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  1. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  2. Hemodynamic Characterization of Recombinant Inbred Strains: Twenty Years Later

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 8 (2008), s. 1659-1668 ISSN 0916-9636 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : recombinant inbred strains * blood pressure * telemetry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  3. Cocaine locomotor activation, sensitization and place preference in six inbred strains of mice

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    Grabowski-Boase Laura

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expanding set of genomics tools available for inbred mouse strains has renewed interest in phenotyping larger sets of strains. The present study aims to explore phenotypic variability among six commonly-used inbred mouse strains to both the rewarding and locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in a place conditioning task, including several strains or substrains that have not yet been characterized for some or all of these behaviors. Methods C57BL/6J (B6, BALB/cJ (BALB, C3H/HeJ (C3H, DBA/2J (D2, FVB/NJ (FVB and 129S1/SvImJ (129 mice were tested for conditioned place preference to 20 mg/kg cocaine. Results Place preference was observed in most strains with the exception of D2 and 129. All strains showed a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to cocaine. In BALB mice, however, locomotor activation was context-dependent. Locomotor sensitization to repeated exposure to cocaine was most significant in 129 and D2 mice but was absent in FVB mice. Conclusions Genetic correlations suggest that no significant correlation between conditioned place preference, acute locomotor activation, and locomotor sensitization exists among these strains indicating that separate mechanisms underlie the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine.

  4. Are designer guppies inbred? Microsatellite variation in five strains of ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata, used for behavioral research.

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    Bleakley, Bronwyn H; Eklund, Amy C; Brodie, Edmund D

    2008-01-01

    Inbred lines are an important tool of genetic studies of all traits, including behavior. Independently derived strains of ornamental "designer" guppies are readily available and predicted to be inbred; however, little is known about actual levels of inbreeding in any of these strains or whether these lines differ in genetic traits that have not been under strong directional artificial selection. We genotyped five designer strains of guppies known to vary in their responses to predator cues and a wild reference population to determine whether designer strains show evidence of inbreeding and whether the strains differed from each other at five microsatellite loci. The designer strains exhibited lower allelic diversity and observed heterozygosity than the wild population. Observed heterozygosity departed significantly from expected heterozygosity for most markers in all five strains of designer guppies. Inbreeding coefficient (f) comparisons between the wild reference population and the designer strains show considerable inbreeding in the designer strains. F(is) values for the designer strains also provide evidence of inbreeding. Finally, F(st) values indicate that the designer strains differ significantly from each other and the wild population. We therefore concluded that designer guppies are inbred compared to wild populations and differ among strains, making them useful tools for genetic studies of behavioral or life history traits.

  5. Correlation between DNA repair of embryonic fibroblasts and different life span of 3 inbred mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenholz, V.

    1978-02-01

    Primary mouse fibroblast cultures were established from 10 day old embryos of 3 inbred strains with a genetically determined different life expectancy. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis following uv irradiation was studied in these cells at various passage levels of the in vitro ageing process. The mouse fibroblasts show considerable repair synthesis corresponding to the duration of exposure time. The capacity for induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was different in the cells of each strain and correlated to the natural life span of the animal. In each case, however, the ability to perform repair synthesis was subjected to an age-associated decline, although semiconservative DNA synthesis and proliferative potential of the cell was not changed until the cultures entered phase III passages.

  6. Genetic analysis of resistance to radiation lymphomagenesis with recombinant inbred strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.

    1990-01-01

    Induction of lymphomas by radiation in mice is controlled by genetic factors. We analyzed the genetic control of radiation lymphomagenesis using the CXS series of recombinant inbred strains derived from two progenitor strains: one highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphoma [BALB/cHeA (C)] and one extremely resistant [STS/A (S)]. The best concordances between strain distribution patterns of genetic markers and resistance (or susceptibility) to radiation lymphomagenesis were observed in a region with the b and Ifa genes on chromosome 4. This indicates that one major locus controls the incidence of radiogenic lymphomas in mice. We designated this locus as the Lyr (lymphoma resistance) locus. Backcrosses of (CXS)F1 to the two progenitor strains showed an intermediate incidence of lymphomas between their parental mice and did not significantly differ from (CXS)F1 mice. This and previous observations that (CXS)F1 mice also showed an intermediate incidence, differing from both progenitor strains, indicate that more genes are involved in the resistance (or susceptibility) to lymphoma induced by irradiation

  7. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.

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    Krzanowska, H; Styrna, J; Wabik-Sliz, B

    1995-07-01

    Recombinant inbred strains were developed from reciprocal crosses between two inbred strains of mice (CBA and KE) differing in sperm head shape, proportion of normal sperm heads (CBA, 95%; KE, 78%) and fertilization efficiency (CBA, 100% of fertilized ova; KE, 72%), to determine whether the indices of sperm morphology and function were correlated. The following parameters were analysed in recombinant inbred and progenitor strains: index of sperm head shape (head width in the middle of its length/head length), percentage of abnormal sperm heads, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive movements, efficiency of penetration of hyaluronic acid polymer (Sperm Select) and percentage of fertilized ova after mating males from the tested strains with females from an outbred stock. For each investigated character, recombinant inbred strains, recombinant inbred EXCB and CBXE, could be divided into at least three categories: KE-like, CBA-like and intermediate, suggesting that in each case a minimum of two genes was involved. Recombinant strains derived from the reciprocal crosses of progenitor strains differed only with respect to the proportion of abnormal sperm heads, showing the involvement of the Y chromosome in determining this character. Penetration into Sperm Select was significantly correlated both with fertilization efficiency and sperm motility, while correlation with the proportion of normal spermatozoa did not reach the level of significance. However, there was a significant negative correlation of both sperm abnormalities and the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space with the index of sperm head shape.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIOR IN INBRED STRAINS OF MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAKINO, J; KATO, K; MAES, FW

    1991-01-01

    Behavior of the inbred mouse strains BALB, C3H, DBA and C57BL in an open field was directly observed for 10 min by a multi-event time sampling method. It was coded into nine behavioral items, the occurrence or absence of which in consecutive 5-s time bins was called a behavioral state. Fourteen

  10. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

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    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  11. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

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    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the

  12. Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains

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    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W.; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2007-01-01

    Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Six strains, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, C3H/HeJ, and AKR/J, showed significant levels of sociability, while A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ mice did not. C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR T+tf/J showed significant preference for social novelty, while C3H/HeJ, AKR/J, A/J, and 129S1/SvImJ did not. Normal scores on relevant control measures confirmed general health and physical abilities in all strains, ruling out artifactual explanations for social deficits. Elevated plus maze scores confirmed high anxiety-like behaviors in A/J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S1/SvImJ, which could underlie components of their low social approach. Strains that showed high levels of performance on acquisition of a T-maze task were also able to reach criterion for reversal learning. On the Morris water maze task, DBA/2J, AKR/J, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ failed to show significant quadrant preference during the reversal probe trial. These results highlight a dissociation between social task performance and reversal learning. BTBR T+tf/J is a particularly interesting strain, displaying both low social approach and resistance to change in routine on the water maze, consistent with an autism-like phenotype. Our multitask strategy for modeling symptoms of autism will be useful for investigating targeted and random gene mutations, QTLs, and microarray analyses. PMID:16971002

  13. Variation in anti-predator behavior among five strains of inbred guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

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    Bleakley, Bronwyn H; Martell, Christopher M; Brodie, Edmund D

    2006-09-01

    Quantitative genetic studies frequently utilize inbred strains of animals as tools for partitioning the direct and indirect effects of genes from environmental effects in generating an observed phenotype, however, this approach is rarely applied to behavioral studies. Guppies, Poecilia reticulata, perform a set of anti-predator behaviors that may provide an ideal system to study how complex behavioral traits are generated. To assess the utility of ornamental guppies in quantitative genetics studies of behavior, we assayed five morphologically distinct strains of ornamental guppies for response to predator cues and for variation in response among strains. Despite individual variation, all five strains responded to predator cues and differences among strains were found for all assayed behaviors, including measures of boldness and predator avoidance.

  14. Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain

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    Maarten eLoos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field, and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1 and progressive ratio (PR2 schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.

  15. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

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    Michiel van Boxelaere

    Full Text Available Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD, anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  16. Unpredictable chronic mild stress differentially impairs social and contextual discrimination learning in two inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxelaere, Michiel; Clements, Jason; Callaerts, Patrick; D'Hooge, Rudi; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.

  17. Dynamics of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus of two inbred strains of mice

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    Hayes, N. L.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The output potential of proliferating populations in either the developing or the adult nervous system is critically dependent on the length of the cell cycle (T(c)) and the size of the proliferating population. We developed a new approach for analyzing the cell cycle, the 'Saturate and Survive Method' (SSM), that also reveals the dynamic behaviors in the proliferative population and estimates of the size of the proliferating population. We used this method to analyze the proliferating population of the adult dentate gyrus in 60 day old mice of two inbred strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ. The results show that the number of cells labeled by exposure to BUdR changes dramatically with time as a function of the number of proliferating cells in the population, the length of the S-phase, cell division, the length of the cell cycle, dilution of the S-phase label, and cell death. The major difference between C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice is the size of the proliferating population, which differs by a factor of two; the lengths of the cell cycle and the S-phase and the probability that a newly produced cell will die within the first 10 days do not differ in these two strains. This indicates that genetic regulation of the size of the proliferating population is independent of the genetic regulation of cell death among those newly produced cells. The dynamic changes in the number of labeled cells as revealed by the SSM protocol also indicate that neither single nor repeated daily injections of BUdR accurately measure 'proliferation.'.

  18. Comparative Study of Histopathologic Characterization of Azoxymethane-induced Colon Tumors in Three Inbred Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Hansen, Ket

    2002-01-01

    To obtain controlled genetic variation, colon cancer was chemically induced by use of four subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg of body weight/wk) to rats of 3 inbred strains (BDIX/OrlIco, F344/NHsd, WAG/Rij). The selection was based on the availability of established colon cancer cell...... characteristics should resemble the corresponding human tumors. The size of the tumors should be at about 1 cm in diameter, as these tumor cells were intended to be used in future transplantation studies. The two experiments yielded highly reproducible results: histologic evaluation of all colon tumors in all...

  19. Allelic expression changes in Medaka (Oryzias latipes hybrids between inbred strains derived from genetically distant populations.

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    Yasuhiko Murata

    Full Text Available Variations in allele expressions between genetically distant populations are one of the most important factors which affects their morphological and physiological variations. These variations are caused by natural mutations accumulated in their habitats. It has been reported that allelic expression differences in the hybrids of genetically distant populations are different from parental strains. In that case, there is a possibility that allelic expression changes lead to novel phenotypes in hybrids. Based on genomic information of the genetically distant populations, quantification and comparison of allelic expression changes make importance of regulatory sequences (cis-acting factors or upstream regulatory factors (trans-acting modulators for these changes clearer. In this study, we focused on two Medaka inbred strains, Hd-rR and HNI, derived from genetically distant populations and their hybrids. They are highly polymorphic and we can utilize whole-genome information. To analyze allelic expression changes, we established a method to quantify and compare allele-specific expressions of 11 genes between the parental strains and their reciprocal hybrids. In intestines of reciprocal hybrids, allelic expression was either similar or different in comparison with the parental strains. Total expressions in Hd-rR and HNI were tissue-dependent in the case of HPRT1, with high up-regulation of Hd-rR allele expression in liver. The proportion of genes with differential allelic expression in Medaka hybrids seems to be the same as that in other animals, despite the high SNP rate in the genomes of the two inbred strains. It is suggested that each tissue of the strain difference in trans-acting modulators is more important than polymorphisms in cis-regulatory sequences in producing the allelic expression changes in reciprocal hybrids.

  20. Caenorhabditis briggsae recombinant inbred line genotypes reveal inter-strain incompatibility and the evolution of recombination.

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    Joseph A Ross

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C. elegans, indicating these are a general feature of Caenorhabditis species. The proportion of a chromosome's physical size occupied by the central, low-recombination domain is highly correlated between species. However, the C. briggsae intra-species comparison reveals striking variation in the distribution of recombination between domains. Hybrid lines made with the more divergent pair of strains also exhibit pervasive marker transmission ratio distortion, evidence of selection acting on hybrid genotypes. The strongest effect, on chromosome III, is explained by a developmental delay phenotype exhibited by some hybrid F2 animals. In addition, on chromosomes IV and V, cross direction-specific biases towards one parental genotype suggest the existence of cytonuclear epistatic interactions. These interactions are discussed in relation to surprising mitochondrial genome polymorphism in C. briggsae, evidence that the two strains diverged in allopatry, the potential for local adaptation, and the evolution of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities. The genetic and genomic resources resulting from this work will support future efforts to understand inter-strain divergence as well as facilitate studies of gene function, natural variation, and the evolution of recombination in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  1. Identification of five novel modifier loci of ApcMin harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain

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    Siracusa, Linda D.

    2012-01-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc Min mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc Min mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc Min mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc Min males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene–gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies. Abbreviations:APCadenomatous polyposis coliGWASgenome-wide association studiesQTLquantitative trait lociSNPsingle-nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:22637734

  2. Identification of five novel modifier loci of Apc(Min) harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain.

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    Nnadi, Stephanie C; Watson, Rayneisha; Innocent, Julie; Gonye, Gregory E; Buchberg, Arthur M; Siracusa, Linda D

    2012-08-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc ( Min ) mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc ( Min ) mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc ( Min ) mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc ( Min ) males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene-gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies.

  3. Inbred Strain Variant Database (ISVdb: A Repository for Probabilistically Informed Sequence Differences Among the Collaborative Cross Strains and Their Founders

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    Daniel Oreper

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Cross (CC is a panel of recently established multiparental recombinant inbred mouse strains. For the CC, as for any multiparental population (MPP, effective experimental design and analysis benefit from detailed knowledge of the genetic differences between strains. Such differences can be directly determined by sequencing, but until now whole-genome sequencing was not publicly available for individual CC strains. An alternative and complementary approach is to infer genetic differences by combining two pieces of information: probabilistic estimates of the CC haplotype mosaic from a custom genotyping array, and probabilistic variant calls from sequencing of the CC founders. The computation for this inference, especially when performed genome-wide, can be intricate and time-consuming, requiring the researcher to generate nontrivial and potentially error-prone scripts. To provide standardized, easy-to-access CC sequence information, we have developed the Inbred Strain Variant Database (ISVdb. The ISVdb provides, for all the exonic variants from the Sanger Institute mouse sequencing dataset, direct sequence information for CC founders and, critically, the imputed sequence information for CC strains. Notably, the ISVdb also: (1 provides predicted variant consequence metadata; (2 allows rapid simulation of F1 populations; and (3 preserves imputation uncertainty, which will allow imputed data to be refined in the future as additional sequencing and genotyping data are collected. The ISVdb information is housed in an SQL database and is easily accessible through a custom online interface (http://isvdb.unc.edu, reducing the analytic burden on any researcher using the CC.

  4. Neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions in aging mice of unique and common inbred strains contribution to modeling of human neoplastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, H; Lechowska-Piskorowska, J; Krysiak, E; Strzalkowska, A; Unrug-Bielawska, K; Grygalewicz, B; Skurzak, H M; Pienkowska-Grela, B; Gajewska, M

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation of spontaneous lesions in classical inbred strains of mice has become increasingly important because genetically engineered mice (GEMs) are created on these backgrounds. Novel inbred strains-genetically diverse from classic strains-are valuable both as a new background for GEM mice and to increase the genetic variation found in laboratory mice. Newly arising spontaneous genetic alterations in commonly used strains may also lead to new and valuable mouse models of disease. This report evaluates gross and histological lesions in relatively new, classic, and rarely explored mouse inbred strains. Pathological lesions of 1273 mice from 12 inbred strains (129S1/SvW, A.CA-H2(f) /W, AKR/W, BALB/cW, BN/aW, C57BL/6 W, C57BL/10 W, C3H/W, C3H (wad) /W, CBA/W, DBA/2 W, and WOM/W) are reported. BN/aW, WOM/W, and C3H (wad) /W are novel inbred strains produced and maintained in the Department of Genetics and Laboratory Animal Breeding at the Center of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland. Both neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were examined. The prevalence of lung neoplasms was significantly higher in A.CA-H2(f) /W (33.3%) and BALB/cW (33.8%) mice (P WOM/W mice developed T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma with high frequency (110/121 [90.9%] and 159/175 [90.9%], respectively) before 1 year of age. The occurrence of nonneoplastic lesions in the kidneys of BN/aW mice was increased (P < .01).

  5. Nocardia infections in congenitally athymic (nude) mice and in other inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folb, P I; Timme, A; Horowitz, A

    1977-01-01

    The mortality rate and histopathological features of Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis infections in congenitally athymic (nude) mice of ICR and C3H/eB origins were quite different from what we found for Swiss white mice and other inbred mouse strains (namely, C57/BL/6J, New Zealand Black, BALB/c, CBA/LAC, and C3H/eB). The immunocompetent littermates of the congenitally athymic mice occupied an intermediate position between their athymic siblings and Swiss white mice in terms of their responses to both these organisms. Macrophage ingestion and destruction of N. brasiliensis, as demonstrated by electron microscopy, was found to occur. The T-lymphocyte appears to be an essential component in normal mouse resistance to infection by both N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis. Images PMID:336547

  6. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian J.; Davis, Richard C.; Civelek, Mete; Orozco, Luz; Wu, Judy; Qi, Hannah; Pan, Calvin; Packard, René R. Sevag; Eskin, Eleazar; Yan, Mujing; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Xinmin; Gregory, Jill C.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP). The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden) and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear regression

  7. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains.

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    Brian J Bennett

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP. The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP. The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear

  8. Cardiovascular response to beta-adrenergic blockade or activation in 23 inbred mouse strains.

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    Corinne Berthonneche

    Full Text Available We report the characterisation of 27 cardiovascular-related traits in 23 inbred mouse strains. Mice were phenotyped either in response to chronic administration of a single dose of the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol or under a low and a high dose of the beta-agonist isoproterenol and compared to baseline condition. The robustness of our data is supported by high trait heritabilities (typically H(2>0.7 and significant correlations of trait values measured in baseline condition with independent multistrain datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database. We then focused on the drug-, dose-, and strain-specific responses to beta-stimulation and beta-blockade of a selection of traits including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cardiac weight indices, ECG parameters and body weight. Because of the wealth of data accumulated, we applied integrative analyses such as comprehensive bi-clustering to investigate the structure of the response across the different phenotypes, strains and experimental conditions. Information extracted from these analyses is discussed in terms of novelty and biological implications. For example, we observe that traits related to ventricular weight in most strains respond only to the high dose of isoproterenol, while heart rate and atrial weight are already affected by the low dose. Finally, we observe little concordance between strain similarity based on the phenotypes and genotypic relatedness computed from genomic SNP profiles. This indicates that cardiovascular phenotypes are unlikely to segregate according to global phylogeny, but rather be governed by smaller, local differences in the genetic architecture of the various strains.

  9. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2015-07-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Genotype-dependent consequences of traumatic stress in four inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklarczyk, K; Korostynski, M; Golda, S; Solecki, W; Przewlocki, R

    2012-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops in predisposed individuals following a terrifying event. Studies on isogenic animal populations might explain susceptibility to PTSD by revealing associations between the molecular and behavioural consequences of traumatic stress. Our study employed four inbred mouse strains to search for differences in post-stress response to a 1.5-mA electric foot shock. One day to 6 weeks after the foot shock anxiety, depression and addiction-like phenotypes were assessed. In addition, expression levels of selected stress-related genes were analysed in hippocampus and amygdala. C57BL/6J mice exhibited up-regulation in the expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Crhr1 genes in both brain regions. These alterations were associated with an increase of sensitized fear and depressive-like behaviour over time. Traumatic stress induced expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Fkbp5 genes and developed social withdrawal in DBA/2J mice. In 129P3/J strain, exposure to stress produced the up-regulation of Tsc22d3 and Nfkbia genes and enhanced sensitivity to the rewarding properties of morphine. Whereas, SWR/J mice displayed increase only in Pdyn expression in the amygdala and had the lowest conditioned fear. Our results reveal a complex genetic background of phenotypic variation in response to stress and indicate the SWR/J strain as a valuable model of stress resistance. We found potential links between the alterations in expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia and Pdyn, and different aspects of susceptibility to stress. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Whole exome sequencing of wild-derived inbred strains of mice improves power to link phenotype and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peter L; Kopania, Emily; Keeble, Sara; Sarver, Brice A J; Larson, Erica; Orth, Annie; Belkhir, Khalid; Boursot, Pierre; Bonhomme, François; Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D

    2017-10-01

    The house mouse is a powerful model to dissect the genetic basis of phenotypic variation, and serves as a model to study human diseases. Despite a wealth of discoveries, most classical laboratory strains have captured only a small fraction of genetic variation known to segregate in their wild progenitors, and existing strains are often related to each other in complex ways. Inbred strains of mice independently derived from natural populations have the potential to increase power in genetic studies with the addition of novel genetic variation. Here, we perform exome-enrichment and high-throughput sequencing (~8× coverage) of 26 wild-derived strains known in the mouse research community as the "Montpellier strains." We identified 1.46 million SNPs in our dataset, approximately 19% of which have not been detected from other inbred strains. This novel genetic variation is expected to contribute to phenotypic variation, as they include 18,496 nonsynonymous variants and 262 early stop codons. Simulations demonstrate that the higher density of genetic variation in the Montpellier strains provides increased power for quantitative genetic studies. Inasmuch as the power to connect genotype to phenotype depends on genetic variation, it is important to incorporate these additional genetic strains into future research programs.

  12. Sheltering behavior and locomotor activity in 11 genetically diverse common inbred mouse strains using home-cage monitoring.

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    Maarten Loos

    Full Text Available Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ. Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery.

  13. Polyoma virus-induced osteosarcomas in inbred strains of mice: host determinants of metastasis.

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    Palanivel Velupillai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouse polyoma virus induces a broad array of solid tumors in mice of many inbred strains. In most strains tumors grow rapidly but fail to metastasize. An exception has been found in the Czech-II/Ei mouse in which bone tumors metastasize regularly to the lung. These tumors resemble human osteosarcoma in their propensity for pulmonary metastasis. Cell lines established from these metastatic tumors have been compared with ones from non-metastatic osteosarcomas arising in C3H/BiDa mice. Osteopontin, a chemokine implicated in migration and metastasis, is known to be transcriptionally induced by the viral middle T antigen. Czech-II/Ei and C3H/BiDa tumor cells expressed middle T and secreted osteopontin at comparable levels as the major chemoattractant. The tumor cell lines migrated equally well in response to recombinant osteopontin as the sole attractant. An important difference emerged in assays for invasion in which tumor cells from Czech-II/Ei mice were able to invade across an extracellular matrix barrier while those from C3H/BiDa mice were unable to invade. Invasive behavior was linked to elevated levels of the metalloproteinase MMP-2 and of the transcription factor NFAT. Inhibition of either MMP-2 or NFAT inhibited invasion by Czech-II/Ei osteosarcoma cells. The metastatic phenotype is dominant in F1 mice. Osteosarcoma cell lines from F1 mice expressed intermediate levels of MMP-2 and NFAT and were invasive. Osteosarcomas in Czech-II/Ei mice retain functional p53. This virus-host model of metastasis differs from engineered models targeting p53 or pRb and provides a system for investigating the genetic and molecular basis of bone tumor metastasis in the absence of p53 loss.

