-host effector proteins either into the chlamydial inclusion membrane or into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Here we describe the interaction between Type III-secreted protein IncA of Cp. psittaci and host protein G3BP1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. In GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments both in vitro and in vivo interaction between full-length IncA and G3BP1 were shown. Using fluorescence microscopy, the localization of G3BP1 near the inclusion membrane of Cp. psittaci-infected Hep-2 cells was demonstrated. Notably, infection of Hep-2 cells with Cp. psittaci and overexpression of IncA in HEK293 cells led to a decrease in c-Myc protein concentration. This effect could be ascribed to the interaction between IncA and G3BP1 since overexpression of an IncA mutant construct disabled to interact with G3BP1 failed to reduce c-Myc concentration. We hypothesize that lowering the host cell c-Myc protein concentration may be part of a strategy employed by Cp. psittaci to avoid apoptosis and scale down host cell proliferation.

  7. Long-term modelling of nitrogen turnover and critical loads in a forested catchment using the INCA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Langusch

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Many forest ecosystems in Central Europe have reached the status of N saturation due to chronically high N deposition. In consequence, the NO3 leaching into ground- and surface waters is often substantial. Critical loads have been defined to abate the negative consequences of the NO3 leaching such as soil acidification and nutrient losses. The steady state mass balance method is normally used to calculate critical loads for N deposition in forest ecosystems. However, the steady state mass balance approach is limited because it does not take into account hydrology and the time until the steady state is reached. The aim of this study was to test the suitability of another approach: the dynamic model INCA (Integrated Nitrogen Model for European Catchments. Long-term effects of changing N deposition and critical loads for N were simulated using INCA for the Lehstenbach spruce catchment (Fichtelgebirge, NE Bavaria, Germany under different hydrological conditions. Long-term scenarios of either increasing or decreasing N deposition indicated that, in this catchment, the response of nitrate concentrations in runoff to changing N deposition is buffered by a large groundwater reservoir. The critical load simulated by the INCA model with respect to a nitrate concentration of 0.4 mg N l–1 as threshold value in runoff was 9.7 kg N ha–1yr–1 compared to 10 kg ha–1yr–1 for the steady state model. Under conditions of lower precipitation (520 mm the resulting critical load was 7.7 kg N ha–1yr–1 , suggesting the necessity to account for different hydrological conditions when calculating critical loads. The INCA model seems to be suitable to calculate critical loads for N in forested catchments under varying hydrological conditions e.g. as a consequence of climate change. Keywords: forest ecosystem, N saturation, critical load, modelling, long-term scenario, nitrate leaching, critical loads reduction, INCA

  8. Comparative simulation of the nitrogen dynamics using the INCA model and a neural network analysis: implications for improved nitrogen modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lischeid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing deposition of nitrogen in forested catchments affects stream and groundwater quality. However, the dependence of nitrogen dynamics on climatic and hydrological boundary conditions is still poorly understood. These dynamics have been investigated by applying the process-oriented Integrated Nitrogen in CAtchments (INCA model and an artificial neural network to the data set from the forested Steinkreuz catchment in South Germany. The data comprise daily values of precipitation, air temperature and discharge of the catchment runoff. The INCA model simulated the mean nitrate concentration in the stream as well as seasonal fluctuations but it underestimated the short-term variance of the observed stream water nitrate concentration, especially the pronounced concentration peaks in late summer. In contrast, the artificial neural network matched the short-term dynamics using non-linear regressions with stream discharge and air temperature data. The results provide strong evidence that the short-term dynamics of stream nitrate concentration during storm-flow were generated in the riparian zone, which is less than 1% of the catchment area, and is not considered explicitly in the INCA model. The concentration peaks have little effect on the catchment’s nitrogen budget and the shallow groundwater data suggest that the short-term hydrological dynamics also govern groundwater recharge in the upland parts of the catchment. This substantial underestimate by the INCA model parameterisation is balanced by a corresponding underestimate of denitrification in clayey layers of the deeper aquifer. A better understanding of these processes is necessary to improve long-term risk assessments. Keywords: catchment, runoff, nitrogen, INCA, artificial neural network, flushing

  9. Foreign oil companies weathering Peru's political crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies are weathering Peru's political crisis, and the outlook for increased foreign participation in Peru's petroleum sector remains promising. There has been improvement in the political turmoil and soured international relations that followed President Alberto Fujimori's Apr. 5 suspension of Peru's Congress, charging political corruption and attempts to block his fiscal reforms. But there are fresh concerns over an increase in terrorism aimed at oil industry facilities by antigovernment guerrilla groups in Peru. Meanwhile, state-owned oil company Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) continues efforts to sell assets as part of Fujimori's mandated privatization program. And foreign companies continue to grapple with uncertainty and bureaucratic red tape in chasing investment opportunities in Peru's beleaguered but opening petroleum sector

  10. Literatura Inca (¿indígena? como representación de la literatura peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Espino Relucé

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta comunicación propone la relación entre las bellas letras y las manifestacionesdiscursivas vinculadas al indio; por eso, esboza las principales ideasliterarias que Jorge Basadre propone en Equivocaciones y cuyo trazo se puedeleer en Historia de la República del Perú.1 Se detiene en la importancia de laLiteratura inca, compilación de Basadre, cuya publicación constituye un recuentode la literatura prehispánica, la producción colonial y republicana de laescritura literaria quechua como representación de lo indígena para las culturasperuanas. Lo vinculo, asimismo, a la comprensión de la literatura como ejercicioheterogéneo y a las formas como el indio es representado en la escritura a finalesde la primera mitad del siglo XX.

  11. Cuzco and Rome, Peruvians and Andalucians in Inca Garcilaso’s work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Del Pino Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I offer a socio-cultural explanation of Inca Garcilaso’s Romanist program, taking into account the analysis of his biographical anchorages in both Perú and Spain, specially his andalusian experience. To do so, I follow the social events he lived through (the recent conquest of the Islamic world and presence of Jewish converts, as well as the more cultural aspects of his stay in Spain (Royal and nobility classicism, relationship with the Jesuits. By broadening the scope of the interpretation of his texts, we are no longer talking merely about an individual and isolated (if aristocratic experience, nor about a merely religious or literary option (even if it is expressed in such a way.

  12. Cuzco y Roma, peruanos y andaluces en la obra del Inca Garcilaso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín del Pino-Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se intenta ofrecer una explicación sociocultural del programa romanista del Inca Garcilaso en función de sus coordenadas biográficas (peruana y española, analizando especialmente su destino andaluz, tanto por sus coordenadas sociales (conquista reciente del mundo islámico y presencia de conversos judíos como por las propiamente culturales (clasicismo real y nobiliario, conexión con jesuitas. No se trata, pues, de una solución individual y aislada (por aristocrática, ni tampoco de una opción meramente literaria o religiosa (a pesar de expresarse en esa clave.

  13. An astronomical observatory for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  14. Peru Brand: a Nation under Construction?

    OpenAIRE

    Elder Cuevas-Calderón

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade Peru has experienced a euphoric rediscovery –pseudo revaluation as a country– due to its booming gastronomy, tourism and economic growth.In this context, the presentresearch uses semio-psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories to explain Peru’s social outlook regarding the concept of nation, its reunion with a non-existent identity and the construction of the idea of nation based on the marketing campaign titled the Peru Brand. Thus, Peru Brand, far from uniting all Peru...

  15. Crop improvement projects in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeshart, H.

    1978-01-01

    Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963

  16. Lost crops of the Incas: Origins of domestication of the Andean pulse crop tarwi, Lupinus mutabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Guy W; Nevado, Bruno; Eastwood, Ruth J; Contreras-Ortiz, Natalia; Reynel, Carlos; Madriñán, Santiago; Filatov, Dmitry A; Hughes, Colin E

    2016-09-01

    The Andean highlands are a hotspot of domestication, yet our understanding of the origins of early Andean agriculture remains fragmentary. Key questions of where, when, how many times, and from what progenitors many Andean crops were domesticated remain unanswered. The Andean lupine crop tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) is a regionally important pulse crop with exceptionally high seed protein and oil content and is the focus of modern breeding efforts, but its origins remain obscure. A large genome-wide DNA polymorphism data set was generated using nextRADseq to infer relationships among more than 200 accessions of Andean Lupinus species, including 24 accessions of L. mutabilis and close relatives. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses were used to identify the likely progenitor of tarwi and elucidate the area and timing of domestication in combination with archaeological evidence. We infer that tarwi was domesticated once in northern Peru, most likely in the Cajamarca region within, or adjacent to the extant distribution of L. piurensis, which is the most likely wild progenitor. Demographic analyses suggest that tarwi split from L. piurensis around 2600 BP and suffered a classical domestication bottleneck. The earliest unequivocal archaeological evidence of domesticated tarwi seeds is from the Mantaro Valley, central Peru ca. 1800 BP. A single origin of tarwi from L. piurensis in northern Peru provides a robust working hypothesis for the domestication of this regionally important crop and is one of the first clear-cut examples of a crop originating in the highlands of northern Peru. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  17. The Context for IMAP: Voyager and INCA Observations of the Heliosheath at E > 5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    2016-04-01

    The basic premise of the proposed Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) is detailed scientific understanding of the Heliosheath (HS) and beyond, a region of space explored in situ by Voyager 1 (V1) since 2004, Voyager 2 (V2) since 2007, and remotely via energetic neutral atoms (ENA) by the Cassini/INCA (Ion and Neutral CAmera) since 2003 and IBEX since 2009. The IMAP instrumentation proposed for this purpose combines and extends the IBEX and INCA ENA energy ranges (0.3- 20 keV and 3-200 keV, for low and high energy, respectively). All three missions-Voyagers, Cassini/INCA, and IBEX- have made discovery-class measurements in the HS, the Voyagers providing in situ ion intensities at E > 30 keV, while INCA images ENA in the range 5 INCA ENA allows for the possibility of observing the intensity and time evolution of ions in the HS, thought to give rise to the ENAs via charge-exchange, and the resultant ENA images in the inner heliosphere and their spatial and/or temporal variability. Unfortunately, no such "ground truth" ion measurements are possible at Voyager in the ENA energy range imaged by IBEX. Some of the key findings from the Voyager and Cassini/INCA measurements are as follows: (1) The HS contains a hot plasma population that carries a substantial part (30-50 %) of the total pressure at E > 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically >10. (2) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is ~ 30 AU, but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2 currently travels.. (3) The ENA intensities at E > 5 keV exhibit a correlation with the solar cycle (SC) over the period 2003 to 2015, with minimum intensities in the anti-nose direction observed ~ 1.5 yrs after solar minimum followed by a recovery thereafter. (4) The in situ ion measurements at V2 within the HS also show a similar SC dependence. The totality of the observations, together with the near

  18. The prediction and management of aquatic nitrogen pollution across Europe: an introduction to the Integrated Nitrogen in European Catchments project (INCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Wade

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess nitrogen in soils, fresh water, estuarine and marine systems contributes to nutrient enrichment in key ecosystems throughout Europe, often leading to detrimental environmental impacts, such as soil acidification or the eutrophication of water bodies. The Integrated Nitrogenmodel for European Catchments (INCA project aims to develop a generic version of the Integrated Nitrogen in Catchments (INCA model to simulate the retention and transport of nitrogen within river systems, thereby providing a tool to aid the understanding of nitrogen dynamics and for river-basin management/policy-making. To facilitate the development of the model, 10 partners have tested the INCA model with data collected in study sites located in eight European countries as part of the INCA project. This paper summarises the key nitrogen issues within Europe, describes the main aims and methodology of the INCA project, and sets the project in the context of the current major research initiatives at a European level. Keywords: Europe, European Union, nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, river basin management, modelling, water chemistry, acidification, eutrophication, Water Framework Directive, INCA.

  19. Monitoring glacier variations in the Urubamba and Vilcabamba Mountain Ranges, Peru, using "Landsat 5" images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Wilson; Cerna, Marcos; Ordoñez, Julio; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Huggel, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The Urubamba and Vilcabamba mountain ranges are two geological structures belonging to the Andes in the southern part of Peru, which is located in the tropical region. These mountain ranges are especially located within the transition area between the Amazon region (altitudes close to 1'000 m a.s.l.) and the Andes. These mountains, with a maximum height of 6'280 m a.s.l. (Salkantay Snow Peak in the Vilcabamba range), are characterized by glaciers mainly higher than 5000 m a.s.l. Here we present a study on the evolution of the ice cover based on "Landsat 5" images from 1991 and 2011 is presented in this paper. These data are freely available from the USGS in a georeferenced format and cover a time span of more than 25 years. The glacier mapping is based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). In 1991 the Vilcabamba mountain range had 221 km2 of glacier cover, being reduced to 116.4 km2 in 2011, which represents a loss of 48%. In the Urubamba mountain range, the total glacier area was 64.9 km2 in 1991 and 29.4 km2 in 2011, representing a loss of 54.7%. It means that the glacier area was halved during the past two decades although precipitation patterns show an increase in recent years (the wet season lasts from September to April with precipitation peaks in February and March). Glacier changes in these two tropical mountain ranges also impact from an economic point of view due to small local farming common in this region (use of water from the melting glacier). Furthermore, potential glacier related hazards can pose a threat to people and infrastructure in the valleys below these glaciers, where the access routes to Machu Picchu Inca City, Peru's main tourist destination, are located too.

  20. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  1. New Trends on Intellectual Assessment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2016-01-01

    The history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Peru is presented from the foundation of scientific psychology in Peru until now. Current practices are affected by the multicultural ethnolinguistic diversity of the country, the quality of the different training programs, as well as by Peruvian regulations for becoming an academic…

  2. New Trends in Talent Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…

  3. Peru | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Peru's leaders rely on the Consortium's expert advice when setting policy to promote micro and small business development, to manage natural resources, and to keep citizens safe. The Consortium has grown from a handful of institutes in Lima to astrong national network of 48 members, including Peru's most prestigious ...

  4. Inhibition of Fusion of Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusions at 32°C Correlates with Restricted Export of IncA

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, K. A.; Fischer, E.; Hackstadt, T.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that develops within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The inclusion is nonfusogenic with lysosomes but intercepts lipids from a host cell exocytic pathway. Initiation of chlamydial development is concurrent with modification of the inclusion membrane by a set of C. trachomatis-encoded proteins collectively designated Incs. One of these Incs, IncA, is functionally associated with the homotypic fusion of inclusions. Incl...

  5. Modelling the long term impact of climate change on the carbon budget of Lake Simcoe, Ontario using INCA-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, S K; Futter, M N; Molot, L A; Dillon, P J

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a process-based model of dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) in catchments draining into Lake Simcoe, Ontario. INCA-C, the Integrated Catchment model for Carbon, incorporates carbon biogeochemical processes in a terrestrial system with hydrologic flow paths to simulate watershed wide [DOC]. The model successfully simulates present-day inter-annual and seasonal [DOC] dynamics in tributaries draining catchments with mixed or contrasting land cover in the Lake Simcoe watershed (LSW). The sensitivity of INCA-C to soil moisture, hydrologic controls and land uses within a watershed demonstrates its significance as a tool to explore pertinent environmental issues specific to the LSW. Projections of climate change under A1B and A2 SRES scenarios suggest a continuous monotonic increase in [DOC] in surface waters draining into Lake Simcoe. Large variations in seasonal DOC dynamics are predicted to occur during summer with a possibility of displacement of summer [DOC] maxima towards winter and a prolongation of summer [DOC] levels into the autumn. INCA-C also predicts possible increases in dissolved inorganic carbon in some tributaries with rising temperature suggesting increased CO(2) emissions from rivers as climate changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Nitrogen and Flow Modelling (INCA) in a Boreal River Basin Dominated by Forestry: Scenarios of Environmental Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankinen, Katri; Lepistoe, Ahti; Granlund, Kirsti

    2004-01-01

    A new version (v1.7) of the Integrated Nitrogen in CAtchments model(INCA) was applied to the northern boreal Simojoki river basin (3160 km 2 ) in Finland. The INCA model is a semi-distributed, dynamic nitrogen (N) process model which simulates N transport and processes in catchments. The INCA model was applied to model flow and seasonal inorganic N dynamics of the river Simojoki basin over the period 1994-1996, and validated for two more years. Both calibration and validation of the model were successful. The model was able to simulate annual dynamics of inorganic N concentrations in the river. The effects of forest management and atmospheric deposition on inorganic N fluxes to the sea in 2010 were studied. Three scenarios were applied for forestry practices and two for deposition. The effects of forest cutting scenarios and atmospheric deposition scenarios on inorganic N flux to the sea were small. The combination of the maximum technically possible reduction of N deposition and a decrease of 100% in forest cutting and peat mining areas decreased NO 3 - -N flux by 6.0% and NH 4 + -N flux by 3.1%

  7. APROPIACIÓN INCA EN LA CORDILLERA DE CHILLA, SUROESTE DE LOS ANDES DEL ECUADOR: EL CASO DEL SITIO GUIÑAYZHU (Inca Appropriation in the Chilla Mountain Range, Southwest of the Andes of Ecuador: the Case of the Guiñayzhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jadán V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discuten los resultados del trabajo realizado en el sitio Guiñayzhu, al suroeste de los Andes del Ecuador. Esta investigación revela que el sitio, además de presentar evidencias de poblaciones locales, tiene colcas o qullcas para el almacenaje de productos, terrazas de pirca y caminos empedrados entre otras instalaciones. Se interpreta que Guiñayzhu es uno de los sitios de la cordillera de Chilla que refleja la expansión del incario y expresa una efectiva dominación de esta región como un enclave estratégico del imperio en su avance hacia el norte. ENGLISH: In this article, the results of research carried out in Guiñayzhu, located at the southwest of the Andes of Ecuador, are discussed. This work reveals that in addition to presenting evidence of local populations, the site has colcas or qullqas for the storage of products, terraces of pirca, and roads paved with stone, among other constructions. Guiñayzhu is interpreted as one of the sites of the Chilla mountain range that reflects the expansion of the Inca and expresses an effective domination of this region, representing a strategic enclave of the empire in its advance northward.

  8. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0014] RIN 0579-AD68 Importation of Papayas From Peru... from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru... action would allow for the importation of papayas from Peru while continuing to provide protection...

  9. Charpentes andines inca et moderne: observations et réflexions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available L'auteur met en relation trois textes, de B. Cobo et de Garcilaso de la Vega, relatifs aux charpentes incas, et des charpentes actuelles, observées dans le village de Wayllabamba, situé dans la parc archéologique de Machu Picchu. Ces charpentes font appel à un élément porteur original, constitué par trois perches réunies à leurs extrémités supérieures. Ce système paraît correspondre aux descriptions des chroniqueurs et iI semble probable qu'il s'agisse donc d'un phénomène de perdurance des techniques précolombiennes de charpenterie. L'auteur aborde ensuite le problème de la couverture d'édifices incas de grandes dimensions il souligne la possibilité technique de couvrir ces édifices. Enfin, une troisième partie est consacrée à la mise en relation des propriétés des murs porteurs et de celles de la toiture, dont les qualités isothermiques se complètent. L'habitation andine apparaît donc comme une solution très satisfaisante en réponse au climat contrasté des Andes péruviennes. En la sierra peruana, los edificios incaicos muestran solamente materiales inorgánicos aparte de escasos elementos, como algunos dinteles de madera, los materiales orgánicos han desaparecido después que los habitantes abandonaron esos edificios. El estudio de las techumbres incaicas se tiene que hacer con otros datos que los vestigios arqueológicos. La primera parte del presente informe relaciona tres textos, de B. Cobo y de Garcilaso de la Vega, que describen armazones incaicas, con observaciones hechas por el autor acerca de unos armazones actuales. Estas armazones se construyen con vigas de madera atadas con cuerdas de corteza. El elemento básico es un elemento trípode que reemplaza las armaduras triangulares formadas por un tirante y dos alfardas. Este sistema se asemeja a los descritos por Cobo y por Garcilaso y probablemente es prehispánico. La segunda parte enfoca el asunto de la techumbre de los edificios de gran dimensi

  10. Peru: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on strong measures that are being taken to resuscitate Peru's hydrocarbon sector. The first step last August was the cutting of fuel subsidies in half. Then the administration issued tax vouchers to state utilities for the money they still owed national oil company Petroperu. A precursor to what are expected to be widespread changes to the existing petroleum legislation occurred last fall. As part of a package of fiscal reforms, the official base rate that the government paid Occidental Petroleum to produce crude for Petroperu was dropped. A new, free market rate was adopted, which was six times the old base rate

  11. The Cyber Media in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation whose primary target is to analyze the panorama of media on the Internet in Peru in the last quarter of the 2004 are presented. The birth and the consolidation of the Peruvian media on the Internet have been influenced by the economic, political and social problems that this country has lived through throughout its history. In spite of the few users which the media still have on the Internet, however, Peruvian journalism is making an effort to experiment with new formats and is conscious that in the future these means of communication will become essential elements for publication on the Web.

  12. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single man, which can be processed far faster. It is assumed for this method that a conventional program exists which can perform faithful tracking in the lattice under study for some hundreds of turns, with all lattice parameters held constant. An empirical map is then generated by comparison with the tracking program. A procedure has been outlined for determining an empirical Hamiltonian, which can represent motion through many nonlinear kicks, by taking data from a conventional tracking program. Though derived by an approximate method this Hamiltonian is analytic in form and can be subjected to further analysis of varying degrees of mathematical rigor. Even though the empirical procedure has only been described in one transverse dimension, there is good reason to hope that it can be extended to include two transverse dimensions, so that it can become a more practical tool in realistic cases

  13. Diagnostic overview of the illegal trade in primates and law enforcement in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanee, Noga; Mendoza, A Patricia; Shanee, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Peru has one of the richest primate faunas of any country. The illegal trade in wild primates is one of the largest threats to this fauna in Peru. We characterize the illegal trade in primates through empirical and ethnographic data. We collected data from traffic routes and centers throughout Peru and evaluate current efforts to combat this traffic. Based on our findings from 2,070 instances of wildlife crime involving 6,872 primates, we estimate the domestic trade in primates for pets and bushmeat in Peru in the hundreds of thousands per year, with the larger bodied Atelidae facing the highest direct consequences. We found that government authorities lack sufficient staff, capacity, resources, infrastructure, and protocols to efficiently combat illegal trade in primates. Also, the complicated legal framework and lack of cooperation and antagonism with the public further limit these efforts. Wildlife authorities in Peru are able to confiscate only a fraction of primates traded and mostly intervene in cases of private pet owners rather than traffickers. We estimate that the current rate of illegal trade in primates is comparable to levels of trade prior to the 1973 ban on primates' exportation. The combination of direct observations on primate trade and ethnographic data allows a comprehensive look at primate trade in Peru. We call upon decision makers and international funders to channel their efforts toward "on the ground" actions such as increasing the ability of the authorities to act, giving them "in action" training in law enforcement and establishing strict control measures against corruption. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22516, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. LMDzT-INCA dust forecast model developments and associated validation efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M; Cozic, A; Szopa, S

    2009-01-01

    The nudged atmosphere global climate model LMDzT-INCA is used to forecast global dust fields. Evaluation is undertaken in retrospective for the forecast results of the year 2006. For this purpose AERONET/Photons sites in Northern Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula are chosen where aerosol optical depth is dominated by dust. Despite its coarse resolution, the model captures 48% of the day to day dust variability near Dakar on the initial day of the forecast. On weekly and monthly scale the model captures respectively 62% and 68% of the variability. Correlation coefficients between daily AOD values observed and modelled at Dakar decrease from 0.69 for the initial forecast day to 0.59 and 0.41 respectively for two days ahead and five days ahead. If one requests that the model should be able to issue a warning for an exceedance of aerosol optical depth of 0.5 and issue no warning in the other cases, then the model was wrong in 29% of the cases for day 0, 32% for day 2 and 35% for day 5. A reanalysis run with archived ECMWF winds is only slightly better (r=0.71) but was in error in 25% of the cases. Both the improved simulation of the monthly versus daily variability and the deterioration of the forecast with time can be explained by model failure to simulate the exact timing of a dust event.

  15. Solubilization, fractionation, and electrophoretic characterization of Inca peanut (Plukenetia volubilis L.) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Sharma, Girdhari M

    2012-09-01

    Effects of different solvents, ionic strength, and pH on Inca peanut seed protein solubility were assessed by quantitatively analyzing solubilized proteins using Lowry and Bradford methods. Soluble proteins were fractionated using Osborne procedure and the polypeptide composition of solubilized proteins was determined by one dimensional 25 % monomer acrylamide linear gradient SDS-PAGE. Osborne protein fractions were analyzed by the 2D gel electrophoresis. Total seed proteins were efficiently solubilized by 2 M NaCl among the tested solvents. The soluble seed proteins registered a minimum solubility at pH ~4.0. Osborne protein fractions, albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins accounted for 43.7, 27.3, 3.0, and 31.9 %, respectively, of the total aqueous soluble proteins. Soluble seed flour proteins are mainly composed of polypeptides in the MW range of 6-70 kDa of which the predominant polypeptides were in the 20-40 kDa range. Prolamin fraction was mainly composed of four polypeptides (MW < 15 kDa). Glycoprotein staining indicated 32-35 and <14 kDa peptides to be positive.

  16. Actinide Capture and Fission Cross Section Measurements Within the Mini-Inca Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Mini-INCA project is devoted to precise description of the transmutation chain of Actinides within high thermal neutron fluxes. It uses the High Flux Reactor of ILL (Laue Langevin Institute) as an intense thermal neutron source to measure capture and fission cross sections. Two irradiation channels are dedicated for those measurements offering a diversity of fluxes ranging from pure thermal neutrons to 15% epithermal neutrons with intensities as high as 1*10 15 n/cm 2 /s. Standard nuclear techniques for measurements, such as α and γ-spectroscopy of irradiated samples, have been extended in order to stand all constraints due to the irradiation in high fluxes. In particular new types of fission micro-chambers have been developed to follow online the evolution of one actinide and to measure its fission cross section in reference to 235 U(n,F) standard reaction. This type of neutron detector will be used within the MEGAPIE target to on-line characterise the neutron flux and to study the potentiality of such target in terms of incineration. (author)

  17. Research Advances: Calorie Restriction and Increased Longevity Linked to Metabolic Changes; Isotope Ratios Reveal Trickery in the Produce Aisle; An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    The different lifelong patterns related to different levels of energy metabolism and the activities of the microbes in various animals are described. The analysis shows that many important beneficial changes occur due to the activities of symbiotic bacteria living in the intestinal tract.

  18. Host adaptation of Chlamydia pecorum towards low virulence evident in co-evolution of the ompA, incA, and ORF663 Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Khalil Yousef; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Magnino, Simone; Sachse, Konrad; Rodolakis, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) pecorum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, may cause severe diseases in ruminants, swine and koalas, although asymptomatic infections are the norm. Recently, we identified genetic polymorphisms in the ompA, incA and ORF663 genes that potentially differentiate between high-virulence C. pecorum isolates from diseased animals and low-virulence isolates from asymptomatic animals. Here, we expand these findings by including additional ruminant, swine, and koala strains. Coding tandem repeats (CTRs) at the incA locus encoded a variable number of repeats of APA or AGA amino acid motifs. Addition of any non-APA/AGA repeat motif, such as APEVPA, APAVPA, APE, or APAPE, associated with low virulence (PincA CTRs (P = 0.0028). In ORF663, high numbers of 15-mer CTRs correlated with low virulence (P = 0.0001). Correction for ompA phylogram position in ORF663 and incA abolished the correlation between genetic changes and virulence, demonstrating co-evolution of ompA, incA, and ORF663 towards low virulence. Pairwise divergence of ompA, incA, and ORF663 among isolates from healthy animals was significantly higher than among strains isolated from diseased animals (P≤10-5), confirming the longer evolutionary path traversed by low-virulence strains. All three markers combined identified 43 unique strains and 4 pairs of identical strains among all 57 isolates tested, demonstrating the suitability of these markers for epidemiological investigations.

  19. Peru - privatisation draws in major new investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranfield, John.

    1994-01-01

    The recent charges in Peru's energy sector are reported as the privatisation campaign draws to a close. Sectors covered include the splitting of the petroleum company into its components of production, refining, transport and marketing. (UK)

  20. Peru Brand: a Nation under Construction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Cuevas-Calderón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade Peru has experienced a euphoric rediscovery –pseudo revaluation as a country– due to its booming gastronomy, tourism and economic growth.In this context, the presentresearch uses semio-psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories to explain Peru’s social outlook regarding the concept of nation, its reunion with a non-existent identity and the construction of the idea of nation based on the marketing campaign titled the Peru Brand. Thus, Peru Brand, far from uniting all Peruvians and bring them together into the wellknown “melting pot”, becomes the resemantization of the old colonial discourse longing for a republic without natives. Therefore, in the Peru Brand advertising discourse, the “primitive natives” are white people brought from Nebraska and speak English.

  1. [The health system of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Lazo-González, Oswaldo; Nigenda, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Peru and, with greater detail, the Peruvian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the activities developed in the information and research areas, as well as the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The article concludes with a discussion of the most recent innovations, including the Comprehensive Health Insurance, the Health Care Enterprises system, the decentralization process and the Local Committees for Health Administration. The main challenge confronted by the Peruvian health system is the extension of coverage to more than I0% of the population presently lacking access to basic health care.

  2. Ayahuasca-turisme i Iquitos, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Laursen, Emil Rasmus; Dalland, Rasmus Hage

    2014-01-01

    This project examines the ayahuasca-tourism in Iquitos, Peru, and it aims at understanding what the tourists are looking for, when they search for this kind of experience. Iquitos has experienced an increasing amount of tourists who arrive in the city for the purpose of participating in ayahuasca ceremonies. Ayahuasca is a traditional medicine that has been an essential part of the ancient indigenous culture in Peru for centuries. It features strong hallucinogenic powers that are seen as a ga...

  3. Empire Redux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    from the legacies of empire. Taking decolonization as a starting point, this thesis demonstrates how the idea of a ‘British world’ gained a new lease of life vis-à-vis the Falklands, as the Islanders adopted the rhetorical mantle of ‘abandoned Britons’. Yet this new momentum was partial and fractured......The Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism and permeated with imperial rhetoric, imagery and memories, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship and belonging. The current dispute, moreover, is frequently framed in terms of national identity, and accusations of imperialism......, as evinced by the developments triggered by the Argentine invasion in 1982. Despite the apparent firmness of the British government’s commitment to the Islands, cracks and fissures over the meaning of Britishness were simultaneously magnified. The perceived temporal dislocation of defending loyal Britons...

  4. Tres documentos inéditos para la historia de la guerra de reconquista inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont publiées les déclarations de trois témoins oculaires des événements de 1533 à 1558, c'est-à-dire depuis l'entrée de Manko Inka Yupanki à Cusco, avec ses alliés espagnols, jusqu'à la 'sortie' de l'auki Sayri Thupa, -un de ses enfants- en 1558, sur la pression militaire et diplomatique du Marquis de Cañete. Ces témoignages directs, confrontés avec d'autres contemporains, constituent de nouveaux éléments inédits pour éclairer la version donnée par les sources espagnoles de cette époque ils font connaître également, et presque en détail, les négociations du vice-roi Marquis de Cañete, lequel se proposait d'en finir pacifiquement avec la résistance héroïque de Vilcabamba, ainsi que la prudence Inca pour déjouer ce plan et éviter les dangers d'une guerre contre ce dernier réduit du Tawantinsuyo. Il ressort de ces témoignages, comparés avec d'autres fiables que nous avons consultés, la mise en question de la vérité sur la succession de Sayri Thupa à la mort de son père, Manko Inka, et la possibilité que le jeune auki ait simulé cette fonction par le truchement d'un artifice politique de la Cour de Vilcabamba. Se publican en este artículo las declaraciones de tres testigos presenciales de los sucesos de 1533 a 1558, es decir desde la entrada de Manko Inka Yupanki al Cusco, con sus aliados españoles, hasta la 'salida' del auki Sayri Thupa, -uno de sus hijos- en 1558, ante la presión militar y diplomática del Marqués de Cañete. Estos testimonios directos, confrontados con otros coetáneos, constituyen nuevos e inéditos elementos de juicio para aclarar la versión de las fuentes hispanas de estos años y para conocer casi en detalle las negociaciones del virrey Marqués de Cañete, que se proponía acabar pacíficamente con la resistencia heroica de Vilcabamba, y la cautela Inca para burlar este propósito y evitar los peligros de una guerra contra este último reducto del Tawantinsuyo

  5. Site-specific, insertional inactivation of incA in Chlamydia trachomatis using a group II intron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayla M Johnson

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular bacterial pathogen that has until more recently remained recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. However, the field still remains hindered by the absence of tools to create selectable, targeted chromosomal mutations. Previous work with mobile group II introns demonstrated that they can be retargeted by altering DNA sequences within the intron's substrate recognition region to create site-specific gene insertions. This platform (marketed as TargeTron™, Sigma has been successfully employed in a variety of bacteria. We subsequently modified TargeTron™ for use in C. trachomatis and as proof of principle used our system to insertionally inactivate incA, a chromosomal gene encoding a protein required for homotypic fusion of chlamydial inclusions. C. trachomatis incA::GII(bla mutants were selected with ampicillin and plaque purified clones were then isolated for genotypic and phenotypic analysis. PCR, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing verified proper GII(bla insertion, while continuous passaging in the absence of selection demonstrated that the insertion was stable. As seen with naturally occurring IncA(- mutants, light and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of non-fusogenic inclusions in cells infected with the incA::GII(bla mutants at a multiplicity of infection greater than one. Lack of IncA production by mutant clones was further confirmed by Western blotting. Ultimately, the ease of retargeting the intron, ability to select for mutants, and intron stability in the absence of selection makes this method a powerful addition to the growing chlamydial molecular toolbox.

  6. Hydrological application of the INCA model with varying spatial resolution and nitrogen dynamics in a northern river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rankinen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As a first step in applying the Integrated Nitrogen model for CAtchments (INCA to the Simojoki river basin (3160 km2, this paper focuses on calibration of the hydrological part of the model and nitrogen (N dynamics in the river during the 1980s and 1990s. The model application utilised the GIS land-use and forest classification of Finland together with a recent forest inventory based on remote sensing. In the INCA model, the Hydrologically Effective Rainfall (HER is used to drive the water flow and N fluxes through the catchment system. HER was derived from the Watershed Simulation and Forecast System (WSFS. The basic component of the WSFS is a conceptual hydrological model which simulates runoff using precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and temperature data as inputs. Spatially uniform, lumped input data were calculated for the whole river basin and spatially semi-distributed input data were calculated for each of the nine sub-basins. When comparing discharges simulated by the INCA model with observed values, a better fit was obtained with the semi-distributed data than with the spatially uniform data (R2 0.78 v. 0.70 at Hosionkoski and 0.88 v. 0.78 at the river outlet. The timing of flow peaks was simulated rather well with both approaches, although the semi-distributed input data gave a more realistic simulation of low flow periods and the magnitude of spring flow peaks. The river basin has a relatively closed N cycle with low input and output fluxes of inorganic N. During 1982-2000, the average total N flux to the sea was 715 tonnes yr–1, of which 6% was NH4-N, 14% NO3-N, and 80% organic N. Annual variation in river flow and the concentrations of major N fractions in river water, and factors affecting this variation are discussed. Keywords: northern river basin, nitrogen, forest management, hydrology, dynamic modelling, semi-distributed modelling

  7. Heliosheath ENA images by Cassini/INCA and in-situ hot plasma ion measurements by Voyagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios; Roelof, Edmond; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Dialynas, Konstantinos

    2016-07-01

    The advent of Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging, (the result of charge-exchange with energetic ions), has revealed the global nature of the heliosheath (HS) at both high ( > 5 keV, Cassini from 10 AU) and low (INCA (Ion and Neutral CAmera) since 2003 with a full image available since 2009, when IBEX global imaging observations also became available. The presence of the two Voyagers measuring ions locally in the HS contemporaneously with INCA global imaging through ENA in overlapping energy bands provides a powerful tool for examining the spatial, temporal, and spectral evolution of the source hot plasma ions and the global variability of the neutral component. Some of the key findings from the Voyagers and INCA measurements are as follows: (a) The HS contains a hot plasma population that carries a substantial part (30-50%) of the total pressure at E > 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically > 10. (b) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is ˜~ 30 AU, but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2 currently travels. (c) The ENA intensities at E > 5 keV exhibit a correlation with the solar cycle (SC) over the period 2003 to 2014, with minimum intensities in the anti-nose direction observed ˜~ 1.5 yrs after solar minimum followed by a recovery thereafter, and (d) The in situ ion measurements at V2 within the HS also show a similar SC dependence. The totality of the observations, together with the near-contemporaneous variability in intensities of ions in situ in the HS and ENA in the inner heliosphere suggests that the source of such emissions at E > 5 keV must reside in the HS. These observations constrain the shape of the HS and suggest configurations that are at some variance with current models.

  8. Site-specific, insertional inactivation of incA in Chlamydia trachomatis using a group II intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cayla M; Fisher, Derek J

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular bacterial pathogen that has until more recently remained recalcitrant to genetic manipulation. However, the field still remains hindered by the absence of tools to create selectable, targeted chromosomal mutations. Previous work with mobile group II introns demonstrated that they can be retargeted by altering DNA sequences within the intron's substrate recognition region to create site-specific gene insertions. This platform (marketed as TargeTron™, Sigma) has been successfully employed in a variety of bacteria. We subsequently modified TargeTron™ for use in C. trachomatis and as proof of principle used our system to insertionally inactivate incA, a chromosomal gene encoding a protein required for homotypic fusion of chlamydial inclusions. C. trachomatis incA::GII(bla) mutants were selected with ampicillin and plaque purified clones were then isolated for genotypic and phenotypic analysis. PCR, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing verified proper GII(bla) insertion, while continuous passaging in the absence of selection demonstrated that the insertion was stable. As seen with naturally occurring IncA(-) mutants, light and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of non-fusogenic inclusions in cells infected with the incA::GII(bla) mutants at a multiplicity of infection greater than one. Lack of IncA production by mutant clones was further confirmed by Western blotting. Ultimately, the ease of retargeting the intron, ability to select for mutants, and intron stability in the absence of selection makes this method a powerful addition to the growing chlamydial molecular toolbox.

  9. Host adaptation of Chlamydia pecorum towards low virulence evident in co-evolution of the ompA, incA, and ORF663 Loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Yousef Mohamad

    Full Text Available Chlamydia (C. pecorum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, may cause severe diseases in ruminants, swine and koalas, although asymptomatic infections are the norm. Recently, we identified genetic polymorphisms in the ompA, incA and ORF663 genes that potentially differentiate between high-virulence C. pecorum isolates from diseased animals and low-virulence isolates from asymptomatic animals. Here, we expand these findings by including additional ruminant, swine, and koala strains. Coding tandem repeats (CTRs at the incA locus encoded a variable number of repeats of APA or AGA amino acid motifs. Addition of any non-APA/AGA repeat motif, such as APEVPA, APAVPA, APE, or APAPE, associated with low virulence (P<10-4, as did a high number of amino acids in all incA CTRs (P = 0.0028. In ORF663, high numbers of 15-mer CTRs correlated with low virulence (P = 0.0001. Correction for ompA phylogram position in ORF663 and incA abolished the correlation between genetic changes and virulence, demonstrating co-evolution of ompA, incA, and ORF663 towards low virulence. Pairwise divergence of ompA, incA, and ORF663 among isolates from healthy animals was significantly higher than among strains isolated from diseased animals (P≤10-5, confirming the longer evolutionary path traversed by low-virulence strains. All three markers combined identified 43 unique strains and 4 pairs of identical strains among all 57 isolates tested, demonstrating the suitability of these markers for epidemiological investigations.

  10. Detecting Immune System Response Proteins in a 500 Year-old Inca Mummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corthals, A.; Davalos, L.; Martin, D.W.; Rieger, R.; Chen, E.I.; Koller, A.

    2011-01-01

    Disease detection in ancient human samples currently relies on genomic-based assays, which are error prone due to contamination and cannot distinguish between active and latent pathogenic infection. On the other hand, protein-based assays such as global protein profiling offer complementary alternatives for the pathological diagnosis of archeological specimen. The discovery of three Inca mummies in 1998, perfectly preserved in the permafrost of the high Andes, allowed us to analyze mummy samples by protein-based and genomic-based assay. A buccal swab from one of the 500 year old mummy was analyzed by shotgun proteomics to detect the protein profile. Among the identified proteins, we found a signature of proteins indicating an immune response to a bacterial infection at the time of the mummy's death. Based on the external visible symptoms and the gamut of immune response proteins obtained from the mouth swab, we suspected that the pulmonary infection was caused by Mycobacterium. PCR assay followed by direct sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium sp. in the mouth swab. Until now, immunoassays have been the only way to detect an active immune response and infer infection in historical samples, but these were plagued by low specificity and sensitivity. However, we demonstrate here the feasibility of incorporating global protein profiling in the diagnosis of infection from archeological samples. Protein signatures obtained from these samples could be extremely useful in determining the status of infection while genomic-based assays can be used to detect the identity of the pathogen.

  11. Exploring pain in the Andes--learning from the Quichua (Inca) people experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incayawar, Mario; Saucier, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    There is a mounting recognition that culture profoundly shapes human pain experience. The 28 million indigenous people of the Andes in South America, mainly the Quichua (Inca) people, share a distinctive culture. However, little is known about their pain experience and suffering. The aim of the present study was to explore how Quichua adults perceive, describe, and cope with the pain. An exploratory qualitative/descriptive study was conducted with a convenience sample of 40 Quichua adults, including 15 women and 25 men, in the Northern Highlands of Ecuador. Data were collected through structured interviews of approximately 3 h, using a Quichua questionnaire called "The Nature of Pain" [Nanay Jahua Tapuicuna]. The interviews covered the notions of causation of pain, vulnerability to pain, responses to pain, aggravating factors, frequent locations of pain, types of pain, duration, characteristics of pain, control of pain, pathways to care, and preventive measures of pain. Basic descriptive analyses were performed. The Quichuas' pain experience is complex and their strategies to cope with it are sophisticated. According to the Quichuas, emotions, life events, co-morbid conditions, and spirits, among others factors play an important role in the origin, diagnosis, and treatment of pain. They strongly embrace biomedicine and physicians as well as Quichua traditional medicine and traditional healers. Family members and neighbors are also valuable sources of health care and pain control. The pathway to pain care that the Quichua people prefer is inclusive and pluralistic. The knowledge of the Quichua ethnographic "emic" details of their belief system and coping strategies to control pain are clinically useful not only for the health professional working in the Andes, some Quichua cultural characteristics related to pain could be useful to the culturally competent health practitioner who is making efforts to provide high-quality medical care in rural and multicultural

  12. The helical tomo-therapy: appeal to projects Inca 2005 first assessment of the three equipped establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zefkili, S.; Francois, P.; Giraud, P.; Caron, J.; Dejean, C.; Kantor, G.; Munos, C.; Mahe, M.A.; Lisbona, A.

    2007-01-01

    The centers of fight against cancer ( C.L.C.C.) Institute Curie of Paris, Institute Bergonie of Bordeaux, Center Rene Gauducheau of Nantes have got to exploit the helical radiotherapy (tomo-therapy) in the frame of an appeal to projects launched in 2005 by the National Institute of cancer (I.n.c.a.) in relation with the innovating techniques in radiotherapy and presenting one of the measures of the Cancer plan 2003-2007. This communication constitutes a step report in the installation and use of equipments. (N.C.)

  13. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 2. Annex 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)

  14. Estrategias políticas y relaciones conyugales. El comportamiento de incas y españoles en Huaylas en la primera mitad del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available STRATÉGIES POLITIQUES ET RELATIONS CONJUGALES. COMPORTEMENT INCA ET ESPAGNOL À HUAYLAS PENDANT LA PREMIÈRE MOITIÉ DU XVIE SIÈCLE. Cette recherche tâche d’établir les relations politiques et régionales qui existaient dans la province de Huaylas à travers les relations conjugales, d’abord du temps de l’Inca Huayna Capac et ensuite avec Francisco Pizarro. De même que l’Inca favorisait ses femmes - Contarguacho avec la moitié de Ananguaylas et Añas Collque avec celle de Luringuaylas - Pizarro donna la parcialidad de sa femme à sa fille doña Francisca à titre d’encomienda. Bien des années après, les procès juridiques cherchèrent à établir un rapport intéréssé entre les concessions indigènes et les espagnoles. Enfin, l’article offre des données et des perspectives nouvelles sur les structures internes de la province de Huaylas, ses concessions, et sa première histoire coloniale, sur doña Inés Huaylas et Paullu Inca, ses deux enfants les plus engagés dans l’appui à la conquête espagnole. El estudio busca comprender las relaciones políticas establecidas en la provincia de Huaylas entre el poder central y el regional a través del vínculo conyugal, tanto por el Inca Huayna Cápac, en tiempos prehispánicos, como por el conquistador Francisco Pizarro. Así como el Inca favoreció a sus mujeres -Contarguacho en la parcialidad de Ananguaylas y Añas Collque en la de Luringuaylas- Pizarro otorgó la parcialidad de su mujer en encomienda a su hija doña Francisca. Años después, en los procesos judiciales se pretende efectuar un paralelismo interesado entre las concesiones indígena e hispana. Por último, el artículo proporciona nuevos datos y perspectivas sobre la estructura interna de la provincia de Huaylas, su concesión e historia colonial temprana y sobre doña Inés Huaylas y Paullu Inca, sus dos hijos más comprometidos con el apoyo a la conquista española. POLITICAL STRATEGIES AND MATRIMONIAL RELATION

  15. Qoyllur Rit'i, an Inca fiesta of the Pleiades: reflections on time and space in the andean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available - La fiesta de Qoyllur Rit'i, que se presenta todos los años para el tiempo de Corpus Christi en un valle aislado cerca del Cusco, es todavía dominada por creencias indígenas. En este trabajo se intenta demostrar que la fiesta es de origen precolombino y que originalmente se celebraba el tránsito de un año al próximo, del mundo pasado al presente. Este concepto de tránsito es luego examinado en el contexto de las ideas del espacio y tiempo, tanto de los Incas como de la actualidad andina. The fiesta of Qoyllur Rit'i, held every year at Corpus Christi in an isolated valley near Cusco, is still dominated by indigenous beliefs. In this paper it is suggested that the fiesta is actually pre-Columbian in origin and that it was originally intended as a celebration of the transition form one year to the next, from the past world to the present. This concept of transition is then placed within the context of both Inca and present-day Andean ideas of time and space.

  16. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: analysis of 146 cases of the center of reference of the National Cancer Institute--INCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Eduardo; Gonçalves, Rinaldo; Valadão, Marcus; Vilhena, Bruno; Herchenhorn, Daniel; Romano, Sergio; Ferreira, Maria Aparecida; Ferreira, Carlos Gil; Ramos, Cintia de Araujo; de Jesus, José Paulo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment of GIST in INCA. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all cases of GIST treated at INCA in the period from 1997 to 2009. We analyzed 146 patients with a mean age of 44.5 years and female predominance. The main symptom was abdominal pain. We observed the occurrence of a second primary tumor in 22% of cases and 92% of the immunohistochemistry exams were positive for CD117. The most frequent location was in the stomach and the high-risk group was predominant. Surgery was considered R0 (extensive) in 70% of the cases and the main sites of metastases were liver and peritoneum. Overall survival in two and five years was, respectively, 86% and 59%. There was a significant difference between overall survival (p = 0.29) of the high-risk group versus the other. Our patients presented mainly in the form of high-risk disease, with obvious impact on survival. The use of imatinib improved survival of patients with recurrent and metastatic disease. We should study its use in the setting of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy to improve results of the high risk group. The creation of reference centers is a need for the study of rare diseases.

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued in...

  18. 75 FR 1 - Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    .... APHIS-2008-0126] RIN 0579-AC93 Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... to allow the importation of Hass avocados from Peru into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, Hass avocados from Peru will have to be produced in accordance with a systems approach...

  19. Geologic continuous casting below continental and deep-sea detachment faults and at the striated extrusion of Sacsayhuaman, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    In the common type of industrial continuous casting, partially molten metal is extruded from a vessel through a shaped orifice called a mold in which the metal assumes the cross-sectional form of the mold as it cools and solidifies. Continuous casting can be sustained as long as molten metal is supplied and thermal conditions are maintained. I propose that a similar process produced parallel sets of grooves in three geologic settings, as follows: (1) corrugated metamorphic core complexes where mylonized mid-crustal rocks were exhumed by movement along low-angle normal faults known as detachment faults; (2) corrugated submarine surfaces where ultramafic and mafic rocks were exhumed by normal faulting within oceanic spreading centers; and (3) striated magma extrusions exemplified by the famous grooved outcrops at the Inca fortress of Sacsayhuaman in Peru. In each case, rocks inferred to have overlain the corrugated surface during corrugation genesis molded and shaped a plastic to partially molten rock mass as it was extruded from a moderate- to high-temperature reservoir.

  20. An integrated geodetic and seismic study of the Cusco Fault system in the Cusco Region-Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Tavera, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Cusco Fault system is composed by six main faults (Zurite, Tamboray, Qoricocha, Tambomachay, Pachatusan, and Urcos) extending in a NW-SE direction over the Cusco Region in southeastern Peru. From these, the Tambomachay is a normal fault of 20 km length, strikes N120°E and bounds a basin filled with quaternary lacustrine and fluvial deposits. Given its 5 km distance to Cusco, an historical and Inca's archeological landmark, it represents a great seismic hazard for its more than 350,000 inhabitants. The Tambomachay fault as well as the other secondary faults have been a source of significant seismic activity since historical times being the more damaging ones the Cusco earthquakes of 1650, 1950 and more recently April 1986 (M 5.8). Previous geological studies indicate that at the beginning of the Quaternary the fault showed a transcurrent mechanism leading to the formation of the Cusco basin. However, nowadays its mechanism is normal fault and scarps up to 22m can be observed. We report the current dynamics of the Tambomachay fault and secondary faults based on seismic activity imaged by a network of 29 broadband stations deployed in the Cusco Region as well as the deformation field inferred from GPS survey measurements carried out between 2014 and 2016.

  1. Illustrated review of the leaf-mining Nepticulidae of the central Andes (Peru and Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Karsholt, Ole; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2017-04-24

    We review forty-five species of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) based on an analysis of samples collected in the central Andean region of Peru and Bolivia. Thirteen of these species are new to science, and are named and described here: Stigmella paracosma Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. expressa Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. acalyphae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lepida Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. misera Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. inca Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. eiffeli Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. arequipica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. coronaria Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. azulella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sparsella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., Manoneura forcipis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and Acalyptris murex Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. Some of the central Andean species are recorded here as leaf-miners on Euphorbiaceae (Acalypha), Fabaceae (Collaea), Rosaceae (Polylepis), Malvaceae (Sida), Calceolariaceae (Calceolaria), Lamiaceae (Clinopodium), and Asteraceae (Ageratina and Trixis). We create eleven new species groups based on morphological characters designated in Stigmella and one in Acalyptris. A pictorial key to the species groups and distribution maps are provided. All new species are illustrated with 150 photographs and drawings of the adults and genitalia, and, where known and/or available, photographs of host-plants and leaf-mines.

  2. Occupational Safety and Health in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ismael; Huerta-Mercado, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Peru is a country located on the Pacific coast of South America with a population of more than 30 million inhabitants. In the past 10 years, Peru has had a steady economic growth. Peru is predominantly an extractive industry country, but the manufacturing and construction sectors are booming. It is in this context that regulations have been implemented to protect the safety and health of workers. One of the most important regulations is the Law on Safety and Health at Work, which has been recently promulgated. Regulations are complemented by training and education in occupational safety and health. The measures are yet to be fully implemented thus a positive effect in reducing accidents and occupational diseases at work has not yet been seen. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  4. Peru seeking buyer for productive offshore tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori

  5. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  6. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru's incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report's presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru's petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu's budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described

  7. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-07

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru`s incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report`s presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru`s petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu`s budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described.

  8. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  9. Structure and Evolution of the Central Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L.; Pfiffner, O. A.