  14. Genetic control of the radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability in CXS series of recombinant inbred mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, M.; Mori, N.; Nishikawa, R.; Imai, S.; Hilgers, J.; Takamori, Y.; Yagasaki, O.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of radiation-induced lymphomas differs remarkably among various mouse strains. BALB/cHeA (C) mice are highly susceptible to radiation induction of lymphomas, while STS/A (S) mice are resistant. Thus, the induction of the disease is controlled by some genetic factors. To examine an involvement of radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells in lymphomagenesis, we have compared genetic control of the radiosensitivity for antibody-forming ability with that of lymphoma development in BALB/cHeA, STS/A, (CXS)F 1 hybrids and CXS series of recombinant inbred strains. Decrease of number of splenic plaque-forming cell (PFC) in Jerne's method by 3 Gy of X-irradiation for BALB/cHeA mice was larger than that for STS/A mice by more than one order of magnitude. (CXS)F 1 hybrid mice showed small number of decrease of PFC similar to STS/A mice suggesting that phenotype of radioresistance was dominant over sensitivity. The best concordance between genetic markers and radiosensitivities of antibody-forming ability in recombinant inbred strains was observed in a region containing Igh locus on chromosome 12. The results show that one locus controlling the radioresistance of lymphoid cells for antibody-forming ability might exist in the region containing Igh locus, and that this region clearly differ from a region with Ifa locus on chromosome 4 which regulate the susceptibility to radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. (author)

  15. Diversity in secreted PLA2-IIA activity among inbred mouse strains that are resistant or susceptible to Apc Min/+ tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Marina; Koratkar, Revati A; Silverman, Karen A; Sollars, Vincent E; MacPhee-Pellini, Melina; Walters, Rhonda; Palazzo, Juan P; Buchberg, Arthur M; Siracusa, Linda D; Farber, Steven A

    2005-09-22

    The secreted phospholipase A2 type IIA (Pla2g2a) gene was previously identified as a modifier of intestinal adenoma multiplicity in Apc Min/+ mice. To determine if intestinal secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity was also attenuated in susceptible strains, we developed a sensitive assay to directly quantitate sPLA2 activity in the murine intestinal tract utilizing a fluorescent BODIPY-labeled phospholipid substrate. Here, we report assay conditions that distinguish between secreted and cytosolic PLA2 enzyme activities in extracts of intestinal tissue. The small intestine exhibited higher activity levels than the large intestine. Consistent with predictions from the sPLA2-IIA gene sequence in inbred strains, we detected low levels of enzyme activity in inbred strains containing sPLA2-IIA mutations; these strains were also associated with greater numbers of intestinal polyps. Additionally, the assay was able to distinguish differences in levels of sPLA2 activity between neoplasia-resistant strains, which were then shown by sequencing to carry variant wild-type sPLA2-IIA alleles. Immunohistochemical analyses of intestinal tissues were consistent with sPLA2-IIA activity levels. This approach enables further studies of the mechanisms of sPLA2 action influencing the development and tumorigenesis of the small intestine and colon in both mice and humans.

  16. Complex genetic architecture of cardiac disease in a wild type inbred strain of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Natural populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, segregate genetic variation that leads to cardiac disease phenotypes. One nearly isogenic line from a North Carolina peach orchard, WE70, is shown to harbor two genetically distinct heart phenotypes: elevated incidence of arrhythmias, and a dramatically constricted heart diameter in both diastole and systole, with resemblance to restrictive cardiomyopathy in humans. Assuming the source to be rare variants of large effect, we performed Bulked Segregant Analysis using genomic DNA hybridization to Affymetrix chips to detect single feature polymorphisms, but found that the mutant phenotypes are more likely to have a polygenic basis. Further mapping efforts revealed a complex architecture wherein the constricted cardiomyopathy phenotype was observed in individual whole chromosome substitution lines, implying that variants on both major autosomes are sufficient to produce the phenotype. A panel of 170 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL was generated, and a small subset of mutant lines selected, but these each complemented both whole chromosome substitutions, implying a non-additive (epistatic contribution to the "disease" phenotype. Low coverage whole genome sequencing was also used to attempt to map chromosomal regions contributing to both the cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, but a polygenic architecture had to be again inferred to be most likely. These results show that an apparently simple rare phenotype can have a complex genetic basis that would be refractory to mapping by deep sequencing in pedigrees. We present this as a cautionary tale regarding assumptions related to attempts to map new disease mutations on the assumption that probands carry a single causal mutation.

  17. Genetic relationship between placental and fetal weights and markers of the metabolic syndrome in rat recombinant inbred strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, M.; Zídek, Václav; Musilová, Alena; Šimáková, Miroslava; Fučíková, A.; Bílá, V.; Křen, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Di Nicolantonio, R.; Pravenec, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2006), s. 226-231 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0390; GA MZd(CZ) NR8495 Grant - others:Sixth Framework Programme(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : genetic analysis * thrifty phenotype * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.789, year: 2006

  18. Plasma lipoprotein profiles and arylesterase activities in two inbred strains of rabbits with high or low response of plasma cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. Cholesterol feeding for 4 weeks of female and male rabbits of two inbred strains increased plasma cholesterol concentrations by about 11 and 48 mmole/I in the hypo- and hyperresponsive strain, respectively. 2. 2. On the low-cholesterol pre-experimental diet, the hyporesponsive animals had

  19. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  20. Whole Genome Sequence of Two Wild-Derived Mus musculus domesticus Inbred Strains, LEWES/EiJ and ZALENDE/EiJ, with Different Diploid Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Morgan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild-derived mouse inbred strains are becoming increasingly popular for complex traits analysis, evolutionary studies, and systems genetics. Here, we report the whole-genome sequencing of two wild-derived mouse inbred strains, LEWES/EiJ and ZALENDE/EiJ, of Mus musculus domesticus origin. These two inbred strains were selected based on their geographic origin, karyotype, and use in ongoing research. We generated 14× and 18× coverage sequence, respectively, and discovered over 1.1 million novel variants, most of which are private to one of these strains. This report expands the number of wild-derived inbred genomes in the Mus genus from six to eight. The sequence variation can be accessed via an online query tool; variant calls (VCF format and alignments (BAM format are available for download from a dedicated ftp site. Finally, the sequencing data have also been stored in a lossless, compressed, and indexed format using the multi-string Burrows-Wheeler transform. All data can be used without restriction.

  1. Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels are influenced by sex and strain but do not predict tissue iron levels in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Stela; Page, Kathryn E; Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alex; Valore, Erika; Hui, Simon T; Jung, Grace; Zhou, Jie; Lusis, Aldons J; Fuqua, Brie; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Vulpe, Chris D

    2017-11-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated, and the peptide hormone hepcidin is considered to be a principal regulator of iron metabolism. Previous studies in a limited number of mouse strains found equivocal sex- and strain-dependent differences in mRNA and serum levels of hepcidin and reported conflicting data on the relationship between hepcidin ( Hamp1 ) mRNA levels and iron status. Our aim was to clarify the relationships between strain, sex, and hepcidin expression by examining multiple tissues and the effects of different dietary conditions in multiple inbred strains. Two studies were done: first, Hamp1 mRNA, liver iron, and plasma diferric transferrin levels were measured in 14 inbred strains on a control diet; and second, Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels in both sexes and iron levels in the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen in males were measured in nine inbred/recombinant inbred strains raised on an iron-sufficient or high-iron diet. Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). However, liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice fed iron-sufficient or high-iron diets, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least in males. We also measured plasma erythroferrone, performed RNA-sequencing analysis of liver samples from six inbred strains fed the iron-sufficient, low-iron, or high-iron diets, and explored differences in gene expression between the strains with the highest and lowest hepcidin levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). Liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least

  2. Private selective sweeps identified from next-generation pool-sequencing reveal convergent pathways under selection in two inbred Schistosoma mansoni strains.

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    Julie A J Clément

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, are among the most prevalent parasites in humans, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. In this study, we focused on two well-characterized strains of S. mansoni, to explore signatures of selection. Both strains are highly inbred and exhibit differences in life history traits, in particular in their compatibility with the intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed high throughput sequencing of DNA from pools of individuals of each strain using Illumina technology and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and copy number variations (CNV. In total, 708,898 SNPs were identified and roughly 2,000 CNVs. The SNPs revealed low nucleotide diversity (π = 2 × 10(-4 within each strain and a high differentiation level (Fst = 0.73 between them. Based on a recently developed in-silico approach, we further detected 12 and 19 private (i.e. specific non-overlapping selective sweeps among the 121 and 151 sweeps found in total for each strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Functional annotation of transcripts lying in the private selective sweeps revealed specific selection for functions related to parasitic interaction (e.g. cell-cell adhesion or redox reactions. Despite high differentiation between strains, we identified evolutionary convergence of genes related to proteolysis, known as a key virulence factor and a potential target of drug and vaccine development. Our data show that pool-sequencing can be used for the detection of selective sweeps in parasite populations and enables one to identify biological functions under selection.

  3. Genetics of the α 1,6-dextran response: expression of the QUPC52 idiotype in different inbred and congenic strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hoostelaere, L.; Potter, M.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to dextran B512 were raised in various strains of mice and were assayed by a radioimunoassay procedure. Idiotypic antibodies to the IgA(k) dextran B512 binding myeloma proteins QUOC52 and W3129 of BALB/c origin were prepred in rabbits. After adsorption, each antiserum was specific for the immunizing myeloma protein and did not react with hundreds of other myeloma proteins; nonetheless, antibodies to dextran B512 from various strains of mice cross-reacted in these test systems. Of the 2 idiotypes tested, the W3129 idiotype was more universally expressed in different strains of mice. The QUPC52 idiotype was the predominant idiotype in BALB/c anti-dextran B512 antibodies and was found in only a few other inbred strains. Using a battery of congenic and inbred strains, it was shown that the QUPC52 idiotype was controlled by genes linked to the Igh complex locus (chromosome 12) and to the Ig k complex locus (chromosome 6). The W3129 idiotype was found in a number of stocks of mice in the genus Mus recently isolated from the wild. The QUPC52 idiotype thus far was found only in inbred mice

  4. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Gerlach, Nina; Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi.

  5. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis. Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and

  6. Neurochemical Measurement of Adenosine in Discrete Brain Regions of Five Strains of Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Amar K.; Jiao, Yun; Sample, Kenneth J.; Smeyne, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine (ADO), a non-classical neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, and its metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), have been shown to play an important role in a number of biochemical processes. Although their signaling is well described, it has been difficult to directly, accurately and simultaneously quantitate these purines in tissue or fluids. Here, we describe a novel method for measuring adenosine (ADO) and its metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Using this chromatographic technique, we examined baseline levels of ADO and ATP, ADP and AMP in 6 different brain regions of the C57BL/6J mouse: stratum, cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, substantia nigra and cerebellum and compared ADO levels in 5 different strains of mice (C57BL/6J, Swiss-Webster, FVB/NJ, 129P/J, and BALB/c). These studies demonstrate that baseline levels of purines vary significantly among the brain regions as well as between different mouse strains. These dissimilarities in purine concentrations may explain the variable phenotypes among background strains described in neurological disease models. PMID:24642754

  7. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  8. Proteomic Mapping of Dental Enamel Matrix from Inbred Mouse Strains: Unraveling Potential New Players in Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Leite, Aline; Silva Fernandes, Mileni; Charone, Senda; Whitford, Gary Milton; Everett, Eric T; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2018-01-01

    Enamel formation is a complex 2-step process by which proteins are secreted to form an extracellular matrix, followed by massive protein degradation and subsequent mineralization. Excessive systemic exposure to fluoride can disrupt this process and lead to a condition known as dental fluorosis. The genetic background influences the responses of mineralized tissues to fluoride, such as dental fluorosis, observed in A/J and 129P3/J mice. The aim of the present study was to map the protein profile of enamel matrix from A/J and 129P3/J strains. Enamel matrix samples were obtained from A/J and 129P3/J mice and analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 120 proteins were identified, and 7 of them were classified as putative uncharacterized proteins and analyzed in silico for structural and functional characterization. An interesting finding was the possibility of the uncharacterized sequence Q8BIS2 being an enzyme involved in the degradation of matrix proteins. Thus, the results provide a comprehensive view of the structure and function for putative uncharacterized proteins found in the enamel matrix that could help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in enamel biomineralization and genetic susceptibility to dental fluorosis. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effects of homozygosity of the nude (rnu) gene in an inbred strain of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1984-01-01

    Several age groups of nude homozygous rnu/rnu and heterozygous rnu/+ rats of the same genetic background at an early stage of back-crossing (LEW/Mol) were compared as to body and organ weights, histological appearance and cell density of lymphoid organs, haematological values and differential...... counts of bone marrow and peripheral blood. No thymic tissue was found in the nude animals. 7-week-old nudes were smaller than control animals and had relatively larger non-lymphoid organs and cell-depleted peripheral lymphoid organs. Other age groups showed little difference. Peripheral blood of nude...... rats showed no signs of lymphopaenia in contrast with the findings in nude mice. The number of thoracic duct lymphocytes was, however, significantly smaller in all age groups of the nude rats, and the bone marrow tended to contain fewer lymphocytes....

  10. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  11. Coalescence of DNA Double Strand Breaks Induced by Galactic Cosmic Radiation is Modulated by Genetics in 15 Inbred Strains of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, Sebastien; Ray, Shayoni; Staatz, Kevin; Degorre, Charlotte; Guiet, Elodie; Viger, Louise; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Karpen, Gary; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript we address the challenges associated with the ability to predict radiation sensitivity associated with exposure to either cosmic radiation or X-rays in a population study, by monitoring DNA damage sensing protein 53BP1 forming small nuclear radiation-induced foci (RIF) as a surrogate biomarker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). 76 primary skin fibroblasts were isolated from 10 collaborative cross strains and five reference inbred mice (C57Bl/6, BALB/CByJ, B6C3, C3H and CBA/CaJ) and exposed to three different charged nuclei of increasing LET (350 MeV/n Si, 350 MeV/n Ar and 600 MeV/n Fe) and X-ray. Our data brings strong evidence against the classic "contact-first" model where DSBs are assumed to be immobile and repaired at the lesion site. In contrast, our model suggests nearby DSBs move into single repair unit characterized by large RIF before the repair machinery kicks in. Such model has the advantage of being much more efficient molecularly but is poorly suited to deal with cosmic radiation, where energy is concentrated along the particle trajectory, inducing a large density of DSBs along each particle track. In accordance with this model, RIF quantification after X-ray exposition showed a saturated dose response for early time points post-irradiation for all strains. Similarly, the high-LET response showed that RIF number matched the number of track per cell, not the number of expected DSB per cell (1). At the temporal level, we noted that the percentage of unrepaired high-LET tracks over a 48 hour time-course increased with LET, confirming that the DNA repair process becomes more difficult as more DSB coalesce into single RIF. There was also good agreement between persistent RIF levels measured in-vitro in the primary skin cultures and survival levels of T-cells and B-cells collected in blood samples from 10 CC strains 24 hours after 0.1 Gy whole-body dose of X-ray. This suggests that persistent RIF 24 hour post-IR is a good surrogate in

  12. Genotype Modulates Age-Related Alterations in Sensitivity to the Aversive Effects of Ethanol: An 8 Inbred Strain Analysis of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eileen M.; Forrest, Robert D.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Thus far there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in 8 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, C3H/HeJ, and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25, 3g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72h intervals for a total of 5 CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. PMID:23171343

  13. Inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J vary in sensitivity to a subset of bitter stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Theodore M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common inbred mouse strains are genotypically diverse, but it is still poorly understood how this diversity relates to specific differences in behavior. To identify quantitative trait genes that influence taste behavior differences, it is critical to utilize assays that exclusively measure the contribution of orosensory cues. With a few exceptions, previous characterizations of behavioral taste sensitivity in inbred mouse strains have generally measured consumption, which can be confounded by post-ingestive effects. Here, we used a taste-salient brief-access procedure to measure taste sensitivity to eight stimuli characterized as bitter or aversive in C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 mice. Results B6 mice were more sensitive than D2 mice to a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP, and MgCl2. D2 mice were more sensitive than B6 mice to the bitter stimulus raffinose undecaacetate (RUA. These strains did not differ in sensitivity to cycloheximide (CYX, denatonium benzoate (DB, KCl or HCl. Conclusion B6-D2 taste sensitivity differences indicate that differences in consumption of QHCl, PROP, MgCl2 and RUA are based on immediate orosensory cues, not post-ingestive effects. The absence of a strain difference for CYX suggests that polymorphisms in a T2R-type taste receptor shown to be differentially sensitive to CYX in vitro are unlikely to differentially contribute to the CYX behavioral response in vivo. The results of these studies point to the utility of these common mouse strains and their associated resources for investigation into the genetic mechanisms of taste.

  14. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  15. Variation in Taxonomic Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in an Inbred Mouse Strain across Individuals and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Yana Emmy; Bik, Elisabeth M; Lawley, Trevor D; Holmes, Susan P; Monack, Denise M; Theriot, Julie A; Relman, David A

    2015-01-01

    Genetics, diet, and other environmental exposures are thought to be major factors in the development and composition of the intestinal microbiota of animals. However, the relative contributions of these factors in adult animals, as well as variation with time in a variety of important settings, are still not fully understood. We studied a population of inbred, female mice fed the same diet and housed under the same conditions. We collected fecal samples from 46 individual mice over two weeks, sampling four of these mice for periods as long as 236 days for a total of 190 samples, and determined the phylogenetic composition of their microbial communities after analyzing 1,849,990 high-quality pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Even under these controlled conditions, we found significant inter-individual variation in community composition, as well as variation within an individual over time, including increases in alpha diversity during the first 2 months of co-habitation. Some variation was explained by mouse membership in different cage and vendor shipment groups. The differences among individual mice from the same shipment group and cage were still significant. Overall, we found that 23% of the variation in intestinal microbiota composition was explained by changes within the fecal microbiota of a mouse over time, 12% was explained by persistent differences among individual mice, 14% by cage, and 18% by shipment group. Our findings suggest that the microbiota of controlled populations of inbred laboratory animals may not be as uniform as previously thought, that animal rearing and handling may account for some variation, and that as yet unidentified factors may explain additional components of variation in the composition of the microbiota within populations and individuals over time. These findings have implications for the design and interpretation of experiments involving laboratory animals.

  16. A mouse model system for genetic analysis of sociability: C57BL/6J versus BALB/cJ inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Kaercher, Kristin A; Boon, Catherine J; Lee, Jin Kyoung; Brodkin, Edward S

    2006-03-01

    Impairments in social behaviors are highly disabling symptoms of autism, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. Mouse model systems are useful for identifying the many genes and environmental factors likely to affect complex behaviors, such as sociability (the tendency to seek social interaction). To progress toward developing such a model system, we tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J inbred mice show higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ inbred mice. Mice tested for sociability were 4- and 9-week-old, male and female C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice. On 2 consecutive days, the sociability of each test mouse toward an unfamiliar 4-week-old DBA/2J stimulus mouse was assessed with a social choice paradigm conducted in a three-chambered apparatus. Measures of sociability included the time that the test mouse spent near versus far from the stimulus mouse, the time spent directly sniffing the stimulus mouse, and the time spent in contact between test and stimulus mice in a free interaction. C57BL/6J mice showed higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ mice overall in each of these measures. We propose that C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice will be a useful mouse model system for future genetic and neurobiological studies of sociability.

  17. Marked inbred mouse strain difference in the expression of quinpirole induced compulsive like behavior based on behavioral pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Ria; Seddik, Amir; Oppelaar, Hugo; Westenberg, Herman G M; Kas, Martien J H

    2012-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and complex psychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3%. Recent work has shown that OCD rituals were not only characterized by a high rate of repetition but also by an increased behavioral repertoire due to additional non-functional unique acts. These two behavioral characteristics may provide an ethological basis for studying compulsive behavior in an animal model of OCD. Here, quinpirole induced behavior (so far only investigated in rats) has been studied in A/J and C57BL/6J mice by using behavioral pattern analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether genetic background is mediating this behavior. Results showed that open field motor activity levels of saline treated C57BL/6J mice was significantly higher compared to A/J treated saline mice. Long-term quinpirole treatment increased open field motor activity levels in A/J, but not in C57BL/6J. Quinpirole treatment induced a strain dependent difference in behavioral repertoire. There was a dose dependent increase in the number of different behavioral patterns in A/J, whereas, in C57BL/6J there was a dose dependent decrease. This data suggest that genetic background is important in expressing quinpirole induced compulsive like behavior. Following quinpirole treatment, A/J mice express a greater behavioral repertoire with a high rate of repetition. This phenotype resembles that of OCD rituals in patients and indicates that this strain is very interesting to further validate for studying neurobiological mechanisms of compulsive behavior. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Beauchemin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ. Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS. Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO archive (GSE74243. Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org.

  19. Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in inbred knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofen Zuo

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that the genotype of 42 out of 198 mouse microsatellite loci, which are distributed among all chromosomes except the Y chromosome, changed from monomorphism to polymorphism (CMP in a genetically modified inbred mouse strain. In this study, we further examined whether CMP also relates to the homologous recombination in gene knockout (KO mouse strains. The same 42 microsatellite loci were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 29 KO inbred mouse strains via short tandem sequence repeat (STR scanning and direct sequence cloning to justify microsatellite polymorphisms. The C57BL/6J and 129 mouse strains, from which these 29 KO mice were derived, were chosen as the background controls. The results indicated that 10 out of 42 (23.8% loci showed CMP in some of these mouse strains. Except for the trinucleotide repeat locus of D3Mit22, which had microsatellite CMP in strain number 9, the core sequences of the remaining 41 loci were dinucleotide repeats, and 9 out of 41 (21.95% showed CMPs among detected mouse strains. However, 11 out of 29 (37.9% KO mice strains were recognized as having CMPs. The popular dinucleotide motifs in CMP were (TG(n (50%, 2/4, followed by (GT(n (27.27%, 3/11 and (CA(n (23.08%, 3/13. The microsatellite CMP in (CT(n and (AG(n repeats were 20% (1/5. According to cloning sequencing results, 6 KO mouse strains showed insertions of nucleotides whereas 1 showed a deletion. Furthermore, 2 loci (D13Mit3 and D14Mit102 revealed CMP in 2 strains, and mouse strain number 9 showed CMPs in two loci (D3Mit22 and D13Mit3 simultaneously. Collectively, these results indicated that microsatellite polymorphisms were present in the examined inbred KO mice.

  20. Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis showing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through fermentation experiments, it was confirmed that the mutant strain, TH-49, was not capable of using acetoin accumulated in broth as its energy sources for growth after glucose was consumed. This phenomenon was inconsistent with that the majorities of bacteria accumulate acetoin as stored energy sources and ...

  1. Genetic variation in hippocampal microRNA expression differences in C57BL/6 J X DBA/2 J (BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Michael J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background miRNAs are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation that play a major role in normal biological functions and diseases. Little is currently known about how expression of miRNAs is regulated. We surveyed variation in miRNA abundance in the hippocampus of mouse inbred strains, allowing us to take a genetic approach to the study of miRNA regulation, which is novel for miRNAs. The BXD recombinant inbred panel is a very well characterized genetic reference panel which allows quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of miRNA abundance and detection of correlates in a large store of brain and behavioural phenotypes. Results We found five suggestive trans QTLs for the regulation of miRNAs investigated. Further analysis of these QTLs revealed two genes, Tnik and Phf17, under the miR-212 regulatory QTLs, whose expression levels were significantly correlated with miR-212 expression. We found that miR-212 expression is correlated with cocaine-related behaviour, consistent with a reported role for this miRNA in the control of cocaine consumption. miR-31 is correlated with anxiety and alcohol related behaviours. KEGG pathway analysis of each miRNA’s expression correlates revealed enrichment of pathways including MAP kinase, cancer, long-term potentiation, axonal guidance and WNT signalling. Conclusions The BXD reference panel allowed us to establish genetic regulation and characterize biological function of specific miRNAs. QTL analysis enabled detection of genetic loci that regulate the expression of these miRNAs. eQTLs that regulate miRNA abundance are a new mechanism by which genetic variation influences brain and behaviour. Analysis of one of these QTLs revealed a gene, Tnik, which may regulate the expression of a miRNA, a molecular pathway and a behavioural phenotype. Evidence of genetic covariation of miR-212 abundance and cocaine related behaviours is strongly supported by previous

  2. Pain behavior and spinal cell activation due to carrageenan-induced inflammation in two inbred rat strains with differential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juif, Pierre-Eric; Anton, Fernand; Hanesch, Ulrike

    2012-02-28

    Lewis (LEW) and Fischer (FIS) inbred rats were used to study the relationship of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity with inflammation-related pain behavior. LEW rats are susceptible to the development of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, whereas FIS rats are resistant. Since contradictory data have previously been collected under conditions of acute inflammation, we investigated the onset and maintenance of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal activation of neurons and glia cells in a model of ongoing inflammation in both strains. Hind paw volumes and mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were measured prior to and during one week after intraplantar injection of carrageenan. The activation of nociceptive neurons (FosB), astroglia (GFAP) and microglia (OX-42) in the spinal cord of segments L5/L6 was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Inflammation increased paw volume, pain sensitivity and cell activation in both strains. FIS rats were more sensitive to sensory stimulation and developed a more severe edema on day 1, but recovered faster up to day 7 than LEW rats. At that time a higher amount of activated nociceptive neurons and corticosterone was seen in FIS rats, but microglial activation was more pronounced in LEW rats. Our results suggest a biphasic role of the HPA axis in pain behavior and spinal cell activation associated with ongoing inflammation. In the acute stage, the stronger reaction in FIS rats might be explained by an activating effect of corticosteroids on neutrophil function. Under ongoing inflammatory conditions the immunosuppressive actions of corticosteroids may dominate and lead to a quicker recovery of paw volume and pain sensitivity in FIS rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of genotype in the development of locomotor sensitization to alcohol in adult and adolescent mice: comparison of the DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melón, Laverne C; Boehm, Stephen L

    2011-07-01

    Animal models that explore differential sensitivity to the effects of acute and repeated exposure of alcohol (ethanol) may be influenced by both the developmental and genetic profile of the population. Therefore, we sought to compare the influence of ontogeny on sensitivity to ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and on the induction of locomotor sensitization to this effect across 2 inbred strains of mice; the ethanol consuming C57BL/6J and the ethanol avoiding DBA/2J strains. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J adults (postnatal day [PD] 60 to 80) and adolescents (PD 30±2) were assessed for basal activity, acute response to 2.0 g/kg ethanol, and the expression of locomotor sensitization following repeated administration of 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 g/kg ethanol. Basal activity was different across development for the C57BL/6J, but not DBA/2J, with adult B6 mice showing persistently greater baseline activity. Adolescents of both strains were more sensitive than adults to acute ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation; adults exhibited a decrease in their acute response across the testing session. Adolescent DBA/2J mice developed less ethanol sensitization compared to adults, with significant sensitization observed only following repeated administration of the lowest ethanol dose (2.5 g/kg), whereas DBA/2J adults sensitized to all doses. Age did not influence the development of ethanol sensitization for the C57BL/6J strain, as both adults and adolescents displayed a sensitized response following all ethanol doses. These results suggest that the developmental pattern of locomotor sensitivity to ethanol is unique to the genotypic profile of the animal model. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Genetic variation between Spanish and American versions of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Abuín, María del Carmen; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Ordás López, Bernardo; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2005-01-01

    Conservation of maize inbred lines in different stations causes variability among strains. The objective of this research was to determine agronomic and molecular differences in American sweet corn inbreds maintained in Spain. American and Spanish strains of five sweet corn inbred lines were characterized by using 34 RAPD primers that produced 168 consistent bands. Strains of four of these inbreds were crossed in a diallel design, and hybrids were evaluated in four environments in northwester...

  5. Immunohistochemical characterisation of the local immune response in azoxymethane-induced colon tumours in the BDIX inbred rat strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Agger, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    reaction of the submucosa below the tumour was evaluated in haematoxylin-eosin-stained tissue sections. Phenotypic characterization of leukocyte infiltration in the tumour tissue was performed by immunohistochemical staining using antibodies detecting various leukocyte subsets, i.e. T cells, natural killer...... cells, macrophages/monocytes, and dendritic cells. The results showed that the azoxymethane-induced colon tumours were strongly infiltrated by macrophages. Furthermore, the tumours showed a moderate degree of infiltrating CD4-positive cells. Very few natural killer, CD8-positive T cells and dendritic...

  6. Genetic Analysis of Ligation-Induced Neointima Formation in an F2 Intercross of C57BL/6 and FVB/N Inbred Mouse Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östergren, Caroline; Shim, Jeong; Larsen, Jens Vinther

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are central for arterial diseases including atherosclerosis and restenosis. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms may be modeled by carotid ligation in mice. In FVB/N inbred mice, ligation leads to abundant neo...

  7. ROOT TRAITS AND NODULATION OF RECOMBINANT INBRED BEAN LINES FROM A ‘JAMAPA × CALIMA’ POPULATION INOCULATED WITH TWO STRAINS OF RHIZOBIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean cultivars of Andean and Middle American origin often have contrasting above-ground traits. Less is known, however, of possible differences in root traits of beans from different gene pools. Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between the Andean cultivar ‘Calima’ and the Middle A...

  8. Genetic map of AFLP markers in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) derived from the H x B/Ipcv and B x H/cub sets of recombinant inbred strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonné, A. C. M.; den Bieman, M. G.; Gillissen, G. F.; Křen, Vladimír; Křenová, D.; Bílá, V.; Zídek, Václav; Kostka, Vlastimil; Musilová, Alena; Pravenec, Michal; Van Zutphen, B. F. M.; Van Lith, H. A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, 3-4 (2003), s. 77-89 ISSN 0006-2928 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GV204/98/K015; GA ČR GA305/00/1646 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) BIO4CT960562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : AFLP technique * rat * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.569, year: 2003

  9. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov; Earl, Patricia L., E-mail: pearl@nih.gov

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  10. Identification of exercise capacity QTL using association mapping in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Sean M; Massett, Michael P

    2012-10-02

    There are large interindividual differences in exercise capacity. It is well established that there is a genetic basis for these differences. However, the genetic factors underlying this variation are undefined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify novel putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for exercise capacity by measuring exercise capacity in inbred mice and performing genome-wide association mapping. Exercise capacity, defined as run time and work, was assessed in male mice (n = 6) from 34 strains of classical and wild-derived inbred mice performing a graded treadmill test. Genome-wide association mapping was performed with an efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) algorithm to identify QTL. Exercise capacity was significantly different across strains. Run time varied by 2.7-fold between the highest running strain (C58/J) and the lowest running strain (A/J). These same strains showed a 16.5-fold difference in work. Significant associations were identified for exercise time on chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 11, and 13. The QTL interval on chromosome 2 (~168 Mb) contains one gene, Nfatc2, and overlaps with a suggestive QTL for training responsiveness in humans. These results provide phenotype data on the widest range of inbred strains tested thus far and indicate that genetic background significantly influences exercise capacity. Furthermore, the novel QTLs identified in the current study provide new targets for investigating the underlying mechanisms for variation in exercise capacity.

  11. Heterosis For Litter Traits In Native By Exotic Inbred Pig Crosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inbred strains generated from native and exotic pigs were compared with their F1 and F2 backcross populations for a range of litter performance traits. Animals were intensively reared and at 81/2 months of age, the inbred genotypes from each strain were reciprocally mated to each other to generate F1 crossbred genotypes ...

  12. X-ray sensitive strains of CHO cells show decreased frequency of stable transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.; Smith, J.

    1987-01-01

    Six X-ray sensitive (xrs) strains of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line have previously been isolated and shown to have a defect in double strand break rejoining. In this study, these strains have been investigated for their ability to take up and integrate foreign DNA. All the xrs strains investigated so far have shown a decreased frequency of stable transfectants compared to their parent line, in experiments using the plasmid pSV2gpt, which contains the selectable bacterial gene, guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. This decreased frequency is observed over a wide range of DNA concentrations (0.1 to 20 μg DNA) but is more pronounced at higher DNA concentrations. In contrast, these xrs strains show the same level of transfection proficiency as the wild type parent using a transient transfection system with a plasmid containing the bacterial CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase) gene. Since the level of CAT activity does not depend on integration of foreign DNA, this suggests that the xrs strains are able to take up the same amount of DNA as the parent strains, but have a defect in the integration of foreign DNA. Since this integration of foreign DNA probably occurs by non-homologous recombination, this may indicate a role of the xrs gene product in this process

  13. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe B; Johnsen, Anders H; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-11-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related. Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea and an hitherto unknown metabolite suggested to be 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylideneurea.

  14. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation...... potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related....... Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1...

  15. Strain-specific and recessive QTLs involved in the control of partial resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchepied, L; Dogimont, C; Pitrat, M

    2005-06-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) causes serious economic losses in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Two dominant resistance genes have been identified, Fom-1 and Fom-2, which provide resistance to races 0 and 2 and races 0 and 1, respectively, however FOM race 1.2 overcomes these resistance genes. A partial resistance to FOM race 1.2 that has been found in some Far East accessions is under polygenic control. A genetic map of melon was constructed to tag FOM race 1.2 resistance with DNA markers on a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between resistant (Isabelle) and susceptible (cv. Védrantais) lines. Artificial root inoculations on plantlets of this population using two strains, one that causes wilting (FOM 1.2w) and one that causes yellowing (FOM 1.2y), resulted in phenotypic and genotypic data that enabled the identification of nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These QTLs were detected on five linkage groups by composite interval mapping and explained between 41.9% and 66.4% of the total variation. Four digenic epistatic interactions involving seven loci were detected and increased the total phenotypic variation that was explained. Co-localizations between QTLs and resistance gene homologs or resistance genes, such as Fom-2 and Vat, were observed. A strain-specific QTL was detected, and some QTLs appeared to be recessive.

  16. Genetic and Antigenic Analysis of Adenovirus Type 3 Strains Showing Intermediate Behavior in Standard Seroneutralization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia TB Moraes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available During an epidemiological survey of acute respiratory infection in Rio de Janeiro, among 208 adenovirus isolates, we found two strains that we were not able, by a standard neutralization procedure, to distinguish between type 3 or 7. However, DNA restriction pattern for the two strains with different enzymes were analyzed and showed a typical Ad3h profile. Using a cross-neutralization test in which both Ad3p and Ad7p antisera were used in different concentration against 100 TCID50 of each adenovirus standard and both isolates, we were able to confirm that the two isolates belong to serotype 3. An hemagglutination inhibition test also corroborated the identification of both strains as adenovirus type 3. Comparing Ad3h and Ad3p genome, we observed 16 different restriction enzyme sites, three of which were located in genomic regions encoding polypeptides involved in neutralization sites

  17. Regulation of GacA in Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strains Shows a Niche Specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available The GacS/GacA two-component system plays a central role in the regulation of a broad range of biological functions in many bacteria. In the biocontrol organism Pseudomonas chlororaphis, the Gac system has been shown to positively control quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and phenazine production, but has an overall negative impact on motility. These studies have been performed with strains originated from the rhizosphere predominantly. To investigate the level of conservation between the GacA regulation of biocontrol-related traits in P. chlororaphis isolates from different habitats, the studies presented here focused on the endophytic isolate G5 of P. chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca. A gacA mutant deficient in the production of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs and phenazine was isolated through transposon mutagenesis. Further phenotypic characterization revealed that in strain G5, similar to other P. chlororaphis strains, a gacA mutation caused inability to produce biocontrol factors such as phenazine, HCN and proteases responsible for antifungal activity, but overproduced siderophores. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AHL production was also practically abolished in this mutant. However, the wild type exhibited an extremely diverse AHL pattern which has never been identified in P. chlororaphis. In contrast to other isolates of this organism, GacA in strain G5 was shown to negatively regulate biofilm formation and oxidative stress response whilst positively regulating cell motility and biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. To gain a better understanding of the overall impact of GacA in G5, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed revealing that, in addition to some of the traits like phenazine mentioned above, GacA also negatively regulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS and trehalose biosynthesis whilst having a positive impact on energy metabolism, an effect not previously described in P. chlororaphis. Consequently, GacA regulation shows a

  18. Chromosome Y variants from different inbred mouse strains are linked to differences in the morphologic and molecular responses of cardiac cells to postpubertal testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Gary A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported previously that when chromosome Y (chrY from the mouse strain C57BL/6J (ChrYC57 was substituted for that of A/J mice (ChrYA, cardiomyocytes from the resulting "chromosome substitution" C57BL/6J-chrYA strain were smaller than that of their C57BL/6J counterparts. In reverse, when chrYA from A/J mice was substituted for that of chrYC57, cardiomyocytes from the resulting A/J-chrYC57 strain were larger than in their A/J counterparts. We further used these strains to test whether: 1 the origin of chrY could also be linked to differences in the profile of gene expression in the hearts of adult male mice, and 2 post-pubertal testosterone could play a role in the differential morphologic and/or molecular effects of chrYC57 and chrYA. Results The increased size of cardiomyocytes from adult male C57BL/6J mice compared to C57BL/6J-chrYA resulted from the absence of hypertrophic effects of post-pubertal testosterone on cells from the latter strain. However, gene profiling revealed that the latter effect could not be explained on the basis of an insensitivity of cells from C57BL/6J-chrYA to androgens, since even more cardiac genes were affected by post-pubertal testosterone in C57BL/6J-chrYA hearts than in C57BL/6J. By testing for interaction between the effects of surgery and strain, we identified 249 "interaction genes" whose expression was affected by post-pubertal testosterone differentially according to the genetic origin of chrY. These interaction genes were found to be enriched within a limited number of signaling pathways, including: 1 p53 signaling, which comprises the interacting genes Ccnd1, Pten and Cdkn1a that are also potential co-regulators of the androgen receptors, and 2 circadian rhythm, which comprises Arntl/Bmal1, which may in turn regulate cell growth via the control of Cdkn1a. Conclusion Although post-pubertal testosterone increased the size of cardiomyocytes from male C56BL/6J mice but not that from

  19. Validation of operant social motivation paradigms using BTBR T+tf/J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Loren; Sample, Hannah; Gregg, Michael; Wood, Caleb

    2014-09-01

    As purported causal factors are identified for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), new assays are needed to better phenotype animal models designed to explore these factors. With recent evidence suggesting that deficits in social motivation are at the core of ASD behavior, the development of quantitative measures of social motivation is particularly important. The goal of our study was to develop and validate novel assays to quantitatively measure social motivation in mice. In order to test the validity of our paradigms, we compared the BTBR strain, with documented social deficits, to the prosocial C57BL/6J strain. Two novel conditioning paradigms were developed that allowed the test mouse to control access to a social partner. In the social motivation task, the test mice lever pressed for a social reward. The reward contingency was set on a progressive ratio of reinforcement and the number of lever presses achieved in the final trial of a testing session (breakpoint) was used as an index of social motivation. In the valence comparison task, motivation for a food reward was compared to a social reward. We also explored activity, social affiliation, and preference for social novelty through a series of tasks using an ANY-Maze video-tracking system in an open-field arena. BTBR mice had significantly lower breakpoints in the social motivation paradigm than C57BL/6J mice. However, the valence comparison task revealed that BTBR mice also made significantly fewer lever presses for a food reward. The results of the conditioning paradigms suggest that the BTBR strain has an overall deficit in motivated behavior. Furthermore, the results of the open-field observations may suggest that social differences in the BTBR strain are anxiety induced.

  20. Genetic determination of the biological radiation response in inbred mice lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomolka, M.; Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T.

    2000-01-01

    Variation in radiation sensitivity and radiation resistance is influenced by the genetic constitution of an individual. Loss of function of genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle or controlled cell death can have serious consequences on individual radiation sensitivity. For example, individuals suffering on the clinical syndrome of Ataxia telangiectasia exhibit radiation sensitivity in the order of 2-3 magnitudes higher than other cancer patients. For radiation protection it is important to clarify the role of genetic predisposition for radiation sensitivity in clinical healthy people. Therefore, data were collected from the literature describing the genetic variation (heritability) of radiation sensitivity in the mouse model. A heritability of 30-50% was calculated for 27 inbred mice lines by Roderick (1963) based on days of survival after a daily dose of 1 Gy γ-irradiation. The following inbred lines were described in the literature as radiation sensitive (phenotypical markers were e.g., time of survival, mortality, reduction in fertility post exposure): SWR, RIII, NC, K, HLG, DBA, CBA, BALB/c, A, AKR. Radiation resistance was demonstrated in SJL, SEC, RF, MA, C58, C57BR, BDP and 129. Parameter of longevity, some physiological, biochemical and immunological parameters as given in the data bank of the Jackson Laboratory, U.S.A., were compared between radiation sensitive and radiation resistant inbred strains. No correlation was seen for the most of the parameters except for the development of breast cancer. In 6 out of 10 radiosensitive inbred strains breast cancer is described while only 1 of 8 strains exhibits breast cancer. The higher heritability of 30-50% in spite of a very complex phenotype like survival and the correlation between radiosensitivity and tumour incidence show that individual genetic susceptibility is important on the biological radiation reaction. (orig.) [de

  1. Intraspecific Competition and Inbreeding Depression: Increased Competitive Effort by Inbred Males Is Costly to Outbred Opponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jon; Smiseth, Per T

    2017-05-01

    A recent theoretical model suggests that intraspecific competition is an important determinant of the severity of inbreeding depression. The reason for this is that intraspecific competition is density dependent, leading to a stronger negative effect on inbred individuals if they are weaker competitors than outbred ones. In support of this prediction, previous empirical work shows that inbred individuals are weaker competitors than outbred ones and that intraspecific competition often exacerbates inbreeding depression. Here, we report an experiment on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, in which we recorded the outcome of competition over a small vertebrate carcass between an inbred or outbred male resident caring for a brood and a size-matched inbred or outbred male intruder. We found that inbred males were more successful as intruders in taking over a carcass from a male resident and were injured more frequently as either residents or intruders. Furthermore, inbred males gained less mass during the breeding attempt and had a shorter adult life span than outbred males. Finally, successful resident males reared a substantially smaller brood comprised of lighter larvae when the intruder was inbred than when it was outbred. Our results shows that inbred males increased their competitive effort, thus contradicting previous work suggesting that inbred males are weaker competitors. Furthermore, our results shows that inbred intruders impose a greater cost to resident males, suggesting that outbred individuals can suffer fitness costs as a result of competition with inbred ones.

  2. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boćanski Jan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a prerequisite for the successful commercial maize production. It does not appear in any cross of two inbred lines, and therefore, the determination of combining abilities of parental lines is essential. The most commonly used method for determining combining abilities is diallel analysis. Besides conventional methods for diallel analysis, a new biplot approach has been sugested. In this paper, we studied the combining ability for grain yield in a set of genotypes obtained by diallel crossing system of six inbred lines. Both, the Griffing’s conventional method and the biplot approach have been used for diallel analysis. Comparing the GCA values from biplot analysis and Griffing’s method, similar results can be observed, with the exception of NS L 1051 and NS L 1000 whose ranks are interchanged. Biplot analysis enables the SCA estimation of parent inbred, and the highest SCA has inbred B73D. Biplot analysis also allows the estimation of the best crosses. Inbred B73D shows the best results when crossed with testers Mo17Ht, NS L 1051 and N152, inbred N152 combines best with testers NS L 1001 and NS L 1000, whereas the cross of inbred NS L 1051 with tester B73D results with the highest grain yield per plant in comparison with other testers.

  3. Causes and consequences of chromatin variation between inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Variation at regulatory elements, identified through hypersensitivity to digestion by DNase I, is believed to contribute to variation in complex traits, but the extent and consequences of this variation are poorly characterized. Analysis of terminally differentiated erythroblasts in eight inbred strains of mice identified reproducible variation at approximately 6% of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS. Only 30% of such variable DHS contain a sequence variant predictive of site variation. Nevertheless, sequence variants within variable DHS are more likely to be associated with complex traits than those in non-variant DHS, and variants associated with complex traits preferentially occur in variable DHS. Changes at a small proportion (less than 10% of variable DHS are associated with changes in nearby transcriptional activity. Our results show that whilst DNA sequence variation is not the major determinant of variation in open chromatin, where such variants exist they are likely to be causal for complex traits.

  4. Colwellia psychrerythraea strains from distant deep sea basins show adaptation to local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that microbes, which share nearly identical 16S rRNA genes, can have highly divergent genomes. Microbes from distinct parts of the ocean also exhibit biogeographic patterning. Here we seek to better understand how certain microbes from the same species have adapted for growth under local conditions. The phenotypic and genomic heterogeneity of three strains of Colwellia psychrerythraea was investigated in order to understand adaptions to local environments. Colwellia are psychrophilic heterotrophic marine bacteria ubiquitous in cold marine ecosystems. We have recently isolated two Colwellia strains: ND2E from the Eastern Mediterranean and GAB14E from the Great Australian Bight. The 16S rRNA sequence of these two strains were greater than 98.2% identical to the well-characterized C. psychrerythraea 34H, which was isolated from arctic sediments. Salt tolerance, and carbon source utilization profiles for these strains were determined using Biolog Phenotype Microarrays’. These strains exhibited distinct salt tolerance, which was not associated with the salinity of sites of isolation. The carbon source utilization profiles were distinct with less than half of the tested carbon sources being metabolized by all three strains. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the genomes of these three strains were quite diverse with some genomes having up to 1600 strain-specific genes. Many genes involved in degrading strain-specific carbon sources were identified. There appears to be a link between carbon source utilization and location of isolation with distinctions observed between the Colwellia isolate recovered from sediment compared to water column isolates.

  5. PBI creams: a spontaneously mutated mouse strain showing wild animal-type reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, C A; Van Driel, K S; Talling, J C; Inglis, I R

    2001-01-01

    PBI creams are mice derived from warfarin-resistant wild stock that has been maintained under laboratory conditions since the 1970s. This study compares their behaviour to that of laboratory mice and wild house and wood mice. Animals were tested in a black/white box and a 2.64x1.4 m runway. In the black/white box, the behaviour of PBI creams was not significantly different from that of house mice and differed most from that of laboratory mice. Notably, the PBI creams showed the greatest activity and escape-orientated behaviours. When animals were approached by the experimenter in the open runway test, the PBI creams had higher flight speeds than both house and wood mice, whilst laboratory mice failed to respond. In the closed runway test where the animals could not escape, the PBI creams, house mice and wood mice all turned and attempted to run past the approaching experimenter, whilst the laboratory mice again failed to react. At the end of this test session, the time taken to catch each animal was recorded. It took less than 5 s to catch laboratory mice but significantly longer to catch the wild strains and the PBI creams (90-100 s for the latter). In these tests, the PBI creams showed wild animal-type reactivity, and as this behaviour has been retained in the laboratory colony for over 30 years, these animals may be useful in the study of the physiological and genetic basis of fear/anxiety in mice.