    2009-04-01

    Three major units make up the Andes in Peru: (1) The Western Cordillera consists of the Cretaceous Coastal Batholith intruding Jurassic to Cretaceous volcaniclastics (Casma group) in the west, and a fold-and-thrust belt of Mesozoic sediments in the east. Eocene and Miocene volcanics (Calipuy group and equivalents) overly all of these rock types. (2) The Central Highland contains a folded Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary sequence overlain by thick Quaternary deposits. A major fault puts Neoproterozoic basement rocks of the Eastern Cordillera next to these units. (3) In the Eastern Cordillera, Late Paleozoic clastic successions unconformably overly folded Early Paleozoic sediments and a Neoproterozoic basement in the east. Permian (locally Triassic) granitoids intruded these units and were affected by folding and thrusting. In the core of the Eastern Cordillera, Early Cretaceous overly Early or Late Paleozoic strata. To the west, a thrust belt of Paleozoic to Cenozoic strata forms the transition to the foreland of the Brasilian shield. The most external part of this thrust belt involves Pliocene sediments and is referred to as Subandine zone. The Coastal Batholith is internally undeformed. The adjacent fold-and-thrust belt to the east is characterized by tight, nearly isoclinal upright folds with amplitudes of up to 1000 m. At the surface only Cretaceous rocks are observed. Using balancing techniques, a detachment horizon at the base of the Lowermost Cretaceous (Goyallarisquizga group - Oyon Formation) can be proposed. Further east, folds are more open, asymmetric and east verging, Jurassic sediments appear in the cores of the anticlines. The abrupt change in style from upright tight folding in the west to more open folding in the east is explained by a primary difference in the depositional sequence, most probably associated with synsedimentary faulting. The overlying volcanics of the Calipuy group and equivalents are, in turn, only slightly folded. In the Northern

  10. Destabilization of IncA and IncC plasmids by SGI1 and SGI2 type Salmonella genomic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hamidian, Mohammad; Ambrose, Stephanie J; Hall, Ruth M

    Both the Salmonella genomic islands (SGI) and the conjugative IncC plasmids are known to contribute substantially to the acquisition of resistance to multiple antibiotics, and plasmids in the A/C group are known to mobilize the Salmonella genomic island SGI1, which also carries multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmid pRMH760 (IncC; A/C 2 ) was shown to mobilize SGI1 variants SGI1-I, SGI1-F, SGI1-K and SGI2 from Salmonella enterica to Escherichia coli where it was integrated at the preferred location, at the end of the trmE (thdF) gene. The plasmid was transferred at a similar frequency. However, we observed that co-transfer of the SGI and the plasmid was rarer. In E. coli to E. coli transfer, the frequency of transfer of the IncC plasmid pRMH760 was at least 1000-fold lower when the donor carried SGI1-I or SGI1-K, indicating that the SGI suppresses transfer of the plasmid. In addition, pRMH760 was rapidly lost from both E. coli and S. enterica strains that also carried SGI1-I, SGI1-F or SGI2. However, plasmid loss was not seen when the SGI1 variant was SGI1-K, which lacks two segments of the SGI1 backbone. The complete sequence of the SGI1-I and SGI1-F were determined and SGI1-K also carries two single base substitutions relative to SGI1-I. The IncA (A/C 1 ) plasmid RA1 was also shown to mobilize SGI2-A and though there are significant differences between the backbones of IncA and IncC plasmids, RA1 was also rapidly lost when SGI2-A was present in the same cell. We conclude that there are multiple interactions, both cooperative and antagonistic, between an IncA or IncC plasmid and the SGI1 and SGI2 family genomic islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A three-coordinate system (ecliptic, galactic, ISMF) spectral analysis of heliospheric ENA emissions using CASSINI/INCA measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialynas, K.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we use all-sky energy-resolved energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps obtained by the Ion and Neutral CAmera (INCA) instrument on board Cassini that correspond to the time period from 2003 to 2009, in four discrete energy passbands (∼5.4 to ∼55 keV), to investigate the geometrical characteristics of the belt (a broad band of emission in the sky). The heliospheric ENA emissions are mapped in three different coordinate systems (ecliptic, Galactic, and interstellar magnetic field (ISMF)), and spectral analyses are performed to further examine the belt's possible energy dependence. Our conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) the high flux ENA belt identified in the energy range of 8-42 keV is moderately well organized in Galactic coordinates, as the ENA minima appear in the vicinity of the north and south Galactic poles; (2) using minimization criteria ( B · R ∼ 0), the deviation of the ENA emissions from the equator is effectively minimized in a rotated frame, which we interpret as ISMF, where its north pole points toward 190° ecliptic longitude and 15° ecliptic latitude; (3) ENA spectra show a power-law form in energy that can be fitted with a single function presenting higher spectral slopes in the belt region and lower outside (3.4 < γ < 4.4); (4) the spectra are almost indistinguishable between the tail and the nose regions, i.e., no noticeable asymmetry is observed; (5) the consistency of the ENA distributions as a function of latitude among the different INCA channels indicates that the morphology of the belt (peak, width, and structure) is nearly energy independent from 8 keV to 30 keV (minor deviations start to appear at >35 keV); and (6) in the low count rate regions, the long-term ENA count rate profiles do not match the measured cosmic ray profiles, indicating that even the minimum ENA emissions detected by INCA are foreground ENAs.

  12. On the source of the 5-55 keV Heliosphere ENAs measured with Cassini/INCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Konstantinos; Roelof, Edmond; Mitchell, Donald; Krimigis, Stamatios; Decker, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) in situ measurements from V1 and V2 have revealed a reservoir of ions and electrons that constitute the heliosheath (HS) after crossing the termination shock (TS) 35deg north and 32deg south of the ecliptic plane at 94 and 84 astronomical units (1 AU= 1.5 x10 ^{8} km), respectively. The outer Heliosphere boundary, the Heliopause (HP), has now been determined in the direction of V1 to be at ˜122 AU. The in situ measurements by each Voyager were placed in a global context by remote sensing images using ENA obtained with the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) onboard Cassini orbiting Saturn. The ENA images have revealed a 5.2-55 keV hydrogen (H) ENA region (Belt) that loops through the celestial sphere and contributes to balancing the pressure of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). Here we address one of the remaining and most important questions: Where do the 5-55 keV ENAs that INCA measures come from? We analyzed INCA all-sky maps from 2003 to 2015 and compare the solar cycle (SC) variation of the ENAs in both the nose (upstream) and anti-nose (downstream) directions with the intensities of > 30 keV ions (source of ENA through charge exchange-CE with H) measured in-situ by V1 and V2, in overlapping energy bands ˜30-55 keV. ENA intensities decrease during the declining phase of SC23 by ˜x3 from 2003 to 2011 but recover through 2014 (SC24); similarly, V1 and V2 ion intensities also decrease and then recover through 2014. The similarity of time profiles of remotely sensed ENA and locally measured ions are consistent with (a) ENA originating in the HS, and (b) the global HS responding promptly (within ˜1-1.5 years) to outward-propagating solar wind changes throughout the SC. Further, recovery of the Belt during SC24 precedes asymmetrically from south to north in the general direction of the nose. This may be related to the non-symmetric evolution of solar coronal holes during SC recovery.

  13. Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Northeastern Peru, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshey, Brett M.; Morrison, Amy C.; Cruz, Cristhopher; Rocha, Claudio; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Guevara, Carolina; Camacho, Daria E.; Alava, Araceli; Madrid, César; Beingolea, Luis; Suarez, Víctor; Comach, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) emerged in northeastern Peru, causing a large outbreak and displacing DENV-3, which had predominated for the previous 6 years. Phylogenetic analysis of 2008 and 2009 isolates support their inclusion into DENV-4 genotype II, forming a lineage distinct from strains that had previously circulated in the region. PMID:19891873

  14. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  15. Megafauna and man from ayacucho, highland peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macneish, R S; Berger, R; Protscha, R

    1970-05-22

    Crude unifacial tools, choppers, and a burin have been uncovered in association with megafauna in a buried stratum that was radiocarbon dated at 12,200 B.C. in a cave in highland Peru. The tool types, megafauna, and date are significant with regard to the problem of the antiquity of man and his culture in the New World.

  16. Fighting malaria in Northern Peru | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... When large-scale irrigation came to Peru's northern coast in the 1960s and 1970s, it brought with it an explosion in agriculture — and one of the world's deadliest diseases. An IDRC-funded project is changing irrigation practices to help turn the tide against malaria​. This article is part of an ongoing series ...

  17. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...

  18. Isolation, purification, and biochemical characterization of a novel water soluble protein from Inca peanut (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Hamaker, Bruce R; Sze-Tao, Kar Wai Clara; Venkatachalam, Mahesh

    2002-08-14

    A water soluble storage albumin from Inca peanut (IPA) accounted for approximately 25% (w/w) of defatted seed flour weight, representing 31% of the total seed protein. IPA is a 3S storage protein composed of two glycosylated polypeptides, with estimated molecular weights (MW) of 32800 and 34800 Da, respectively. IPA has an estimated sugar content of 4.8% +/- 0.92% (n = 6). IPA is a basic protein (pI of approximately 9.4) and contains all of the essential amino acids in adequate amounts when compared to the FAO/WHO recommended pattern for a human adult. The tryptophan content of IPA is unusually high (44 mg/g of protein), whereas the phenylalanine content is low (9 mg/g of protein). IPA is a highly digestible protein in vitro.

  19. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Oriol, L.; Chartier, F.; Mutti, P.; AlMahamid, I.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The 232 Th, 237 Np, 241 Am, and 244 Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  20. Pilgrims past and present: the ritual landscape of Raqchi, southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1533 the Spanish overthrew the Inka1 empire that then dominated the Andean region and much of the west coast of South America. Most tourists going to Peru visit Cuzco and Machu Pichu, but few see any of the other spectacular Ink a ruins, such as the mythical and ritual site at Raqchi. There research is focusing on the site itself and on the long-term history of the Vilcanota Valley, including the changes wrought by the Spanish invasion. The project is also working with the local community to promote sustainable tourism.

  1. Evidence of neurofibromatosis type 1 in a multi-morbid Inca child mummy: A paleoradiological investigation using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Wittig, Holger; Zesch, Stephanie; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Blache, Sandra; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Hotz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an Inca bundle was examined using computed tomography (CT). The primary aim was to determine the preservation status of bony and soft tissues, the sex, the age at the time of death, possible indicators for disease or even the cause of death, as well as the kind of mummification. A secondary aim was to obtain a brief overview of the wrapping in order to gain additional information on the cultural background. The bundle belongs to the Museum of Cultures in Basel, Switzerland, and was bought in Munich, Germany, in 1921. Radiocarbon dating of the superficial textile yielded a calibrated age between 1480 and 1650 AD. The mummy was investigated using multi-slice CT with slice thickness of 0.75 mm and 110 kilovolt. For standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation, a recently developed checklist was applied. CT revealed the mummy of a seven to nine year old boy with superior preservation of bony and soft tissues allowing detailed assessment. Indicators of neurofibromatosis type 1 (paravertebral and cutaneous neurofibromas, a breast neurofibroma, sphenoid wing dysplasia), Chagas disease (dilatation of the esophagus, stomach, rectum, and large amounts of feces), and lung infection (pleural adherence, calcifications), probably due to tuberculosis, were found. Furthermore, signs of peri-mortem violence (transection of the chest and a defect in the abdominal wall) were detected. CT images revealed a carefully performed wrapping. CT examination of the Inca bundle proved to be an important non-destructive examination method. Standardized assessment, especially of the soft tissue structures, allowed for diagnoses of several diseases, indicating a multi-morbid child at the time of death. The careful wrapping pointed to a ceremonial burial. Within the cultural background, the signs of fatal violence were discussed as a possible result of war, murder, accident, or human sacrifice.

  2. Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ∼840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ∼640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (∼1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole.

  3. Testing seasonal and long-term controls of streamwater DOC using empirical and process-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futter, Martyn N; de Wit, Heleen A

    2008-12-15

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters are increasing across Europe and parts of North America. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these increases including reductions in acid deposition, change in frequency of winter storms and changes in temperature and precipitation patterns. We used two modelling approaches to identify the mechanisms responsible for changing surface water DOC concentrations. Empirical regression analysis and INCA-C, a process-based model of stream-water DOC, were used to simulate long-term (1986--2003) patterns in stream water DOC concentrations in a small boreal stream. Both modelling approaches successfully simulated seasonal and inter-annual patterns in DOC concentration. In both models, seasonal patterns of DOC concentration were controlled by hydrology and inter-annual patterns were explained by climatic variation. There was a non-linear relationship between warmer summer temperatures and INCA-C predicted DOC. Only the empirical model was able to satisfactorily simulate the observed long-term increase in DOC. The observed long-term trends in DOC are likely to be driven by in-soil processes controlled by SO4(2-) and Cl(-) deposition, and to a lesser extent by temperature-controlled processes. Given the projected changes in climate and deposition, future modelling and experimental research should focus on the possible effects of soil temperature and moisture on organic carbon production, sorption and desorption rates, and chemical controls on organic matter solubility.

  4. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae from Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M.Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S.Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S.Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M.Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.

  5. Peru Subduction Zone Seismic Experiment (PeruSZE): Preliminary Results From a Seismic Network Between Mollendo and Lake Titicaca, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, R.; Stubailo, I.; Skinner, S.; Phillips, K.; Foote, E.; Lukac, M.; Aguilar, V.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Husker, A.; Clayton, R.; Davis, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    This work describes preliminary results from a 50 station broadband seismic network recently installed from the coast to the high Andes in Peru. UCLA's Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) and Caltech's Tectonic Observatory are collaborating with the IRD (French L'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement) and the Institute of Geophysics, in Lima Peru in a broadband seismic experiment that will study the transition from steep to shallow slab subduction. The currently installed line has stations located above the steep subduction zone at a spacing of about 6 km. In 2009 we plan to install a line of 50 stations north from this line along the crest of the Andes, crossing the transition from steep to shallow subduction. A further line from the end of that line back to the coast, completing a U shaped array, is in the planning phase. The network is wirelessly linked using multi-hop network software designed by computer scientists in CENS in which data is transmitted from station to station, and collected at Internet drops, from where it is transmitted over the Internet to CENS each night. The instrument installation in Peru is almost finished and we have been receiving data daily from 10 stations (out of total 50) since June 2008. The rest are recording on-site while the RF network is being completed. The software system provides dynamic link quality based routing, reliable data delivery, and a disruption tolerant shell interface for managing the system from UCLA without the need to travel to Peru. The near real-time data delivery also allows immediate detection of any problems at the sites. We are building a seismic data and GPS quality control toolset that would greatly minimize the station's downtime by alerting the users of any possible problems.

  6. Innovation, Research and Development, and Productivity: Case Studies from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Juana Kuramoto

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes quantitative findings on the innovative behavior of firms in the production chains of pisco and shoe manufacture in Peru, which are served by the network of Technological Innovation Centers (CITEs), the most important technology policy instrument available in Peru. These two chains, in low and medium-technology industries, are representative of Peru’s manufacturing sector. Of particular interest is the role of technical standards as a means of technological diffusion, whic...

  7. Innovation, R&D and Productivity: Case Studies from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Juana R. Kuramoto

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes quantitative findings on the innovative behavior of firms in the production chains of pisco and shoe manufacture in Peru, which are served by the network of Technological Innovation Centers (CITEs), the most important technology policy instrument available in Peru. These two chains, in low and medium-technology industries, are representative of Peru's manufacturing sector. Of particular interest is the role of technical standards as a means of technological diffusion, whic...

  8. A snapshot of training practices in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Hernández Pozas, Ph.D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizations need well trained employees in order to maintain a competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to describe current training practices in Peru and to provide recommendations for improving organizational performance. This paper also aims to set priorities for future research work. Human capital theory and contributions on need assessment, and training planning, implementation and evaluation served as theoretical framework. This is a cross-sectional, exploratory study that used information from surveys conducted in 24 Peru-vian companies. The findings reveal a strong interest in training, particularly with regard to the improvement of competencies, preference for face-to-face training, and the use of reaction evaluation methods. The recommendations include, among others, improving the provisions for internal support, policies, technology, behavioral evaluation, and resources.

  9. [Framework for the strengthening of health information systems in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioso, Walter H; Espinoza-Portilla, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present the essential components and policies that are most relevant regarding the conceptual framework to strengthen the health information systems in Peru. The article also presents the main policies, actions and strategies made in the field of electronic health in Peru that are most significant. The health information systems in Peru play a key role and are expected to achieve an integrated and interoperable information system. This will allow health information to be complete, efficient, of good quality and available in a timely manner to achieve better quality of life for people and allow meaningful modernization of public health in the context of health reform in Peru.

  10. Genealogía de un origen: Túbal, el falsario y la Atlántida en la Historia de los Incas de Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Díaz, Soledad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article proposes a political reading of two texts that are connected to each other: the History of the Incas by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa and the Antiquitatum Variarum by Annio de Viterbo, a collection of spurious texts from the end of the 15th century. Doing a synthesis between the Antiquitatum and the platonic myth of Atlantis, Sarmiento argued that the Indians were descendants of Túbal lineage, the grandson of Noah and founder of the Hispanic monarchy which had come to the Indies after the Universal Flood. It is proposed that the History of the Incas as well as the Antiquitatum were part of an official current of imperial representation of the past promoted by the Catholic Kings, that was projected to Spanish and Indies chronicles during the 16th century.El presente artículo propone una lectura política de dos libros vinculados entre sí: la Historia de los Incas de Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa y la Antiquitatum Variarum de Annio de Viterbo, una colección de textos espurios de fines del siglo XV. Haciendo una síntesis entre la Antiquitatum y el mito platónico de la Atlántida, Sarmiento argumentó que los indios descendían de la estirpe de Túbal, el nieto de Noé y fundador de la monarquía hispánica, que había llegado a las Indias después del Diluvio Universal. Se propone que tanto la Historia de los Incas como la Antiquitatum formaron parte de una corriente oficial de representación del pasado de corte imperial promovida por los Reyes Católicos, que se proyectó a las crónicas hispanas y a las de Indias en el transcurso del siglo XVI.

  11. Are our dynamic water quality models too complex? A comparison of a new parsimonious phosphorus model, SimplyP, and INCA-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Blake, L. A.; Sample, J. E.; Wade, A. J.; Helliwell, R. C.; Skeffington, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    Catchment-scale water quality models are increasingly popular tools for exploring the potential effects of land management, land use change and climate change on water quality. However, the dynamic, catchment-scale nutrient models in common usage are complex, with many uncertain parameters requiring calibration, limiting their usability and robustness. A key question is whether this complexity is justified. To explore this, we developed a parsimonious phosphorus model, SimplyP, incorporating a rainfall-runoff model and a biogeochemical model able to simulate daily streamflow, suspended sediment, and particulate and dissolved phosphorus dynamics. The model's complexity was compared to one popular nutrient model, INCA-P, and the performance of the two models was compared in a small rural catchment in northeast Scotland. For three land use classes, less than six SimplyP parameters must be determined through calibration, the rest may be based on measurements, while INCA-P has around 40 unmeasurable parameters. Despite substantially simpler process-representation, SimplyP performed comparably to INCA-P in both calibration and validation and produced similar long-term projections in response to changes in land management. Results support the hypothesis that INCA-P is overly complex for the study catchment. We hope our findings will help prompt wider model comparison exercises, as well as debate among the water quality modeling community as to whether today's models are fit for purpose. Simpler models such as SimplyP have the potential to be useful management and research tools, building blocks for future model development (prototype code is freely available), or benchmarks against which more complex models could be evaluated.

  12. Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjakob Lüthi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the observations and sightings of birds carried out in 24 departments of Peru between 1963 and 2006. Information on the locations and altitudes is discussed for a total of 319 species from 62 families, and for some species are reported behavior, phenology and songs. 83% of the observations were made between 1963 and 1976 and 37% correspond to observations made in the Department of Lima.

  13. Control of sealed radioactive sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the inventory of radioactive sources in Peru and assesses the control. Three groups of source conditions are established: controlled sources, known sources, and lost and orphan sources. The potential risk, described as not significant, for producing accidents is established and the needed measures are discussed. The paper concludes that, while the control on sealed sources is good, there is still room for improvement. (author)

  14. Cryptosporidium Infections Among Children in Peru

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-25

    Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.  Created: 9/25/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 9/25/2008.

  15. Child Health and Economic Crisis in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The effect of macroeconomic crises on child health is a topic of great policy importance. This article analyzes the impact of a profound crisis in Peru on infant mortality. It finds an increase of about 2.5 percentage points in the infant mortality rate for children born during the crisis of the late 1980s, which implies that about 17,000 more children died than would have in the absence o...

  16. The INCA trial (Impact of NOD2 genotype-guided antibiotic prevention on survival in patients with liver Cirrhosis and Ascites): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Markus; Mengel, Martin; Fuhrmann, Christine; Herrmann, Eva; Appenrodt, Beate; Schiedermaier, Peter; Reichert, Matthias; Bruns, Tony; Engelmann, Cornelius; Grünhage, Frank; Lammert, Frank

    2015-03-08

    Patients with liver cirrhosis have a highly elevated risk of developing bacterial infections that significantly decrease survival rates. One of the most relevant infections is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Recently, NOD2 germline variants were found to be potential predictors of the development of infectious complications and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of the INCA (Impact of NOD2 genotype-guided antibiotic prevention on survival in patients with liver Cirrhosis and Ascites) trial is to investigate whether survival of this genetically defined high-risk group of patients with cirrhosis defined by the presence of NOD2 variants is improved by primary antibiotic prophylaxis of SBP. The INCA trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms (arm 1: norfloxacin 400 mg once daily; arm 2: placebo once daily; 12-month treatment and observational period). Balanced randomization of 186 eligible patients with stratification for the protein content of the ascites (INCA trial is first in the field of hepatology aimed at rapidly transferring and validating information on individual genetic risk into clinical decision algorithms. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005616 . Registered 22 January 2014. EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2013-001626-26 . Registered 26 January 2015.

  17. [Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field.

  18. Assimilation of Polder aerosol optical thickness into LMD2-Inca model in order to study aerosol-climate interactions; Etude des interactions entre aerosols et climat: assimilation des observations spatiales de Polder dans LMDz-Inca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, S.

    2004-12-15

    Aerosols influence the Earth radiative budget both through their direct (scattering and absorption of solar radiation) and indirect (impacts on cloud microphysics) effects. The anthropogenic perturbation due to aerosol emissions is of the same order of magnitude than the one due to greenhouse gases, but less well known. To improve our knowledge, we need to better know aerosol spatial and temporal distributions. Indeed, aerosol modeling still suffers from large uncertainties in sources and transport, while satellite observations are incomplete (no detection in the presence of clouds, no information on the vertical distribution or on the chemical nature). Moreover, field campaigns are localized in space and time. This study aims to reduce uncertainties in aerosol distributions, developing assimilation of satellite data into a chemical transport model. The basic idea is to combine information obtained from spatial observation (optical thickness) and modeling studies (aerosol types, vertical distribution). In this study, we assimilate data from the POLDER space-borne instrument into the LMDz-INCA model. The results show the advantage of merging information from different sources. In many regions, the method reduces uncertainties on aerosol distribution (reduction of RMS error). An application of the method to the study of aerosol impact on cloud microphysics is shown. (author)

  19. O cuidado especializado do egresso da residência em enfermagem do Instituto Nacional de Câncer - INCA La atención especializada del egreso de la residencia en enfermería del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - INCA The specialized care of the egress from the residence in nursing of the National Institute of Cancer - INCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Joelcio de Moraes Santana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objeto do estudo é o cuidado de enfermagem prestado pelos egressos da residência em enfermagem do INCA. Com objetivo de caracterizar a prática dos egressos da residência em enfermagem no CEMO (Centro de Transplante de Medula Óssea. Utilizaram-se os conceitos de especialista de Patrícia Benner e da United Kingdom Council Center (UKCC. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa realizada no CEMO em julho de 2004. Os sujeitos do estudo foram nove enfermeiros egressos da residência em enfermagem, da área de oncologia clínica, atuantes no CEMO desde 1991, data do início das contratações dos egressos. Utilizou-se a técnica de Grupo Focal para coletar os dados. A análise seguiu a orientações de análise temática, segundo Minayo. Os resultados evidenciaram a categoria "Cuidado Especializado do Egresso da Residência", que abrangeu temas relacionados com protocolo/tratamento/farmacologia, prescrição de enfermagem, orientação e experiência, e esperança e complexidade. Concluiu-se, portanto, que o trabalho realizado pelos egressos da residência de enfermagem no CEMO é especializado.El objeto del estudio es el cuidado de enfermería prestado por los egresos de la residencia en enfermería del INCA. El objetivo fue caracterizar la práctica de los egresos de la residencia en enfermería en el CEMO (Centro de Trasplante de Medula Ósea. Se utilizaron los conceptos de especialista de Patrícia Benner y de la United Kingdom Council Center (UKCC. Pesquisa cualitativa realizada en el CEMO en julio de 2004. Los sujetos del estudio fueron nueve enfermeros egresos de la residencia en enfermería, del área de oncología clínica, actuantes en el CEMO desde 1991, fecha del inicio de contrataciones de los egresos. Fue utilizada la técnica del Grupo Focal para colectar los datos. Se utilizó la técnica de análisis temática, en la perspectiva de Minayo. Fue identificada la categoría "El Cuidado Especializado del Egreso de la Residencia", que

  20. Atypical yeasts identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by MALDI-TOF MS and gene sequencing are the main responsible of fermentation of chicha, a traditional beverage from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Miranda, Patricia; Flores-Félix, José David; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; Ageitos, José M; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; Velázquez, Encarna; Villa, Tomás G

    2013-12-01

    Chicha is a drink prepared in several Andean countries from Inca's times by maize fermentation. Currently this fermentation is carried out in familiar artesanal "chicherías" that make one of the most known types of chicha, the "chicha de jora". In this study we isolate and identify the yeasts mainly responsible of the fermentation process in this type of chicha in 10 traditional "chicherías" in Cusco region in Peru. We applied by first time MALDI-TOF MS analysis for the identification of yeast of non-clinic origin and the results showed that all of yeast strains isolated belong to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results agree with those obtained after the analysis of the D1/D2 and 5.8S-ITS regions. However the chicha strains have a phenotypic profile that differed in more than 40% as compared to that of current S. cerevisiae strains. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report concerning the yeasts involved in chicha fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving citizen awareness and democratic elections in Peru ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... Mini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru. Having little or no savings can be devastating for poor families, especially in times of crisis. View moreMini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru ...

  2. Three new species of Licania (Chrysobalanaceae) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prance, Ghillean T

    2014-01-01

    Recent collections received for identification contain three conspicuous new species for the mid altitude forests of Amazonian Peru. Licaniapalcazuensis, Licaniaapiknae and Licaniamonteagudensis are described as new and their relationship to other species is discussed. A key is provided for all the species of LicaniasubgenusLicaniasectionLicania known to occur in Peru.

  3. Three new species of Licania (Chrysobalanaceae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghillean Prance

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent collections received for identification contain three conspicuous new species for the mid altitude forests of Amazonian Peru. Licania palcazuensis, L. apiknae and L. monteagudensis are described as new and their relationship to other species is discussed. A key is provided for all the species of Licania subgenus Licania section Licania known to occur in Peru.

  4. MLVA genotyping of human Brucella isolates from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Henk L.; Espinosa, Benjamin; Castillo, Rosa; Hall, Eric; Guillen, Alfredo; Zevaleta, Milagros; Gilman, Robert H.; Melendez, Paolo; Guerra, Carlos; Draeger, Angelika; Broglia, Alessandro; Nöckler, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Recent human Brucella melitensis isolates from Peru were genotyped by multiple locus variable number repeat analysis. All 24 isolates originated from hospitalized patients living in the central part of Peru and consisted of six genomic groups comprising two to four isolates and nine unique

  5. U.S. and Peru Formalize Alliance in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Global Health (CGH) had the pleasure of welcoming a delegation of health officials from the Government of Peru for the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the U.S. and Peru.

  6. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  7. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  8. Japanese investment in Peru: limits of developmental investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.

  9. Long-Term Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts on Streamwater Salinity in New York State: INCA Simulations Offer Cautious Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Kristina; Jin, Li; Ledesma, José L J; Crossman, Jill; Kelleher, Christa; Lautz, Laura; Lu, Zunli

    2018-02-06

    The long-term application of road salts has led to a rise in surface water chloride (Cl - ) concentrations. While models have been used to assess the potential future impacts of continued deicing practices, prior approaches have not incorporated changes in climate that are projected to impact hydrogeology in the 21st century. We use an INtegrated CAtchment (INCA) model to simulate Cl - concentrations in the Tioughnioga River watershed. The model was run over a baseline period (1961-1990) and climate simulations from a range of GCMs run over three 30-year intervals (2010-2039; 2040-2069; 2070-2099). Model projections suggest that Cl - concentrations in the two river branches will continue to rise for several decades, before beginning to decline around 2040-2069, with all GCM scenarios indicating reductions in snowfall and associated salt applications over the 21st century. The delay in stream response is most likely attributed to climate change and continued contribution of Cl - from aquifers. By 2100, surface water Cl - concentrations will decrease to below 1960s values. Catchments dominated by urban lands will experience a decrease in average surface water Cl - , although moderate compared to more rural catchments.