  6. Strains of Lactococcus lactis with a partial pyrimidine requirement show sensitivity toward aspartic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The growth rate of the widely used laboratory strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 was reduced if aspartic acid were present in the growth medium. The strain LM0230 is a plasmid- and phage-cured derivative of L. lactis subsp. cremoris C2, the ancestor of the original dairy isolate L...... that the partial pyrimidine requirement can be explained by a low specific activity of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes. In conclusion, L. lactis LM0230 during the process of plasmid- and prophage-curing has acquired a partial pyrimidine requirement resulting in sensitivity toward aspartic acid....

  7. Aspectos imunológicos da infecção de seis linhagens isogênicas de camundongos por três diferentes cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi Immunological aspects of infection of 6 inbred strains of mice by 3 different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Andrade

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados aspectos da imunidade humoral e celular em seis linhagens de camundongos isogênicos (BALB/c, B-10, C3H, A/J, AKR e DBA infectados por três cepas do Trypanosoma cuzi, representantes dos três tipos de cepas da classificação de Andrade (cepas Peruana, 21SF e Colombiana. A imunidade celular, avaliada pelo teste de hipersensibilidade cutânea tardia contra antigenos do parasita, estava suprimida. A avaliação dos níveis de imunoglobulinas (imunodifusão radial, mostrou queda precose de IgG1 e elevação de IgM em praticamente todas as linhagens infectadas por qualquer das cepas estudadas. A elevação de IgG2a e/ou IgG2b foi mais intensa nas linhagens mais resistentes. Os níveis de anticorpos anti-T, cruzi (Imunofluorescência indireta e ELISA não se correlacionam com a sobrevida dos animais. Apesar de diferenças entre as linhagens observou-se uma regularidade na resposta do hospedeiro e a manutenção dos padrões biológicos que caracterizam os tipos de cepa.We evaluated humoral and cellular immune responses in 6 inbred mouse strains (BALB/c, B-10, C3H, A/J, AKR and DBA infected with 3 Trypanosoma cruzi strains (Peruvian, 21 SF and Colombian, which are the standards for the 3 strains Types of Andrade's classification. Negative delayed-type hipersensitivity reactions to parasite antigens were evidence of suppressed cell-mediated immunity. An early drop of IgG1 and rise of IgM levels were observed in almost all mouse strains infected by any T. cruzi strain. Elevation of IgG2a and/or IgG2b levels was higher in resistant mouse strains. Anti-T. cruzi antibody levels (Indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA did not correlate with survival. Despite some differences among mouse strains there was a definition of an overall pattern of host response and the maintenance of biological standards which characterize the basic types of T. cruzi strains.

  8. Fingerprinting using extrolite profiles and physiological data shows sub-specific groupings of Penicillium crustosum strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    water activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using micromorphological data, temperature- and water-dependent growth rates, and extrolite profiles obtained by HPLC analysis. The micromorphological data were less informative, while the growth-rate data were informative only......Fingerprinting of Penicillium crustosum strains was performed using different phenotypic characteristics. Seven strains of this extremely homogenous species were selected; of these, five originated from geographical locations characterized by low temperatures, and one from a location with a low...... by previous amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) study. We thus demonstrate here for the first time that combined qualitative and quantitative extrolite profiles can be used as a tool for phenotypic fingerprinting, to complement, or replace, molecular fingerprinting techniques....

  9. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Entamoeba nuttalli Strains Showing Novel Isoenzyme Patterns from Wild Toque Macaques in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Feng, Meng; Bandara, K B Anura T; Kobayashi, Seiki; Cheng, Xunjia; Hirayama, Kenji; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed the revival of the name Entamoeba nuttalli for a virulent ameba strain, P19-061405, from a rhesus macaque and located it phylogenetically between E. histolytica and E. dispar. As E. nuttalli was originally described for an ameba found in a toque macaque in Sri Lanka, the prevalence and characteristics of Entamoeba species in wild toque macaques were examined. PCR analysis of 227 stool samples from six locations showed positive rates for E. nuttalli, E. dispar, and E. histolytica of 18.5%, 0.4%, and 0%, respectively. Fifteen E. nuttalli strains were cultured successfully from five locations. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene showed only three nucleotide differences in comparison with P19-061405 strain. In isoenzyme analysis, the pattern of hexokinase in Sri Lankan strains was different from that of P19-061405 strains and the difference was confirmed by analysis of the genes. Hepatic inoculation of one of the Sri Lankan E. nuttalli strains in hamsters resulted in amebic abscess formation and body weight loss. These results demonstrate that E. nuttalli is prevalent in wild toque macaques and that several characteristics of the strains are unique. We conclude that use of the name E. nuttalli is appropriate for the new Entamoeba species found in nonhuman primates. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  10. Estudo da infecção esquistossomótica produzida pelas linhagens humana e silvestre do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, SP (Brasil, em camundongos isogênicos Some results of schistosomiasis mansoni in inbred mice infected with human and wild rodent strains from the Paraiba do Sul River Valley, S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a influência da isogenicidade de camundongos de laboratório na capacidade de penetração de cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni de linhagem humana do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, SP. Foram estudados, comparativamente, aspectos da biologia e da patogenia das linhagens humana e silvestre do S. mansoni do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, SP (Brasil em camundongos isogênicos. Foi vantajoso o uso de camundongos isogênicos devido a maior homogeneidade dos resultados e a maior penetração de cercárias pelo tegumento da cauda dos roedores.The behavior of a human S. mansoni strain was studied in infected, outbred mice. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the infection in inbred mice, employing human and wild rodent strains of S. mansoni. The use of inbred mice was advantageous in that it allowed greater uniformity in the results as well as greater penetration of surrounding areas through the caudal tegmentum.

  11. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain shows protective effects against the B. anthracis LT toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier-Bres, Rodolphe; Rampal, Patrick; Peyron, Jean-François; Munro, Patrick; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Czerucka, Dorota

    2015-10-30

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT) of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax.

  12. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 Strain Shows Protective Effects against the B. anthracis LT Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Pontier-Bres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax.

  13. Streptomyces lunalinharesii Strain 235 Shows the Potential to Inhibit Bacteria Involved in Biocorrosion Processes

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    Juliana Pacheco da Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with proteinase K and trypsin. The antimicrobial substances present in the concentrated supernatant from growth media were partially characterized by SDS-PAGE and extracellular polypeptides were seen. Bands in the size range of 12 to 14.4 kDa caused antimicrobial activity. Transmission electron microscopy of D. alaskensis cells treated with the concentrated supernatant containing the antimicrobial substances revealed the formation of prominent bubbles, the spherical double-layered structures on the cell membrane, and the periplasmic space completely filled with electron-dense material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances by actinomycetes against bacteria involved in biocorrosion processes, and these findings may be of great relevance as an alternative source of biocides to those currently employed in the petroleum industry.

  14. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  15. Hemolysin, Protease, and EPS Producing Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila Strain An4 Shows Antibacterial Activity against Marine Bacterial Fish Pathogens

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    Anju Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 was isolated from marine catfish and characterized with reference to its proteolytic and hemolytic activity along with SDS-PAGE profile (sodium dodecyl sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ECPs (extracellular proteins showing hemolysin (approximately 50 kDa. Agar well diffusion assay using crude cell extract of the bacterial isolate clearly demonstrated antibacterial activity against indicator pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus arlettae strain An1, Acinetobacter sp. strain An2, Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3, and Alteromonas aurentia SE3 showing inhibitory zone >10 mm well comparable to common antibiotics. Further GC-MS analysis of crude cell extract revealed several metabolites, namely, phenolics, pyrrolo-pyrazines, pyrrolo-pyridine, and butylated hydroxytoluene (well-known antimicrobials. Characterization of EPS using FTIR indicated presence of several protein-related amine and amide groups along with peaks corresponding to carboxylic and phenyl rings which may be attributed to its virulent and antibacterial properties, respectively. Besides hemolysin, EPS, and protease, Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4 also produced several antibacterial metabolites.

  16. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40°C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses...... in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures...

  17. Histocompatible chicken inbred lines: homogeneities in the major histocompatibility complex antigens of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C inbred lines assessed by hemagglutination, mixed lymphocyte reaction and skin transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marcos B; Mizutani, Makoto; Fujiwara, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Yamagata, Takahiro; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Namikawa, Takao

    2007-10-01

    Chicken inbred lines of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C have been established by selection of a specific allele at the B blood group locus (MHC B-G region) and other polymorphic loci through pedigree mating. To extend the potential of these inbred lines as experimental animals in Aves, we assessed the antigenic homogeneities of the MHC antigens by three immunological methods. Antigenic variations of red blood cells (RBCs) were surveyed in the inbred lines and a random-bred line (NG) derived from the Nagoya breed by using ten kinds of intact antisera produced in the inbred line of chickens against RBCs of a red junglefowl and hybrids. In the hemagglutination test, no individual variations were found within the inbred line at all, while all the ten antisera detected highly heterogeneous reactions in individuals of the NG. The reciprocal one-way mixed lymphocyte reactions gave constantly higher stimulation responses (PGSP and GSN/1 inbred lines both having the B(21) allele. In reciprocal skin transplantation, the transplanted skingrafts within the inbred line and between individuals from the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines survived more than 100 days, while all the skingrafts showed signs of rejection within 7 days among the inbred lines having different B alleles. The results obtained by the three practical methods coincidentally indicated that the individuals in the respective four inbred lines were histocompatible, and further, that the GSP and GSN/1 individuals were histocompatible.

  18. Effective selection criteria for screening drought tolerant recombinant inbred lines of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Nishtman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seventy two sunflower recombinant inbred lines were tested for their yielding ability under both water-stressed and well-watered states. The inbred lines were evaluated in a rectangular 8´9 lattice design with two replications in both well-watered and water-stressed conditions, separately. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI, mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, harmonic mean (HM, stress susceptibility index (SSI, tolerance index (TOL, yield index (YI and yield stability index (YSI were calculated based on grain yield for every genotype. Results showed the highest values of mean productivity (MP index, geometric mean productivity (GMP, yield index (YI, harmonic mean (HM and stress tolerance index (STI indices for ‘C134a’ inbred line and least values of stress susceptibility index (SSI and tolerance (TOL for C61 inbred line. According to correlation of indices with yield performance under both drought stress and non-stress states and principle component analysis, indices including HM, MP, GMP and STI could properly distinguish drought tolerant sunflower inbred lines with high yield performance under both states. Cluster analysis of inbred lines using Ys, Yp and eight indices, categorized them into four groups including 19, 6, 26 and 19 inbred lines.

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively

  20. Helicobacter pylori strains from a Nigerian cohort show divergent antibiotic resistance rates and a uniform pathogenicity profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Harrison

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a factor preventing its successful eradication. Particularly in developing countries, resistance against commonly used antibiotics is widespread. Here, we present an epidemiological study from Nigeria with 111 isolates. We analyzed the associated disease outcome, and performed a detailed characterization of these isolated strains with respect to their antibiotic susceptibility and their virulence characteristics. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed on microbiological data as well as patient information and the results of the gastroenterological examination. We found that the variability concerning the production of virulence factors between strains was minimal, with 96.4% of isolates being CagA-positive and 92.8% producing detectable VacA levels. In addition, high frequency of bacterial resistance was observed for metronidazole (99.1%, followed by amoxicillin (33.3%, clarithromycin (14.4% and tetracycline (4.5%. In conclusion, this study indicated that the infection rate of H. pylori infection within the cohort in the present study was surprisingly low (36.6%. Furthermore, an average gastric pathology was observed by histological grading and bacterial isolates showed a uniform pathogenicity profile while indicating divergent antibiotic resistance rates.

  1. Differences in immunological susceptibility to cadmium toxicity between two rat strains as demonstrated with cell biological methods. Effect of cadmium on DNA synthesis of thymus lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselt, A. F.; Leene, W.; de Groot, C.; Kipp, J. B.; Evers, M.; Roelofsen, A. M.; Bosch, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    When 2 inbred rat strains, the Brown-Norway rat and the Lewis rat were exposed to the same amount of CdCl2 for 15 days, a completely different immunological reaction pattern could be demonstrated. Despite the same amount of intrathymic cadmium in both strains, the Brown-Norway rat showed a

  2. An improved procedure for integrated behavioral z-scoring illustrated with modified Hole Board behavior of male inbred laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labots, M Maaike; Laarakker, M C Marijke; Schetters, D Dustin; Arndt, S S Saskia; van Lith, H A Hein

    2018-01-01

    Guilloux et al. introduced: integrated behavioral z-scoring, a method for behavioral phenotyping of mice. Using this method multiple ethological variables can be combined to show an overall description of a certain behavioral dimension or motivational system. However, a problem may occur when the control group used for the calculation has a standard deviation of zero or when no control group is present to act as a reference group. In order to solve these problems, an improved procedure is suggested: taking the pooled data as reference. For this purpose a behavioral study with male mice from three inbred strains was carried out. The integrated behavioral z-scoring methodology was applied, thereby taking five different reference group options. The outcome regarding statistical significance and practical importance was compared. Significant effects and effect sizes were influenced by the choice of the reference group. In some cases it was impossible to use a certain population and condition, because one or more behavioral variables in question had a standard deviation of zero. Based on the improved method, male mice from the three inbred strains differed regarding activity and anxiety. Taking the method described by Guilloux et al. as basis, the present procedure improved the generalizability to all types of experimental designs in animal behavioral research. To solve the aforementioned problems and to avoid getting the diagnosis of data manipulation, the pooled data (combining the data from all experimental groups in a study) as reference option is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pentaclethra macroloba tannins fractions active against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal and Gram-negative strains showing selective toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Correa Ramos Leal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of the vegetal species Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze, Fabaceae, was fractioned and the antibacterial activity was determined. The active ethyl acetate (ea fraction showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae multiresistant bacteria. Gallic acid derivatives were identified as the main compounds in inactive subfractions from the ea fraction, while the active one afforded ellagic acid as the major constituent when submitted to acid hydrolysis reaction, which suggests the presence of hydrolysable tannins. The minimum bactericidal concentration analysis showed a bactericide mechanism of action for the tannin subfraction found. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the active tannin subfraction against S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 29213 e 33591 was proposed adopting an in vitro assay of protein synthesis inhibition. For this, bacterial cells were labeled with [35S] methionine in the presence of the subfraction. The protein synthesis inhibition was observed at 256 µg/mL of this subfraction. At this concentration it did not present cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells by the neutral red technique, suggesting selective toxicity. The present study is the first in vitro investigation of the antibacterial properties of tannin fractions obtained from a polar extract of P. macroloba.

  4. Pentaclethra macroloba tannins fractions active against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal and Gram-negative strains showing selective toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Correa Ramos Leal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of the vegetal species Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze, Fabaceae, was fractioned and the antibacterial activity was determined. The active ethyl acetate (ea fraction showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae multiresistant bacteria. Gallic acid derivatives were identified as the main compounds in inactive subfractions from the ea fraction, while the active one afforded ellagic acid as the major constituent when submitted to acid hydrolysis reaction, which suggests the presence of hydrolysable tannins. The minimum bactericidal concentration analysis showed a bactericide mechanism of action for the tannin subfraction found. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the active tannin subfraction against S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 29213 e 33591 was proposed adopting an in vitro assay of protein synthesis inhibition. For this, bacterial cells were labeled with [35S] methionine in the presence of the subfraction. The protein synthesis inhibition was observed at 256 µg/mL of this subfraction. At this concentration it did not present cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells by the neutral red technique, suggesting selective toxicity. The present study is the first in vitro investigation of the antibacterial properties of tannin fractions obtained from a polar extract of P. macroloba.

  5. [On the effect of imipramine on blood composition, glucose level and alkaline phosphatase activity of leucocytes in non-emotive Wistar rats and animals of inbred TMB strain (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, D; Freund, J L; Kahlau, F

    1981-01-01

    The acute effect of imipramine (Tofranil) on the composition of blood, blood sugar level and activity of alcaline phosphatase in leucocytes was studied in an experiment with 30 adult male TMB-rats. These findings were compared with those in non-emotive Wistar rats (the scores without stress and under the condition of psycho-pharmacological effects) as far as corresponding motor activity in both strains was concerned. Hematological findings in a non-stress condition are considered to be identical in both strains studied. Under the acute effect of imipramine only about 50% of the compared parameters are similar to each other. The differing course of the hematological reaction within the other 50% points to the presence of non-identical control mechanisms in both strains.

  6. Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June, 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days. Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10521 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 98-107

  7. Dynamics of phosphorus accumulation in maize inbred lines grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovinčić Anika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements deficiency in food can cause serious health problems. Being one of the three most importatnt macroelements for plant nutrition, phosphorus is involved in several key processes: photosynthesis, respiration, synthesis of starch, transport of carbohydrates and products of photosynthesis, cell division and increased water utilization. The objective of this study was to estimate the dynamics of inorganic phosphorus (Pi, as a precursor in the synthesis of phytic acid, and phytic phosphorus (Pphy accumulation during the grain filling of two maize inbred lines differing in FAO maturity groups - L217 and L773. In addition, possible linkage between phosphorus content in grain and agro-morphological performances was observed. For the analysis of the dynamics in Pi and Pphy contents, seed samples were taken at 15th, 30th, 45th and 60th day after the polination. The obtained results showed a continuous decline of Pi content in both genotypes, with the most intensive decline observed at the first interval (e.i. 15-30 days after the polination. The trend observed was much more pronounced in L217. Moreover, this inbred acheaved higher grain yield for 61.8 % at first sowing and for 63.1 % at 10-day delayed sowing, respectively, compared to inbred L773. In all three intervals observed, the decrease of Pi content was highly correlated with Pphy content increase for both genotypes. Based on lower accumulation rate, followed by lower Pphy content (2.635 mg g-1 during the stage of physiological maturuty, it could be concluded that inbred L217 could be considered as potentialy suitable genotype for low-phytic hybride selection.

  8. Recurrent selection in inbred popcorn families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daros Máskio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much appreciated in Brazil, commercial popcorn is currently cropped on a fairly small scale. A number of problems need to be solved to increase production, notably the obtaintion of seeds with good agronomic traits and good culinary characteristics. With the objective of developing superior genotypes in popcorn, a second cycle of intrapopulation recurrent selection based on inbred S1 families was carried out. From the first cycle of selection over the UNB-2U population, 222 S1 families were obtained, which were then divided into six sets and evaluated in a randomized complete block design with two replications within the sets. Experiments were carried out in two Brazilian localities. The analysis of variance revealed environmental effects for all evaluated traits, except popping and stand, showing that, for most traits, these environments affected genotype behavior in different ways. In addition, the set as source of variation was significant for most of the evaluated traits, indicating that dividing the families into sets was an efficient strategy. Genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for most traits, except popping expansion and stand. Differences among genotypes were also detected (1% F-test, making viable the proposition of using the genetic variability in the popcorn population as a basis for future recurrent selection cycles. Superior families were selected using the Smith and Hazel classic index, with predicted genetic gains of 17.8% for popping expansion and 26.95% for yield.

  9. Strain-specific response to anaesthetics and analgesics in rat and rabbit : A pharmacogenetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avsaroglu, H.

    2008-01-01

    The response of (laboratory) animals to anaesthetics and analgesics is known to show intraspecies variability. Apart from environmental influences, this may also be caused by genetic factors. In this thesis, rabbit and rat inbred strains were used to identify differences in response to anaesthetics

  10. Emergence of Mycoplasma genitalium strains showing mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in the region Dresden, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Roger; Thürmer, Alexander; Jacobs, Enno

    2016-10-01

    Among 323 specimens from male patients with symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis, Mycoplasma genitalium was detected in 19 samples by real-time PCR. Mutations of 23S rRNA gene associated with macrolide resistance were confirmed in 10 strains. Amino acid changes at positions 81 and 83 of ParC protein were demonstrated indicating quinolone resistance of two strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a Murine Model for Aerosolized Ebolavirus Infection Using a Panel of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Kotb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Countering aerosolized filovirus infection is a major priority of biodefense research.  Aerosol models of filovirus infection have been developed in knock-out mice, guinea pigs and non-human primates; however, filovirus infection of immunocompetent mice by the aerosol route has not been reported.  A murine model of aerosolized filovirus infection in mice should be useful for screening vaccine candidates and therapies.  In this study, various strains of wild-type and immunocompromised mice were exposed to aerosolized wild-type (WT or mouse-adapted (MA Ebola virus (EBOV.  Upon exposure to aerosolized WT-EBOV, BALB/c, C57BL/6 (B6, and DBA/2 (D2 mice were unaffected, but 100% of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and 90% of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat1 knock-out (KO mice became moribund between 7–9 days post-exposure (dpe.  Exposure to MA-EBOV caused 15% body weight loss in BALB/c, but all mice recovered.  In contrast, 10–30% lethality was observed in B6 and D2 mice exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and 100% of SCID, Stat1 KO, interferon (IFN-γ KO and Perforin KO mice became moribund between 7–14 dpe. In order to identify wild-type, inbred, mouse strains in which exposure to aerosolized MA-EBOV is uniformly lethal, 60 BXD (C57BL/6 crossed with DBA/2 recombinant inbred (RI and advanced RI (ARI mouse strains were exposed to aerosolized MA-EBOV, and monitored for disease severity. A complete spectrum of disease severity was observed. All BXD strains lost weight but many recovered. However, infection was uniformly lethal within 7 to 12 days post-exposure in five BXD strains.  Aerosol exposure of these five BXD strains to 10-fold less MA-EBOV resulted in lethality ranging from 0% in two strains to 90–100% lethality in two strains.  Analysis of post-mortem tissue from BXD strains that became moribund and were euthanized at the lower dose of MA-EBOV, showed liver damage in all mice as well as lung lesions in

  12. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain yield, yield .... mass selection followed by self-pollination for generating inbred lines. The inbred lines ... for the experiment was an alpha (0, 1) lattice (Patterson and Williams, 1996) with two replications at each ...

  13. Genomic Characterization of Urethritis-Associated Neisseria meningitidis Shows that a Wide Range of N. meningitidis Strains Can Cause Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kevin C; Unemo, Magnus; Jeverica, Samo; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis , typically a resident of the oro- or nasopharynx and the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia, is capable of invading and colonizing the urogenital tract. This can result in urethritis, akin to the syndrome caused by its sister species, N. gonorrhoeae , the etiologic agent of gonorrhea. Recently, meningococcal strains associated with outbreaks of urethritis were reported to share genetic characteristics with the gonococcus, raising the question of the extent to which these strains contain features that promote adaptation to the genitourinary niche, making them gonococcus-like and distinguishing them from other N. meningitidis strains. Here, we analyzed the genomes of 39 diverse N. meningitidis isolates associated with urethritis, collected independently over a decade and across three continents. In particular, we characterized the diversity of the nitrite reductase gene ( aniA ), the factor H-binding protein gene ( fHbp ), and the capsule biosynthetic locus, all of which are loci previously suggested to be associated with urogenital colonization. We observed notable diversity, including frameshift variants, in aniA and fHbp and the presence of intact, disrupted, and absent capsule biosynthetic genes, indicating that urogenital colonization and urethritis caused by N. meningitidis are possible across a range of meningococcal genotypes. Previously identified allelic patterns in urethritis-associated N. meningitidis strains may reflect genetic diversity in the underlying meningococcal population rather than novel adaptation to the urogenital tract. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli show strain dependent reductions under dry-fermented sausage production and post-processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Tone Mari; Holck, Askild; Axelsson, Lars; Høy, Martin; Heir, Even

    2012-04-16

    Dry-fermented sausages (DFS) are considered possible risk products regarding Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC). We have compared the reduction of 11 E. coli isolates of various serogroups in salami during the sausage production process and during post-process measures including storage, heating and freezing. The 11 E. coli isolates, mainly STEC, included enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) outbreak strains linked to DFS along with apathogenic E. coli. During sausage production, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction between the E. coli strains ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 log₁₀ (p0.1) between the reductions of E. coli in salami and in the TSB broth model. Results based on broth models and/or single or surrogate strains must therefore be interpreted with caution. The EHEC reducing post-processing measures tested can easily be implemented in DFS production with marginal influence on the quality of the sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Linnakoski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5, one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes

  16. The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Abigail K P; Williamson, Neil R; Slater, Holly

    2004-01-01

    The prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster (pig cluster) from two strains of Serratia (S. marcescens ATCC 274 and Serratia sp. ATCC 39006) has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts. Sequence analysis of the respective pig clusters revealed 14 ORFs in S. marcescens ATCC 274...... from Str. coelicolor A3(2) revealed some important differences. A modified scheme for the biosynthesis of prodigiosin, based on the pathway recently suggested for the synthesis of undecylprodigiosin, is proposed. The distribution of the pig cluster within several Serratia sp. isolates is demonstrated...