  10. Probing the Boundaries of the Heliosphere Using Observations of the Polar ENA Flux from IBEX and Cassini/INCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Janzen, P. H.; Bzowski, M.; Dialynas, K.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S. A.; Galli, A.; Kubiak, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Sokol, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The IBEX Mission has been collecting ENAs from the outer heliosphere for nearly eight years, or three-quarters of a solar cycle. In that time, we have observed clear evidence of the imprint of the solar cycle in the time variation in the ENA flux. The most detailed of such studies has focused on the polar ENA flux observed by IBEX-Hi, as the IBEX spacecraft attitude allows for continuous coverage of the ENA flux incident from the ecliptic poles (Reisenfeld et al. 2012, 2016). By time correlating the ENA-derived heliosheath pressure to the observed 1 AU dynamic pressure, we can estimate the distance to the ENA source region. We can further derive the thickness of the ENA-producing region (presumably the inner heliosheath) by assuming pressure balance at the termination shock (TS). This requires using the 1 AU observations to derive the dynamic pressure at the TS shock by use of a mass-loaded solar wind propagation model (Schwadron et al. 2011), and by integrating ENA observations across all energies that significantly contribute to the heliosheath pressure. This means including polar ENA observations from not only IBEX-Hi, but from IBEX-Lo and Cassini/INCA, spanning an energy range of 15 eV to 40 keV. We will present our latest polar ENA observations and estimates for the distance to the TS and the thickness of the heliosheath.

  11. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) intensity gradients in the heliotail during year 2003, using Cassini/INCA measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialynas, K; Krimigis, S M; Mitchell, D G; Roelof, E C

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we use all-sky energy-resolved (5-55 keV) energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps obtained by the Ion and Neutral CAmera (INCA) on board Cassini during the time period DOY 265/2003 to 268/2003, to investigate the properties of the peak-to-basin ENA emissions in the direction of the heliotail. Our conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) a relatively smooth boundary (called t ransition region ) between the very low (basin) and high (tail) ENA emissions from the heliosheath, with a spatial width of ∼30° deg in ecl. longitude, that no theory had predicted to date, is identified in the energy range of 5-55 keV; (2) the ENA intensity gradient in this transition region is almost invariant as a function of both ecl. Latitude and energy, with an average value of ∼2.4% per degree; (3) the deduced partial plasma pressure distributions in the 5-55 keV energy range are consistent with the ENA intensity distributions in the same energy range, while the ENA intensity gradient translates to a corresponding partial pressure gradient that occurs in the transition region; and (4) this partial pressure gradient is possibly not consistent with a tail magnetic field configuration that is similar to the measured magnetic fields by the Voyagers in the nose hemisphere

  12. The variable roads to sacrifice: Isotopic investigations of human remains from Chotuna-Huaca de los Sacrificios, Lambayeque, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bethany L; Klaus, Haagen D; Livengood, Sarah V; Brown, Leslie E; Saldaña, Fausto; Wester, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates two key variables-residential context and subsistence-among sacrificial victims dating to the Late Horizon (A.D. 1450-1532) in the Huaca de los Sacrificios at the Chotuna-Chornancap Archaeological Complex in north coastal Peru. We investigate whether aspects of sacrifice in this distant coastal province mirrored that found in Inca heartland contexts such as the capacocha, or remained more typical of coastal sacrificial traditions. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope values were characterized in bone carbonate, bone collagen, and hair keratin to estimate geographic residence during the decade before death and diet in the decade, versus months, before death. Bone δ18 Ocarbonate values have a mean (±SD) of 26.8 ± 1.1%, bone δ13 Ccarbonate values -6.7 ± 1.7%, and bone δ(13) Ccollagen values 11.8 ± 1.3%; bone δ15 Ncollagen values have a mean of 11.5 ± 1.3%. Combined hair δ13 Ckeratin values have a mean of -12.8 ± 1.6%, and hair δ15 Nkeratin values 10.8 ± 1.3%. In contrast to contemporaneous coastal and highland contexts, we are unable to identify immigrants among the sacrificed individuals or changes in diet that indicate provisioning with a standardized diet leading up to death. Instead, results suggest that victims were local to the area, but consumed moderately variable diets consistent with local subsistence patterns. These findings suggest a distinct pattern of human sacrifice in the Late Horizon and underscore the regional and temporal variation in sacrificial practices in the central Andes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Detailed history of atmospheric trace elements from the Quelccaya ice core (Southern Peru) during the last 1200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, C.; Gabrielli, P.; Thompson, L. G.

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase in trace element concentrations, for example Cr, Cu, Zn, Ag, Pb, Bi, and U, in polar snow and ice has provided compelling evidence of a hemispheric change in atmospheric composition since the nineteenth century. This change has been concomitant with the expansion of the Industrial Revolution and points towards an anthropogenic source of trace elements in the atmosphere. There are very few low latitude trace element ice core records and these are believed to be sensitive to perturbations of regional significance. To date, these records have not been used to document a preindustrial anthropogenic impact on atmospheric composition at low latitudes. Ice cores retrieved from the tropical Andes are particularly interesting because they have the potential to reveal detailed information about the evolution and environmental consequences of mineral exploitation related to the Pre Inca Civilizations, the Inca Empire (1438-1533 AD) and the subsequent Spanish invasion and dominance (1532-1833 AD). The chemical record preserved in the ice of the Quelccaya ice cap (southern Peruvian Andes) offers the exceptional opportunity to geochemically constrain the composition of the tropical atmosphere at high resolution over the last ~1200 years. Quantification of twenty trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Ti, Tl, U, V, and Zn) was performed by ICP-SFMS over 105 m of the Quelccaya North Dome core (5600 m asl, 128.57 m) by analyzing 2450 samples. This provides the first atmospheric trace element record in South America spanning continuously and at high resolution for the time period between 1990 and 790 AD. Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Sb, Sn, Pb and Zn show increases in concentration and crustal enrichment factor starting at different times between 1450 and 1550 AD, in concomitance with the expansions of the Inca Empire and, subsequently, the Spanish Empire well before the inception of the Industrial Revolution. This

  14. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  15. ENSO impact on hydrology in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.

    2013-04-01

    The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).

  16. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S Ampuero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  17. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  18. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...... to the importance of two long-term processes. One reflected the memory of earlier municipal citizenship and the possibilities of political change; the other stemmed from the outlawing of political opposition which pushed radical dissent underground and into extremism, creating the conditions for the political...

  19. Radiological accidents in Peru: 1977-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcardo L, C.; Espinoza Z, M.

    1999-10-01

    A brief history of twenty four events of real and suspected overexposure to ionizing radiation's reported to IPEN during 1977-1988 period are presented. Thirty-seven persons were involved being twelve really overexposed. Nine of them showed clinically detectable injuries (deterministic effects). The events occurred in different kinds of irradiation facilities or laboratories in Peru, mainly related with the use of radiodiagnostics and gamma radiography equipment. Patients were derived to the radiosanitary medicine service of IPEN were medical examinations and laboratory prescriptions were made. It was possible to perform cytogenetical analysis in eighteen patients. Additional data and comments on six cases of prenatal irradiation reported to this service are presented. (authors)

  20. Information technology project risk management in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Del Carpio Gallegos, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how some principles, uses, and practices of risk management are applied in information technology projects in Peru; in the last four years, in representative sectors like manufacturing, banking, information and communications, academics institutions, construction, government, consulting, services, and others. El presente artículo muestra algunos principios, usos y prácticas de cómo la gestión de riesgos de proyectos de tecnología se ha llevado a cabo en los últimos cuatr...

  1. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  2. Reconstructing the life of an unknown (ca. 500 years-old South American Inca) mummy--multidisciplinary study of a Peruvian Inca mummy suggests severe Chagas disease and ritual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E; Pusch, Carsten M; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451-1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more "terrestric" nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual that

  3. Reconstructing the Life of an Unknown (ca. 500 Years-Old South American Inca) Mummy – Multidisciplinary Study of a Peruvian Inca Mummy Suggests Severe Chagas Disease and Ritual Homicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E.; Pusch, Carsten M.; Nerlich, Andreas G.

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451–1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more “terrestric” nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual

  4. New Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Friedrich, Stefan

    2016-03-11

    Six species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae) are collected from the German Expedition to Amazonian Peru in 2013; of these, three are new for science, described from upper soil and leaf litter in the primary evergreen lowland rainforest. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) parapassimpunctata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) passimpunctata Balogh & Mahunka, 1969, but differs from the latter by the presence of foveolate body surface, two pairs of porose areas Aa and minute interlamellar setae, and the absence of porose areas A3. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) krisperi sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) cardosensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio, 1986, but differs from the latter by the smaller body size, rostral and lamellar setae of medium size and the presence of four pairs of notogastral porose areas. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) lenticulata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size and the presence of lenticulus and bidentate rostrum. The species Pergalumna (Pergalumna) bryani Jacot, 1934 is recorded for the first time in Peru.

  5. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  6. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C antibody in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, K C; Phillips, I A; Moran, A Y; Tejada, A; Wignall, F S; Escamilla, J

    1992-06-01

    The prevalence in Peru of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) was determined in a survey of populations living in the northern jungle region and in groups at high risk of parenterally and sexually transmitted diseases. All sera were initially screened for anti-HCV using commercial first and second generation ELISAs; repeatedly reactive sera were further verified with a second generation immunoblot assay. Serum samples were also tested by ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc. None of 2,111 sera obtained in the survey of jungle residents was positive for anti-HCV by immunoblot assay. Twelve of 16 HIV-1 antibody positive hemophiliacs, one of 103 HIV-1 antibody positive homosexuals, and three of 602 HIV-1 negative registered female prostitutes were positive for anti-HCV. A high prevalence of total markers of hepatitis B infection was found in all subjects, especially in older subjects and groups at high risk of parenterally and sexually transmitted diseases. The findings of this study indicate that seropositivity for hepatitis C virus antibody is uncommon in Peru except in high risk groups and suggest that the epidemiology of hepatitis C differs substantially from hepatitis B.

  7. Uso de las ideas matemáticas y científicas de los Incas, en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la geometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César E. Salas Valverde

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando una aproximación Etnomatemática, entendida como el estudio de los procesos matemáticos,símbolos, jergas, mitologías, razonamiento, practicados por grupos culturales identificados; valoramos las posibilidades didácticas que pueden desprenderse del uso de las ideas matemáticas utilizadas en la cultura Inca.El trabajo presenta dos partes. Una valoración del uso de la matemática en la cultura Inca y otra relativa a sugerencias didácticas. Se propone por ejemplo: que los alumnos reconozcan qué conocimientos, patrones, objetos o formas geométricas usaban los incas en sus diversas manifestaciones culturales y tecnológicas. Apartir de estas “tareas" podemos introducir al estudiante en el hermoso mundo de la geometría, haciendo que aprendan de un modo bastante intuitivo y natural.

  8. Uso de las Ideas Matemáticas y Científicas de los Incas, en la Enseñanza Aprendizaje de la Geometría.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Huapaya Gómez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando una aproximación Etnomatemática, entendida como el estudio de los procesos matemáticos, símbolos, jergas, mitologías, razonamiento, practicados por grupos culturales identificados4; valoramos las posibilidades didácticas que pueden desprenderse del uso de las ideas matemáticas utilizadas en la cultura Inca. El trabajo presenta dos partes. Una valoración del uso de la matemática en la cultura Inca y otra relativa a sugerencias didácticas. Se propone por ejemplo: que los alumnos reconozcan qué conocimientos, patrones, objetos o formas geométricas usaban los incas en sus diversas manifestaciones culturales y tecnológicas. A partir de estas "tareas" podemos introducir al estudiante en el hermoso mundo de la geometría, haciendo que aprendan de un modo bastante intuitivo y natural5.

  9. Neurogenetics in Peru: clinical, scientific and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Espinoza-Huertas, Keren; Velit-Salazar, Mario R; Veliz-Otani, Diego; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Inca-Martinez, Miguel; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Marca, Victoria; Ortega, Olimpio; Mazzetti, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Neurogenetics, the science that studies the genetic basis of the development and function of the nervous system, is a discipline of recent development in Peru, an emerging Latin American country. Herein, we review the clinical, scientific and ethical aspects regarding the development of this discipline, starting with the first molecular diagnosis of neurogenetic diseases, to family and population-based genetic association studies. Neurogenetics in Peru aims to better explain the epidemiology of monogenic and complex neurodegenerative disorders that will help in implementing public health policies for these disorders. The characterization of Peru and its health system, legal issues regarding rare diseases and the historical milestones in neurogenetics are also discussed.

  10. Modeling the terrestrial N processes in a small mountain catchment through INCA-N: A case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Chang; Chang, Chung-Te; Lin, Teng-Chiu; Wang, Lih-Jih; Wang, Chiao-Ping; Hsu, Ting-Chang; Huang, Jr-Chuan

    2017-09-01

    Riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is an important indicator of trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. High riverine DIN export in Taiwan, ~3800kg-Nkm -2 yr -1 , which is ~18 times higher than the global average, urges the need of thorough understanding of N cycling processes. We applied INCA-N (Integrated Nitrogen Catchment Model) to simulate riverine DIN export and infer terrestrial N processes using weekly rainwater and streamwater samples collected at the Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northern Taiwan. Results showed that the modeled discharge and nitrate export are in good agreement with observations, suggesting the validity of our application. Based on our modeling, the three main N removal processes, in the order of descending importance, were plant uptake, riverine N transport and denitrification at FEF. The high plant uptake rate, 4920kg-Nkm -2 yr -1 , should have led to accumulation of large biomass but biomass at FEF was relatively small compared to other tropical forests, likely due to periodic typhoon disruptions. The low nitrate concentration but high DIN export highlights the importance of hydrological control over DIN export, particularly during typhoons. The denitrification rate, 750kg-Nkm -2 yr -1 , at FEF was also low compared to other tropical forest ecosystems, likely resulting from quick water drainage through the coarse-loamy top soils. The high DIN export to atmospheric deposition ratio, 0.45, suggests that FEF may be in advanced stages of N excess. This simulation provides useful insights for establishing monitoring programs and improves our understanding N cycling in subtropical watersheds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aprendizaje intergeneracional de la violencia familiar; experiencias en estudiantes de la escuela profesional de trabajo social. Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega – 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Castillo, Gisella Yaniré

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación es de enfoque cualitativo, en donde el trabajo fue realizado con una muestra de tres estudiantes, sus madres y sus abuelas, las estudiantes pertenecientes del quinto al séptimo ciclo de la Escuela Profesional de Trabajo Social de la Facultad de Psicologia y Trabajo Social de la Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega y que habían experimentado violencia familiar en su vida de pareja. El objetivo de la investigación fue conocer el aprendizaje intergene...

  12. Water quality assessment and catchment-scale nutrient flux modeling in the Ramganga River Basin in north India: An application of INCA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Devanshi; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Sinha, Rajiv

    2018-03-07

    The present study analyzes the water quality characteristics of the Ramganga (a major tributary of the Ganga river) using long-term (1991-2009) monthly data and applies the Integrated Catchment Model of Nitrogen (INCA-N) and Phosphorus (INCA-P) to the catchment. The models were calibrated and validated using discharge (1993-2011), phosphate (1993-2010) and nitrate (2007-2010) concentrations. The model results were assessed based on Pearson's correlation, Nash-Sutcliffe and Percentage bias statistics along with a visual inspection of the outputs. The seasonal variation study shows high nutrient concentrations in the pre-monsoon season compared to the other seasons. High nutrient concentrations in the low flows period pose a serious threat to aquatic life of the river although the concentrations are lowered during high flows because of the dilution effect. The hydrological model is satisfactorily calibrated with R 2 and NS values ranging between 0.6-0.8 and 0.4-0.8, respectively. INCA-N and INCA-P successfully capture the seasonal trend of nutrient concentrations with R 2 >0.5 and PBIAS within ±17% for the monthly averages. Although, high concentrations are detected in the low flows period, around 50% of the nutrient load is transported by the monsoonal high flows. The downstream catchments are characterized by high nutrient transport through high flows where additional nutrient supply from industries and agricultural practices also prevail. The seasonal nitrate (R 2 : 0.88-0.94) and phosphate (R 2 : 0.62-0.95) loads in the catchment are calculated using model results and ratio estimator load calculation technique. On average, around 548tonnes of phosphorus (as phosphate) and 77,051tonnes of nitrogen (as nitrate) are estimated to be exported annually from the Ramganga River to the Ganga. Overall, the model has been able to successfully reproduce the catchment dynamics in terms of seasonal variation and broad-scale spatial variability of nutrient fluxes in the

  13. Properties of the Plasma Surrounding the Global Heliosphere Determined with Voyager 1&2 ions and ENA/INCA Observations at E > 5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Dialynas, K.; Mitchell, D. G.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    2016-12-01

    The basic goal of the proposed Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) is detailed scientific understanding of the Heliosheath (HS) and beyond, a region of space explored in situ by Voyager 1 (V1) since 2004, Voyager 2 (V2) since 2007, and remotely via energetic neutral atoms (ENA) by the Cassini/INCA (5.2-55 keV) since 2003 and IBEX (0.3-6 keV) since 2009. The partial overlap in energies (28 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically >10. (2) Based on the ENA-derived hot ion pressures, the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) was predicted to be more than twice that expected in the literature i.e. similar to what was measured by V1 after crossing the heliopause (B 0.5 nT). (3) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is 30 AU (predicted by INCA before the V1 HP crossing), but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2, now 30 AU into the HS, currently travels. We address here the key question of the source of 5-55 keV ENAs that INCA measures. The analysis of INCA all-sky maps from 2003 to 2014 show that the decrease and recovery of ENA in the global heliosphere during this period (declining phase of SC23 and rise of SC24) is similar to that of the ions at V1/V2, consistent with the HS ions being the source of ENA. The close correspondence between ENA and ion spectra (despite the 140 AU distance between V1 and V2) as well as the similarity of ENA spectra over the nose and anti-nose directions, together with the recent V1 measurement of a BISMF 0.5nT, suggest that the global distributions of >5 keV ions in the heliosheath resembles a diamagnetic bubble with no significant tail-like feature (the alternative Parker 1961 model), also consistent with some recent MHD simulations and models.

  14. The Impact of Labour Rights Commitments in EU Trade Agreements: The Case of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Orbie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While the inclusion of labour rights in European Union (EU trade agreements has become an ‘unobjectionable norm’, analyses of their impact have been largely absent from the literature. This article aims to partly fill this gap in existing research by examining the impact of labour rights commitments in the EU–Peru–Colombia agreement, with particular reference to the agricultural sector in Peru. Following a brief background overview of labour rights in agriculture in Peru, we draw up the analytical framework for assessing the impact of these commitments. We discern three distinctive legal commitments and find that they are flexible and conservative, also compared to provisions in other EU trade agreements. Subsequently, we assess the impact of these commitments by analysing to what extent they are being upheld in practice. Empirical evidence from several sources, including field research, shows that the Peruvian government has failed to implement the labour rights commitments in several respects. In the conclusions, we point to the cautious role of the EU, which has scope to monitor Peru’s labour rights compliance more proactively.

  15. Product or waste? Importation and end-of-life processing of computers in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahhat, Ramzy; Williams, Eric

    2009-08-01

    This paper considers the importation of used personal computers (PCs) in Peru and domestic practices in their production, reuse, and end-of-life processing. The empirical pillars of this study are analysis of government data describing trade in used and new computers and surveys and interviews of computer sellers, refurbishers, and recyclers. The United States is the primary source of used PCs imported to Peru. Analysis of shipment value (as measured by trade statistics) shows that 87-88% of imported used computers had a price higher than the ideal recycle value of constituent materials. The official trade in end-of-life computers is thus driven by reuse as opposed to recycling. The domestic reverse supply chain of PCs is well developed with extensive collection, reuse, and recycling. Environmental problems identified include open burning of copper-bearing wires to remove insulation and landfilling of CRT glass. Distinct from informal recycling in China and India, printed circuit boards are usually not recycled domestically but exported to Europe for advanced recycling or to China for (presumably) informal recycling. It is notable that purely economic considerations lead to circuit boards being exported to Europe where environmental standards are stringent, presumably due to higher recovery of precious metals.

  16. Dentistry with a difference: volunteering for 'Dental Project Peru'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussell, M A

    2008-03-08

    As a young dentist looking for new challenges and experiences, Mary Bussell decided to use her skills and training by volunteering for a dental charity working in Peru. Here she gives an account of her 'dental adventure'.

  17. All projects related to Peru | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... WATER MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, TELECOMMUNICATIONS. Region: Peru, South America, North and Central America. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 346,976.00. Democratic Governability in the Andean Region : Political and Institutional Reforms and Social Movements.

  18. Peru and Guatemala Internal Midline Monitoring Assessment of Reading

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...

  19. All projects related to Peru | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOCIAL INEQUALITY, ECONOMIC GROWTH, ECONOMIC DISPARITY, LATIN AMERICA, GOVERNMENT POLICY. Region: Peru. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 745,100.00. Indigenous Health, Social Inequity, and Interculturality: Research and Critical Evaluation of Interventions Implemented ...

  20. All projects related to peru | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will address the challenge of youth unemployment in Latin America. Topic: POLICY MAKING, DATA COLLECTING, PUBLIC SECTOR, WOMEN, YOUTH, MOTIVATION, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, PRIVATE SECTOR. Region: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay. Program: Employment and ...

  1. A Bilingual Experiment in the Amazonian Jungle of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mary Ruth

    1971-01-01

    In the Amazonian jungle of Peru 240 Indian leaders representing 20 different South American Indian language groups are successfully teaching their own people to read and write, first in their mother tongue and then in Spanish. (Author/EB)

  2. Short report: serologic evidence of human ehrlichiosis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Pedro L; Shah, Jyotsna; Li, Olga; Gilman, Robert H; Harris, Nick; Moro, Manuel H

    2009-02-01

    A serosurvey for human ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was performed in different regions of Peru by using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs). Regions included an urban community in a shantytown in Lima (Pampas) and three rural communities located on the northern coast of Peru (Cura Mori), in the southern Peruvian Andes (Cochapata), and in the Peruvian jungle region (Santo Tomas). An overall E. chaffeensis seroprevalence of 13% (21 of 160) was found by IFA. Seroprevalences in females and males was 15% (16 of 106) and 9% (5 of 53), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori, Cochapata, Pampas, and Santo Tomas were 25% (10 of 40), 23% (9 of 40), 3% (1 of 40), and 3% (1 of 40), respectively. Seroprevalences in Cura Mori and Cochapata were significantly higher than in Santo Tomas or Pampas (P Peru. Further studies are needed to characterize Ehrlichia species in Peru, their vectors and their clinical significance.

  3. Tendencies of the digital newspapers in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the tendencies of the development of the digital media in Peru. The results that are presented were obtained by means of a survey carried out to responsible people of the digital redactions of the national generalist newspapers that, when concluding the first decade of the existence of the online journalism in the country (1995-2005, had digital editions. From historical perspective, different stages of evolution and consolidation of the Peruvian daily editions in the Global Network have not had temporary clear definition. The media progressed at their own pace, depending among other factors –at the time of entry into the network, the staff assigned to the publication, and especially on the strength of the journalistic company and its policy regarding digital editing. With regard to the presence on the Internet, digital newspapers have shown a steady and numerous growth, over the first decade (1995-2005.

  4. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    The book examines the emerging approach of using qualitative methods, such as interviews and field observations, in the philosophy of science. Qualitative methods are gaining popularity among philosophers of science as more and more scholars are resorting to empirical work in their study...... of scientific practices. At the same time, the results produced through empirical work are quite different from those gained through the kind of introspective conceptual analysis more typical of philosophy. This volume explores the benefits and challenges of an empirical philosophy of science and addresses...

  5. Theological reflections on empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the meeting of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Accra, Ghana (2004, and the adoption of the Accra Declaration, a debate has been raging in the churches about globalisation, socio-economic justice, ecological responsibility, political and cultural domination and globalised war. Central to this debate is the concept of empire and the way the United States is increasingly becoming its embodiment. Is the United States a global empire? This article argues that the United States has indeed become the expression of a modern empire and that this reality has considerable consequences, not just for global economics and politics but for theological refl ection as well.

  6. Empires, Nations, and Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    This essay examines the ways in which the age of revolutions expanded the repertoire of political ideas and identities available to new and old political subjects. It questions the traditional narrative that replaces a model of old regimes and empires with a new one of imagined unitary nation-states. Instead, it argues that the nature of the political crisis of the Iberian empires gave rise to a reinvention of familiar categories, like monarchy and empire, and sired a wider range of new ones that did not fit the national mold.

  7. The Japanese in multiracial Peru, 1899-1942

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephanie Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the integration of the Japanese into the politics of race and nation in Peru during the period from 1899 to 1942. The first generation of Japanese immigrants arrived in Peru at the apex of debates on national racial identity and popular challenges to the white oligarchy's exclusive hold on national political and economic power. This dissertation examines how not only elites, but also working- and middle-class movements advocated the exclusion of the Japanese as a way of st...

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    during susceptibility testing: Escherichia coli 25922, Staphylococcus au reus 25923, Brucella abortus 2308, Brucella melitensis rev- I, and Bmcel/a canis...2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Antin1icrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru 9 Ryan C. Maves,1...48 human Brucella melitensis biotype 1 strains from Peru between 2000 and 2006. MICs of isolates to doxycycline, azithromycin, gentamicin, rifampin

  9. Psychohistory and general historical forms of personality in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Ruiz, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is a synthesis of the theoretical and methodological investigations about the general historical forms of personality in Peru, which is developed from the fields of psychohistory and neurosciences. We propose and develop the category of general historical forms of personality. We explain their development in the evolution of people from Peru, from the prehispanic time, until the republican period, including the colony. The historical and social data of each time are integrat...

  10. International Briefing 27: Training and Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleri, Andres Velarde; Llinas-Audet, Xavier; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Peru is in the central, western part of South America. It is the third largest country in South America and number 20 in the world. It is the country with the fourth highest population in South America. In 2010, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was 154 billion USD, and its rate of growth was 8.8% (higher than the average for the region for…

  11. Informality and Productivity in the Labor Market: Peru 1986 - 2001

    OpenAIRE

    José Galdo; Jaime Saavedra-Chanduví; Alberto E. Chong

    2007-01-01

    Peru has one of the highest informality rates in Latin America, with almost 60 percent of the urban labor force working at the margins of labor market legislation or in microenterprises that lack basic labor market standards (Marcouiller, Ruiz de Castilla, and Woodruff, 1997). This paper identifies two factors that can explain the variation in informality rates in the 1990s. First, Peru experienced a steady increase in employment allocation in traditionally 'informal' sectors - in particular,...

  12. [An experience with implementation of electronic medical records in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revoredo Iparraguirre, José Francisco; Cavalcanti Oscátegui, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Analyze the process for implementation of health provider information systems in Peru. A qualitative study was conducted on implementation of a health provider information system in coastal, mountain, and jungle regions of Peru. Factors were identified that hinder and that facilitate the implementation process. Critical success factors included planning of implementation, executive commitment, commitment of the implementation leader, organizational culture, and human resources capacity. Implementation processes for provider information systems demonstrate various difficulties associated primarily with human barriers.

  13. Peru : Institutional and Financial Framework for Development of Small Hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Peru is favored by a stable and growing economy and the availability of indigenous sources of energy for electricity generation, hydro and natural gas. Installed capacity in Peru in 2006 was 6658 MW, of which 48 percent was hydro-based. However, regarding new investment in generation, there is reason for concern. Demand growth over the past five years has been 5-10 percent, with no signs of ...

  14. Creative women in Peru: outliers in a machismo world

    OpenAIRE

    Mensa, M. (Marta); Grow, J.M. (Jean M.)

    2015-01-01

    Gender segregation begins early and is reinforced within the workplace. Advertising creative departments appear to have extreme gender segregation with women representing just 20% of all those working within creative departments worldwide. Yet, creativity does not depend on gender. Thus, the underrepresentation of women is particularly troubling. In Peru women comprise 3% to 10.4% of all people working in advertising creative, which suggests the situation for creative women in Peru is dire. I...

  15. Education Perfomance and Educability in Peru of ther XXI Century

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Lay, Gonzalo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Vásquez Tasayco, Alberto; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Inga Arias, Miguel Gerardo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Gutiérrez Sánchez, Hildebrando; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This research responds to an explicative correlation approach, it is based on the theoretical analysis that concentrates on tests results in academic achievement. Thus theoretical perspectives are analyzed: Learning opportunities and educational organizations supported by system theory; the intention is to explain an aspect, undoubtedly the key aspect, of education in Peru: The test results level of students in both national and international performance. However, given the nature of the Peru...

  16. EDUCATION PERFOMANCE AND EDUCABILITY IN PERU OF THE XXI CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco Lay, Gonzalo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Vásquez Tasayco, Alberto; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Inga Arias, Miguel Gerardo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Gutiérrez Sánchez, Hildebrando; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This research responds to an explicative correlation approach, it is based on the theoretical analysis that concentrates on tests results in academic achievement. Thus theoretical perspectives are analyzed: Learning opportunities and educational organizations supported by system theory; the intention is to explain an aspect, undoubtedly the key aspect, of education in Peru: The test results level of students in both national and international performance. However, given the nature of the Peru...

  17. The LAGO (Large Aperture GRB Observatory) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueros-Cuadros, E.; Otiniano, L.; Chirinos, J.; Soncco, C.; Guevara-Day, W.

    2012-07-01

    The Large Aperture GRBs Observatory is a continental-wide observatory devised to detect high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), by using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCDs) at high mountain sites of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela and Peru. Details of the instalation and operation of the detectors in Marcapomacocha in Peru at 4550 m.a.s.l. are given. The detector calibration method will also be shown.

  18. Additions of angiosperms to the Flora of Peru from the Andean-Amazonian forests of southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios.

  19. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal......A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post...... experience. In a range of innovative and insightful contributions, some of the foremost scholars of the field challenge the way we think about narrative, memory and identity after empire. This book was originally published as a special issue of Life Writing....

  20. Cieneguilla a la llegada de los incas. Aproximaciones desde la historia ecológica y la arqueología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CIENEGUILLA A L’ARRIVEE DES INCAS. APPROCHE A PARTIR DE L’HISTOIRE ECOLOGIQUE ET DE L’ARCHEOLOGIE. Cet essai cherhce à résumer nos hypothèses préliminaires à propos du district de Cieneguilla pendant l’Horizon récent et définir la stratégie des recherches à appliquer dans cette zone. Nous entendons expliquer les données géographiques, archéologiques et ethnohistoriques disponibles jusqu’ici en mettant l'accent sur la distribution des établissements. Nous entendons également mettre en relation ces hypothèses avec la problématique de la définition du phénomène Ychsma. Concrètement, nous voulons attirer l’attention sur la présence possible de plusieurs segments « Ychsma » en rapport avec différents secteurs identifiables de la vallée du Lurín. Ces segments montrent l’existence d'une entité politique décentralisée qui fut plus tard transformée par les Incas. En el presente trabajo intentamos esbozar nuestras primeras hipótesis sobre el distrito de Cieneguilla, tratando de plantearnos la línea de trabajo que deberemos adoptar en la investigación sobre el Horizonte Tardío en esta zona. Trataremos de exponer las evidencias geográficas, arqueológicas (especialmente el patrón de asentamiento y etnohistóricas que conocemos hasta el momento, así cómo ver estas hipótesis en relación con el fenómeno y problemática Ychsma. Queremos principalmente llamar la atención sobre la posible presencia de diversos segmentos de lo llamado “Ychsma”, en relación a las diferentes secciones identificables en el valle, que marcarían la existencia de una formación política descentralizada que fue transformada por los incas. CIENEGUILLA ON THE ARRIVAL OF THE INCAS. APPROACHES VIA ECOLOGICAL HISTORY AND ARCHAELOGY. In this paper we formulate our first hypotheses and initial line of investigation about the Cieneguilla district in the Late Horizon. We review the geographic, archeological (especially the settlement pattern

  1. Colombia's War on Drugs: Can Peru Provide the Recipe for Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hobaugh, Michael

    2000-01-01

    This thesis examines counternarcotics strategies of interdiction, eradication, and alternative development used in Peru during the 199Os to determine if Peru's success can provide the recipe for success in Colombia...

  2. Assessment of Rehabilitation Infrastructure in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Amy K; LaGrone, Lacey N; Moscoso Porras, Miguel G; Rodríguez Castro, Manuel J; Ecos Quispe, Rosa Lizbeth; Mock, Charles N

    2017-11-21

    To assess rehabilitation infrastructure in Peru in terms of the World Health Organization (WHO) health systems building blocks. Anonymous quantitative survey; questions were based on the WHO's Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care and rehabilitation professionals' input. Large public hospitals and referral centers and an online survey platform. Convenience sample of hospital personnel working in rehabilitation and neurology (N=239), recruited through existing contacts and professional societies. Not applicable. Outcome measures were for 4 WHO domains: health workforce, health service delivery, essential medical products and technologies, and health information systems. Regarding the domain of health workforce, 47% of physical therapists, 50% of occupational therapists, and 22% of physiatrists never see inpatients. Few reported rehabilitative nurses (15%) or prosthetist/orthotists (14%) at their hospitals. Even at the largest hospitals, most reported ≤3 occupational therapists (54%) and speech-language pathologists (70%). At hospitals without speech-language pathologists, physical therapists (49%) or nobody (34%) perform speech-language pathology roles. At hospitals without occupational therapists, physical therapists most commonly (59%) perform occupational therapy tasks. Alternate prosthetist/orthotist task performers are occupational therapists (26%), physical therapists (19%), and physicians (16%). Forty-four percent reported interdisciplinary collaboration. Regarding the domain of health services, the most frequent inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation barriers were referral delays (50%) and distance/transportation (39%), respectively. Regarding the domain of health information systems, 28% reported rehabilitation service data collection. Regarding the domain of essential medical products and technologies, electrophysical agents (88%), gyms (81%), and electromyography (76%) were most common; thickened liquids (19%), swallow studies (24%), and cognitive

  3. GEODYNAMICS OF NAZCA RIDGE’S OBLIQUE SUBDUCTION AND MIGRATION - IMPLICATIONS FOR TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PERU: Earthquake and Tsunami of 23 June 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peru is in a region of considerable geologic and seismic complexity. Thrust faulting along the boundary where the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American continent has created three distinct seismic zones. The angle of subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American plate is not uniform along the entire segment of the Peru-Chile Trench. Furthermore, subduction is affected by buoyancy forces of the bounding oceanic ridges and fractures - such as the Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ to the North and the Nazca Ridge to the South. This narrow zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes that can generate destructive tsunamis of varied intensities. The present study examines the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction and migration to the seismicity of Central/Southern Peru and to tsunami generation. The large tsunamigenic earthquake of 23 June 2001 is presented as a case study. This event generated a destructive, local tsunami that struck Peru’s southern coasts with waves ranging from 3 to 4.6 meters (10-15 feet and inland inundation that ranged from 1 to 3 km. In order to understand the near and far-field tsunamigenic efficiency of events along Central/Southern Peru and the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction, the present study examines further the geologic structure of the region and this quake’s moment tensor analysis, energy release, fault rupture and the spatial distribution of aftershocks. Tsunami source mechanism characteristics for this event are presented, as inferred from seismic intensities, energy releases, fault plane solutions and the use of empirical relationships. The study concludes that the segment of subduction and faulting paralleling the Peru-Chile Trench from about 150 to 180 South, as well as the obliquity of convergent tectonic plate collision in this region, may be the reason for shorter rupture lengths of major earthquakes and the generation of only local destructive tsunamis.

  4. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  5. Comparisons of cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine air based on in-situ observations from the NSF HIPPO, EU INCA and NASA ATTREX campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, M.; Schumann, U.; Jensen, J. B.; Minikin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing of cirrus clouds is influenced by microphysical (e.g., ice crystal number concentration and size distribution) and macroscopic properties. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In this work, we use airborne in-situ observations to compare cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine regions. Our dataset includes: the NSF HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011), the EU Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign (2000) and the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) campaign (2014). The combined dataset include observations of both extratropical (HIPPO and INCA) and tropical (ATTREX) cirrus, over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We use the in-situ measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio as a pollution indicator, and compare ice microphysical properties (i.e., ice crystal number concentration (Nc) and number-weighted mean diameter (Dc)) between air masses with higher and lower CO. All analyses are restricted to T ≤ -40°C. By analyzing ice crystals (Fast-2DC, 87.5-1600 µm) in HIPPO, we found that Dc decreases with increasing CO concentration at multiple constant pressure levels. In addition, analysis of INCA data shows that Nc and extinction of small ice particles (FSSP 3-20 µm) increases with increasing CO. Particles < 87.5 µm in Fast-2DC data are not considered due to uncertainty in sample volume, and the FSSP measurements are subject to possible shattering. We further analyze the ice crystals (SPEC FCDP, 1-50 µm) in the tropical tropopause layer in ATTREX. At -70°C to -90°C, we found that the average Nc (Dc) increases (decreases) at higher CO. Overall, our results suggest that extratropical and tropical cirrus are likely to have more numerous small ice particles, when sampled in the more polluted background. Back

  6. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...

  7. Empirical comparison of theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.; Wippler, R.

    1990-01-01

    The book represents the first, comprehensive attempt to take an empirical approach for comparative assessment of theories in sociology. The aims, problems, and advantages of the empirical approach are discussed in detail, and the three theories selected for the purpose of this work are explained. Their comparative assessment is performed within the framework of several research projects, which among other subjects also investigate the social aspects of the protest against nuclear power plants. The theories analysed in this context are the theory of mental incongruities and that of the benefit, and their efficiency in explaining protest behaviour is compared. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. [Update on tegumentary leishmaniasis and carrion's disease vectors in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; Vásquez, Gissella; Espada, Liz; Ramírez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Among approximately 190 species of Lutzomyia in Peru, only a small number have been identified as vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Western and inter-Andean valleys. These include L. peruensis, L. verrucarum, L. tejadai, L. ayacuchensis, and L. pescei. In the Amazon region, L. yuilli yuilli, L. chagasi, L. davisi, and L. auraensis are naturally infected, among the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. L. auraensis is newly reported as a potential vector of leishmaniasis in neotropical regions. Among the primary and most widely distributed vectors of human bartonellosis or Carrión's disease, L. verrucarum and L. peruensis are predominant in the Andean regions of northern, central, and southern Peru. Other potential vectors of Carrion's disease are L. serrana in the Monzon Valley, Huamalies, and Huanuco; L. pescei in Apurímac and Cusco; and L. robusta and L. maranonensis in Jaén, San Ignacio, and Utcubamba provinces, and the high forests of Peru. Because of the high prevalence of leishmaniasis and bartonellosis outside of known endemic areas in Peru, it is necessary to update data and distribution maps of these disease vectors. This may improve both prevention and control measures. Existing information about sandfly vectors in Peru is also provided in this article.

  9. The deep Peru 2015 doublet earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Tavera, H.; Poli, P.; Herrera, C.; Flores, C.; Rivera, E.; Madariaga, R.

    2017-11-01

    On 24 November 2015 two events of magnitude Mw 7.5 and Mw 7.6 occurred at 600 km depth under the Peru-Brazil boundary. These two events were separated in time by 300 s. Deep event doublets occur often under South America. The characteristics that control these events and the dynamic interaction between them are an unresolved problem. We used teleseismic and regional data, situated above the doublet, to perform source inversion in order to characterize their ruptures. The overall resemblance between these two events suggests that they share similar rupture process. They are not identical but occur on the same fault surface dipping westward. Using a P-wave stripping and stretching method we determine rupture speed of 2.25 km/s. From regional body wave inversion we find that stress drop is similar for both events, they differ by a factor of two. The similarity in geometry, rupture velocity, stress drop and radiated energy, suggests that these two events looked like simple elliptical ruptures that propagated like classical sub-shear brittle cracks.

  10. 76 FR 21786 - Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the third meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest... Agreement (PTPA); the PTPA Annex on Forest Sector Governance (Annex 18.3.4); the United States-Peru... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7417] Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs...

  11. 75 FR 19453 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Peru Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... United States-Peru Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2011-2012 U.S... Environment Chapter of the PTPA, (2) the U.S.-Peru ECA, (3) the U.S.-Peru 2009-2010 Environmental Cooperation... promote the optimal use of resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development'' and (2...

  12. Hydrological characterization of a pre-Inca artificial recharge system to alleviate drought and flooding in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Buytaert, W.; Bardales, J. D.; Antiporta, J.; De Bièvre, B.

    2017-12-01

    The tropical Andes provide a broad range of ecosystem services for downstream cities, with an abundant supply of fresh water among the most important. Because of the highly seasonal precipitation regime and flashy response of the mountainous topography, rivers along the Pacific coast of Peru are prone to generate devastating flash floods during the wet season, and low to non-existing base flows during the dry season. This creates hydrological challenges, especially for Lima, Peru's capital and the second largest desert city in the world. Furthermore, the complex spatiotemporal patterns and the generalized data scarcity of tropical Andean catchments make hydrological predictions very challenging. Long before modern urbanization, pre-Incan communities already recognized the problems of such a variable hydrological regime, and as a response developed artificial recharge systems that increase water availability during the dry season. The specific kind of technique called "Mamanteo" in the central Sierra, consists of diverting flow from a natural small stream to force it to infiltrate on mountain slopes during the rainy season. This water builds in lag times of weeks to months, and resurfaces in springs to be `harvested' during critical dry months. To quantify the storage and regulation capacity of these systems, hydrological monitoring and dye tracer experiments were implemented in two subcatchments of the Chillon river, which is part of the water supply of Lima. We found a clear hydrological connectivity between the infiltration canals and open springs downslope, with travel times of dye tracer between 2 weeks and 8 months -peaking at 2 months- confirming the ability of the system to effectively make water available in the dry season. However, some challenges remain, especially with respect to an accurate quantification of harvestable water and percolated volumes to deeper soil strata, that might be a benefit for Lima in the coastal plain. Nevertheless, there is clear

  13. The Empire Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micklitz, Hans-W.; Pałka, Przemysław; Panagis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    The authors argue that it is possible to partly automate the process of abstract control of fairness of clauses in online consumer contracts. The authors present a theoretical and empirical argument for this claim, including a brief presentation of the software they have designed. This type...

  14. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  15. Essays in empirical microeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Péter, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The empirical studies in this thesis investigate various factors that could affect individuals' labor market, family formation and educational outcomes. Chapter 2 focuses on scheduling as a potential determinant of individuals' productivity. Chapter 3 looks at the role of a family factor on

  16. Empirically sampling Universal Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie; Agic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    Universal Dependencies incur a high cost in computation for unbiased system development. We propose a 100% empirically chosen small subset of UD languages for efficient parsing system development. The technique used is based on measurements of model capacity globally. We show that the diversity o...

  17. Empirical Music Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....

  18. Empirical research and logotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this paper was to outline suggestions for future logotherapy applications and research. Empirical studies are available on logotherapy constructs, but additional research is sorely needed. The psychometrics of logotherapy measures need to be expanded. Carefully conducted experimental studies may aid in refining long-standing logotherapy concepts and supporting or refuting new ones.

  19. "Piores que bestas feras": Garcilaso de la Vega e o imaginário hispano-inca sobre os Guarani Chiriguano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protasio Paulo Langer

    Full Text Available No presente artigo propomos uma análise do imaginário de Garcilaso de la Vega sobre os Chiriguano - povo guarani falante que, por volta do século XV, se estabeleceu nas fronteiras do império andino. O tenaz enfrentamento que travaram contra os exércitos imperiais incaicos e, posteriormente, contra os hispânicos ensejou que o cronista Garcilaso de la Vega descrevesse os Chiriguano como a antítese da civilização. Nossa análise incide sobre como esse cronista mestiço abordou os Chiriguano, no intuito de tecer similaridades entre o imaginário cristão e o inca.

  20. Controls on inorganic nitrogen leaching from Finnish catchments assessed using a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the INCA-N model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankinen, K.; Granlund, K. [Finnish Environmental Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Futter, M. N. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    The semi-distributed, dynamic INCA-N model was used to simulate the behaviour of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in two Finnish research catchments. Parameter sensitivity and model structural uncertainty were analysed using generalized sensitivity analysis. The Mustajoki catchment is a forested upstream catchment, while the Savijoki catchment represents intensively cultivated lowlands. In general, there were more influential parameters in Savijoki than Mustajoki. Model results were sensitive to N-transformation rates, vegetation dynamics, and soil and river hydrology. Values of the sensitive parameters were based on long-term measurements covering both warm and cold years. The highest measured DIN concentrations fell between minimum and maximum values estimated during the uncertainty analysis. The lowest measured concentrations fell outside these bounds, suggesting that some retention processes may be missing from the current model structure. The lowest concentrations occurred mainly during low flow periods; so effects on total loads were small. (orig.)

  1. Peru steps up push to attract oil investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru's government is stepping up efforts to attract more foreign investment in its oil and gas sector. Since taking over in July 1990, the government of President Alberto Fujimori has taken a number of steps to privatize the oil sector, improve the fiscal regime for oil investment, and streamline regulations on oil and gas investment. In the most dramatic step, the Fujimori administration ended state oil company Petroleos del Peru's monopoly on downstream operations as well as imports and exports of oil and gas as part of sweeping new oil and gas legislation. In addition, officials of the Fujimori administration have been traveling to key oil centers around the world with a presentation on Peru's hydrocarbon potential, trying to spark interest in E and D investment there

  2. Safe management of discussed sealed sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallaupoma, M.

    2000-01-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Peru, in the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply an Institutional policy to assure harmless and ecologically rational management of disused sealed sources in Peru. Some results of the studies, which served as a basis for design and construction of a facility for treatment, conditioning and storage of conditioned sealed sources are presented in this paper. The waste management system in Peru comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislation. The Nuclear Research Center RACSO has a radioactive waste management department which is in charge of the management of disused sealed sources produced in the country. It is considered as a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF). (author)

  3. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal: análise de 146 casos do centro de referência do Instituto Nacional do Câncer - INCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Linhares

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento de GIST no INCA. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de todos os casos de GIST tratados no INCA no período de 1997 a 2009. RESULTADOS: Analisamos 146 pacientes, com média de idade de 44,5 anos e predomínio do sexo feminino. O principal sintoma foi dor abdominal. Tivemos ocorrência de segundo primário em 22% dos casos e na imuno-histoquímica, 92% foram positivos para CD117. A localização mais frequente foi estômago e predominou o grupo de alto risco. A cirurgia foi R0 (extenso em 70% e os principais sítios de metástases foram fígado e peritônio. A sobrevida global foi, respectivamente, em dois e cinco anos de 86% e 59%. Houve significante diferença entre a sobrevida global (p=0,29 do grupo de alto risco versus os demais. CONCLUSÃO: Os nossos pacientes apresentam-se principalmente sob forma de doença de alto risco com repercussão óbvia na sobrevida. O uso de Imatinib melhorou a sobrevida dos pacientes com doença metastática e recidivada. Devemos estudar seu uso no cenário de adjuvância e neoadjuvancia visando melhorar os índices do grupo de alto risco. A criação de centros referenciais é uma necessidade para o estudo de doenças pouco frequentes.

  4. Assessment of the impact of oxidation processes on indoor air pollution using the new time-resolved INCA-Indoor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Maxence; Blond, Nadège; Blondeau, Patrice; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Hauglustaine, Didier A.

    2015-12-01

    INCA-Indoor, a new indoor air quality (IAQ) model, has been developed to simulate the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxidants considering indoor air specific processes such as: emission, ventilation, surface interactions (sorption, deposition, uptake). Based on the detailed version of SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism, INCA-Indoor is able to analyze the contribution of the production and loss pathways of key chemical species (VOCs, oxidants, radical species). The potential of this model has been tested through three complementary analyses: a comparison with the most detailed IAQ model found in the literature, focusing on oxidant species; realistic scenarios covering a large range of conditions, involving variable OH sources like HONO; and the investigation of alkenes ozonolysis under a large range of indoor conditions that can increase OH and HO2 concentrations. Simulations have been run changing nitrous acid (HONO) concentrations, NOx levels, photolysis rates and ventilation rates, showing that HONO can be the main source of indoor OH. Cleaning events using products containing D-limonene have been simulated at different periods of the day. These scenarios show that HOX concentrations can significantly increase in specific conditions. An assessment of the impact of indoor chemistry on the potential formation of secondary species such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) has been carried out under various room configuration scenarios and a study of the HOx budget for different realistic scenarios has been performed. It has been shown that, under the simulation conditions, formaldehyde can be affected by oxidant concentrations via chemical production which can account for more than 10% of the total production, representing 6.5 ppb/h. On the other hand, acetaldehyde production is affected more by oxidation processes. When the photolysis rates are high, chemical processes are responsible for about 50% of the total production of

  5. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  6. The tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.

  7. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  8. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  9. Bacterial formation of phosphatic laminites off Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, E T; Birgel, D; Brunner, B; Peckmann, J

    2009-06-01

    Authigenic phosphatic laminites enclosed in phosphorite crusts from the shelf off Peru (10 degrees 01' S and 10 degrees 24' S) consist of carbonate fluorapatite layers, which contain abundant sulfide minerals including pyrite (FeS(2)) and sphalerite (ZnS). Low delta(34)S(pyrite) values (average -28.8 per thousand) agree with bacterial sulfate reduction and subsequent pyrite formation. Stable sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate bound in carbonate fluorapatite are lower than that of sulfate from ambient sea water, suggesting bacterial reoxidation of sulfide by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. The release of phosphorus and subsequent formation of the autochthonous phosphatic laminites are apparently caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and associated sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Following an extraction-phosphorite dissolution-extraction procedure, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria (mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, di-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, as well as the short-chain branched fatty acids i/ai-C(15:0), i/ai-C(17:0) and 10MeC(16:0)) are found to be among the most abundant compounds. The fact that these molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are distinctly more abundant after dissolution of the phosphatic laminite reveals that the lipids are tightly bound to the mineral lattice of carbonate fluorapatite. Moreover, compared with the autochthonous laminite, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are: (1) significantly less abundant and (2) not as tightly bound to the mineral lattice in the other, allochthonous facies of the Peruvian crusts consisting of phosphatic coated grains. These observations confirm the importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the formation of the phosphatic laminite. Model calculations highlight that organic matter degradation by sulfate-reducing bacteria has the potential to liberate sufficient phosphorus for phosphogenesis.

  10. Popular video for rural development in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvelo Rios, J M

    1989-01-01

    Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course.

  11. Radiation Therapy in Peru: Achievements and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, P.; Má, C.; Venegas, D.; Bustamante, R.

    2015-01-01

    Peru is the fastest growing economy in Latin America (sustained increase in GDP, low inflation and poverty reduction). The health system is fragmented and until 2012, almost half of the population had no health insurance. The current government poses: Improved access to health and education, employment and social security, reducing extreme poverty, within a context of social inclusion. The Plan for Prevention and Control of Cancer (“Plan Esperanza”) was established in 2012 in order to reduce cancer mortality and morbidity, with greater access to oncology services (promotion, prevention, early diagnosis, treatment and palliative care). With an area of 1 285 216 square kilometers and almost 30 million inhabitants, cancer treatment resources are scarce. Regarding Radiation Therapy, until 2007, it existed only in Lima, the capital city (over 9 million inhabitants). Later, another services were established in two more regions. At present, there is 23 radiotherapy machines in whole country. In this regard, Plan Esperanza is working on strengthening Radiation Therapy Services nationwide. Considering the population demand and availability of other cancer services (chemotherapy, oncologic surgery), the regions where need create new radiotherapy services were identified: 3 Hospitals in Lima (in peripheral areas: Cayetano Heredia at the North, Hipólito Unanue at East and Maria Auxiliadora at South). Also, other Regions of the country: Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad at North; Junín in the Central Highland, Cusco in the Southern Highland, and Loreto in the Northern Forest. Each with 2 linear accelerators, except Loreto, where they will consider two 60 Cobalt bomb instead, due to the geographical conditions. Moreover, one linear accelerator in Arequipa Region will be acquired. In Lima, the Hospitals are projected to become operational in 2016, while in the Regions, the Ministry of Health is providing them technical assistance in needs identification, planning and

  12. Gazprom: the new empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemoles, A.; Lazareva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gazprom is conquering the world. The Russian industrial giant owns the hugest gas reserves and enjoys the privilege of a considerable power. Gazprom edits journals, owns hospitals, airplanes and has even built cities where most of the habitants work for him. With 400000 workers, Gazprom represents 8% of Russia's GDP. This inquiry describes the history and operation of this empire and show how its has become a masterpiece of the government's strategy of russian influence reconquest at the world scale. Is it going to be a winning game? Are the corruption affairs and the expected depletion of resources going to weaken the empire? The authors shade light on the political and diplomatic strategies that are played around the crucial dossier of the energy supply. (J.S.)

  13. Empires, Modernisation and Modernities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ballantyne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In examining four recent books, this essay explores some key facets of contemporary scholarship on empire and the making of the modern world. Drawing on Dipesh Chakrabarty’s arguments about the often contingent relationship between modernisation as a set of material and institutional transformations and modernity as a cultural sensibility, it argues that the unfolding of the modern was messy, uneven, and remained in process until the age of decolonisation. The essay suggests that the range of modern formations that emerged out of empire-building were profoundly imprinted by local socio-political patterns and the weight of precolonial cultural traditions, meaning that modernisation never played out as an entirely homogenising force.

  14. Socio-cultural determinants of child mortality in southern Peru: including some methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meer, K; Bergman, R; Kusner, J S

    1993-02-01

    Among Amerindian children living at high altitude in the Andes in southern Peru, high child mortality rates have been reported in the literature, especially in the perinatal and neonatal period. We compared mortality rates in children calculated from retrospective survey data in 86 rural families from 2 Aymara and 3 Quechua peasant communities living at the same level of altitude (3825 m) in southern Peru. Relations between land tenure, socio-cultural factors and child mortality were studied, and methodological considerations in this field of interest are discussed. Checks on consistency of empirical data showed evidence for underreporting of neonatal female deaths with birth order 3 and more. Perinatal (124 vs 34 per 1000 births) and infant mortality (223 vs 111 per 1000 live births) was significantly higher in Aymara compared with Quechua children, but no difference was found after the first year of life. A short pregnancy interval was associated with an elevated perinatal and infant mortality rate, and a similar albeit insignificant association was found with increased maternal age. Amount of land owned and birth order were not related with child mortality. Although levels of maternal education are generally low in both cultures, a consistent decline in infant and child mortality was found with the amount of years mothers had attended school. However, the results suggest a U-shaped relationship between the amount of years of parental education and perinatal mortality in offspring. Late fetal and early neonatal mortality were particularly high in one Aymara community where mothers were found to have more years of education. Infanticide, a known phenomenon in the highlands of the Andes, is discussed in relation with the findings of the study. Although maternal and child health services are utilized by the majority of families in 4 of 5 study communities, 43 of 51 mothers under the age of 45 years reported that they delivered their last baby in the absence of

  15. Essays in empirical microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Péter, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three papers using empirical methods to study issues in public and social economics. My first paper, co-authored with Julian Betts, analyzes the performance of San Diego's charter schools using fixed-effect methods on panel student data. We find that charter school performance in San Diego varies by subject matter, grades served, school type and years of operation. In many cases, we find that charter school performance is indistinguishable from that of tradit...