  17. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Forbes, Kristian M; Wingfield, Michael J; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2017-01-01

    Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO 2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica , and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO 2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions) was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe) climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5), one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes to a

  18. An Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain with Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Transaminase Activity Shows an Enhanced Genetic Transformation Ability in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Satoko; Someya, Tatsuhiko; Zhou, Sha; Takayama, Mariko; Nakamura, Kouji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens has the unique ability to mediate inter-kingdom DNA transfer, and for this reason, it has been utilized for plant genetic engineering. To increase the transformation frequency in plant genetic engineering, we focused on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a negative factor in the Agrobacterium-plant interaction. Recent studies have shown contradictory results regarding the effects of GABA on vir gene expression, leading to the speculation that GABA inhibits T-DNA transfer. In this study, we examined the effect of GABA on T-DNA transfer using a tomato line with a low GABA content. Compared with the control, the T-DNA transfer frequency was increased in the low-GABA tomato line, indicating that GABA inhibits T-DNA transfer. Therefore, we bred a new A. tumefaciens strain with GABA transaminase activity and the ability to degrade GABA. The A. tumefaciens strain exhibited increased T-DNA transfer in two tomato cultivars and Erianthus arundinacues and an increased frequency of stable transformation in tomato. PMID:28220841

  19. An Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain with Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Transaminase Activity Shows an Enhanced Genetic Transformation Ability in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Satoko; Someya, Tatsuhiko; Zhou, Sha; Takayama, Mariko; Nakamura, Kouji; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2017-02-21

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens has the unique ability to mediate inter-kingdom DNA transfer, and for this reason, it has been utilized for plant genetic engineering. To increase the transformation frequency in plant genetic engineering, we focused on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a negative factor in the Agrobacterium-plant interaction. Recent studies have shown contradictory results regarding the effects of GABA on vir gene expression, leading to the speculation that GABA inhibits T-DNA transfer. In this study, we examined the effect of GABA on T-DNA transfer using a tomato line with a low GABA content. Compared with the control, the T-DNA transfer frequency was increased in the low-GABA tomato line, indicating that GABA inhibits T-DNA transfer. Therefore, we bred a new A. tumefaciens strain with GABA transaminase activity and the ability to degrade GABA. The A. tumefaciens strain exhibited increased T-DNA transfer in two tomato cultivars and Erianthus arundinacues and an increased frequency of stable transformation in tomato.

  20. Host Defenses in Experimental Scrub Typhus: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Responses of Inbred Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrells, Thomas R.; Osterman, Joseph V.

    1982-01-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses of inbred mice during the course of lethal and chronic infections with strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were evaluated by using the influx of radiolabeled cells into antigen-injected ears. Congenic strains of C3H mice, which previously have been shown to be resistant (C3H/RV) or sensitive (C3H/HeDub) to lethal intraperitoneal infection with the Gilliam strain of rickettsiae, both expressed delayed-type hypersensitivity early in the course of infectio...

  1. Effects of homozygosity of the nude (rnu) gene in an inbred strain of rats: studies of lymphoid and non--lymphoid organs in different age groups of nude rats of LEW background at a stage in the gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1984-01-01

    Several age groups of nude homozygous rnu/rnu and heterozygous rnu/+ rats of the same genetic background at an early stage of back-crossing (LEW/Mol) were compared as to body and organ weights, histological appearance and cell density of lymphoid organs, haematological values and differential counts of bone marrow and peripheral blood. No thymic tissue was found in the nude animals. 7-week-old nudes were smaller than control animals and had relatively larger non-lymphoid organs and cell-depleted peripheral lymphoid organs. Other age groups showed little difference. Peripheral blood of nude rats showed no signs of lymphopaenia in contrast with the findings in nude mice. The number of thoracic duct lymphocytes was, however, significantly smaller in all age groups of the nude rats, and the bone marrow tended to contain fewer lymphocytes.

  2. Crosses Heterozygous for Hybrid Neurospora Translocation Strains Show Transmission Ratio Distortion Disfavoring Homokaryotic Ascospores Made Following Alternate Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Ashish Giri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By introgressing Neurospora crassa translocations into N. tetrasperma, we constructed heterokaryons bearing haploid nuclei of opposite mating types, and either the translocation and normal sequence chromosomes (i.e., [T + N] or a duplication and its complementary deficiency (i.e., [Dp + Df]. The [T + N] heterokaryons result from alternate segregation of homologous centromeres, whereas adjacent-1 segregation generates [Dp + Df]. Self-cross of either heterokaryon produces [T + N] and [Dp + Df] progeny. Occasionally during N. tetrasperma ascus development, a pair of smaller homokaryotic ascospores replaces a heterokaryotic ascospore. Crosses with the Eight-spore mutant increase such replacement, and can generate asci with eight homokaryotic ascospores, either 4T + 4N from alternate segregation, or 4Dp + 4Df from adjacent-1 segregation. Crosses of some of the introgressed translocation strains with normal sequence N. tetrasperma produced more Dp than T or N homokaryotic progeny. We suggest this is due to an insufficiency for a presumptive ascospore maturation factor, which increases the chance that, in asci with > 4 viable ascospores, none properly mature. Since only four viable ascospores (Dp or [Dp + Df] share the limiting factor following adjacent-1 segregation, whereas four to eight ascospores compete for it following alternate segregation, this would explain why Dp homokaryons outnumber T and N types, whereas the heterokaryons are not as affected. We believe that this novel form of transmission ratio distortion is caused by a Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller Incompatibility (BDMI triggered by an N. crassa gene in the N. tetrasperma background. Heterokaryons tend not to out-cross, and crosses of Dp strains are barren, thus the BDMI impedes interspecies gene flow.

  3. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; González-Abuín, Noemi; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Ana; Pinent, Montserrat; Petretto, Enrico; Behmoaras, Jacques; Blay, Mayte

    2016-10-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF) diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Lewis (LEW) show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2) as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Martínez-Micaelo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Lewis (LEW show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2 as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity.

  5. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Lankau

    Full Text Available It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  6. Salmonella strains isolated from Galápagos iguanas show spatial structuring of serovar and genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome.

  7. Salmonella Strains Isolated from Galápagos Iguanas Show Spatial Structuring of Serovar and Genomic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W.; Cruz Bedon, Lenin; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that dispersal limitation primarily structures host-associated bacterial populations because host distributions inherently limit transmission opportunities. However, enteric bacteria may disperse great distances during food-borne outbreaks. It is unclear if such rapid long-distance dispersal events happen regularly in natural systems or if these events represent an anthropogenic exception. We characterized Salmonella enterica isolates from the feces of free-living Galápagos land and marine iguanas from five sites on four islands using serotyping and genomic fingerprinting. Each site hosted unique and nearly exclusive serovar assemblages. Genomic fingerprint analysis offered a more complex model of S. enterica biogeography, with evidence of both unique strain pools and of spatial population structuring along a geographic gradient. These findings suggest that even relatively generalist enteric bacteria may be strongly dispersal limited in a natural system with strong barriers, such as oceanic divides. Yet, these differing results seen on two typing methods also suggests that genomic variation is less dispersal limited, allowing for different ecological processes to shape biogeographical patterns of the core and flexible portions of this bacterial species' genome. PMID:22615968

  8. Worm burdens in outbred and inbred laboratory rats with morphometric data on Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris worm burdens were evaluated in the rat Rattus norvegicus of the strains Wistar (outbred, Low/M and AM/2/Torr (inbred, maintained conventionally in institutional animal houses in Brazil. Morphometrics and illustration data for S. muris recovered from Brazilian laboratory rats are provided for the first time since its proposition in 1935.

  9. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  10. A yigP mutant strain is a small colony variant of E. coli and shows pleiotropic antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Tang, Qiongwei; Song, Jie; Ye, Jiang; Wu, Haizhen; Zhang, Huizhan

    2017-12-01

    Small colony variants (SCVs) are a commonly observed subpopulation of bacteria that have a small colony size and distinctive biochemical characteristics. SCVs are more resistant than the wild type to some antibiotics and usually cause persistent infections in the clinic. SCV studies have been very active during the past 2 decades, especially Staphylococcus aureus SCVs. However, fewer studies on Escherichia coli SCVs exist, so we studied an E. coli SCV during an experiment involving the deletion of the yigP locus. PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that the SCV was attributable to a defect in the yigP function. Furthermore, we investigated the antibiotic resistance profile of the E. coli SCV and it showed increased erythromycin, kanamycin, and d-cycloserine resistance, but collateral sensitivity to ampicillin, polymyxin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampin, and nalidixic acid. We tried to determine the association between yigP and the pleiotropic antibiotic resistance of the SCV by analyzing biofilm formation, cellular morphology, and coenzyme Q (Q 8 ) production. Our results indicated that impaired Q 8 biosynthesis was the primary factor that contributed to the increased resistance and collateral sensitivity of the SCV. This study offers a novel genetic basis for E. coli SCVs and an insight into the development of alternative antimicrobial strategies for clinical therapy.

  11. The mouse as a model for understanding chronic diseases of aging: the histopathologic basis of aging in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harrison

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inbred mice provide a unique tool to study aging populations because of the genetic homogeneity within an inbred strain, their short life span, and the tools for analysis which are available. A large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional aging study was conducted on 30 inbred strains to determine, using histopathology, the type and diversity of diseases mice develop as they age. These data provide tools that when linked with modern in silico genetic mapping tools, can begin to unravel the complex genetics of many of the common chronic diseases associated with aging in humans and other mammals. In addition, novel disease models were discovered in some strains, such as rhabdomyosarcoma in old A/J mice, to diseases affecting many but not all strains including pseudoxanthoma elasticum, pulmonary adenoma, alopecia areata, and many others. This extensive data set is now available online and provides a useful tool to help better understand strain-specific background diseases that can complicate interpretation of genetically engineered mice and other manipulatable mouse studies that utilize these strains.

  12. Large Scale Genome Analysis Shows that the Epitopes for Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies Are Predominant in the Pandemic 2009 Influenza Virus A H1N1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E. Lara-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past pandemic strain H1N1 (A (H1N1pdm09 has now become a common component of current seasonal influenza viruses. It has changed the pre-existing immunity of the human population to succeeding infections. In the present study, a total of 14,210 distinct sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database were used for the analysis. The epitope compositions in A (H1N1pdm09, classic seasonal strains, swine strains as well as highly virulent avian strain H5N1, identified with the aid of the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB, were compared at genomic level. The result showed that A (H1N1 pdm09 contains the 90% of B-cell epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies (EBCA, which is in consonance with the recent reports on the experimental identification of new epitopes or antibodies for this virus and the binding tests with influenza virus protein HA of different subtypes. Our analysis supports that high proportional EBCA depends on the epitope pattern of A (H1N1pdm09 virus. This study may be helpful for better understanding of A (H1N1pdm09 and the production of new influenza vaccines.

  13. (Gossypium hirsutum L. race latifolium H.) cultivars and inbred lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... (L) Inbred line. Numbers from 10 to 21 refer to the four cultivars and eight inbred lines from US introduced in Mozambique in 2006. Table 2. Decamer arbritary primers used for DNA amplification. Primer. Nucleotide sequence (5' – 3'). Primer. Nucleotide sequence (5' – 3'). OPA-11. CAA TCG CCG T. OPF-16.

  14. Genetic determination of the biological radiation response in inbred mice lines; Genetische Determination der biologischen Strahlenantwort in Mausinzuchtstaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomolka, M.; Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz Oberschleissheim (Germany). Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene

    2000-07-01

    Variation in radiation sensitivity and radiation resistance is influenced by the genetic constitution of an individual. Loss of function of genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle or controlled cell death can have serious consequences on individual radiation sensitivity. For example, individuals suffering on the clinical syndrome of Ataxia telangiectasia exhibit radiation sensitivity in the order of 2-3 magnitudes higher than other cancer patients. For radiation protection it is important to clarify the role of genetic predisposition for radiation sensitivity in clinical healthy people. Therefore, data were collected from the literature describing the genetic variation (heritability) of radiation sensitivity in the mouse model. A heritability of 30-50% was calculated for 27 inbred mice lines by Roderick (1963) based on days of survival after a daily dose of 1 Gy {gamma}-irradiation. The following inbred lines were described in the literature as radiation sensitive (phenotypical markers were e.g., time of survival, mortality, reduction in fertility post exposure): SWR, RIII, NC, K, HLG, DBA, CBA, BALB/c, A, AKR. Radiation resistance was demonstrated in SJL, SEC, RF, MA, C58, C57BR, BDP and 129. Parameter of longevity, some physiological, biochemical and immunological parameters as given in the data bank of the Jackson Laboratory, U.S.A., were compared between radiation sensitive and radiation resistant inbred strains. No correlation was seen for the most of the parameters except for the development of breast cancer. In 6 out of 10 radiosensitive inbred strains breast cancer is described while only 1 of 8 strains exhibits breast cancer. The higher heritability of 30-50% in spite of a very complex phenotype like survival and the correlation between radiosensitivity and tumour incidence show that individual genetic susceptibility is important on the biological radiation reaction. (orig.) [German] Die phaenotypische Variation der Strahlensensitivitaet und

  15. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  16. Bursal transcriptome profiling of different inbred chicken lines reveals key differentially expressed genes at 3 days post-infection with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah, Mohd Isa; Yasmin, Abd Rahaman; Mat Isa, Nurulfiza; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Ideris, Aini; Powers, Claire; Oladapo, Omobolanle; Nair, Venugopal; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease in the poultry industry and causes immunosuppression in chickens. Genome-wide regulations of immune response genes of inbred chickens with different genetic backgrounds, following very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection are poorly characterized. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the bursal tissue transcriptome of six inbred chicken lines 6, 7, 15, N, O and P following infection with vvIBDV strain UK661 using strand-specific next-generation sequencing, by highlighting important genes and pathways involved in the infected chicken during peak infection at 3 days post-infection. All infected chickens succumbed to the infection without major variations among the different lines. However, based on the viral loads and bursal lesion scoring, lines P and 6 can be considered as the most susceptible lines, while lines 15 and N were regarded as the least affected lines. Transcriptome profiling of the bursa identified 4588 genes to be differentially expressed, with 2985 upregulated and 1642 downregulated genes, in which these genes were commonly or uniquely detected in all or several infected lines. Genes that were upregulated are primarily pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and IFN-related. Various genes that are associated with B-cell functions and genes related to apoptosis were downregulated, together with the genes involved in p53 signalling. In conclusion, bursal transcriptome profiles of different inbred lines showed differential expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Th1 cytokines, JAK-STAT signalling genes, MAPK signalling genes, and their related pathways following vvIBDV infection.

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated high-frequency transformation of an elite commercial maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myeong-Je; Wu, Emily; Kwan, Jackie; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Linn, Wutt; Anand, Ajith; Li, Zhi; TeRonde, Susan; Register, James C; Jones, Todd J; Zhao, Zuo-Yu

    2014-10-01

    An improved Agrobacterium -mediated transformation protocol is described for a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred with optimized media modifications and AGL1. These improvements can be applied to other commercial inbreds. This study describes a significantly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred, PHR03, using optimal co-cultivation, resting and selection media. The use of green regenerative tissue medium components, high copper and 6-benzylaminopurine, in resting and selection media dramatically increased the transformation frequency. The use of glucose in resting medium further increased transformation frequency by improving the tissue induction rate, tissue survival and tissue proliferation from immature embryos. Consequently, an optimal combination of glucose, copper and cytokinin in the co-cultivation, resting and selection media resulted in significant improvement from 2.6 % up to tenfold at the T0 plant level using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 in transformation of PHR03. Furthermore, we evaluated four different Agrobacterium strains, LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, and GV3101 for transformation frequency and event quality. AGL1 had the highest transformation frequency with up to 57.1 % at the T0 plant level. However, AGL1 resulted in lower quality events (defined as single copy for transgenes without Agrobacterium T-DNA backbone) when compared to LBA4404 (30.1 vs 25.6 %). We propose that these improvements can be applied to other recalcitrant commercial maize inbreds.

  18. An Escherichia coli Strain, PGB01, Isolated from Feral Pigeon Faeces, Thermally Fit to Survive in Pigeon, Shows High Level Resistance to Trimethoprim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhap, Sangita; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

    2015-01-01

    In this study, of the hundred Escherichia coli strains isolated from feral Pigeon faeces, eighty five strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and fifteen sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. The only strain (among all antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates) that possessed class 1 integron was PGB01. The dihydrofolate reductase gene of the said integron was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli JM109. Since PGB01 was native to pigeon’s gut, we have compared the growth of PGB01 at two different temperatures, 42°C (normal body temperature of pigeon) and 37°C (optimal growth temperature of E. coli; also the human body temperature), with E. coli K12. It was found that PGB01 grew better than the laboratory strain E. coli K12 at 37°C as well as at 42°C. In the thermal fitness assay, it was observed that the cells of PGB01 were better adapted to 42°C, resembling the average body temperature of pigeon. The strain PGB01 also sustained more microwave mediated thermal stress than E. coli K12 cells. The NMR spectra of the whole cells of PGB01 varied from E. coli K12 in several spectral peaks relating some metabolic adaptation to thermotolerance. On elevating the growth temperature from 37°C to 42°C, susceptibility to kanamycin (both strains were sensitive to it) of E. coli K12 was increased, but in case of PGB01 no change in susceptibility took place. We have also attempted to reveal the basis of trimethoprim resistance phenotype conferred by the dfrA7 gene homologue of PGB01. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation study of docked complexes, PGB01-DfrA7 and E. coli TMP-sensitive-Dfr with trimethoprim (TMP) showed loss of some of the hydrogen and hydrophobic interaction between TMP and mutated residues in PGB01-DfrA7-TMP complex compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr-TMP complex. This loss of interaction entails decrease in affinity of TMP for PGB01-DfrA7 compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr. PMID:25750990

  19. Selection of maize inbred lines and gene expression for resistance to ear rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G S; Pinho, R G V; Pinho, E V R V; Pires, L P M; Bernardo Junior, L A Y; Pereira, J L A; Melo, M P

    2017-07-06

    In recent years, there has been a large incidence of fungi causing "ear rot" in maize in Brazil, the main fungus being Fusarium verticillioides. The most efficient and competitive alternative for control of this disease consists of using maize hybrids resistant to this pathogen. Thus, the aims of this study were to analyze the genetic variability of maize inbred lines in regard to resistance to ear rot to observe if there is a maternal effect to resistance to ear rot, to study genetic control of the traits evaluated in hybrids originating from inbred lines of the maize breeding program at the Agriculture Department of Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, Brazil), and characterize the gene expression pattern related to the plant defense mechanism against F. verticillioides. High genetic availability was observed for resistance to this disease among the inbred lines evaluated. Considering combined diallel analysis, it was observed that the mean square of general combining ability (GCA) was not significant for the characteristic under study. However, specific combining ability (SCA) was significant, which indicates the predominance of non-additive effects involved in control of the characteristic for the population evaluated. A maternal effect was not observed for the characteristic of ear rot resistance in this study. Inbred lines 22, 58, and 91 showed potential for use in breeding programs aiming at resistance to F. verticillioides. Only two genes, LOX8 and Hsp82, had a satisfactory result that was able to be related to a plant defense mechanism when there is ear rot infection, though expression of these genes was observed in only one susceptible genotype. Thus, the genes LOX8 and Hsp82 are potential molecular markers for selection of maize inbred lines resistant to F. verticillioides.

  20. Plant regeneration from immature embryos of Kenyan maize inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % percent of regenerants were normal and fertile. The successful regeneration of some of the inbred lines and/or hybrids provides a basis for development of genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to improve priority traits such ...

  1. Array-based genotyping and genetic dissimilarity analysis of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrović Antun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the results of the detailed array-based genotyping obtained by using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip of eleven inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups relevant for maize breeding in Southeast Europe - European Corn Belt. The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip platform by determining its descriptive power and to assess genetic dissimilarity of the inbred lines. The distribution of the SNPs was found not completely uniform among chromosomes, but average call rate was very high (97.9% and number of polymorphic loci was 33200 out of 50074 SNPs with known mapping position indicating descriptive power of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. The dendrogram obtained from UPGMA cluster analysis as well as principal component analysis (PCA confirmed pedigree information, undoubtedly distinguishing lines according to their background in two population varieties of Reid Yellow Dent and Lancaster Sure Crop. Dissimilarity analysis showed that all of the inbred lines could be distinguished from each other. Whereas cluster analysis did not definitely differentiate Mo17 and Ohio inbred lines, PCA revealed clear genetic differences between them. The studied inbred lines were confirmed to be genetically diverse, representing a large proportion of the genetic variation occurring in two maize heterotic groups.

  2. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Boćanski Jan; Nastasić Aleksandra; Stanisavljević Dušan; Srećkov Zorana; Mitrović Bojan; Treskić Sanja; Vukosavljev Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Bocanski J., A. Nastasic, D. Stanisavljevic, Z. Sreckov, B. Mitrovic, S. Treskic and M. Vukosavljev (2011): Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines- Genetika, Vol 43, No. 2, 277 - 284. Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a prerequisite for the successful commercial maize production. It does not appear in any cross of two inbred lines, and therefore, the determination of combining abilities of parental lines is essential. Th...

  3. Correlations between the contents of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous and downy mildew resistance of corn inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantipa Na Chiangmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of corn inbred lines collected at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center (NCSRC, Kasetsart University, were analyzed to determine the contents of phytic acid (PA and inorganic phosphorous (InP. These 28 and 29 inbred lines were cultivated at the NCSRC (in the 2008 late rainy season and 2009 early rainy season to evaluate their resistance to corn downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi. Results showed that the values of the PA, InP contents and downy mildew infection were statistically different among these inbred lines in both seasons. However, there were no correlations between the contents of either PA or InP and downy mildew infection.