  16. Trade and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2007-01-01

    This articles seeks to establish a new set of organizing concepts for the analysis of the Roman imperial economy from Republic to late antiquity: tributary empire, port-folio capitalism and protection costs. Together these concepts explain better economic developments in the Roman world than the ...... much used notion of an imperial market economy.  Roman imperial government was to weak to provide the institutional supports needed by a well functioning laissez-faire economy....

  17. High Andean butterflies from southern Peru, I. Dry puna Satyrinae, with the description of two new taxa and three new records from Peru (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Cerdeña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a series of contributions to the knowledge of the high Andean butterfly fauna in southern Peru. In this work the butterfly species of the subfamily Satyrinae present in the dry puna of Peru are reviewed. A new species, Pampasatyrus gorkyi sp. nov. and a new subspecies Argyrophorus lamna cuzcoensis ssp. nov. are described from the department Cusco, Peru. Three species are recorded for the first time for Peru, Argyrophorus gustavi Staudinger, Faunula euripides (Weymer and Faunula eleates (Weymer previously reported from Chile and Bolivia. Ecological and biogeographical data are provided.

  18. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  19. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y

    OpenAIRE

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A.; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2015-01-01

    An exceptionally detailed ice core from the high-altitude location of Quelccaya (Peru) contains compelling evidence that the well-known metallurgic activities performed during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438−1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, atmospheric emissions of a variety of toxic trace elements in South America started to have a widespread environmental impact around A.D. 1540, ∼240 y before the industrial revolution when colonial metallurgy began to...

  20. The Peru cervical cancer prevention study (PERCAPS): community-based participatory research in Manchay, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Although technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community-based participatory research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of community-based participatory research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling and cryotherapy were used for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was used for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by (1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, (2) the successful use of research forms provided, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) satisfaction of the participants. (1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; (2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were used correctly with minimal error; (3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV-positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the first vaccine, 97% of those received the second vaccine, and 93% the third; (4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Community-based participatory research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen/treat and vaccinate

  1. Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    relative disease burden imposed by each pathogen. Acknowledgments We would like to express our gratitude to Direccion General de Epidemiologia ...tions/en/index.html. Accessed 2007 Sep 15. 12. Oficina General de Epidemiologia /Instituto Nacional de Salud (2000) Influenza. Lima-Peru: Ministerio de

  2. Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo B. M. Machado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae. Philogenia nemesioi sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on one male specimen collected on forests of the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes at 900 m. It belongs to the cristalina group, but differs from other species of the group by the structure of the anal appendage.

  3. The Forest Indians in the Present Political Situation of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varese, Stefano

    The article focuses on tribal minorities (American Indians) of the Peruvian tropical forest from the point of view of the political circumstances and the general administrative conditions of the country. In 1968 the revolutionary military government initiated a series of structural reforms which aimed at transforming Peru. This article poses and…

  4. All projects related to Peru | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    The Permanent Seminar on Agricultural Research (SEPIA), Peru, was created in 1985 to promote multidisciplinary research on and discussion of rural and environmental issues within the academic community with a view to influencing public policy. Start Date: April 1, 2010. End Date: March 31, 2014. Topic: RESEARCH ...

  5. The United States Counter Drug Strategy for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-23

    Policy 85 (Winter 1991-92): 113. 21 13. Oscar Madrid, "Fujimori: un liderazgo firme," Vision 78:1 (15 January 1992): 12. 14. Thomas Kamm, "Peru Leader’s...Cocaine Industry," Journal of InterAmerican Studies and World Affairs 30 (Summer/Fall 1988): 87-103. Madrid, Oscar. "Fujimori: un liderazgo firme." Vision

  6. Internationalization at home : Technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivos Rossini, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of information systems, management science in particular the field of management education and cross-cultural studies. It further proposes a model to understand technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru. In addition, the model examines

  7. Helpdesk for Spanish Speaking Telecentre Communities in Peru ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Helpdesk for Spanish Speaking Telecentre Communities in Peru and Latin America. IDRC's telecentre.org supports various efforts to strengthen the capacity of people working in telecentres across the world through knowledge-sharing, collaboration and networking. Through these efforts, strong telecentre networks in Africa ...

  8. All projects related to Peru | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: North and Central America, South America, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru ... Research Fund (CIFSRF), aims to increase the effectiveness of organic farming in two regions of the Peruvian Andes (Cusco and Cajamarca) known for their high biodiversity and active farmers' associations.

  9. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  10. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  11. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  12. All projects related to Peru | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-06-30

    Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa face a “triple” burden: a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition, an increase in diet-related chronic diseases, and an HIV epidemic that disproportionately affects women. Start Date: June 30, 2009. End Date: July 1, 2014. Topic: Gender. Region: Ghana, Peru, Canada. Program: ...

  13. Maternal health enters the information age in Peru | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... In Peru, a pilot project that aims to improve maternal health by using technology to improve the health-care system's efficiency could one day have an impact on the entire country. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, a partnership between IDRC ...

  14. Finding decent jobs for Peru's youth | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 avr. 2016 ... Peru surpasses the regional average: almost 4 out of 5 young workers have a precarious job (most of them are self-employed or work in small enterprises). ... Project page on PUCP website with PowerPoint presentations from the workshop (in Spanish); Announcement on Labour Ministry's website (in ...

  15. Finding decent jobs for Peru's youth | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... There is an urgent need for solid research and policy guidance to tackle youth employment challenges in Latin America. In the region almost 9 million youth are unemployed. Regionally, for every three young workers, two are employed in precarious jobs. Peru surpasses the regional average: almost 4 out ...

  16. Modernity, Exclusion and Resistance: Water and indigenous struggles in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera Delgado, J.R.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Juana Vera Delgado and Margreet Zwarteveen present the social and political struggles around water of peasant indigenous people from an Andean community in Peru. They look at how the community attempts to access, control and claim legitimacy for their rights to water when faced with a large and

  17. Naipes (axe moneys: a pre-Hispanic currency in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Merkel

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Between AD 900 and 1100 in northern Peru, high-status members of the Middle Siccin culture were buried in large tombs accompanied by elaborate grave goods that included gold, silver and copper objects, and also pieces of sheet metal known as naipes. Metallurgical study of naipes at the Institute supports the view that they were a form of "primitive money".

  18. Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    David Reinstein; Daniel A. Benítez Benítez; Todd M. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, in...

  19. All projects related to peru | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Democracy Project: Building Citizenship through Schools. Project. This project will study the perceptions and expectations of democracy, citizenship, and citizenship education in six regions of Peru. ... Project. This project will study private sector efforts to promote better compliance with anticorruption laws in Latin America.

  20. Ecohealth in Focus Cities - Lima, Peru | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institution. Fundacion San Marcos para el Desarrollo dela Ciencia y la Cultura. Institution Country. Peru. Outputs. Reports. Estudio con enfoque de ecosalud sobre condiciones de trabajo, entornos ambientales y salud de los trabajadores que manipulan residuos sólidos y sus familias- MIRR 2008-2011 : informe final.

  1. All projects related to peru | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOUTH AMERICA, LATIN AMERICA, TRADITIONAL MEDICINE, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE, PUBLIC HEALTH, INDIGENOUS POPULATION, Gender. Region: Peru. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 535,500.00. Violence in three Latin American cities: A comparative study between Bogota, ...

  2. La materia económica en «La Florida del Inca» y los «Comentarios reales»: testimonio colonial y discurso historiográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Díez Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Si bien el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega no escribió tratados sino obras de historia política, las referencias económicas en La Florida del Inca (1605 y las dos partes de los Comentarios reales (1609, 1617 ofrecen un testimonio indirecto de algunos de los procesos económicos del colonialismo temprano. Este artículo sintetiza las menciones de Garcilaso al comercio, los precios y los bienes materiales, y las sitúa dentro de la evolución de su manera de escribir historia y dentro de sus opiniones sobre la historia del Nuevo Mundo (incluyendo tanto interpretaciones de procesos históricos como recuerdos personales.

  3. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...

  4. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...... for a proper acknowledgment of epistemology’s role in conceptual improvement...

  5. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communitiesSouth Peru after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.; Sýkora, K.V.; Quipuscoa-Silvestre, V.; Cleef, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We used TWINSPAN for

  6. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru. Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  7. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  8. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  9. On the shape and properties of the global heliosphere over the Solar Cycle with Voyager/LECP ions and Cassini/INCA ENAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Konstantinos; Krimigis, Stamatios; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Roelof, Edmond

    2017-04-01

    Voyager 1 (V1) and Voyager 2 (V2) have crossed the termination shock in 2004 (V1) and 2007(V2) and traversing the Heliosheath (HS) in the upstream (nose) hemisphere, while the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) on Cassini enables Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) images of the celestial sphere that place the local ion measurements by each Voyager in a global context. We present an analysis of 5.2-55 keV ENA global images of the HS and 28-53 keV in-situ ions over an 11-year period (2003-2014) that corresponds to the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (SC23) and onset of SC24. The measurements reveal a coherent decrease and recovery between ENA in the global heliosphere and in-situ ions at V1/V2 during this time period, in overlapping energy bands, establishing that the HS ions are the source of >28 keV ENA. The similarity in the overall appearance of the images throughout the INCA energy range (5.2-55 keV), reveals that the source of ENAs at 5.2 keV ENA and ion variations with the Solar Sunspot Numbers (SSN) and solar wind parameters indicates that the Heliosphere responds promptly, within 2-3 years, to outward propagating solar wind changes in both the nose and anti-nose (tail) directions following the Solar Cycle (SC) phases. A detailed latitudinal examination of the global ENA emissions, verifies that the peak intensities between the nose and anti-nose directions are nearly similar, the power law ENA spectral index (γ) is largely the same near the equator in both the nose and anti-nose directions and displays similar spatial dependence with latitude. The totality of the ENA and in situ ion observations, together with the V1 measurement of a 0.5 nT interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) and recent modeling, suggest a "bubble-shape" heliosphere, i.e with little substantial tail-like feature. These observations are essential in determining the context for the measurements anticipated by the forthcoming IMAP mission.

  10. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational in students from Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Gordillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, attending public schools in Callao, Peru. Students from single-sex schools showed less frequent disruptive behavior in each of the three measured categories—disruptive behaviors, behaviors that show lack of responsibility and anti-social behavior. A weak correlation was found between each of the three categories and the main variable. The study controlled for extraneous variables.

  11. [Serologic prevalence of HCV antibodies in health personnel in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colichon Yerosh, Alejandro; Figueroa, Rolando; Moreno, Armando; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Ferrandíz, Jorge; Busalleu, Alejandro; Prado, William; Candella, Ricardo; Colichón, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Wilson; Espinoza, Julio; Kianman, Wilfredo; Amaya, Nelly; García Pérez, Segundo A; Tello Rodriguez, José; Valdez, Jesús; Paucar Sotomayor, Héctor; Sanchez, César

    2004-01-01

    In Peru, new cases of asymptomatic HCV infection are reported with certain frequency in patients with or without antecedents of blood transfusion. Although serologic screening has improved notoriously in the last years, there is still a population of polytransfused patients with high HCV risk (e.g. hemodialyzed patients), making up a major reservoir. Based on this premise, we decided to study the risk of the health worker population in Peru as another major HCV risk group. A total of 2,769 health workers from 7 Public Hospitals and 2 Private Hospitals in the City of Lima and from 7 Public Hospitals in 4 major/main cities of Peru (Chiclayo, Trujillo, Arequipa, and Cusco) were studied. All those workers, who due to their area of work had higher contact with blood and/or blood derivatives (Surgery, ICU, Traumatology, Gynecology, Gastroenterology, Hemodialysis and Laboratories-Blood Banks) were studied. The studied population accounts for 30% of the total health worker population in these services. All serums underwent the EIA-3 test (HCV-Cobas-Core, Lab. Roche, USA). The positive results were confirmed by RT-HCV (Ampiclor, Roche). The positive serums were confirmed by PCR and the positive results with high viral load underwent HCV genotyping (AMPICLOR-Roche Diagnostic, IGEN Diagnostic USA). Of the 2,769 health workers studied in Peru, 32 were positive for HCV antibodies (1.16% of the total number). Lima showed a prevalence slightly higher than the provinces: 26 out of 2,112 vs. 6 out of 657, or 1.23% vs. 0.91%, respectively. The higher risk is assumed by professional with higher level of contact with blood: 2 physicians (Hemodialysis), 5 nurses (HD) and Lab-Blood Bank technicians. The physicians and nurses share the same risk. If we segregate Lima from provinces, it can be seen that the highest risk is in Lima (1.34% compared to 1.07% in provinces). There is a major risk in health workers and the figures are slightly above those that were suspected for Peru (between 0

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (TUREP) Mission to Peru. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Peru estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 6 000 to 11 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in Late Tertiary ignimbrites and associated sediments in the high Andes of southern Peru. Other favourable geological environments include calcretes, developed from Tertiary volcanogenic sources over the Precambrian in the Pacific Coastal desert in southern Peru, and Hercynian subvolcanic granites in the eastern Cordillera of southern Peru. The Mission recommends that over a period of five years approximately U.S. $10 million be spent on exploration in Peru. The majority of this would be spent on drilling ($5 million) and tunnelling ($2 million) with an additional $3 million on surface and airborne radiometric surveys. (author)

  13. Insurgency in Peru, Retrospective Analysis of the Sendero Luminoso’s (Shining Path)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    ideology spread Guzman began t? assume a semi mythical stature and was to be known through out Peru as " Presidente Gonzalo, the fourth sword ofMarxism...Virginia 22134-5068 MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES TITLE: Insurgency in Peru , Retrospective analysis of the Sendero Luminoso’s (Shining Path) SUBMITTED IN...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Insurgency in Peru

  14. Tourism in Peru: The Missing Strategy for Economic and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    the Japanese immigrants in Peru , classified him as other than the typical political class, justifying his motto of being “un presidente como tu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited TOURISM IN PERU : THE...REPORT DATE June 2006 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tourism in Peru : The Missing Strategy for Economic and

  15. Nutrients, oxygen and biogeochemical processes in the Humboldt upwelling current system off Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle I. Graco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The upwelling system of the Humboldt Current, is considered among the most productive systems in the world, extending along the eastern South Pacific off Chile and Peru. In particular the coastal waters off Peru attracted considerable interest for being among the most fertile and productive the world, highlighting fisheries, such as anchovy, which represent one of the pillars of the economy of Peru.

  16. The effect on cardiovascular risk factors of migration from rural to urban areas in Peru: PERU MIGRANT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; García, Héctor H; Smeeth, Liam

    2009-06-08

    Mass-migration observed in Peru from the 1970s occurred because of the need to escape from politically motivated violence and work related reasons. The majority of the migrant population, mostly Andean peasants from the mountainous areas, tends to settle in clusters in certain parts of the capital and their rural environment could not be more different than the urban one. Because the key driver for migration was not the usual economic and work-related reasons, the selection effects whereby migrants differ from non-migrants are likely to be less prominent in Peru. Thus the Peruvian context offers a unique opportunity to test the effects of migration. The PERU MIGRANT (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs) study was designed to investigate the magnitude of differences between rural-to-urban migrant and non-migrant groups in specific CVD risk factors. For this, three groups were selected: Rural, people who have always have lived in a rural environment; Rural-urban, people who migrated from rural to urban areas; and, Urban, people who have always lived in a urban environment. Overall response rate at enrolment was 73.2% and overall response rate at completion of the study was 61.6%. A rejection form was obtained in 282/323 people who refused to take part in the study (87.3%). Refusals did not differ by sex in rural and migrant groups, but 70% of refusals in the urban group were males. In terms of age, most refusals were observed in the oldest age-group (>60 years old) in all study groups. The final total sample size achieved was 98.9% of the target sample size (989/1000). Of these, 52.8% (522/989) were females. Final size of the rural, migrant and urban study groups were 201, 589 and 199 urban people, respectively. Migrant's average age at first migration and years lived in an urban environment were 14.4 years (IQR 10-17) and 32 years (IQR 25-39), respectively. This paper describes the PERU MIGRANT study design together with a critical analysis of the potential for bias and

  17. The effect on cardiovascular risk factors of migration from rural to urban areas in Peru: PERU MIGRANT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda J Jaime

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass-migration observed in Peru from the 1970s occurred because of the need to escape from politically motivated violence and work related reasons. The majority of the migrant population, mostly Andean peasants from the mountainous areas, tends to settle in clusters in certain parts of the capital and their rural environment could not be more different than the urban one. Because the key driver for migration was not the usual economic and work-related reasons, the selection effects whereby migrants differ from non-migrants are likely to be less prominent in Peru. Thus the Peruvian context offers a unique opportunity to test the effects of migration. Methods/Design The PERU MIGRANT (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs study was designed to investigate the magnitude of differences between rural-to-urban migrant and non-migrant groups in specific CVD risk factors. For this, three groups were selected: Rural, people who have always have lived in a rural environment; Rural-urban, people who migrated from rural to urban areas; and, Urban, people who have always lived in a urban environment. Discussion Overall response rate at enrolment was 73.2% and overall response rate at completion of the study was 61.6%. A rejection form was obtained in 282/323 people who refused to take part in the study (87.3%. Refusals did not differ by sex in rural and migrant groups, but 70% of refusals in the urban group were males. In terms of age, most refusals were observed in the oldest age-group (>60 years old in all study groups. The final total sample size achieved was 98.9% of the target sample size (989/1000. Of these, 52.8% (522/989 were females. Final size of the rural, migrant and urban study groups were 201, 589 and 199 urban people, respectively. Migrant's average age at first migration and years lived in an urban environment were 14.4 years (IQR 10–17 and 32 years (IQR 25–39, respectively. This paper describes the PERU MIGRANT study design

  18. Challenges in tuberculosis management in Peru and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivany, Elena; Boulton, Jacqueline

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious but preventable and largely treatable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although there is evidence that the UK incidence remains stable, rates of the disease, particularly in some London boroughs, remain high, earning it the unenviable title of the 'tuberculosis capital of Europe'. In March 2014 Public Health England published a consultation document on a collaborative strategy for tackling tuberculosis in England. This highlights a growing concern surrounding the issue. In the 1990s, Peru's tuberculosis epidemic saw the country listed among the Pan-American Health Organisation's top 23 countries of heaviest burden. Since then overall rates, although remaining significantly higher than those of the UK, have fallen dramatically. This article uses the observations of a BSc Nursing student undertaking an international elective in Peru to highlight some of the challenges faced by nurses in managing TB and draws parallels with those faced in the UK.

  19. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru. PMID:24001096

  20. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

    1997-07-14

    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  1. European hare Lepus europaeus(Lagomorpha: Leporidae an invasive species in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Zeballos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current distribution of the European hare, Lepus europaeus, in Peru which currently covers the highlands, Andean valleys, surrounding areas of the Titicaca Lake and coastal irrigations; in Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna departments. Based on its current distribution we developed models of potential distribution of this species, which would forecast this species in northern Peru. We make recommendations on the main issues that should be studied in Peru, and the possible consequences of their invasive process of in Peru.

  2. Response times of Cassini/INCA > 5.2 keV ENAs and Voyager ions in the heliosheath over the solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, K.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    2017-09-01

    Both a magnetosphere-like tail and a bubble model of the heliosphere were posited by E. N. Parker in 1961. Recently, we showed that heliosheath ions are the source of > 5.2 keV Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA), whose images of the heliosphere exhibit a rough nose to anti-nose (tail) global symmetry that resembles a diamagnetic bubble. The comparison between energetic neutral atom (ENA) global images of the helioshphere obtained with the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) on board Cassini and ions measured in-situ by the Low Energy Charged Particle experiment (LECP) on board Voyager 1 and 2 (V1/V2) in overlapping energy bands over an 11-year period shows that the heliosphere responds promptly, within ∼2-3 years, to outward propagating solar wind changes in both the nose and tail directions. Here we focus on the recovery of solar cycle 24 and the response times of > 5.2 keV ENAs to show that this ∼2-3-year time delay is consistent with a “tail” of ∼80-120 AU. This preliminary rough calculation is generally consistent with lower energy ENA data (E < 6 keV, from the IBEX-Lo and IBEX-Hi) and is supported by recent modelling of the heliosphere.

  3. Thermal neutron capture cross-section measurements of 243Am and 242Pu using the new mini-INCA α- and γ-spectroscopy station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, F.; Letourneau, A.; Fioni, G.; Deruelle, O.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Faust, H.; Mutti, P.; AlMahamid, I.; Muhammad, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the Mini-INCA project, dedicated to the study of Minor Actinide transmutation process in high neutron fluxes, an α- and γ-spectroscopy station has been developed and installed at the High Flux Reactor of the Laue-Langevin Institut. This set-up allows short irradiations as well as long irradiations in a high quasi-thermal neutron flux and post-irradiation spectroscopy analysis. It is well suited to measure precisely, in reference to 59 Co cross-section, neutron capture cross-sections, for all the actinides, in the thermal energy region. The first measurements using this set-up were done on 243 Am and 242 Pu isotopes. Cross-section values, at E n =0.025eV, were found to be (81.8+/-3.6)b for 243 Am and (22.5+/-1.1)b for 242 Pu. These values differ from evaluated data libraries by a factor of 9% and 17%, respectively, but are compatible with the most recent measurements, validating by the way the experimental apparatus

  4. Moral assemblages of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Burrai, E; Mostafanezhad, M; Hannam, K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a conceptual approach from which to examine the moral landscape of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru. Drawing from recent work on assemblage theory in geography and tourism studies, we explore how assemblage thinking can facilitate new understandings of volunteer tourism development. Using assemblage as an analytical framework allows us to understand volunteer tourism as a series of relational, processual, unequal and mobile practices. These practices, we ...

  5. In Puruchuco is destroyed archaeological heritage of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Mendoza, Alberto; Echevarría López, Gori Tumi

    2015-01-01

    The archaeological site of Puruchuco occupies all areas of Cerro Mayorazgo whose studies by archaeologists indicate that such dierent occupations belong to dierent archaeological periods of ancient Peru. Archaeological evidence found at the view from the north ridge, the eastern ank of the hill, the truncated and in several areas of its western slope, whose lower parts are being discovered the next archaeological evidence to Site Museum and the Grand Palace summit Tawantinsuyu rescued and pu...

  6. Trade agreements and access to drugs in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Llamoza, Javier; Químico Farmacéutico, Acción Internacional para la Salud, Lima, Perú.

    2009-01-01

    Through Free Trade Agreements, the economies of the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) have been achieving a higher standard of protection of the intellectual property rights. This increases unduly the monopolist rights of the industry, restricting competition and limiting the access of new generic drugs. Peru has not been the exception to this process, subscribing a free trade agreement with the USA called Agreement of Commercial Promotion (APC) that involved the ...

  7. The Shining Path and the Future of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    the movement was presented as a synthesis of the work of Mao and the "native socialism" of Jose Carlos Mariategui , a Peru- vian intellectual who was...1986, p. 128. Jose Carlos Mariategui (1894-1930) was the founding father of the Peruvian Socialist Party in the 1920s. His views on rural socialism are...Revolucionario por el Sen- dero Luminoso de Mariategui , the Revolutionary Student Front for the Shining Path of Mariategui . This group and those that had

  8. The Rise and Development of Sendero Luminoso in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-27

    ideological base was a synthesis of three major sources: the native socialism of Jose Carlos Mariategui who was the founder of the Peruvian Socialist...applied a combination of socialist teachings of Mariategui and Incan mysticism. Guzman reinterpreted these principles as they applied to contemporary...has adapted the philosophy of Mariategui as it relates -o the Indian and even carried it beyond the borders of Peru. These tenets hold that political

  9. Peru : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Ethiopia, Peru, Zambia. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 1,120,200.00. Renforcer les réseaux de think tanks. Projet. La stratégie de renforcement des capacités de la Phase 2 de l'Initiative Think tank (ITT) met l'accent sur les institutions de recherche sur les politiques afin d'assurer la ...

  10. Domestic capital formation, financial intermediation and economic development in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Bernhard

    1987-01-01

    This paper focusses on the reasons of the poor performance of domestic resource mobilization in Peru. It begins with an analysis of the structure of domestic savings and its changes in the course of economic development (Section II) . After the description of the Peruvian financial sector (Section III) financial policies since the early 1970 are reviewed and the effects of financial repression discussed (Section IV). Finally some policy suggestions to improve domestic resource mobilization ar...

  11. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  12. COMPETITIVENESS OF PERU IN THE NEW GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gomero Gonzáles, Nicko Alberto

    2014-01-01

    It is important that a country develop strong competitive to gaing solid macroeconomic result and keep constant growing. In Peru has been achieving these past years, and that have been showing in the principals indicator of economic management. The public policies implemented have created favorable scenarios to bring in investments in all productive sectors, At the same time the national companies have been develop capabilities to achieve with successes of the market globalization. The divers...

  13. Conservation narratives in Peru: envisioning biodiversity in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Zinngrebe

    2016-06-01

    In a second step, a comparative analysis of the dominant and diverging political perspectives is made. I argue that by deconstructing underlying premises and ideologies, common ground and possible opportunities for collaboration can be identified. Moreover, although the presented results can serve as a discussion scaffold to organize conservation debates in Peru, this example demonstrates how the terms biodiversity and sustainability are operationalized in conservation narratives.

  14. Antibiotic resistance among Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Valdivieso, Manuel; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Sexton, Rachael; Thompson, Kathryn C; Osorio, Soledad; Novoa Reyes, Italo; Crowley, John J; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is the most common cancer and cause of cancer mortality in Peru. Helicobacter pylori , a bacterium that colonizes the human stomach, is a Group 1 carcinogen due to its causal relationship to gastric carcinoma. While eradication of H. pylori can help prevent gastric cancer, characterizing regional antibiotic resistance patterns is necessary to determine targeted treatment for each region. Thus, we examined primary antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of H. pylori in Lima, Peru. H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with histologically proven H. pylori infection. Primary antibiotic resistance among isolates was examined using E-test strips. Isolates were examined for the presence of the cagA pathogenicity island and the vacA m1/m2 alleles via polymerase chain reaction. Seventy-six isolates were recovered from gastric biopsies. Clinical isolates showed evidence of antibiotic resistance to 1 (27.6%, n=21/76), 2 (28.9%, n=22/76), or ≥3 antibiotics (40.8%). Of 76 isolates, eight (10.5%) were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin, which are part of the standard triple therapy for H. pylori infection. No trends were seen between the presence of cagA , vacA m1, or vacA m2 and antibiotic resistance. The rate of antibiotic resistance among H. pylori isolates in Lima, Peru, is higher than expected and presents cause for concern. To develop more targeted eradication therapies for H. pylori in Peru, more research is needed to better characterize antibiotic resistance among a larger number of clinical isolates prospectively.

  15. Gender Equality in Education: GTZ and indigenous communities in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cortina

    2010-01-01

    Regina Cortina explores new forms of collaboration between European donor countries and countries in Latin America in support of education. Placed in the larger context of the European Union Development Aid policy, the focus is the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) impact on projects in Latin America, which illustrate how to mainstream gender equality into education. For a closer understanding of this success, she examines the Basic Education Programme in Peru (PROEDUCA).

  16. INDIGENOUS WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT IN PERU (1990-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Alberti Manzanares

    2007-01-01

    The situation of indigenous women in Peru it’s determined by political, economical, social, cultural and gender structure of country. If country presents low democratic, economic and political development it’s very difficult that indigenous population is integrated in equality of rights with the rest of population. In the case of indigenous women, this will be seen more affected and with fewer possibilities of development. Nevertheless, opposite to an adverse socioeconomic context the organiz...

  17. Counterfeit medicines in Peru: a retrospective review (1997–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Edwin; Bel, Elvira; Suñé, Josep María

    2016-01-01

    Objective To consolidate and assess information on counterfeit medicines subject to pharmaceutical alerts issued by the Peruvian Medicines Regulatory Authority over 18 years (1997–2014) of health monitoring and enforcement. Design A retrospective review of drug alerts. Setting A search of the website of the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID) of the Ministry of Health of Peru for drug alerts issued between 1997 and 2014. Eligibility criteria Drug alerts related to counterfeit medicines. Results A total of 669 DIGEMID alerts were issued during the study period, 354 (52.91%) of which cover 1738 cases of counterfeit medicines (many alerts deal with several cases at a time). 1010 cases (58.11%) involved pharmaceutical establishments and 349 (20.08%) involved non-pharmaceutical commercial outlets. In 126 cases (7.25%), counterfeit medicines were seized in an unauthorised trade (without any marketing authorisation); in 253 cases (14.56%) the type of establishment or business associated with the seized product was not identified. Conclusions Counterfeit medicines are a serious public health problem in Peru. A review of the data cannot determine whether counterfeit medicines in Peru increased during the study period, or if monitoring by different government health agencies highlighted the magnitude of the problem by providing more evidence. The problem is clearly structural, since the majority of cases (58.11% of the total) were detected in legitimate supply chains. Most counterfeit medicines involve staple pharmaceutical products and common dosage forms. Considerable work remains to be done to control the serious problem of counterfeit medicines in Peru. PMID:27044580

  18. [Nurses' work in Peru: origin and social conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, M C; de Martos, M V; da Fonseca, R M

    2000-07-01

    The study aimed at reviewing the history of the genesis and social formation of nurses work in Peru in order to understand it according to women's social situation in the context of a masculine society organized under capitalism. Thus, nursing formation was influenced by the Nightingale School and the exercise of the Peruvian nurses was characterized by the reproduction of social functions that are historically feminine, with a knowledge and practice subordinated to medical knowledge, that is mainly directed by a masculine ideology.

  19. The Scale Shift of Cocalero Movements in Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    199. 23 (ENACO), a legal market established in 1978 to commercialize and industrialize coca for legal purposes such as pharmaceuticals and Coca... Colombia , where Indians either had disappeared or had been assimilated into mestizo societies by the 1940s, there was little...surrounding cocalero movements in Peru and Bolivia, countries that are top-three suppliers of coca feeding the world cocaine market . Explaining cross

  20. Antibiotic resistance among Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Valdivieso, Manuel; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Sexton, Rachael; Thompson, Kathryn C; Osorio, Soledad; Reyes, Italo Novoa; Crowley, John J; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Gastric carcinoma is the most common cancer and cause of cancer mortality in Peru. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that colonizes the human stomach, is a Group 1 carcinogen due to its causal relationship to gastric carcinoma. While eradication of H. pylori can help prevent gastric cancer, characterizing regional antibiotic resistance patterns is necessary to determine targeted treatment for each region. Thus, we examined primary antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of H. pylori in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with histologically proven H. pylori infection. Primary antibiotic resistance among isolates was examined using E-test strips. Isolates were examined for the presence of the cagA pathogenicity island and the vacA m1/m2 alleles via polymerase chain reaction. Results Seventy-six isolates were recovered from gastric biopsies. Clinical isolates showed evidence of antibiotic resistance to 1 (27.6%, n=21/76), 2 (28.9%, n=22/76), or ≥3 antibiotics (40.8%). Of 76 isolates, eight (10.5%) were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin, which are part of the standard triple therapy for H. pylori infection. No trends were seen between the presence of cagA, vacA m1, or vacA m2 and antibiotic resistance. Conclusion The rate of antibiotic resistance among H. pylori isolates in Lima, Peru, is higher than expected and presents cause for concern. To develop more targeted eradication therapies for H. pylori in Peru, more research is needed to better characterize antibiotic resistance among a larger number of clinical isolates prospectively. PMID:28331349

  1. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  2. Geographic distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M

    1998-08-01

    Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These

  3. Induced mutation in Lupinus mutabilis sweet in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerrate V, A.; Manrique Chavez, A.; Camarena, F.M.; Nakaodo Nakaodo, J.; Del Carpio R, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mutagenesis of Lupinus mutabilis was started at the UNA LM (Peru) to obtain mutants with low alkaloid content and early germination. Varieties SCG 25 and Lib 020 were irradiated with gamma radiation. The optimum dose for the SCG 25 variety was 15 Krad and for Lib 020 15 to 20 Krad. The relation between the plant height and radiation dose fits the quadratic polynomial model

  4. A community small-scale wind generation project in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Garwood, Anna; Chiroque, José; Escobar, Rafael; Coello, Javier; Castro, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Electrification systems based on renewable energy have proven to be suitable for providing decentralized electricity to isolated communities. Electricity generated through wind power is one of the technical options available, although infrequently used to date. This article aims to describe the main aspects of technical design, implementation and management of the first small-scale community wind generation project for rural electrification in Peru. This project took place in t...

  5. Community variations in infant and child mortality in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonston, B; Andes, N

    1983-01-01

    Data from the national Peru Fertility Survey are used to estimate infant and childhood mortality ratios, 1968--77, for 124 Peruvian communities, ranging from small Indian hamlets in the Andes to larger cities on the Pacific coast. Significant mortality variations are found: mortality is inversely related to community population size and is higher in the mountains than in the jungle or coast. Multivariate analysis is then used to assess the influence of community population size, average femal...

  6. peru : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La majeure partie de la croissance urbaine dans le monde fait suite soit à une migration du milieu rural vers le milieu urbain, soit à une croissance démographique rapide parmi les migrants de deuxième et troisième génération. Région: ... Région: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay. Programme: ...

  7. The Relationship between Substance Use and HIV Transmission in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alfredo A; Rosen, Marc I

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to review literature regarding the relationship between substance use and HIV transmission in Peru. Detailed search of published literature completed in PubMed and Google-Scholar and other local Peruvian publications. Mesh words: "Peru"; "substance-related-disorders"; "HIV"; "sexual-behavior" and their combinations. From 3921 articles, 150 were chosen for more careful review and only 26 were used for the review. No date limit was used in this review. Peruvian HIV epidemic is limited to MSM and its prevalence goes up to 33% in certain MSM-subpopulations. Transmission is mainly through sexual contact. Drug use doubled the risk for casual sex, decreased by half the chances of using condoms, increased the number of partners per year and the risk for STD's. Peruvian HIV-positive populations have higher rates drug use and using drugs have been associated with a higher prevalence of being HIV-positive. This may be also true for other populations such as pregnant women in which there is an association between drug use and HIV. Although the amount of Peruvian research in this area limits the review, there seems to be a relationship between using drugs, having risky-sexual-behaviors and being HIV positive in Peru. HIV-prevention strategies for Peruvians must address the link between sex and substance use.

  8. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae for Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Särkinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.

  9. [Prevalence and associated factors of macrosomia in Peru, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da; Toro, Manuel Sobrino; Gutiérrez, César; Alarcón-Villaverde, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of macrosomia and factors associated with it in Peru and to describe the occurrence of complications peri- and postpartum. Birth weights of children under the age of 5 years were analyzed using data from the 2013 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES) carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Children with a birth weight higher than 4000 g were considered macrosomic. A logistic regression analysis was used to establish the independent association of sociodemographic factors with macrosomia. The sample comprised 6121 children. The prevalence of macrosomia was 5.3% (95% interval confidence: 4.8-5.9%). Being male, a higher birth order, maternal obesity, and greater maternal height were independently linked with macrosomia. Caesarean births were more common in macrosomic children than unaffected ones (43.9% vs 26.9%). Complications during birth and postpartum were common but not statistically linked with macrosomia. The prevalence of macrosomia in Peru is relatively low compared to other low-to-middle income countries. The factors associated with macrosomia were mainly unmodifiable, with the exception of maternal obesity. Macrosomic children were more frequently born by caesarean. Weight reduction and the prevention of obesity in women of childbearing age in Peru could potentially reduce macrosomia and caesarean rates.

  10. Natural gas distribution network of Lima and Callao, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroye, Stephane; Aerssens, Andre [Tractebel Engineering, Lima (Peru)

    2005-07-01

    In May 2002, Suez-Tractebel was awarded by the government of Peru a 30-year concession for the construction and operation of the gas distribution network in Lima, Peru. On 10 July, 2004, first gas was delivered to Lima, 1 month ahead of the official date. This gas distribution network, operated by GNLC (Gas Natural de Lima y Callao), delivers gas to some of the largest industries and power generators in and around Lima and the harbour area of Callao. Gas delivered in Lima comes through a 700 km HP gas pipeline from Camisea fields. This pipeline is operated by TGP (Transportadora de Gas del Peru). A City Gate is located at Lurin, on the southern side of the city. The gas distribution network is made of a 62 km main pipeline (20') with 25 km laterals. The main pipeline is operated at 50 bar, as the main customer, the Etevensa power plant, is located on the northern side of the city. Due to this high operating pressure combined to the surroundings, specific design philosophies were adopted to meet the extreme safety requirements. This paper highlights the specific measures taken during construction phase and the experience of the first months of operation of this challenging project. (author)

  11. Mummified trophy heads from Peru: diagnostic features and medicolegal significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verano, John W

    2003-05-01

    Several forms of mummified human trophy heads were produced by prehistoric and historic native groups in South America. This paper describes the diagnostic features of trophy heads produced by the Nasca culture of ancient Peru. A growing interest in these mummified heads among collectors of Pre-Columbian art and antiquities has led to their illegal exportation from Peru, in violation of national and international antiquities laws. Requests from the Peruvian government to protect its cultural patrimony led the United States in 1997 to declare these heads as items subject to U.S. import restriction, along with six other categories of human remains. Despite such restrictions, Nasca trophy heads continue to reach private collectors outside of Peru and thus may be encountered by local, state, or federal law enforcement officials unfamiliar with their characteristic features and origin. The objective of this paper is to describe the features that allow Nasca trophy heads to be identified and distinguished from other archaeological and forensic specimens that may be submitted to a forensic anthropologist for identification.

  12. Implications of raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gonzalez-Rozada

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess how raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru might impact cigarette consumption, and to determine if higher taxes would be regressive. Methods Total demand price elasticity was estimated by income groups using two datasets: quarterly time-series data from 1993 – 2012 and data from a cross-sectional survey of income and expenses conducted in 2008 – 2009 . A functional form of the cigarette demand in Peru was specified using the quarterly data set, and the demand price elasticity was estimated for the short and long run. Using the second data set and Deaton methodology, the implementation of elasticity estimation and by groups’ elasticity was done in a two-step procedure. Results Demand price elasticity was −0.7, implying that a 10% price increase via a new tax would reduce consumption by 7%. Demand price elasticity estimations by income group suggested that poorer families are not more price sensitive than richer ones, which implies that increasing cigarette taxes could be regressive. Conclusions Increasing cigarette taxes is the most efficient policy for inducing a reduction in smoking. However, in the case of Peru, an increase in cigarette taxes could be regressive.

  13. Implications of raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rozada, Martin; Ramos-Carbajales, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    To assess how raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru might impact cigarette consumption, and to determine if higher taxes would be regressive. Total demand price elasticity was estimated by income groups using two datasets: quarterly time-series data from 1993 - 2012 and data from a cross-sectional survey of income and expenses conducted in 2008 - 2009 . A functional form of the cigarette demand in Peru was specified using the quarterly data set, and the demand price elasticity was estimated for the short and long run. Using the second data set and Deaton methodology, the implementation of elasticity estimation and by groups' elasticity was done in a two-step procedure. Demand price elasticity was -0.7, implying that a 10% price increase via a new tax would reduce consumption by 7%. Demand price elasticity estimations by income group suggested that poorer families are not more price sensitive than richer ones, which implies that increasing cigarette taxes could be regressive. Increasing cigarette taxes is the most efficient policy for inducing a reduction in smoking. However, in the case of Peru, an increase in cigarette taxes could be regressive.

  14. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  15. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  16. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  17. Current approaches to gastric cancer in Peru and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erlan

    2017-01-01

    In Peru, the incidence of gastric cancer is reported to be around 15.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and it is the second most common oncological disease in men and the third one in women. Additionally, a high mortality index was reported, especially among poor people. To address this issue, in 2008, Peru initiated several insurance treatment plans of oncological diseases with promising results. In Mexico, there is a high predominance of gastric cancer in male gender compared to female gender, even reaching a 2/1 ratio, and the detection rate of early gastric cancer is low (10% to 20%) which results in a mainly palliative treatment with an overall survival rate in 5 years about 10% to 15% only. In Peru, the average age at diagnosis is around 62.96±14.75 years old and the most frequent symptoms includes abdominal pain, indigestion, loss of appetite, weight loss and gastrointestinal bleeding, while in Mexico, some studies reported an average age at diagnosis around 60.3±4.1 years old (range, 23-78 years old) and the most frequent symptoms were postprandial fullness (74.4%), abdominal pain (37.2%), weight loss (18.6%), and melena (4.6%). The anemia rate was 65.1% with a mean Hb level of 6.14 g/dL. In Peru, the most common gastric cancer type is the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (around 34%), followed by the diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (18.7%), whilst among Mexicans, the diffuse-type was reported in 55.2% of cases, the intestinal-type was reported in 28.2% and the undifferentiated-type corresponded to 6%. In both, Peru and Mexico, 90% of the associated factors includes tabaquismo, diets rich in salt, smoked foods, and a sedentary lifestyle. Family inheritance and advanced age and pharmacological-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection are also important. Poverty has been heavily associated with a higher incidence of gastric cancer. The management of gastric cancer patients in Peru is carried out by general surgeons or general surgical oncologists. In recent years, efforts

  18. Remembrances of Empires Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Aldrich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.

  19. Empirical Support for Perceptual Conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Alejandro Serrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to show that perceptual conceptualism can be understood as an empirically meaningful position and, furthermore, that there is some degree of empirical support for its main theses. In order to do this, I will start by offering an empirical reading of the conceptualist position, and making three predictions from it. Then, I will consider recent experimental results from cognitive sciences that seem to point towards those predictions. I will conclude that, while the evidence offered by those experiments is far from decisive, it is enough not only to show that conceptualism is an empirically meaningful position but also that there is empirical support for it.

  20. Getting Out of the Middle-Income Trap in Peru: New Partnership for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Getting Out of the Middle-Income Trap in Peru: New Partnership for Better Policies. While Peru ... This has caused a middle-income trap. The economic ... and Technology. These organizations are working to develop applied social research and quality data for effective policy interventions at the national and local levels.

  1. 77 FR 28419 - Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... the United States and Peru intend to hold the fifth meeting of the Sub-Committee on Forest Sector... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7873] Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice...

  2. Miners, peasants and entrepreneurs : Regional development in the Central Highlands of Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.; Roberts, B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume traces the development of the central highlands, one of Peru's major mining regions. It draws on extensive fieldwork carried out in Peru between 1970 and 1982, spanning a reforming military government, reaction and a return to civilian politics under Belaunde. Through historical material

  3. peru : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: URBAN COMMUNITIES, NUTRITION, COMMUNITY SERVICES, PERU, LOW INCOME GROUPS, Disease control. Région: Peru, South America, North and Central America. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 302,700.00. Examen des liens entre la télévision et les mauvaises ...

  4. Bacterial cell wall preservation during organic matter diagenesis in sediments off Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Niggemann, Jutta; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    BACTERIAL CELL WALL PRESERVATION DURING ORGANIC MATTER DIAGENESIS IN SEDIMENTS OFF PERU The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids, total hydrolysable amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) were investigated in surface sediments at 20 stations in the Peru margin: 9...

  5. Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles

    2009-01-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru. PMID:19751600

  6. Functional Domains of the Quechua Language in Peru: Issues of Status Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the status of Quechua in Peru and how it has affected language maintenance efforts; discusses the functional domains served by Quechua, relating them to Peruvian language policies; notes the lack of grassroots efforts by indigenous people in Peru; and suggests possible measures to improve its status, noting predictions of the future of…

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Vidaurre, T.; Abugattas, J.E.; Manrique, J.E.; Sarria, G.; Jeronimo, J.; Seinfeld, J.N.; Lauer, J.A.; Sepulveda, C.R.; Venegas, D.; Baltussen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant

  8. A new species of Teagueia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from Northern of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chocce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Teagueia (Luer Luer (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from the highlands of Northern Peru is described and illustrated with a black and white drawing. This species is the first record of genus Teagueia (Luer Luer in Peru.

  9. Taxonomy and new collections of wild potato species in Central and Southern Peru in 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, A.R.; Spooner, D.M.; Huamán, Z.; Torres Maita, R.V.; Hoekstra, R.; Schüler, K.; Hijmans, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Peru contains about half of the described wild potato taxa, and many of these are not yet preserved in genebanks. This paper reports results of the second of a series of five planned collecting expeditions to Peru. Collections were made in the central Peruvian departments of Ancash, Huancavelica, La

  10. Beetles (Coleoptera) of Peru: a survey of the families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Arango; Caroline S. Chaboo

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of the ptinid beetles (including Anobiidae) of Peru is presented with 5 subfamilies, 22 genera, and 33 identified species. One species, Calymmaderus funki Pic, is reported as a new country record. Six genera are reported as new records for Peru (i.e. Byrrhodes, Caenocara,...

  11. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... (DFARS) to implement the Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive...

  12. Del Colegio de caciques al Colegio de Granada: la educación problemática de un noble descendiente de los Incas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DU COLLÈGE DES CACIQUES AU COLLÈGE DE GRENADE : L’ÉDUCATION PROBLÉMATIQUE D’UN DESCENDANT DES INCAS En 1792 Charles IV, fonde de manière prématurée et afin de contenir le mécontentement croissant des créoles, un collège en Espagne pour les nobles américains. Le décret n’exclut pas les nobles indigènes et l’un d’eux, D. Bartolomé Mesa Tupac Yupanqui, homme cultivé et actif, sollicite l’inscription de son cousin Don Santiago Phelipe Camilo Tupac Yupanqui dont la candidature n’est pas retenue. Ses démarches et ses dissimulations, son opiniâtreté ainsi que les faux arguments du vice-roi laissent percevoir le climat de suspicion réciproque qui régnait dans la société péruvienne encore marquée par la révolte indienne de 1780, en même temps que se révèle la véritable nature de la parole royale. En 1792 Carlos IV funda de forma algo prematura con el fin de controlar el descontento creciente de los criollos, un colegio en España para educar a los nobles americanos. La cédula no excluye a los nobles indígenas. Uno de ellos, D. Bartolomé Mesa Tupac Yupanqui, solicita una beca para su primo Don Santiago Phelipe Camilo Túpac Yupanqui, beca que no le otorga el virrey. Sus diligencias y sus disimulaciones, su terquedad así como los falsos argumentos del virrey dejan ver la atmósfera de recíproca suspición de aquella sociedad peruana todavía marcada por la rebelión indígena de 1780, al mismo tiempo que revela la índole de la palabra real. FROM THE COLLEGE OF CACIQUES TO THE COLLEGE OF GRANADA: THE PROBLEMATICAL EDUCATION OF A NOBLE DESCENDANT OF THE INCAS In 1792, Charles IV founded a college in Spain for educating noble Americans. This somewhat premature move aimed at curbing the growing discontent of the criollos. The royal decree did not exclude indigenous nobles. One of them, D. Bartolome Mesa Tupac Yupanqui, asked for a scholarship for his cousin, D. Santiago Phelipe Camilo Tupac Yupanqui. However this

  13. Estimating the terrestrial N processes in subtropical mountainous forestry catchment through INCA-N: A case study in FuShan catchment, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Chang; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Chang, Chung-Te; Shih, Yu-Ting; Lin, Teng-Chiu

    2016-04-01

    The riverine DIN is a crucial indicator for eutrophication in river network. The riverine DIN export in Taiwan is featured by the extremely high yield, ~3800 kg-N km-2yr-1, nearly 20-fold than the global average, showing the interesting terrestrial N process yet rarely documented. In this study we collected the DIN samples in rainwater, soil water, and stream water in a mountainous forest watershed, FuShan experimental forest watershed 1 (WS1) which is a natural broadleaf forest without human activities. Based on the intensive observations, we applied the INCA-N to simulate the riverine DIN response and thus estimate the terrestrial N processes in a global synthesis. The result showed that both discharge and DIN yield were simulated well with the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.83 and 0.76 , respectively. Among all N processes, N uptake, mineralization, nitrification, denitrfication, and immobilization are significantly positive correlated with soil moisture (R2>0.99), which indicates that soil moisture greatly influences N cycle processes. The average rate of mineralization and nitrification in wet years are consistent with documented values, whereas the rates in dry years are lower than the observations. Despite the high nitrification rate, the secondary forest may uptake abundant N indicating the plant uptake, which responds for removing considerable nitrate, is a controlling factor in forest ecosystem. Our simulated denitrification rate falls between the documented rates of temperate forest and agricultural area, and that may be affected by the high N-deposition in Taiwan. Simulated in-stream denitrification rate is less than 10% of the rate in soil, and is a little lower than that in temperate forest. This preliminary simulation provides an insightful guide to establish the monitoring programme and improve the understanding of N cycle in subtropical.

  14. Lower lip squamous cell carcinoma in patients with photosensitive disorders: Analysis of cases treated at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) from 1999 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J-F-P; Lanaro, N-D; Bernardo, V-G; Albano, R-M; Dias, F; de Faria, P-A-S; Pinto, L-F-R; Lourenço, S-Q-C

    2018-01-01

    Lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC) is a common malignancy of the head and neck, being mainly a consequence of a chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light solar radiation. Here, we evaluated the clinicopathological profile of patients with photosensitive disorders (xeroderma pigmentosum, lupus erythematosus and albinism) that developed LLSCC. Data from patients who had a diagnosed LLSCC with a prior xeroderma pigmentosum, lupus erythematosus or albinism diagnosis that were treated at INCA from 1999 to 2012 were collected from patients medical records (n=16). The control group was composed of 68 patients with LLSCC without a medical history of photosensitivity. The clinicopathological data of this study population were collected and the association between these variables was analyzed by Fisher's exact test. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistics package. The mean age of patients in the photosensitive and non-photosensitive groups was 42 years and 67 years, respectively (p<0.0001). A previous history of malignant diseases was more common in the photosensitive group (p=0.001). In both groups, most tumors showed a pathological stage I/II disease. Overall and cancer-specific survival were not statistically different. However, disease-free interval showed a significant difference (p=0.01) between the photosensitive and non-photosensitive patients. Photosensitive patients presented LLSCC at earlier age but it usually was not the primary tumor in these patients. Furthermore, a more aggressive pathological behavior was not seen when compared with tumors from non-photosensitive patients. The disease-free interval was lower in photosensitive patients, as expected.

  15. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  16. Evaluación de la actividad antifúngica del gel de Satureja brevicalyx Epling “Inca Muña” frente a Candida spp. de pacientes portadores de prótesis

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Andamayo, Diana Esmeralda

    2017-01-01

    Evalúa el efecto antifúngico de gel formulado con aceite esencial de Satureja brevicalyx Epling “Inca Muña” frente a Candida spp. de pacientes portadores de prótesis. Los pacientes fueron divididos en tres grupos: pacientes no portadores de prótesis, pacientes portadores de prótesis parcial removible metálica, pacientes portadores de prótesis total. A los pacientes no portadores se les recolectó muestras de saliva en frascos estériles y aquellos que portaban prótesis removible, se les solicit...

  17. [Spatial analysis of gestational anemia in Peru, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Azañedo, Diego; Antiporta, Daniel A; Cortés, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    To establish regional prevalences of anemia in pregnant women receiving care at public clinics in Peru in 2015 and identify high-prevalence district conglomerates. An ecological study was carried out on data from pregnant women with anemia registered on the Nutritional Status Information System (SIEN) who received care in 7703 public clinics in 2015. Regional and district prevalences of gestational anemia were calculated. District conglomerates with a high prevalence of gestational anemia were identified using the Moran Index. Information was gathered from 311,521 pregnant women distributed in 1638 districts in Peru. The national prevalence of anemia was 24.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 24.0-24.3%), the rural prevalence was 30.5%, and the urban prevalence was 22.0%. The regions of Huancavelica (45.5%; 95% CI: 44.2-46.7%), Puno (42.8%; 95% CI: 41.9-43.7%), Pasco (38.5%; 95% CI: 36.9-40.0%), Cusco (36.0%; 95% CI: 35.3-36.8%), and Apurímac (32.0%; 95% CI: 30.8-33.1%) had the highest prevalences of anemia. The local Moran Index identified 202 high-priority districts (hot spots) (12.3% of total; 44 urban and 158 rural) located in Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huánuco, Junín, La Libertad, Lima, Pasco, and Puno containing high-prevalence district conglomerates. Gestational anemia in Peru has its highest prevalence rates in rural and southern mountainous areas. The district conglomerates with high prevalence rates of gestational anemia coincide with the areas of high regional prevalence.

  18. Coupling Post-Event and Prospective Analyses for El Niño-related Risk Reduction in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Adam; Keating, Adriana; Mechler, Reinhard; Szoenyi, Michael; Cisneros, Abel; Chuquisengo, Orlando; Etienne, Emilie; Ferradas, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Analyses in the wake of natural disasters play an important role in identifying how ex ante risk reduction and ex post hazard response activities have both succeeded and fallen short in specific contexts, thereby contributing to recommendations for improving such measures in the future. Event analyses have particular relevance in settings where disasters are likely to reoccur, and especially where recurrence intervals are short. This paper applies the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) methodology to the context of frequently reoccurring El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in the country of Peru, where over the last several decades ENSO impacts have generated high levels of damage and economic loss. Rather than analyzing the impacts of a single event, this study builds upon the existing PERC methodology by combining empirical event analysis with a critical examination of risk reduction and adaptation measures implemented both prior to and following several ENSO events in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Additionally, the paper explores linking the empirical findings regarding the uptake and outcomes of particular risk reduction and adaptation strategies to a prospective, scenario-based approach for projecting risk several decades into the future.