  4. Towards mouse models of perseveration: a heritable component in extinction of operant behavior in fourteen standard and recombinant inbred mouse lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, J.W.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction of instrumental responses is an essential skill for adaptive behavior such as foraging. So far, only few studies have focused on extinction following appetitive conditioning in mice. We studied extinction of appetitive operant lever-press behavior in six standard inbred mouse strains

  5. [The biological and anatomical-morphological properties of Hymenolepis diminuta tapeworms of WMS il1 and the WMS "strain"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradowski, M; Grytner-Ziecina, B; Rebandel, H

    2001-01-01

    Crowded infrapopulations of H. diminuta obtained from the WMS il1 inbred line resembled those of the potentially non-inbred WMS strain in not showing either the abrupt reductions in the numbers of worms or the destrobilation described by other autors. Denser populations of both types of tapeworm have a greather abundance of 4 - testis proglottids of the 1p3a type (having 1 testis on the poral side and three on the aporal), and fewer of type 0p3a. Changes in the positioning of genital ducts and pores show a marked positive correlation with the abundance of type 2pla proglottids. Strobilae of H. diminuta WMS il1 contain a relatively greather number of type 0p3a proglottids and fewer of type 1p3a, than those of the WMS "strain"; something which is probably linked with the respective selection of the maternal tapeworms.

  6. Genetic diversity for restriction fragment length polymorphisms and heterosis for two diallel sets of maize inbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Lee, M; Lamkey, K R; Hallauer, A R; Woodman, W L

    1990-10-01

    Changes that may have occurred over the past 50 years of hybrid breeding in maize (Zea maize L.) with respect to heterosis for yield and heterozygosity at the molecular level are of interest to both maize breeders and quantitative geneticists. The objectives of this study were twofold: The first, to compare two diallels produced from six older maize inbreds released in the 1950's and earlier and six newer inbreds released during the 1970's with respect to (a) genetic variation for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and (b) the size of heterosis and epistatic effects, and the second, to evaluate the usefulness of RFLP-based genetic distance measures in predicting heterosis and performance of single-cross hybrids. Five generations (parents, F1; F2, and backcrosses) from the 15 crosses in each diallel were evaluated for grain yield and yield components in four Iowa environments. Genetic effects were estimated from generation means by ordinary diallel analyses and by the Eberhart-Gardner model. Newer lines showed significantly greater yield for inbred generations than did older lines but smaller heterosis estimates. In most cases, estimates of additive x additive epistatic effects for yield and yield components were significantly positive for both groups of lines. RFLP analyses of inbred lines included two restriction enzymes and 82 genomic DNA clones distributed over the maize genome. Eighty-one clones revealed polymorphisms with at least one enzyme. In each set, about three different RFLP variants were typically found per RFLP locus. Genetic distances between inbred lines were estimated from RFLP data as Rogers' distance (RD), which was subdivided into general (GRD) and specific (SRD) Rogers' distances within each diallel. The mean and range of RDs were similar for the older and newer lines, suggesting that the level of heterozygosity at the molecular level had not changed. GRD explained about 50% of the variation among RD values in both sets. Cluster

  7. Production of WTC.ZI-zi rat congenic strain and its pathological and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, T; Yamasaki, K; Kondo, A; Nakajima, K; Yamada, M; Serikawa, T

    1998-04-01

    A new rat congenic strain, WTC.ZI-zi, was produced after eleven generations of backcrossing between ZI strain as a donor strain and WTC strain as an inbred partner. WTC.ZI-zi/zi homozygous rats generally exhibit more conspicuous body tremor and much earlier occurrence of flaccid paresis than the original ZI strain. The average life span of the congenic strain is approximately nine months, which is also much shorter than that of the original ZI strain. Pathological analysis of the central nervous system of the congenic strain revealed more aggravated vacuolation and hypomyelination than in the original ZI strain. Establishment of the genetic profile with microsatellite markers showed that the congenic strain was genetically almost identical to the WTC strain except for a small chromosome segment bearing the zitter gene. Analysis of markers in this region implied that the length of the donor segment was approximately 13.4 centimorgans which corresponded to 0.65% of the total genome. Thus, these results suggested that expressional alterations of zitter gene were due to replacement of the genetic background from the original ZI strain to the WTC strain. Furthermore, the WTC.ZI-zi congenic strain could provide a refined tool for the analysis of zitter mutation, because the congenic strain has a strict control strain, WTC, and the length of the donor chromosome is genetically defined.

  8. Different effect of chronic stress on learning and memory in BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mice: Involvement of hippocampal NO production and PKC activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, María Laura; Zorrilla Zubilete, María Aurelia; Cremaschi, Graciela Alicia; Genaro, Ana María

    2009-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been involved in many pathophysiological brain processes. Recently, we showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-mediated decrease in NO production is involved in memory impairment induced by chronic mild stress (CMS) in BALB/c mice. Two genetically different inbred murine strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c, show distinct behavioral responses, neurodevelopmental and neurochemical parameters. Here, we perform a comparative study on CMS effects upon learning and memory in both strains, analyzing the role of NO production and its regulation by protein kinase C (PKC). Stressed BALB/c, but not C57Bl/6 mice, showed a poor learning performance in both the open field and passive avoidance inhibitory tasks. Also, CMS induced a diminished NO production by nNOS, associated with an increment in gamma and zeta PKC isoenzymes in BALB/c mice. In C57BL/6 mice, CMS had no effect on NO production, but increased delta and decreased betaI PKC isoforms. In vivo administration of a NOS inhibitor induced behavioral alterations in both strains. These results suggest a differential effect of stress, with BALB/c being more vulnerable to stress than C57BL/6 mice. This effect could be related to a differential regulation of NOS and PKC isoenzymes, pointing to an important role of NO in learning and memory.

  9. Evaluation of Lentil Recombinant Inbred Lines using Drought Tolerance Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Rahimi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To identify drought tolerant lines among 168 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Hindi variety of L3685 (high yielding, erect type and early growth as female parent and Iranian variety of Qazvin (with prostrate growth and late growth as male parent, two experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications under non-stress and drought stress conditions at the experimental Field of Shahrekord University in 2013. Results of combined analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among lines under study in both experimental conditions in terms of grain yield (P≤0.01. Significant interaction of line×conditions revealed that lines responded differently to drought stress based on grain yield. Results also indicates that lines 160, 125 and 129 were promising lines under both conditions in terms of grain yield. Positive and significant correlation between tolerance indices and grain yield under stress and non-stress conditions indicated that the STI, MP, HARM and GMP indices may identify promising from non promising lines. Based on the above criteria, lines 160, 125, 48, 103 and 129 were recognized as drought tolerant lines. According to the results of principal components analysis, the first and second components determined 97.8% of the total variations among genotypes under study for drought resistance indices. The distribution of lines in the biplot showed genetic variations to the drought stress and thus lines 160, 125, 48, 129 and 103 were identified as high yielders under drought stress condition.

  10. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of maize inbred lines for drought tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikić, S.; Zorić, M.; Stanisavljević, D.; Kondić-Špika, A.; Brbaklić, L.; Kobiljski, B.; Nastasić, A.; Mitrović, B.; Šurlan-Momirović, G.

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a severe threat to maize yield stability in Serbia and other temperate Southeast European countries occurring occasionally but with significant yield losses. The development of resilient genotypes that perform well under drought is one of the main focuses of maize breeding programmes. To test the tolerance of newly developed elite maize inbred lines to drought stress, field trials for grain yield performance and anthesis silk interval (ASI) were set in drought stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. Inbred lines performing well under drought, clustered into a group with short ASI and a smaller group with long ASI, were considered as a potential source for tolerance. The former contained inbreds from different heterotic groups and with a proportion of local germplasm. The latter consisted of genotypes with mixed exotic and Lancaster germplasm, which performed better in more drought-affected environments. Three inbreds were selected for their potential drought tolerance, showing an above-average yield and small ASI in all environments. Association analysis indicated significant correlations between ASI and grain yield and three microsatellites (bnlg1525, bnlg238 and umc1025). Eight alleles were selected for their favourable concurrent effect on yield increase and ASI decrease. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by the markers varied across environments from 5.7% to 22.4% and from 4.6% to 8.1% for ASI and yield, respectively. The alleles with strongest effect on performance of particular genotypes and their interactions in specific environments were identified by the mean of partial least square interactions analysis indicating potential suitability of the makers for tolerant genotype selection.

  11. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of maize inbred lines for drought tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikić, S.; Zorić, M.; Stanisavljević, D.; Kondić-Špika, A.; Brbaklić, L.; Kobiljski, B.; Nastasić, A.; Mitrović, B.; Šurlan-Momirović, G.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a severe threat to maize yield stability in Serbia and other temperate Southeast European countries occurring occasionally but with significant yield losses. The development of resilient genotypes that perform well under drought is one of the main focuses of maize breeding programmes. To test the tolerance of newly developed elite maize inbred lines to drought stress, field trials for grain yield performance and anthesis silk interval (ASI) were set in drought stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. Inbred lines performing well under drought, clustered into a group with short ASI and a smaller group with long ASI, were considered as a potential source for tolerance. The former contained inbreds from different heterotic groups and with a proportion of local germplasm. The latter consisted of genotypes with mixed exotic and Lancaster germplasm, which performed better in more drought-affected environments. Three inbreds were selected for their potential drought tolerance, showing an above-average yield and small ASI in all environments. Association analysis indicated significant correlations between ASI and grain yield and three microsatellites (bnlg1525, bnlg238 and umc1025). Eight alleles were selected for their favourable concurrent effect on yield increase and ASI decrease. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by the markers varied across environments from 5.7% to 22.4% and from 4.6% to 8.1% for ASI and yield, respectively. The alleles with strongest effect on performance of particular genotypes and their interactions in specific environments were identified by the mean of partial least square interactions analysis indicating potential suitability of the makers for tolerant genotype selection.

  12. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah

    2015-10-21

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains.

  13. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Abdallah M.; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Otto, Thomas D.; Coll, Francesc; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Gao, Ge; Naeem, Raeece; Ansari, Hifzur; Malas, Tareq B.; Adroub, Sabir A.; Verboom, Theo; Ummels, Roy; Zhang, Huoming; Panigrahi, Aswini Kumar; McNerney, Ruth; Brosch, Roland; Clark, Taane G.; Behr, Marcel A.; Bitter, Wilbert; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines against tuberculosis have been available for more than 90 years, their effectiveness has been hindered by variable protective efficacy and a lack of lasting memory responses. One factor contributing to this variability may be the diversity of the BCG strains that are used around the world, in part from genomic changes accumulated during vaccine production and their resulting differences in gene expression. We have compared the genomes and transcriptomes of a global collection of fourteen of the most widely used BCG strains at single base-pair resolution. We have also used quantitative proteomics to identify key differences in expression of proteins across five representative BCG strains of the four tandem duplication (DU) groups. We provide a comprehensive map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variation and insertions and deletions (indels) across fourteen BCG strains. Genome-wide SNP characterization allowed the construction of a new and robust phylogenic genealogy of BCG strains. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling revealed a metabolic remodeling in BCG strains that may be reflected by altered immunogenicity and possibly vaccine efficacy. Together, these integrated-omic data represent the most comprehensive catalogue of genetic variation across a global collection of BCG strains. PMID:26487098

  14. An amphipathic undecapeptide with all D-amino acids shows promising activity against colistin-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and a dual mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddo, Alberto; Thomsen, Thomas Thyge; Kjelstrup, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Multiple strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have developed multidrug resistance (MDR), leaving colistin as the only effective treatment. The cecropin-α-melittin hybrid BP100 (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2) and its analogs have previously shown activity against a wide array of plant and human pathogens....... In this study, we investigated the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 BP100 analogs (four known and 14 new) against the MDR A. baumannii strain ATCC BAA-1605, as well as against a number of other clinically relevant human pathogens. Selected peptides were further evaluated against strains of A. baumannii...

  15. Revealing the Complexity in CD8 T Cell Responses to Infection in Inbred C57B/6 versus Outbred Swiss Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew D; Danahy, Derek B; Hartwig, Stacey M; Harty, John T; Badovinac, Vladimir P

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that current mouse models may underrepresent the complexity of human immune responses. While most mouse immunology studies utilize inbred mouse strains, it is unclear if conclusions drawn from inbred mice can be extended to all mouse strains or generalized to humans. We recently described a "surrogate activation marker" approach that could be used to track polyclonal CD8 T cell responses in inbred and outbred mice and noted substantial discord in the magnitude and kinetics of CD8 T cell responses in individual outbred mice following infection. However, how the memory CD8 T cell response develops following infection and the correlates of memory CD8 T cell-mediated protection against re-infection in outbred mice remains unknown. In this study, we investigated development of pathogen-specific memory CD8 T cell responses in inbred C57B/6 and outbred National Institutes of Health Swiss mice following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or L. monocytogenes infection. Interestingly, the size of the memory CD8 T cell pool generated and rate of phenotypic progression was considerably more variable in individual outbred compared to inbred mice. Importantly, while prior infection provided both inbred and outbred cohorts of mice with protection against re-infection that was dependent on the dose of primary infection, levels of memory CD8 T cells generated and degree of protection against re-infection did not correlate with primary infection dose in all outbred mice. While variation in CD8 T cell responses to infection is not entirely surprising due to the genetic diversity present, analysis of infection-induced immunity in outbred hosts may reveal hidden complexity in CD8 T cell responses in genetically diverse populations and might help us further bridge the gap between mouse and human studies.

  16. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Temme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 have been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders.

  17. Co-inoculation of a Pea Core-Collection with Diverse Rhizobial Strains Shows Competitiveness for Nodulation and Efficiency of Nitrogen Fixation Are Distinct traits in the Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourion, Virginie; Heulin-Gotty, Karine; Aubert, Véronique; Tisseyre, Pierre; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Pervent, Marjorie; Delaitre, Catherine; Vile, Denis; Siol, Mathieu; Duc, Gérard; Brunel, Brigitte; Burstin, Judith; Lepetit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Pea forms symbiotic nodules with Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae (Rlv). In the field, pea roots can be exposed to multiple compatible Rlv strains. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the competitiveness for nodulation of Rlv strains and the ability of pea to choose between diverse compatible Rlv strains. The variability of pea-Rlv partner choice was investigated by co-inoculation with a mixture of five diverse Rlv strains of a 104-pea collection representative of the variability encountered in the genus Pisum . The nitrogen fixation efficiency conferred by each strain was determined in additional mono-inoculation experiments on a subset of 18 pea lines displaying contrasted Rlv choice. Differences in Rlv choice were observed within the pea collection according to their genetic or geographical diversities. The competitiveness for nodulation of a given pea-Rlv association evaluated in the multi-inoculated experiment was poorly correlated with its nitrogen fixation efficiency determined in mono-inoculation. Both plant and bacterial genetic determinants contribute to pea-Rlv partner choice. No evidence was found for co-selection of competitiveness for nodulation and nitrogen fixation efficiency. Plant and inoculant for an improved symbiotic association in the field must be selected not only on nitrogen fixation efficiency but also for competitiveness for nodulation.

  18. Differential development of sex-related characters of chickens from the GSP and PNP/DO inbred lines after left ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marcos B; Mizutani, Makoto; Kinoshita, Keiji; Fujiwara, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Namikawa, Takao; Yamagata, Takahiro

    2010-02-01

    To elucidate strain differences in the sex reversal of genetic females to phenotypic males, GSP and PNP/DO females were left ovariectomized (ovx) between one to three days after hatching, and the degree of masculinization based on sex-related characters, histological analysis of the right gonad and hormone assay were assessed at one year of age. The GSP and PNP/DO inbred lines were both derived from the Fayoumi breed and are only differentiated based on the red blood cell antigen type carried by each inbred line. Combs and wattles were found to be significantly bigger (PGSP ovx compared with the PNP/DO ovx chickens, although male plumage patterns were more pronounced in the PNP/DO ovx. Spurs were observed both in the GSP and PNP/DO ovx chickens with no significant difference (P>0.05) in length compared with the respective male controls, and body weight was not significantly different (P>0.05) compared with the female controls. The weight of the right gonad was significantly heavier (PGSP ovx than in the PNP/DO ovx. Positive correlations were found in the sex-related characters as well as the plasma testosterone level and right gonad weight in both the GSP and PNP/DO ovx chickens, but not in the spur length, which showed a negative correlation in the PNP/DO ovx chickens. Histological analysis revealed that the right gonads of the PNP/DO ovx chickens were morphologically developed compared with the GSP ovx chickens, which showed more advance stages of spermatogenesis. It could be inferred that PNP/DO females that exhibit a hereditary persistent right oviduct are more responsive to the masculinizing effect of ovariectomy compared with GSP females, suggesting that genetic background may have a possible contribution to the degree of masculinization and subsequent development of sex related characters.

  19. Agrobacterium- and Biolistic-Mediated Transformation of Maize B104 Inbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Jennifer A; Frame, Bronwyn; Little, Daniel; Santoso, Tri Joko; Wang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Genetic transformation of maize inbred genotypes remains non-routine for many laboratories due to variations in cell competency to induce embryogenic callus, as well as the cell's ability to receive and incorporate transgenes into the genome. This chapter describes two transformation protocols using Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods for gene delivery. Immature zygotic embryos of maize inbred B104, excised from ears harvested 10-14 days post pollination, are used as starting explant material. Disarmed Agrobacterium strains harboring standard binary vectors and the biolistic gun system Bio-Rad PDS-1000/He are used as gene delivery systems. The herbicide resistant bar gene and selection agent bialaphos are used for identifying putative transgenic type I callus events. Using the step-by-step protocols described here, average transformation frequencies (number of bialaphos resistant T 0 callus events per 100 explants infected or bombarded) of 4% and 8% can be achieved using the Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated methods, respectively. An estimated duration of 16-21 weeks is needed using either protocol from the start of transformation experiments to obtaining putative transgenic plantlets with established roots. In addition to laboratory in vitro procedures, detailed greenhouse protocols for producing immature ears as transformation starting material and caring for transgenic plants for seed production are also described.

  20. Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and characterization of major fragrance gene by microsatellite markers. ... At some SSR loci, new/recombinant alleles were observed, which indicate the active recombination between genomes of two rice varieties and can be used for linkage mapping once ...

  1. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain ... variance revealed significant difference among the hybrids for all studied traits. General ... Guto LMS5, L15 x SC22 and L20 x TSC22) gave significantly higher grain yield advantage over the two standard ...

  2. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight maize inbred lines and three open pollinated varieties from Sudan were evaluated for their response to tissue culture. Immature embryos obtained 16 days after pollination were used as explants for callus induction. Calli were induced on LS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

  3. determination of the heterotic groups of maize inbred lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...

  4. Haldane, Waddington and recombinant inbred lines: extension of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the early 1930s, J. B. S. Haldane and C. H. Waddington collaborated on the consequences of genetic linkage and inbreeding. One elegant mathematical genetics problem solved by them concerns recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced via repeated self or brother–sister mating. In this classic contribution, Haldane ...

  5. Genetic loci mapping for ear axis weight using recombinant inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ear axis weight (EAW) is one of the important agronomic traits in maize (Zea mays L.), related to yield. To understand its genetic basis, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, derived from the cross Mo17 × Huangzao4, was used for quantitative trait locus mapping (QTL) for EAW under high and low nitrogen (N) regimes.

  6. Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Nastasic, A.; Stanisavljevic, D.; Sreckov, Z.; Mitrovic, B.; Treskic, S.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bocanski J., A. Nastasic, D. Stanisavljevic, Z. Sreckov, B. Mitrovic, S. Treskic and M. Vukosavljev (2011): Biplot analysis of diallel crosses of NS maize inbred lines- Genetika, Vol 43, No. 2, 277 - 284. Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early Heterosis is a

  7. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening a large number of plants for salinity tolerance is not easy, therefore this investigation was performed to evaluate and screen 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Superhead#2 (Super Seri) and Roshan wheat varieties for salinity tolerance. All the individuals were evaluated under ...

  8. Regeneration of Sudanese maize inbred lines and open pollinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Eight maize inbred lines and three open pollinated varieties from Sudan were evaluated for their response to tissue ... Keywords: Sudanese maize genotypes, embryogenic callus, regeneration, and tissue culture. INTRODUCTION .... genes have been implicated in the inheritance of callus induction and ...

  9. Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic variability of maize inbred lines and their hybrids under normal and drought conditions. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for most of the characters under study which indicates the presence of sufficient amount of variability offering ample scope for ...

  10. Host plant secondary metabolite profiling shows a complex, strain-dependent response of maize to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vincent; Bertrand, Cédric; Bellvert, Floriant; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Bally, René; Comte, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Most Azospirillum plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) benefit plant growth through source effects related to free nitrogen fixation and/or phytohormone production, but little is known about their potential effects on plant physiology. These effects were assessed by comparing the early impacts of three Azospirillum inoculant strains on secondary metabolite profiles of two different maize (Zea mays) cultivars. After 10d of growth in nonsterile soil, maize methanolic extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and secondary metabolites identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Seed inoculation resulted in increased shoot biomass (and also root biomass with one strain) of hybrid PR37Y15 but had no stimulatory effect on hybrid DK315. In parallel, Azospirillum inoculation led to major qualitative and quantitative modifications of the contents of secondary metabolites, especially benzoxazinoids, in the maize plants. These modifications depended on the PGPR strain×plant cultivar combination. Thus, Azospirillum inoculation resulted in early, strain-dependent modifications in the biosynthetic pathways of benzoxazine derivatives in maize in compatible interactions. This is the first study documenting a PGPR effect on plant secondary metabolite profiles, and suggests the establishment of complex interactions between Azospirillum PGPR and maize. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  11. alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene promoter polymorphisms in inbred mice affect expression in a cell type-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexal, Sharon; Jenkins, Paul M; Lautner, Meeghan A; Iacob, Eli; Crouch, Eric L; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2007-05-04

    Inbred mouse strains display significant differences in their levels of brain alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR) expression, as measured by binding of the alpha7-selective antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. Variations in alpha-bungarotoxin binding have been shown to correlate with an animal's sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures and sensory gating. In two inbred mouse strains, C3H/2Ibg (C3H) and DBA/2Ibg (DBA/2), the inter-strain binding differences are linked to a restriction length polymorphism in the alpha7 nAChR gene, Chrna7. Despite this finding, the molecular mechanism(s) through which genetic variability in Chrna7 may contribute to alpha7 nAChR expression differences remains unknown. However, studies of the human alpha7 nAChR gene (CHRNA7) previously have demonstrated that CHRNA7 promoter polymorphisms are associated with differences in promoter activity as well as differences in sensory processing. In the present study, a 947-base pair region of the Chrna7 promoter was cloned from both the C3H and DBA/2 inbred mouse strains in an attempt to identify polymorphisms that may underlie alpha7 nAChR differential expression. Sequence analysis of these fragments identified 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A combination of two of these SNPs affects promoter activity in an in vitro luciferase reporter assay. These results suggest a mechanism through which the Chrna7 promoter genotype may influence interstrain variations in alpha7 nAChR expression.

  12. Enhanced Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum Strains From 4 Italian Hospitals Shows Geographical Differences in Strain Type Heterogeneity, Widespread Resistance to Macrolides, and Lack of Mutations Associated With Doxycycline Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Ciccarese, Giulia; Puga-Salazar, Christian; Dal Conte, Ivano; Colli, Laura; Cusini, Marco; Ramoni, Stefano; Delmonte, Sergio; DʼAntuono, Antonietta; Gaspari, Valeria; Drago, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    Although syphilis rates have been relatively high in Italy for more than 15 years, no data on the molecular types of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum circulating in this country are yet available. Likewise, no data on how widespread is resistance to macrolide or tetracycline antibiotics in these strains exist. Such data would, however, promote comprehensive studies on the molecular epidemiology of syphilis infections in Italy and inform future interventions aiming at syphilis control in this and other European countries. Swabs from oral, genital, cutaneous, or anal lesions were obtained from 60 syphilis patients attending dermatology clinics in Milan, Turin, Genoa, and Bologna. Molecular typing of T. pallidum DNA was performed to provide a snapshot of the genetic diversity of strains circulating in Northern Italy. Samples were also screened for mutations conferring resistance to macrolides and tetracyclines. T. pallidum DNA was detected in 88.3% (53/60) of the specimens analyzed. Complete and partial T. pallidum typing data were obtained for 77.3% (41/53) and 15.0% (8/53) of samples, respectively, whereas 4 samples could not be typed despite T. pallidum DNA being detected. The highest strain type heterogeneity was seen in samples from Bologna and Milan, followed by Genoa. Minimal diversity was detected in samples from Turin, despite the highest number of typeable samples collected there. Resistance to macrolides was detected in 94.3% (50/53) of the strains, but no known mutations associated with tetracycline resistance were found. Genetic diversity among T. pallidum strains circulating in Northern Italy varies significantly among geographical areas regardless of physical distance. Resistance to macrolides is widespread.

  13. A set of highly informative rat simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP markers and genetically defined rat strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki Ken-ichi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Bio Resource Project for the Rat in Japan (NBRP-Rat is focusing on collecting, preserving and distributing various rat strains, including spontaneous mutant, transgenic, congenic, and recombinant inbred (RI strains. To evaluate their value as models of human diseases, we are characterizing them using 109 phenotypic parameters, such as clinical measurements, internal anatomy, metabolic parameters, and behavioral tests, as part of the Rat Phenome Project. Here, we report on a set of 357 simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP markers and 122 rat strains, which were genotyped by the marker set. Results The SSLP markers were selected according to their distribution patterns throughout the whole rat genome with an average spacing of 7.59 Mb. The average number of informative markers between all possible pairs of strains was 259 (72.5% of 357 markers, showing their high degree of polymorphism. From the genetic profile of these rat inbred strains, we constructed a rat family tree to clarify their genetic background. Conclusion These highly informative SSLP markers as well as genetically and phenotypically defined rat strains are useful for designing experiments for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis and to choose strategies for developing new genetic resources. The data and resources are freely available at the NBRP-Rat web site 1.

  14. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of the sweet corn inbred lines is of great importance for its breeding. In this paper we analyzed genetic similarity of six sweet corn inbreds based on SSR markers. 40 SSR primers were used in DNA amplification. Results were compared and correlated with the data on specific combining ability, obtained by the diallel analysis. The results of SCA were in concurrence with genetic similarity. Values of rank correlation coefficient were negative, indicating that more similar inbred lines had smaller estimates of SCA, and lines that were less similar had higher estimates of SCA. Rank correlation coefficient between SCA and GS according to Dice coefficient was between -0,16 and -0,57*.

  15. Selection of popcorn inbred lines based on performance and genealogy of S5 progenies and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids is the most important objective in a corn breeding program. The objectives of thisstudy were to select and assess inbred lines, and to discuss the efficiency of four cycles of among and within inbred familyselection. Two experiments were evaluated, one with 144 S5 progenies of the popcorn population Beija-Flor and another withseven inbred lines. Based on expected gains in expansion volume, the best selective procedure was mass selection. The 14selected inbred lines should be divergent, because only two pairs were derived from the same S3 or S4 family. The analysis ofselection efficiency demonstrated that it is important to select superior plants in families with poorer performance to minimizethe loss of superior genotypes. The quality of the evaluated inbred lines was comparable to commercial populations and theyield satisfactory. The information about genealogy did not increase the inbred line selection efficiency.

  16. Atypical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with PrP-amyloid plaques in white matter: molecular characterization and transmission to bank voles show the M1 strain signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marcello; Saverioni, Daniela; Di Bari, Michele; Baiardi, Simone; Lemstra, Afina Willemina; Pirisinu, Laura; Capellari, Sabina; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Nonno, Romolo; Parchi, Piero

    2017-11-23

    Amyloid plaques formed by abnormal prion protein (PrP Sc ) aggregates occur with low frequency in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but represent a pathological hallmark of three relatively rare disease histotypes, namely variant CJD, sporadic CJDMV2K (methionine/valine at PRNP codon 129, PrP Sc type 2 and kuru-type amyloid plaques) and iatrogenic CJDMMiK (MM at codon 129, PrP Sc of intermediate type and kuru plaques). According to recent studies, however, PrP-amyloid plaques involving the subcortical and deep nuclei white matter may also rarely occur in CJDMM1 (MM at codon 129 and PrP Sc type 1), the most common CJD histotype.To further characterize the phenotype of atypical CJDMM1 with white matter plaques (p-CJDMM1) and unravel the basis of amyloid plaque formation in such cases, we compared clinical and histopathological features and PrP Sc physico-chemical properties between 5 p-CJDMM1 and 8 typical CJDMM1 brains lacking plaques. Furthermore, transmission properties after bioassay in two genetic lines of bank voles were also explored in the two groups.All 5 p-CJDMM1 cases had a disease duration longer than one year. Three cases were classified as sporadic CJDMM1, one as sporadic CJDMM1 + 2C and one as genetic CJDE200K-MM1. Molecular mass, protease sensitivity and thermo-solubilization of PrP Sc aggregates did not differ between p-CJDMM1 and classical CJDMM1 cases. Likewise, transmission properties such as incubation time, lesion profile and PrP Sc properties in bank voles also matched in the two groups.The present data further define the clinical-pathologic phenotype of p-CJDMM1, definitely establish it as a distinctive CJD histotype and demonstrate that PrP-plaque formation in this histotype is not a strain-specific feature. Since cases lacking amyloid plaques may also manifest a prolonged (i.e. > than one year) disease course, unidentified, host-specific factors likely play a significant role, in addition to disease duration, in generating white matter Pr

  17. A Maize Inbred Exhibits Resistance Against Western Corn Rootwoorm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano-Duque, Lina; Loades, Kenneth W; Tooker, John F; Brown, Kathleen M; Paul Williams, W; Luthe, Dawn S

    2017-12-01

    Insect resistance against root herbivores like the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is not well understood in non-transgenic maize. We studied the responses of two American maize inbreds, Mp708 and Tx601, to WCR infestation using biomechanical, molecular, biochemical analyses, and laser ablation tomography. Previous studies performed on several inbreds indicated that these two maize genotypes differed in resistance to pests including fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and WCR. Our data confirmed that Mp708 shows resistance against WCR, and demonstrates that the resistance mechanism is based in a multi-trait phenotype that includes increased resistance to cutting in nodal roots, stable root growth during insect infestation, constitutive and induced expression of known herbivore-defense genes, including ribosomal inhibitor protein 2 (rip2), terpene synthase 23 (tps23) and maize insect resistance cysteine protease-1 (mir1), as well high constitutive levels of jasmonic acid and production of (E)-β-caryophyllene. In contrast, Tx601 is susceptible to WCR. These findings will facilitate the use of Mp708 as a model to explore the wide variety of mechanisms and traits involved in plant defense responses and resistance to herbivory by insects with several different feeding habits.

  18. Differences in embryo quality are associated with differences in oocyte composition: a proteomic study in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin J; Taher, Leila; Drexler, Hannes; Suzuki, Yutaka; Makałowski, Wojciech; Schwarzer, Caroline; Wang, Bingyuan; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Current models of early mouse development assign roles to stochastic processes and epigenetic regulation, which are considered to be as influential as the genetic differences that exist between strains of the species Mus musculus. The aim of this study was to test whether mouse oocytes vary from each other in the abundance of gene products that could influence, prime, or even predetermine developmental trajectories and features of derivative embryos. Using the paradigm of inbred mouse strains, we quantified 2010 protein groups (SILAC LC-MS/MS) and 15205 transcripts (RNA deep sequencing) present simultaneously in oocytes of four strains tested (129/Sv, C57Bl/6J, C3H/HeN, DBA/2J). Oocytes differed according to donor strain in the abundance of catalytic and regulatory proteins, as confirmed for a subset (bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 1B [BAZ1B], heme oxygenase 1 [HMOX1], estrogen related receptor, beta [ESRRB]) via immunofluorescence in situ. Given a Pearson's r correlation coefficient of 0.18-0.20, the abundance of oocytic proteins could not be predicted from that of cognate mRNAs. Our results document that a prerequisite to generate embryo diversity, namely the different abundances of maternal proteins in oocytes, can be studied in the model of inbred mouse strains. Thus, we highlight the importance of proteomic quantifications in modern embryology. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001059 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001059). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diallel mating design experiment with reciprocal crosses was used to determine combining abilities of five maize inbred lines and their hybrid combinations for grain yield, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernel rows per ear, number of kernels per row in 2005. and 2006. year. GCA and SCA significant values were observed for all traits under study in both years. GCA/SCA relation showed that dominant gene effect had prevalent influence in the inheritance of grain yield, ear length and ear diameter. Additive gene effect had larger importance in the inheritance of number of kernel rows per ear. NS-1445 inbred line showed best GCA effect for grain yield, ear length and number of kernels per row, but worst GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear. Best GCA effect for ear diameter achieved inbred line F-7R. Line BL-47 showed best GCA effect for number of kernel rows per ear in both years, but also the worst GCA effect for grain yield and number of kernels per row. Hybrid combination NS-1445 x BL-47 showed largest SCA effect for grain yield in both years and also showed, like hybrid combination F-7R x NS-1445, significant SCA effects for all other traits, except ear diameter. This cross also proved that hybrid combinations that include one parent with good GCA effect and the other parent with bad GCA effect can have very successful performance. It will be useful during selection material testing, to keep also genotypes which show bad GCA effect, but have phenotypic favorable trait values. Reciprocity effect was significant for SCA effects of all traits but ear diameter. It is the conformation of involvement of plasmagenes in maize quantitative traits inheritance. The largest reciprocity effect for grain yield achieved F-7R x BL-47 in both years. Significantly higher grain yield in this hybrid combination was achieved when line F-7R was used as a female parent and significantly higher number of kernel rows per ear was achieved when line BL-47 was

  20. The use of SSRs for predicting the hybrid yield and yield heterosis in 15 key inbred lines of Chinese maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su-Xia; Liu, Jie; Liu, Gong-She

    2004-01-01

    A challenge to maize breeders is to predict and identify inbred lines that can produce highly heterotic hybrids precisely. In the present study we surveyed the genetic diversity among 15 elite inbred lines of maize in China with SSR markers and assessed the relationship between SSR marker and hybrid yield/yield heterosis in a diallel set of 105 crosses. Forty-three SSR primers selected from all sixty-three primers gave stable profiles amplified in the sample of 15 inbred lines, which could clearly resolve on 4% metaphor agarose gel. The average number of alleles per SSR locus was 4.44 with a range from 2 to 9. The polymorphism information content (PIC) for the SSR loci varied from 0.28 to 0.81 with a mean of 0.6281. Genetic similarity (GS) among 15 lines was estimated with 191 alleles identified as raw data, the Nei's coefficient of GS ranged from 0.492 for 478 vs HZ4 up to 0.745 for E28 to ZH64 with a mean of 0.619. The cluster diagram based upon the SSR data grouped the 15 lines into families consistent with the yield heterotic response of these. Genetic distance (GD) based on SSR data was significantly correlated with hybrid yield/yield heterosis, the correlation coefficient (r) being 0.5432 and 0.4271 in 1999 and 0.4305 and 0.3614 in 1998 field test, respectively, whereas the determination coefficient (r2) was lower. The correlation between GD based on SSR data and hybrid yield/yield heterosis changed alone with the difference of number and pedigree relationship among parents that were used in this study. SSR makers showed high polymorphism and could be used to assess the relationship between inbred lines of maize, but it was difficult to predict the yield heterosis of maize.

  1. Quantification of phenolic acids and antioxidant potential of inbred, hybrid and composite cultivars of maize under different nitrogen regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Ahad, Amjid; Pandey, Renu; Ahmad, Sayeed; Aref, Ibrahim M; Noor, Jewel Jameeta; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a multipurpose crop, which is immensely used worldwide for its nutritional as well as medicinal properties. This study evaluates the effect of varying concentrations of nitrogen (N) on accumulation of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in different maize cultivars, including inbreds, hybrids and a composite, which were grown in natural light under controlled temperature (30°C/20°C D/N) and humidity (80%), with sufficient (4.5mM) and low (0.05mM) nitrogen supply. Seeds of different cultivars were powdered and extracted in a methanol:water (80:20) mixture through reflux at 60-75°C, and the extracts obtained were subjected to high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), using ethyl acetate: acetic acid: formic acid: water (109:16:12:31) solvent system for the separation of phenolic acids. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and H2O2-scavenging activity assays. At sufficient nitrogen condition, the contents of different phenolic acids were higher in the composite cultivar (8.7 mg g-1 d.wt. in gallic acid to 39.3 mg g-1 d.wt. in cinnamic and salicylic acids) than in inbreds and hybrids. Under low nitrogen condition, the phenolic acids contents declined significantly in inbreds and hybrids, but remained almost unaffected in the composite. The antioxidant activity was also the maximum in the composite, and declined similarly as phenolic acids under low nitrogen supply, showing a significant reduction in inbreds and hybrids only. Therefore, the maize composite has a potential for being used as a nutraceutical in human-health sector.

  2. Characteristics of far eastern strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, Galina N; Belikov, Sergei I; Kondratov, Ilya G

    2017-08-01

    A comparative study of biological, molecular and genetic characteristics of a collection of ten strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) isolated in Primorsky Krai before 1960 and stored in a lyophilized state for a prolonged period (over 65 years) is presented. The collection includes the Sofjin strain isolated from the brain of a fatal case in Primorsky Krai in 1937 and transferred to the Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology (Vladivostok) in 1953. All lyophilized viral strains demonstrated great preservation and high infectious activity in the model of 2-day-old non-inbred mice. Whole-genome sequencing showed that all strains belong to the Far East TBEV subtype, comprising three clusters of Sofjin-, Oshima- and Senzhang-like strains. We show that SofjinPYB, Sofjin (Vector) and Sofjin-HO strains form a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree and are closely related to Khabarovsk-Obor-4, but not to the original Sofjin strain. The Sofjin-1953, Sofijin-Chumakov, SofjinKSY and SofjinCDC strains are genetically close to each other and can be used as reference strains for comparative analysis of the tick-borne encephalitis virus population.

  3. The genomic scrapheap challenge; extracting relevant data from unmapped whole genome sequencing reads, including strain specific genomic segments, in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Weide, Robin H.; Simonis, Marieke; Hermsen, Roel; Toonen, Pim; Cuppen, Edwin; de Ligt, Joep

    2016-01-01

    Unmapped next-generation sequencing reads are typically ignored while they contain biologically relevant information. We systematically analyzed unmapped reads from whole genome sequencing of 33 inbred rat strains. High quality reads were selected and enriched for biologically relevant sequences;

  4. Haplotypes at the Tas2r locus on distal chromosome 6 vary with quinine taste sensitivity in inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munger Steven D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of bitter-tasting compounds by the gustatory system is thought to alert animals to the presence of potentially toxic food. Some, if not all, bitter stimuli activate specific taste receptors, the T2Rs, which are expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells on the tongue and palate. However, there is evidence for both receptor-dependent and -independent transduction mechanisms for a number of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl and denatonium benzoate (DB. Results We used brief-access behavioral taste testing of BXD/Ty recombinant inbred (RI mouse strains to map the major quantitative trait locus (QTL for taste sensitivity to QHCl. This QTL is restricted to a ~5 Mb interval on chromosome 6 that includes 24 genes encoding T2Rs (Tas2rs. Tas2rs at this locus display in total 307 coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the two BXD/Ty RI parental strains, C57BL/6J (quinine-sensitive and DBA/2J (quinine insensitive; approximately 50% of these mutations are silent. Individual RI lines contain exclusively either C57BL/6J or DBA/2J Tas2r alleles at this locus, and RI lines containing C57BL/6J Tas2r alleles are more sensitive to QHCl than are lines containing DBA/2J alleles. Thus, the entire Tas2r cluster comprises a large haplotype that correlates with quinine taster status. Conclusion These studies, the first using a taste-salient assay to map the major QTL for quinine taste, indicate that a T2R-dependent transduction cascade is responsible for the majority of strain variance in quinine taste sensitivity. Furthermore, the large number of polymorphisms within coding exons of the Tas2r cluster, coupled with evidence that inbred strains exhibit largely similar bitter taste phenotypes, suggest that T2R receptors are quite tolerant to variation.

  5. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zafar Naderi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluateresponse of bread wheat recombinant inbred lines to water deficit, a split plot experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (CRBD was conducted using eight recombinant inbred lines and their parental cultivars (Roshan and Super Head with three replications under three irrigation levels (80, 120 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch during 2009. The results of analysis of variance data collected revealed significant difference among lines and irrigation levels for grain yield. While line × irrigation level interaction was non significant for grain yield. Based on SSI and TOL, drought tolerance indices lines number 1, 7, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm evaporation, and lines number 7 and 19 under 160 mm evaporation were the tolerant lines. Under both stress conditions according to STI, MP and GMP indices, lines number 37, 38 and Roshan cultivar were recognized as the tolerant lines to water deficiet. Cluster analyses based on grain yield and drought tolerance indices recognized the lines number 1, 30, 32, 37, 38, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm and lines number 30, 37 and 38 and Roshan under 160 mm evaporation as the most drought tolerants and higher producers.

  6. The Combining Ability of Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was, therefore, conducted to investigate the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability of selected maize inbred lines for grain yield and GLS disease resistance. Eight maize inbred lines with contrasting reactions to GLS were crossed in diallel mating to generate 28 hybrids. The parents and ...

  7. Incentive loss and hippocampal gene expression in inbred Roman high- (RHA-I) and Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabariego, Marta; Morón, Ignacio; Gómez, M José; Donaire, Rocío; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Martínez-Conejero, José A; Esteban, Francisco J; Torres, Carmen

    2013-11-15

    Two recent microarray and qRT-PCR studies showed that inbred Roman high- (RHA-I, low anxiety and frustration vulnerability) and low-avoidance (RLA-I, high anxiety and frustration vulnerability) rats, psychogenetically selected on the basis of their divergence in two-way avoidance performance, differed in basal whole-brain and hippocampal expression of genes related to neurotransmission, emotion, stress, aversive learning, and drug seeking behavior. We have extended these studies by analyzing strain differences in hippocampal gene expression following a frustrative experience involving reward downshift, i.e. instrumental successive negative contrast (iSNC), a phenomenon in which the sudden reduction of an expected reward induces frustration/anxiety. Food-deprived male Roman rats were exposed to a reduction in the amount of solid food presented in the goal of a straight alley (from 12 pellets in "training" trials - i.e. preshift trials- to 2 pellets in "frustration testing" trials - i.e. postshift trials-). The iSNC effect, as measured by response latencies in the "postshift" trials, appeared only in RLA-I rats (i.e. higher response latencies in the 12-2 RLA-I group as compared to the 2-2 RLA-I control group in postshift trials). Two and a half hours after the "postshift" behavioral test, hippocampi were removed and stored (-80°C) until analysis. Microarray analysis of these hippocampi showed that four differentially-expressed, and qRT-PCR-validated genes (TAAR2, THAP1, PKD2L1, NANOS), have relevance for brain function and behavior, including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and drug addiction, thus showing the usefulness of Roman strains as a genetic model for research on the neurogenetic basis of frustration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neonatal handling decreases unconditioned anxiety, conditioned fear, and improves two-way avoidance acquisition: a study with the inbred Roman high (RHA-I- and low-avoidance (RLA-I rats of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal eRío-Alamos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the long-lasting effects of neonatal handling (H; administered during the first 21 days of life on unlearned and learned anxiety-related responses in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I and Low-avoidance (RLA-I rats. To this aim, untreated and neonatally-handled RHA-I and RLA-I rats of both sexes were tested in the following tests/tasks in baseline acoustic startle (BAS test, a context-conditioned fear (CCF test and the acquisition of two-way active –shuttle box- avoidance (SHAV. RLA-I rats showed higher unconditioned (NOE, ZM, BAS and conditioned (CCF, SHAV anxiety. H treatment increased exploration of the novel object in the NOE test as well as exploration of the open sections of the ZM test in both rat strains and sexes, although the effects were relatively more marked in the (high anxious RLA-I strain and in females. Neonatal handling did not affect BAS, but reduced context-conditioned fear in both strains and sexes, and improved shuttle box avoidance acquisition especially in RLA-I (and particularly in females and in female RHA-I rats. These are completely novel findings, and may suggest that H-induced changes in hippocampal function, which is enhanced in RLA-Is vs RHA-I rats, could be a candidate mechanism underlying the observed long-lasting benefits of neonatal handling on known hippocampal-dependent responses/tasks.

  9. Strain-dependent variations in visceral sensitivity: relationship to stress, anxiety and spinal glutamate transporter expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, R D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-04-01

    Responses to painful stimuli differ between populations, ethnic groups, sexes and even among individuals of a family. However, data regarding visceral pain are still lacking. Thus, we investigated differences in visceral nociception across inbred and outbred mouse strains using colorectal distension. Anxiety and depression-like behaviour were assessed using the open field and forced swim test as well as the corticosterone stress response. Possible mechanistic targets [excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT-1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5HT1A receptor] were also assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Adult, male, inbred and outbred mouse strains were used in all assays (inbred strains; CBA/J Hsd, C3H/HeNHsd, BALB/c OlaHsd, C57 BL/6JOlaHsd, DBA/2J RccHsd, CAST/EiJ, SM/J, A/J OlaHsd, 129P2/OlaHsd, FVB/NHan Hsd and outbred strains: Swiss Webster, CD-1). mRNA expression levels of EAAT-1, BDNF and 5HT1A receptor (HTR1A) were quantified in the lumbosacral spinal cord, amygdala and hippocampus. A significant effect of strain was found in visceral sensitivity, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Strain differences were also seen in both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels. CBA/J mice consistently exhibited heightened visceral sensitivity, anxiety behaviour and depression-like behaviour which were associated with decreased spinal EAAT-1 and hippocampal BDNF and HTR1A. Our results show the CBA/J mouse strain as a novel mouse model to unravel the complex mechanisms of brain-gut axis disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, in particular the underlying mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity, for which there is great need. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of genotype and the consequences for future development of transgenic strains in pain research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. Sunflower inbred lines screening for tolerance to white rot on stalk

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    Dedić Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy sunflower (Helianthus annuus L inbred lines were screened for tolerance to white rot on stalk. Plants were inoculated at the budding stage with 4-day old Sclerotinia mycelium grown on PDA medium. Mycelium was placed on the leaf top and covered with tin foil, and the leaf was put into transparent nylon bag in order to maintain high humidity. Spot length on leaf was measured and plant tolerance was determined at the full flowering stage. Obtained results were analyzed by analysis of variance. Tested lines showed significant variability in response to disease. Eleven lines had lesion length less than 50% compared to susceptible control, so they could be considered tolerant and potentially interesting for breeding program.

  11. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content

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    Amir José Klein Werle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY, oil content (OC and crude protein (CP in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized blocks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influenc

  12. Comparison of statistical methods for genetic similarity evaluation of maize inbred lines

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    Nikolić Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional breeding methods have been aided by molecular genetic techniques giving the chance for efficient improvement in creation of maize hybrids. Proper choice of statistical methods for data analysis is very important because it ensures greater reliability. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable statistical approach for molecular marker data analysis. SSR markers were used for the analysis of 10 maize inbreds. Genetic similarity/distance was calculated using three types of data: binary, allele frequency based on densitometry and allele frequency according to band size data applying Simple matching, Jaccard's and Rogers' coefficient. Cluster analysis was performed in NTSYS, 2.11a software. The highest value for Spearman's rank of correlation (0.95 was detected between distance matrices based on binary data. The results showed that binary data Jaccard's coefficient and allele frequency data based on fragment sizes (Rogers' coefficient gave identical clusters by visual inspection and according to CIc index.