  19. ZOOARQUEOLOGÍA Y TAFONOMÍA DEL PERÍODO TARDÍO-INCA EN PEÑAS COLORADAS, ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA (PUNA DE CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA/Zooarchaeology and taphonomy of the Late Period-INCA in Peñas Coloradas, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Puna of Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Guillermo Ortiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el análisis integrado del conjunto arqueofaunístico, constituido por vertebrados e invertebrados, del sitio Peñas Coloradas 3-cumbre (PC3-c, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina. El sitio se localiza en la cumbre de un farallón de ignimbrita y está conformado por estructuras arquitectónicas asignadas a momentos Tardíos-Incas, algunas de las cuales han sido reutilizadas hasta principios del siglo XX. Con la finalidad de complementar los datos y reconstruir la historia tafonómica de los conjuntos faunísticos, se estudió el contexto sedimentario mediante métodos físico-químicos (textura; pH; determinación de albúmina, P y MO. Los materiales analizados brindaron datos sobre algunas de las actividades realizadas en las estructuras, el consumo de animales, temporalidad, estacionalidad de las ocupaciones, y sobre los procesos diagenéticos actuantes. La integración contextual de los datos materiales analizados y del emplazamiento del sitio y sus estructuras, nos permite inferir prácticas sociales diferenciadas entre las estructuras con cubierta y sin cubierta. Las primeras, se vinculan a depósitos de alimentos y manufacturas, mientras que las segundas se asocian con  prácticas residenciales, procesamiento y consumo de alimentos. Abstract In this paper, an integrated analysis of archaeofaunal data consisting of vertebrates and invertebrates of the Peñas Coloradas 3-summit (PC3-c, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina is conducted. The site is located at the top of an ignimbrite hill and is composed of architectural structures attributed to Late Inca times, some of which had been re-used until the early 20th century. In order to complement the data and reconstruct the taphonomic history of the faunal assemblages, we studied the sedimentary context by physicochemical methods (texture, pH, determination of albumin, P and MO. The material tested has provided data on some of the activities in the structures

  20. Information services. Report to the Government of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasbo, P.

    1982-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Peru an IAEA staff member undertook an expert assignment to the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) within the framework of a technical assistance project. The purpose of the expert's travel was to evaluate a request for equipment for and consultant's advice on the establishment of library and information services and to advise IPEN staff on the establishment of the services. The report presents the findings on the present level and future need for library and information services and presents a proposal for the further development of these. (author)

  1. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  2. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  3. The Relationship between Substance Use and HIV Transmission in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Alfredo A.; Rosen, Marc I.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this article is to review literature regarding the relationship between substance use and HIV transmission in Peru. Methods Detailed search of published literature completed in PubMed and Google-Scholar and other local Peruvian publications. Mesh words: “Peru”; “substance-related-disorders”; “HIV”; “sexual-behavior” and their combinations. From 3921 articles, 150 were chosen for more careful review and only 26 were used for the review. No date limit was used in t...

  4. Full Genomic Characterization of a Saffold Virus Isolated in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Rios, Jane; Juarez, Diana; Guevara, Carolina; Silva, Maria; Prieto, Karla; Wiley, Michael; Kasper, Matthew R.; Palacios, Gustavo; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    While studying respiratory infections of unknown etiology we detected Saffold virus in an oropharyngeal swab collected from a two-year-old female suffering from diarrhea and respiratory illness. The full viral genome recovered by deep sequencing showed 98% identity to a previously described Saffold strain isolated in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the Peruvian Saffold strain belongs to genotype 3 and is most closely related to strains that have circulated in Asia. This is the first documented case report of Saffold virus in Peru and the only complete genomic characterization of a Saffold-3 isolate from the Americas. PMID:26610576

  5. Peru: Opportunities for investment in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokashiki, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Peruvian oil industry are described. The government of Peru has been applying a strict economic stabilization plan that includes deregulation of prices, wages, exchange and interest rates, elimination of subsides, simplification of tariffs, and the elimination of all restrictions on the flow of capital and foreign trade. The plan has been applied with the approval of all social sectors and thanks to the consensus concerning its program. The government has been able to control the hyperinflation it inherited, to reduce the fiscal defect, and to increase foreign currency reserves.

  6. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  7. The experience of induction of mutation on barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Loli, M.; Pozo Cardenas, M.; Gomez Pando, L.

    1984-01-01

    Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru

  8. HUMAN CAPITAL GROWTH AND POVERTY: EVIDENCE FROM ETHIOPIA AND PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Orazio; Meghir, Costas; Nix, Emily; Salvati, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we use high quality data from two developing countries, Ethiopia and Peru, to estimate the production functions of human capital from age 1 to age 15. We characterize the nature of persistence and dynamic complementarities between two components of human capital: health and cognition. We also explore the implications of different functional form assumptions for the production functions. We find that more able and higher income parents invest more, particularly at younger ages when investments have the greatest impacts. These differences in investments by parental income lead to large gaps in inequality by age 8 that persist through age 15.

  9. Mineral pigments at Huaca Tacaynamo (Chan Chan, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, William E.; Piminchumo, Víctor; Suárez, Héctor; Jackson, John C.; McGeehin, John P.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analyses of five samples of pigments from a recently excavated mural at the archaeological site of Huaca Tacaynamo, a part of the Chan Chan archaeological complex, northern Peru, show that minerals related to metal occurrences known to have been exploited by ancient Andeans were also used as pigments. These minerals include: atacamite [Cu2Cl(OH3)] for green; azurite [Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2] for blue; calcite [CaCO3] for white; cinnabar [HgS] for red; and goethite [HFeO2] for yellow....

  10. Community variations in infant and child mortality in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonston, B; Andes, N

    1983-06-01

    Data from the national Peru Fertility Survey are used to estimate infant and childhood mortality ratios, 1968--77, for 124 Peruvian communities, ranging from small Indian hamlets in the Andes to larger cities on the Pacific coast. Significant mortality variations are found: mortality is inversely related to community population size and is higher in the mountains than in the jungle or coast. Multivariate analysis is then used to assess the influence of community population size, average female education, medical facilities, and altitude on community mortality. Finally, this study concludes that large-scale sample surveys, which include maternal birth history, add useful data for epidemiological studies of childhood mortality.

  11. Images of Peru: a national cinema in crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    A brief look at the major trends in the history of the national cinema of Peru suggests that the relationship between the development of the moving image and the onset of modernity in that country has always been awkward. Many have argued that the advent of cinema coincided in most parts of the world with the decades when modernity was already ‘at full throttle . . . a watershed moment in which a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking ab...

  12. Empirical Legality and Effective Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pringe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conditions that Kant’s doctrine establishes are examined for the predication of the effective reality of certain empirical objects. It is maintained that a for such a predication, it is necessary to have not only perception but also a certain homogeneity of sensible data, and b the knowledge of the existence of certain empirical objects depends on the application of regulative principles of experience.

  13. Empirical Research In Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims...

  14. Litice – český dvojník peruánského Machu Picchu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan; Skořepa, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, 1/2 (2016), s. 19-34 ISSN 0475-0640 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15007 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Medieval castle * Inca town * Divoká Orlice valley * Urubamba valley * landslides Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography

  15. Ten new species of Telipogon (Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae from southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán de Mera, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten new species of Telipogon, T. antisuyuensis, T. austroperuvianus, T. casadevalliae, T. farfanii, T. javiercastroviejoi, T. kosnipatensis, T. marleneae, T. mesotropicalis, T. santiagocastroviejoi, and T. tupayachii are described and illustrated. These are terrestrial or epiphytes of the montane humid forests from Andean valleys of southern Peru. Diagnostic morphological characters are discussed for each species. A key is provided for the species of the genus found in southern Peru. The number of Telipogon species currently recognized for the Peruvian flora is 46.Se describen e ilustran diez especies nuevas de Telipogon –T. antisuyuensis, T. austroperuvianus, T. casadevalliae, T. farfanii, T. javiercastroviejoi, T. kosnipatensis, T. marleneae, T. mesotropicalis, T. santiagocastroviejoi y T. tupayachii. Éstas son plantas terrestres o epífitas de los bosques húmedos montanos de los valles andinos del sur de Perú. Se discuten sus caracteres morfológicos diagnósticos y se propone una clave dicotómica para diferenciar las especies que crecen en el sur del país. El número de especies de Telipogon actualmente reconocidas para la flora peruana es de 46.

  16. The relict forests of Northwest Peru and Southwest Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Weigend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The forest fragments or relict forests on the Western slopes of the Andes in northwest Peru and in south-west Ecuador are fragile ecosystems, which were largely continuous at some stage in the past. The importance and uniqueness of these forests as «refuges» and stable habitats roots partly in their complex diversity and their high levels of endemicity. These in turn are the outcome of a complex topography and ecology. In this introductory chapter 12 studies are analysed, which were presented at the Taller sobre Bosques Relictos de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del Norte del Perú y Sur del Ecuador in May 2004 at the X CONABOT, Trujillo-Perú. This helps to consolidate and update our knowledge on these over 20 forests fragments in northern Peru and two previously unknown fragments are presented for the first time: Bosque La Oscurana (Cajamarca and Kañaris (Lambayeque. Some ideas are exposed on the the relationships between the relict forests, how to analyse their dynamics, how to characterize their structure and how their conservation may be achieved. It is proposed that crucial elements in a conservation of these forests are a urgently inventorizing them to demonstrate their high diversity b emphasizing their economic potential with respect to the abundance of phytogenetic ressources c evaluating their role as catchment areas for the rivers which are the primary source of water for agriculture and urban life on the coast.

  17. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola hepatica from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  19. The effects of energy co-governance in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the launching of the Camisea Gas Project, in 2000, Peru became a medium-range Latin American gas exporting country. Our central argument is that energy governance in this country has been shifting from a 'hierarchical' to a 'co-governance' mode. Accordingly, interactions among the State, the society and economic actors are now regulated in a horizontal and decentralized way, rather than a vertical and centralized one. This shift contributed to the success of the Camisea gas project and had a positive effect on foreign direct investments inflow in the energy sector (1). In addition, it has helped Peru reach energetic self-sufficiency, while improving its energy balance (2). Meanwhile, energy policy has welcomed a major participation of social actors, contributing to institutionalized arrangements between the State, the companies and indigenous communities and their NGO partners (3). Two theoretical conclusions can be drawn from this study. First, the State's role remains central in energy governance, thus invalidating the 'hollowing of the State' thesis. Second, the co-governance mode helps to overcome the 'resource curse' thesis.

  20. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

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    Roberto F. Kometter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.

  1. Frequency of maternal and newborn birth outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Wynn

    Full Text Available This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru's progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research.Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-test.Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%.Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications.

  2. Calibration of the local magnitude scale ( M L ) for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori, Cristobal; Tavera, Hernando; Marotta, Giuliano Sant'Anna; Rocha, Marcelo Peres; França, George Sand

    2017-07-01

    We propose a local magnitude scale ( M L ) for Peru, based on the original Richter definition, using 210 seismic events between 2011 and 2014, recorded by 35 broadband stations of the National Seismic Network operated by the Geophysical Institute of Peru. In the solution model, we considered 1057 traces of maximum amplitude records on the vertical channel from simulated Wood-Anderson seismograms of shallow events (depths between 0 and 60 km) and hypocentral distances less than 600 km. The attenuation factor has been evaluated in terms of geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation coefficients. The magnitude M L was defined as M L = L o g 10 A W A +1.5855 L o g 10( R/100)+0.0008( R-100)+3± S, where, A W A is the displacement amplitude in millimeters (Wood-Anderson), R is the hypocentral distance (km), and S is the station correction. The results obtained for M L have good correlation with the m b , M s and M w values reported the ISC and NEIC. The anelastic attenuation curve obtained has a similar behavior to that other highly seismic regions. Station corrections were determined for all stations during the regression analysis resulting in values ranging between -0.97 and +0.73, suggesting a strong influence of local site effects on amplitude.

  3. [Epidemiological characteristics of neonatal mortality in Peru, 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Jeannette; Tavera, Mario; Carrasco, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Describe the epidemiological characteristics of neonatal deaths in Peru. Descriptive study based on notifications to the Perinatal and Neonatal National Epidemiological Surveillance Subsystem (PNNESS) made in 2011-2012. The capture-recapture method was used to calculate the registration of the notification and estimate the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) nationally and by regions. Responses were made to the questions: where, when, who and why the newborns died. 6,748 neonatal deaths were reported to PNNESS, underreport 52.9%. A national NMR of 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births was estimated. 16% of deaths occurred at home and 74.2% of these were in the highlands region, predominantly in rural areas and poor districts. 30% died in the first 24 hours and 42% between 1 and 7 days of life. 60.6% were preterm infants and 39.4% were term infants. 37% had normal weight, 29.4% low weight, and 33.6% very low weight. Preventable neonatal mortality was 33%, being higher in urban and highland areas. 25.1% died of causes related with prematurity-immaturity; 23.5% by infections; 14.1% by asphyxiation and causes related to care during childbirth and 11% by lethal congenital malformation. Neonatal mortality in Peru is differentiated by setting; harms related to prematurity-immaturity dominated on the coast, while the highlands and jungle recorded more preventable neonatal mortality with a predominance of asphyxia and infections.

  4. [Development of new drugs: opportunities and benefits for Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayona, Andrés; Fajardo, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative drugs allows coming up with new medicines to prevent and better treat illnesses. This improves people's quality of life and makes it more productive. Therefore, the mission of pharmaceutical research is to develop safe and effective drugs. Clinical trials allow the evaluation of the safety and efficacy profiles of new medicines, medical devices and diagnostic tests. Research and development (R&D) of new drugs is a long and costly process, where out of every 5000 to 10000 new components that enter preclinical testing, only one is approved. Compared to 2011, drug development has increased by 7.6%. According to ClinicalTrials.gov, 5% of the trials take place in Latin America, and Peru is in the fifth position. On the other hand, according to the Global Competitiveness Report issued by the World Economic Forum, Peru ranks 61st, its biggest challenges being the functioning of its public institutions, investment in R&D and technological capacity. The complexity of drug R&D results in a search for competitive places to develop clinical trials. Clinical Research is a humanized industry due to its ethical platform, stated in the guidelines of good clinical practices. This industry demands our country to develop a differentiating value that contributes to the development of knowledge and its competitiveness.

  5. Los capítulos primero y segundo del libro I de la Primera parte de los Comentarios Reales del Inca Garcilaso a la luz de la retórica grecolatina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Custodio, Violeta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to offer an example of the influence of ancient rhetoric in the first and second chapters of the first book of the Primera parte de los Comentarios reales by the Inca Garcilaso, where the author deals with several cosmographic and geographic topics under controversy, as it is usual in other chronicles of the Indies. In order to do it, the argumentative structure of these chapters is compared to the argumentative strategies contained in the thesis, the progymnasma used from the Antiquity to practice how to amplify a matter of debate. One of the variations of the thesis was the “theoretical thesis”, dealing with cosmographic issues closely related to the ones discussed by Garcilaso. The similarity between the argumentative strategies recommended in the thesis and the ones used in the two chapters analysed here suggest that the Inca took advantage of the resources provided by this training exercise. It also reinforces the idea that the Peruvian historian mastered the rhetorical technique, although he didn't received any academic education

  6. Los capítulos primero y segundo del libro I de la Primera parte de los Comentarios Reales del Inca Garcilaso a la luz de la retórica grecolatina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Pérez Custodio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to offer an example of the influence of ancient rhetoric in the first and second chapters of the first book of the Primera parte de los Comentarios reales by the Inca Garcilaso, where the author deals with several cosmographic and geographic topics under controversy, as it is usual in other chronicles of the Indies. In order to do it, the argumentative structure of these chapters is compared to the argumentative strategies contained in the thesis, the progymnasma used from the Antiquity to practice how to amplify a matter of debate. One of the variations of the thesis was the “theoretical thesis”, dealing with cosmographic issues closely related to the ones discussed by Garcilaso. The similarity between the argumentative strategies recommended in the thesis and the ones used in the two chapters analysed here suggest that the Inca took advantage of the resources provided by this training exercise. It also reinforces the idea that the Peruvian historian mastered the rhetorical technique, although he didn't received any academic education.

  7. A Household-Based Distribution-Sensitive Human Development Index: An Empirical Application to Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Ortiz-Juarez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In measuring human development, one of the main concerns relates to the inclusion of a measure that penalizes inequalities in the distribution of achievements across the population. Using indicators from nationally representative household surveys and census data, this paper proposes a straightforward methodology to estimate a household-based…

  8. New lichen biota records from Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu, Peru

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    Jano Nuñez-Zapata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While high species diversity of lichen - lichenized fungi - is reported especially in the tropics, the studies on these organisms are still scarce in Peru. Using conventional methodology and current literature on the description of genera and species, we reported macro-lichens collected from Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Cusco, Peru. Sixty seven species of macro-lichens are reported to SHMP, nine new records to Peru are documented. Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae and Lobariaceae are the families with major number of species.

  9. Additions to the checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Benoit; Economo, Evan P

    2015-11-10

    A recent species checklist of the ants of Peru recorded 592 nominal species and 79 genera on the basis of a literature review. Here we complement the previously published checklist with the addition of 83 nominal species and six genera, including three genera recorded only from morphospecies. This increases the list of ants reported from Peru to at least 679 species and subspecies and 85 genera. We also modify the list of species known as endemic from Peru, discuss the historical importance of the Peruvian ant fauna in myrmecology, and highlight potential research for future studies.

  10. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku diaspora: biogeochemical analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Goldstein, Paul S; Dahlstedt, Allisen; Somerville, Andrew; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    Paleomobility has been a key element in the study of the expansion of ancient states and empires, including the Tiwanaku polity of the South Central Andes (AD 500-1000). We present radiogenic strontium and oxygen isotope data from human burials from three cemeteries in the Tiwanaku-affiliated Middle Horizon archaeological site complex of Rio Muerto in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. At Rio Muerto, archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70657-0.72018, with a mean of (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70804 ± 0.00207 (1σ, n = 55). For the subset of samples analyzed for oxygen isotope values (n = 48), the data ranges from δ(18) Ocarbonate(VSMOW)  = +18.1 to +27.0‰. When contextualized with other lines of archaeological evidence, we interpret these data as evidence for an archaeological population in which the majority of individuals had "local" origins, and were likely second-generation, or more, immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland in the altiplano. Based on detailed life history data, we argue a smaller number of individuals came at different ages from various regions within the Tiwanaku polity. We consider whether these individuals with isotopic values consistent with "nonlocal" geographic origins could represent first-generation migrants, marriage exchange partners, or occupationally mobile herders, traders or other travelers. By combining isotopic life history studies with mortuary treatment data, we use a person-centered migration history approach to state integration and expansion. Isotopic analyses of paleomobility at the Rio Muerto site complex contribute to the role of diversity in ancient states by demonstrating the range of geographic origins rather than simply colonists from the Lake Titicaca Basin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru.

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    Genevieve LaCon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1 quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2 determine overlap between clusters, (3 quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4 quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels.Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study.Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically high levels of transmission may be more effective than

  12. Shifting Patterns of Aedes aegypti Fine Scale Spatial Clustering in Iquitos, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCon, Genevieve; Morrison, Amy C.; Astete, Helvio; Stoddard, Steven T.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Elder, John P.; Halsey, Eric S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Kitron, Uriel; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1) quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2) determine overlap between clusters, (3) quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4) quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels. Methodologies/Principal Findings Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance) were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters) and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study. Conclusions/Significance Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically

  13. Evolution of magmatism from the uppermost cretaceous to Oligocene, and its relationship to changing tectonic regime, in the Inca de Oro-El Salvador area (Northern Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, Paula; Matthews, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We present geochronological and petrological data for extrusive and intrusive rocks in the Inca de Oro and El Salvador sheets (in prep.), and the Potrerillos (Tomlinson et al., 1999) and Salar de Maricunga sheets (Cornejo et al., 1998), III Region, Chile (26 o -27 o S). Most of these data were collected as part of the SERNAGEOMIN regional mapping programme. Additionally, we include published data for El Salvador and Potrerillos districts (Cornejo et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1997; Gustafson et al., 2001). The dataset includes K/Ar, Ar/Ar and U-Pb mineral ages, which have been carefully selected for quality. The area is underlain by Carboniferous-Permian granitic basement rocks, which are covered by Triassic to Early Upper Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary successions, including both marine and continental sequences (Cornejo et al., 1993). The period studied in this paper includes extrusive and intrusive rocks of Maastrichtian to Oligocene age, which are of particular interest since they record the 'preparation' of the lithosphere prior to, during, and after the mid-Eocene Incaic deformation and associated porphyry copper event. Shortening in the early-upper Cretaceous (95-85Ma; e.g. Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989; Arevalo and Grocott, 2000) deformed large areas of northen Chile, and marked the transition from the dominance of intra-arc extension to that of shortening punctuated by periods of extension. We recognise seven tectono-magmatic periods from the uppermost Cretaceous to Oligocene, comprising a volcanic sedimentary event contemporaneous with an extensional tectonic regime in the Upper Cretaceous, associated with graben formation, followed by an important compressive event at the beginning of the Tertiary. The middle Paleocene was again dominated by voluminous volcanic activity (collapse calderas) in an extensional regime. During the lowest Eocene the magmatic activity in the area shows a gradual transition from pyroxene-bearing to amphibole-bearing lithologies

  14. Umayyad Relations with Byzantium Empire

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    Mansoor Haidari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the political and military relations between Umayyad caliphates with the Byzantine Empire. The aim of this research is to clarify Umayyad caliphate’s relations with the Byzantine Empire. We know that these relations were mostly about war and fight. Because there were always intense conflicts between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire, they had to have an active continuous diplomacy to call truce and settle the disputes. Thus, based on the general policy of the Umayyad caliphs, Christians were severely ignored and segregated within Islamic territories. This segregation of the Christians was highly affected by political relationships. It is worthy of mentioning that Umayyad caliphs brought the governing style of the Sassanid kings and Roman Caesar into the Islamic Caliphate system but they didn’t establish civil institutions and administrative organizations.

  15. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 4 Volumes Annexes 8-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is presented. Topics discussed cover current biofuel utilization practices; evaluation of Peruvian biomass productivity; identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources; assessment of resource development and management concerns; identification of market considerations; description of biofuel technological options; and regional identification of biofuel technology applications. The discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches now being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity is evaluated in the context of the terrain, soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. A quantitative description of the energy potential that could be realized from agricultural and forestry resources of Peru follows. A regional picture is given for the production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could potentially supply energy. The assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and the environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Ten biofuel technology options for Peru were identified: small- to medium-scale gasification, a wood waste inventory, stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, wood distillation, forest resource development and management, electrical cogeneration, anaerobic digestion technology, development of ethanol production capabilities, and agricultural strategies for fuel production.Based upon these biofuel options, nine applications were identified for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  16. Cooperation and development in local communities of Spain and Peru

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    María Isabel Quevedo Alejos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world faces a scenario of growing competition between companies and territories. The challenges of globalization requires cities and regions to propose strategies that stimulate the processes of capital accumulation by the diffusion of innovation and knowledge, the adoption of more flexible forms of production organization and the development of economies of urbanization, between others. Therefore, in this paper three experiences of endogenous development represented by the Spanish Development Agency Iraurgi Lantzen (Spain, Finca Peru (Peruvian civil non-profit organization and the Rural Community of Cullpe (Peru will be analysed, in order to identify and compare the various aspects related to the autonomous development of communities. The dynamics of development in each region or city is directly related to investment decisions and the attractions of the dependent territories. For Iraurgi Lantzen improvement is reported in the region 1, medium 2 Urola with the construction of a new road, which encourages municipalities in the area to look for a consensus to help generate employment and wealth in line with the interests for development and promotion of the valley. On the other hand, the case of Finca Peru shows a joint initiative to foster progress and development in the hardest hit by poverty and subversion regions, as the provinces of Huancavelica and Ayacucho were, in the Peruvian Andes. This organization ensures the socio-economic improvement of the population, particularly women, through the creation of community bank, acting on the basis of three pillars: human development, credit and savings. Finally, the case of the Rural Community of Cullpe shows an example of social leadership, innovation, ability to call and ethical-moral principles resuscitating a community stricken by poverty and limited resources, creating comparative advantages and opportunities for development rural. In conclusion, the case studies

  17. The 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, G.; Viboud, C.; Simonsen, L.; Miller, M.A.; Hurtado, J.; Soto, G.; Vargas, R.; Guzman, M.A.; Ulloa, M.; Munayco, C.V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing our knowledge of past influenza pandemic patterns in different regions of the world is crucial to guide preparedness plans against future influenza pandemics. Here, we undertook extensive archival collection efforts from 3 representative cities of Peru (Lima in the central coast, Iquitos in the northeastern Amazon region, Ica in the southern coast) to characterize the age and geographic patterns of the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in this country. Materials and Methods We analyzed historical documents describing the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Peru and retrieved individual mortality records from local provincial archives for quantitative analysis. We applied seasonal excess mortality models to daily and monthly respiratory mortality rates for 1917–1920 and quantified transmissibility estimates based on the daily growth rate in respiratory deaths. Results A total of 52,739 individual mortality records were inspected from local provincial archives. We found evidence for an initial mild pandemic wave during July-September 1918 in Lima, identified a synchronized severe pandemic wave of respiratory mortality in all three locations in Peru during November 1918-February 1919, and a severe pandemic wave during January 1920- March 1920 in Lima and July-October 1920 in Ica. There was no recrudescent pandemic wave in 1920 in Iquitos. Remarkably, Lima experienced the brunt of the 1918–20 excess mortality impact during the 1920 recrudescent wave, with all age groups experiencing an increase in all cause excess mortality from 1918–19 to 1920. Middle age groups experienced the highest excess mortality impact, relative to baseline levels, in the 1918–19 and 1920 pandemic waves. Cumulative excess mortality rates for the 1918–20 pandemic period were higher in Iquitos (2.9%) than Lima (1.6%). The mean reproduction number for Lima was estimated in the range 1.3–1.5. Conclusions We identified synchronized pandemic waves of intense excess

  18. Cost-effectiveness of norovirus vaccination in children in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Andrew J; Ballard, Sarah Blythe; Saito, Mayuko; Kosek, Margaret N; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-06-17

    With candidate norovirus (NV) vaccines in a rapid phase of development, assessment of the potential economic value of vaccine implementation will be necessary to aid health officials in vaccine implementation decisions. To date, no evaluations have been performed to evaluate the benefit of adopting NV vaccines for use in the childhood immunization programs of low- and middle-income countries. We used a Markov decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding a two-dose NV vaccine to Peru's routine childhood immunization schedule using two recent estimates of NV incidence, one for a peri-urban region and one for a jungle region of the country. Using the peri-urban NV incidence estimate, the annual cost of vaccination would be $13.0 million, offset by $2.6 million in treatment savings. Overall, this would result in 473 total DALYs averted; 526,245 diarrhea cases averted;153,735 outpatient visits averted; and 414 hospitalizations averted between birth and the fifth year of life. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio would be $21,415 per DALY averted; $19.86 per diarrhea case; $68.23 per outpatient visit; and $26,298 per hospitalization. Using the higher jungle NV incidence rates provided a lower cost per DALY of $10,135. The incremental cost per DALY with per-urban NV incidence is greater than three times the 2012 GDP per capita of Peru but the estimate drops below this threshold using the incidence from the jungle setting. In addition to the impact of incidence, sensitivity analysis showed that vaccine price and efficacy play a strong role in determining the level of cost-effectiveness. The introduction of a NV vaccine would prevent many healthcare outcomes in the Peru and potentially be cost-effective in scenarios with high NV incidence. The vaccine cost-effectiveness model could also be applied to the evaluation of NV vaccine cost-effectiveness in other countries. In resource-poor settings, where NV incidence rates are expected to be higher. Published

  19. Two new records of Fabiana stephanii Hunz. & Barboza (Solanaceae from Arequipa and Ayacucho (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Linares Perea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two new records of Fabiana stephanii Hunz. & Barboza for the flora of Southern Peru are reported, including taxonomical, biogeographical and phytosociological data on this species.

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Molecular Isolate of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae from Northern Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Ju; Blair, Patrick J; Felices, Vidal; Moron, Cecilia; Cespedes, Manuel; Anaya, Elizabeth; Schoeler, George B; Sumner, John W; Olson, James G; Richards, Allen L

    2005-01-01

    ...) collected from two domestic horses living in two separate locations in northern Peru (Coletas and Naranjo) was conducted to more clearly characterize this recently reported novel spotted fever group...