  13. Evaluation of ear rot (Fusarium verticillioides resistance and fumonisin accumulation in Italian maize inbred lines

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    Carlotta BALCONI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L. grain is a global threat to the safety of both human food and animal feed. Hence, the development of maize genotypes with reduced mycotoxin accumulation in grain is of major importance. In order to find maize germplasm sources of resistance to Fusarium ear rot, 34 Italian and six public inbred lines were evaluated by means of artificial inoculation in field experiments during 2009 and 2010. Relationships between ear rot and fumonisin concentration in the ears were investigated. Primary ears were challenged with a mixture of two Fusarium verticillioides isolates from Northern Italy, through kernel inoculation, and ear rot severity was assessed.The average number of visibly infected kernels per ear, after inoculation, ranged from 2 to 68 in 2009 and from 0 to 120 in 2010. Fumonisin concentrations in the inoculated ears were greater than in the experimental controls for both years. Variability was found between the inbred lines: fumonisin accumulation ranged from 0.56 to 240.83 mg kg-1 in 2009 and from 1.09 to 190.60 mg kg-1 in 2010. In both years, six inbred lines showed high fumonisin content (≥100 mg kg-1, while the other genotypes were almost equally split into two groups, low (≤10 mg kg-1 and medium (from 11 to 100 mg kg-1 fumonisin content. The number of infected kernels after artificial inoculation correlated with fumonisin concentration both in 2009 (r = 0.94; P≤0.01 and 2010 (r = 0.67; P≤0.01. Additionally, the percentage of internally infected kernels correlated positively with fumonisin concentration (r = 0.37; P≤0.01 and with the number of infected kernels (r = 0.29; P≤0.05. This research has demonstrated that Italian maize germplasm is a valid source of resistance to Fusarium ear rot. Furthermore, there is a strong association of visible Fusarium symptoms with fumonisin concentration, suggesting that selection in maize for reduced visible moulds should reduce the risk of

  14. Evaluation of the capacity for direct regeneration of maize inbreds of the Lancaster selection group

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    K. V. Derkach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the necessity of bringing elite maize inbreds of the Lancaster germplasm group, which have potential for cultivation in Ukraine, into the system of genetic tranformation, the aim of this investigation is to identify the ability of maize inbreds of this group to regenerate by direct organogenesis and to determine the optimal mineral basis for their nutritional environment using segments of the node area of shoots. As explantats we used sterile 4-day old seedlings of 4 maize inbreds of Lancaster germplasm and model inbred Chi31 exotic germplasm. The seedlings were obtained by germination of sterile seeds in Petri dishes between two layers of moist sterile filter paper at a temperature of 27 ºC in dark conditions. A single 1 cmlong segment was cut from each from each seedling, running from 0.5 cmbefore the node to 0.5 cmafter the node. A cut was made in each segment of the node in order to create a wounded surface. Explantats were planted in a nutrient environment with mineral bases of MS or N6, modified by the addition of 10 mg/l silver nitrate, 100 mg/l casein hydrolyzate, 690 mg/l L-proline, 30 g/l sucrose, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dychlorphenoksiacetic acid and 0,1 mg/l abscisic acid. Cultivation was carried out at 25–27 ºC in the light. Direct hemogenesis in this environment on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro reached 100% for each line. This meant that all researched lines of Lancaster germplasm and the model line showed a high capacity for direct regeneration through direct hemogenesis, which does not depend on the composition of the mineral content of their nutritional environment. Callus formation was observed in all genotypes on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro and the extent of its formation increased during the following month of cultivation. The callus formation was observed only at the site of the wounded surface. The calluses were transparent. Although green areas appeared in these calluses, they were

  15. Transcriptome Analyses of Mosaic (MSC Mitochondrial Mutants of Cucumber in a Highly Inbred Nuclear Background

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    Tomasz L. Mróz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs. MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs. We completed RNA-seq on normalized and non-normalized cDNA libraries from MSC3, MSC12, and MSC16 to study their nuclear gene-expression profiles relative to inbred B. Results from both libraries indicated that gene expression in MSC12 and MSC16 were more similar to each other than MSC3. Forty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs were upregulated and one downregulated in the MSC lines relative to B. Gene functional classifications revealed that more than half of these DEGs are associated with stress-response pathways. Consistent with this observation, we detected elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide throughout leaf tissue in all MSC lines compared to wild-type line B. These results demonstrate that independently produced MSC lines with different mitochondrial polymorphisms show unique and shared nuclear responses. This study revealed genes associated with stress response that could become selection targets to develop cucumber cultivars with increased stress tolerance, and further support of cucumber as a model plant to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  16. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

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    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  17. Testing Sunflower Inbred Lines for Tolerance to Phoma Black Stem

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    Boško Dedić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phoma black stem is caused by a widespread pathogen Phoma macdonaldii Boerema.The disease occurs regularly, causing damage by early defoliation and premature ripening.Complete resistance of sunflower to this disease has never been found, but there arereports of differences in response by different genotypes. Fifty-four new inbred lines weretested in our trials conducted at the Rimski Šančevi experimental field. Plants in one trialwere non-irrigated, and irrigated in another. Sunflower plants were artificially inoculatedwith mycelial plugs in the bud stage. The length of stem lesions was measured and comparedusing an analysis of variance. Disease intensity was generally more severe in the nonirrigatedfield. There were significant differences in tolerance to Phoma black stem amongthe tested lines in both trials. The percentage of tolerant genotypes was 1.8%.

  18. Comparison of RAPD, RFLP, AFLP and SSR markers for diversity studies in tropical maize inbred lines

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    Antonio A. F. Garcia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare their relative efficiencies as markers and to find the most suitable marker for maize diversity studies we evaluated 18 inbred tropical maize lines using a number of different loci as markers. The loci used were: 774 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs; 262 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs; 185 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs; and 68 simple sequence repeats (SSR. For estimating genetic distance the AFLP and RFLP markers gave the most correlated results, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87. Bootstrap analysis were used to evaluate the number of loci for the markers and the coefficients of variation (CV revealed a skewed distribution. The dominant markers (AFLP and RAPD had small CV values indicating a skewed distribution while the codominant markers gave high CV values. The use of maximum values of genetic distance CVs within each sample size was efficient in determining the number of loci needed to obtain a maximum CV of 10%. The number of RFLP and AFLP loci used was enough to give CV values of below 5%, while the SSRs and RAPD loci gave higher CV values. Except for the RAPD markers, all the markers correlated genetic distance with single cross performance and heterosis which showed that they could be useful in predicting single cross performance and heterosis in intrapopulation crosses for broad-based populations. Our results indicate that AFLP seemed to be the best-suited molecular assay for fingerprinting and assessing genetic relationships among tropical maize inbred lines with high accuracy.

  19. Fine Mapping of QTLs for Ascochyta Blight Resistance in Pea Using Heterogeneous Inbred Families

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    Ambuj B. Jha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB is an important disease of pea which can cause severe grain yield loss under wet conditions. In our previous study, we identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs abIII-1 and abI-IV-2 for AB resistance and these QTLs were consistent across locations and/or years in an inter-specific pea population (PR-19 developed from a cross between Alfetta (Pisum sativum and P651 (P. fulvum. The objectives of this study were to fine map the abIII-1 and abI-IV-2 QTLs using a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genetic linkage map and analyze identified markers in heterogeneous inbred family (HIF populations. Selective genotyping of 51 PR-19 recombinant inbred lines was performed using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and the resulting high density genetic linkage map was used to identify eight new SNP markers within the abI-IV-2 QTL, whereas no additional SNPs were identified within the abIII-1 QTL. Two HIF populations HIF-224 (143 lines and HIF-173 (126 lines were developed from F6 RILs PR-19-224 and PR-19-173, respectively. The HIF populations evaluated under field conditions in 2015 and 2016 showed a wide range of variation for reaction to AB resistance. Lodging score had significant positive (P < 0.001 correlation with AB scores. HIFs were genotyped using SNP markers within targeted QTLs. The genotypic and phenotypic data of the HIFs were used to identify two new QTLs, abI-IV-2.1 and abI-IV-2.2 for AB resistance within the abI-IV-2 QTL. These QTLs individually explained 5.5 to 14% of the total phenotypic variation. Resistance to lodging was also associated with these two QTLs. Identified SNP markers will be useful in marker assisted selection for development of pea cultivars with improved AB resistance.

  20. Cranial bone morphometric study among mouse strains

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    Yamamura Ken-ichi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the molecular mechanism which regulates how the whole cranium is shaped. Mouse models currently available for genetic research include several hundreds of unique inbred strains and genetically engineered mutants. By cross comparing their genomic structures, we can elucidate the cause of any differences in the phenotype between two strains. The craniometry of subspecies, or closely related species, of mice provide a good systemic model to study the relationship between genetic variance and cranial shape evolution. The lack of a quantified framework for comparing and analyzing mouse cranial shape has been a problem. For this reason, we performed quantitative analysis of cranial shape morphology between several mouse strains. Results This article reports on a craniometric assay of seven mouse strains: four inbred strains (C57BL/6J, BALB/cA, C3H/HeJ, and CBA/JNCr from Mus musculus domesticus (M. m. domesticus; one closed colony strain (ICR from M. m. domesticus; one inbred strain (MSM/Ms from Mus musculus molossinus; and, Mus spretus as a strain from a species other than M. m. domesticus. We performed linear measurements and geometric morphometrics. Geometric morphometrics revealed that the cranial characteristics of each strains were clearly distinguishable. We obtained mean scores for each species using the tpsRelw Program and plotted them. Conclusion Geometric morphometrics proved to be useful for identifying and classifying variations in form, and it revealed that M. spretus has a slender cranium when compared with our other strains. The mean cranial shape of C3H or CBA was more similar to MSM/Ms, which is derived from M. m. molossinus, than to either C57BL/6J, BALB, or ICR which are derived from M. m. domesticus. Future work in this field will aid in elucidating the mechanism of whole cranial shape regulation.

  1. Cranial bone morphometric study among mouse strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the molecular mechanism which regulates how the whole cranium is shaped. Mouse models currently available for genetic research include several hundreds of unique inbred strains and genetically engineered mutants. By cross comparing their genomic structures, we can elucidate the cause of any differences in the phenotype between two strains. The craniometry of subspecies, or closely related species, of mice provide a good systemic model to study the relationship between genetic variance and cranial shape evolution. The lack of a quantified framework for comparing and analyzing mouse cranial shape has been a problem. For this reason, we performed quantitative analysis of cranial shape morphology between several mouse strains. Results This article reports on a craniometric assay of seven mouse strains: four inbred strains (C57BL/6J, BALB/cA, C3H/HeJ, and CBA/JNCr) from Mus musculus domesticus (M. m. domesticus); one closed colony strain (ICR) from M. m. domesticus; one inbred strain (MSM/Ms) from Mus musculus molossinus; and, Mus spretus as a strain from a species other than M. m. domesticus. We performed linear measurements and geometric morphometrics. Geometric morphometrics revealed that the cranial characteristics of each strains were clearly distinguishable. We obtained mean scores for each species using the tpsRelw Program and plotted them. Conclusion Geometric morphometrics proved to be useful for identifying and classifying variations in form, and it revealed that M. spretus has a slender cranium when compared with our other strains. The mean cranial shape of C3H or CBA was more similar to MSM/Ms, which is derived from M. m. molossinus, than to either C57BL/6J, BALB, or ICR which are derived from M. m. domesticus. Future work in this field will aid in elucidating the mechanism of whole cranial shape regulation. PMID:18307817

  2. Characterization of opaque2 modifier QTLs and candidate genes in recombinant inbred lines derived from the K0326Y quality protein maize inbred

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, David R.

    2010-11-13

    Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high lysine-containing corn that is based on genetic modification of the opaque2 (o2) mutant. In QPM, modifier genes convert the starchy endosperm of o2 to the vitreous phenotype of wild type maize. There are multiple, unlinked o2 modifier loci (Opm) in QPM and their nature and mode of action are unknown. We previously identified seven Opm QTLs and characterized 16 genes that are differentially up-regulated at a significant level in K0326Y QPM, compared to the starchy endosperm mutant W64Ao2. In order to further characterize these Opm QTLs and the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM, we created a population of 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between K0326Y QPM and W64Ao2. The RILs were characterized for three traits associated with endosperm texture: vitreousness, density and hardness. Genetic linkage analysis of the RIL population confirmed three of the previously identified QTLs associated with o2 endosperm modification in K0326Y QPM. Many of the genes up-regulated in K0326Y QPM showed substantially higher levels of expression in vitreous compared with opaque RILs. These included genes associated with the upstream regulation of the ethylene response pathway, and a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, an adaptive enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The K-INBRE symposium: a 10-institution collaboration to improve undergraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Sarah E; Abraham, K; Burnett, Tim G; Chapin, Bridgett; Hendry, William J; Leung, Sam; Madden, Michael E; Rider, Virginia; Stanford, John A; Ward, Robert E; Chapes, Stephen K

    2018-03-01

    The Kansas-IDeA Network of Biomedical Research Excellence (K-INBRE) is an infrastructure-building program funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Undergraduate education, through undergraduate research, is a key component of the program. The K-INBRE network includes 10 higher education institutions in Kansas and northern Oklahoma, with over 1,000 student participants in 16 yr. Since 2003, the K-INBRE has held an annual state-wide research symposium that includes national and regional speakers and provides a forum for undergraduates to give platform and poster presentations. The symposium is well attended by K-INBRE participants and has grown to a size of over 300 participants per year from all 10 K-INBRE schools. Two surveys were distributed to students and mentors to assess the impact of the symposium on student learning. Surveys (153) were distributed to students who participated in K-INBRE from 2013 through 2015 with a 51% response rate. Mentors were surveyed with a response of 111 surveys out of 161. Survey results indicate that students and mentors alike find the symposium to be beneficial and enriching of the student experience. Almost 80% of student respondents indicated that their participation in the symposium fostered appreciation of research. In short, the K-INBRE symposium provides a unique opportunity for students to gain experience in collecting, preparing, and communicating research in a professional environment. The collaborative experience of the annual K-INBRE symposium, the impact it has on student learning, and how it has influenced the research culture at our 10 institutions will be described.

  5. Inbreeding depression in maize populations and its effects on the obtention of promising inbred lines

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    Deoclecio Domingos Garbuglio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding can potentially be used for the development of inbred lines containing alleles of interest, but the genetic causes that control inbreeding depression are not completely known, and there are few studies found in the literature. The present study aimed to obtain estimates of inbreeding depression for eight traits in seven tropical maize populations, analyze the effects of inbreeding over generations and environments, and predict the behavior of inbred lines in future generation S? through linear regression methods. It was found that regardless of the base population used, prediction values could vary when the model was based on only 2 generations of inbreeding due to the environmental component. The influence of the environment in this type of study could be reduced when considering 3 generations of inbreeding, allowing greater precision in predicting the phenotypes of inbred lines. The use of linear regression was effective for inbred line prediction for the different agronomic traits evaluated. The use of 3 levels of inbreeding minimizes the effects of the environmental component in inbred line prediction for grain yield. GO-S was the most promising population for inbred line extraction.

  6. Differences in Extinction of an Appetitive Instrumental Response in Female Inbred Roman High- (RHA-I and Low- (RLA-I Avoidance Rats

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    Carmen Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the goal of exploring strain differences between female inbred Roman High and Low Avoidance rats (RHA-I, and RLA-I, respectively on acquisition and extinction of a food-rewarded running response in a straight alley. Acquisition proceeded faster in the less emotional RHA-I and Wistar rats (used as controls than in the more emotional RLA-I rats. However, extinction proceeded slower in RHA-I rats than in RLA-I and Wistar rats. This strain-based asymmetry on instrumental performance between acquisition and extinction is discussed in terms of strain differences in locomotor activity, associative flexibility and emotional reactivity.

  7. Inbred Rat Strains Mimic the Disparate Human Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    different pathogenetic mechanisms may be operative. These mechanisms may be relevant to understanding the genesis of the human clinical syndromes of benign...Genetics of resistance of animals to viruses : 1. Introduction and studies in mice. Advances in Virus Research 23:270-348. Bishop DHL, Calisher CH...similarities of Bunyamwera serologic supergroup viruses and several other arthropod-borne viruses . Intervirology 1:297-316. 49 S4 Peters and Slone Peters CJ

  8. Acute and recurrent herpes simplex in several strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, D A; Hill, T J; Blyth, W A

    1981-07-01

    Acute and recurrent herpes simplex was studied after infection in the ear of two outbred and five inbred strains of mice. In all strains tested there was clinical evidence of infection, and a proportion of the mice became latently infected in the cervical ganglia. Six weeks after infection, when attempts were made to induce recurrent desease by stripping the ears of the mice with cellophange tape, a proportion of animals of each strain developed recurrent disease, characterized by erythema in the skin. At monthly intervals thereafter, the ears were stripped again and, on each occasion, a proportion of the animals developed recurrent disease, with the exception of Balb/c mice. The different reaction of Balb/c and other inbred strains might prove useful in studies on the mechanism of control of recurrent herpes simplex.

  9. Transcriptional profiling of C57 and DBA strains of mice in the absence and presence of morphine

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    Golden Greg T

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mouse C57BL/6 (C57 and DBA/2J (DBA inbred strains differ substantially in many aspects of their response to drugs of abuse. The development of microarray analyses represents a genome-wide method for measuring differences across strains, focusing on expression differences. In the current study, we carried out microarray analysis in C57 and DBA mice in the nucleus accumbens of drug-naïve and morphine-treated animals. Results We identified mRNAs with altered expression between the two strains. We validated the mRNA expression changes of several such mRNAs, including Gnb1, which has been observed to be regulated by several drugs of abuse. In addition, we validated alterations in the enzyme activity of one mRNA product, catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt. Data mining of expression and behavioral data indicates that both Gnb1 and Comt expression correlate with aspects of drug response in C57/DBA recombinant inbred strains. Pathway analysis was carried out to identify pathways showing significant alterations as a result of treatment and/or due to strain differences. These analyses identified axon guidance genes, particularly the semaphorins, as showing altered expression in the presence of morphine, and plasticity genes as showing altered expression across strains. Pathway analysis of genes showing strain by treatment interaction suggest that the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway may represent an important difference between the strains as related to morphine exposure. Conclusion mRNAs with differing expression between the two strains could potentially contribute to strain-specific responses to drugs of abuse. One such mRNA is Comt and we hypothesize that altered expression of Comt may represent a potential mechanism for regulating the effect of, and response to, multiple substances of abuse. Similarly, a role for Gnb1 in responses to multiple drugs of abuse is supported by expression data from our study and from other

  10. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  11. Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana M D; Airey, David C; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, Chong-Bin; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith M; Blakely, Randy D

    2009-02-10

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology and treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we use naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify multiple phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by 2 nonsynonymous coding variants [Gly-39 and Lys-152 (GK)]. At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode, respectively, Glu-39 and Arg-152 (ER haplotype), amino acids found also in hSERT. Ex vivo synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant, a finding confirmed by in vitro heterologous expression studies. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57BL/6J x DBA/2J = BXD) identify multiple anatomical, biochemical, and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are several traits associated with alcohol consumption and multiple traits associated with dopamine signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates iron-regulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide an example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo, and in silico approaches using mouse RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  12. Study of Yield and Effective Traits in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines (Triticum aestivum L. under Water Deficit Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad zadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects some traits on seed yield of recombinant inbred lines of wheat under water deficit stress was studied. This research was done at the Agricultural Research Stations, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2010- 2011. 28 recombinant inbred lines of wheat bread with two parents (Norstar and Zagros in split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at two irrigation levels (70 and 140 mm evaporation from pan class A were studied. Analysis of variance indicated a significant genetic differences in all traits under study among the lines. Lines No. 32, 163 and 182 produced highest yield under both irrigation levels. Number of spikes, grains per spike and harvest index had the highest positive correlation with grain yield. Path analysis based on stepwise regression showed that under the normal irrigation conditions, number spike (0.556, number of grains per spike (0.278, weight of 1000 grain (0.259 and the drought stress number spike (0.430, straw yield (0.276 and peduncle length (0.323 had the most direct and positive effect on yield respectively.

  13. Protein quality traits and their relationships with yield and yield components of opaque-2 and analogous normal maize hybrids and inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D; Kovács, I; Gáspár, L

    1974-01-01

    Diallel cross hybrids obtained by crossing six opaque-2 (o 2) converted inbred lines were compared with a similar series of crosses made between the analogous normal inbred lines together with the parents, for a number of protein quality and oil traits. The results obtained show that there is only a minor decrease in percent protein or yield of protein per hectare caused by the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition, compared with its normal counterpart. On the other hand, percent lysine in the whole kernel, lysine yield per hectare and percent lysine in protein are increased by 53, 45 and 55 percent, respectively, in the o 2 inbred lines and hybrids compared with their normal analogues. Percent oil and oil yield remain almost unaltered by the presence or absence of the o 2 gene. As well as lysine, the content of other amino acids, such as aspartic acid, arginine, glycine, threonine, valine and histidine are also, in general, increased by the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition.The results obtained have shown that a number of correlation coefficients between the protein quality traits and yield components related to kernel characteristics are negative and significant, especially in the presence of the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition. Only two correlation coefficients have been found that could be used with advantage by opaque-2 maize breeders. They are a stronger positive correlation of percent protein with percent lysine, and lysine yield per hectare with 1000 grain weight, in o 2 maize than in normal maize.The results presented here also show that there is more heterotic dilution in the o 2 hybrids than in the normal analogues for traits like percent protein, percent lysine (whole kernel basis) and percent lysine in protein. It has been observed that the inbred lines with the o 2 gene in recessive homozygous condition and a superior protein quality tend to produce hybrids of superior quality.

  14. Metabolic profiling of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines inoculated with the nitrogen fixing plant-interacting bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane Cristina; Gilard, Françoise; Brulé, Lenaïg; Quilleré, Isabelle; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Maize roots can be colonized by free-living atmospheric nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs). However, the agronomic potential of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in such an economically important species as maize, has still not been fully exploited. A preliminary approach to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the establishment of such N2-fixing associations has been developed, using two maize inbred lines exhibiting different physiological characteristics. The bacterial-plant interaction has been characterized by means of a metabolomic approach. Two established model strains of Nif+ diazotrophic bacteria, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense and their Nif- couterparts defficient in nitrogenase activity, were used to evaluate the impact of the bacterial inoculation and of N2 fixation on the root and leaf metabolic profiles. The two N2-fixing bacteria have been used to inoculate two genetically distant maize lines (FV252 and FV2), already characterized for their contrasting physiological properties. Using a well-controlled gnotobiotic experimental system that allows inoculation of maize plants with the two diazotrophs in a N-free medium, we demonstrated that both maize lines were efficiently colonized by the two bacterial species. We also showed that in the early stages of plant development, both bacterial strains were able to reduce acetylene, suggesting that they contain functional nitrogenase activity and are able to efficiently fix atmospheric N2 (Fix+). The metabolomic approach allowed the identification of metabolites in the two maize lines that were representative of the N2 fixing plant-bacterial interaction, these included mannitol and to a lesser extend trehalose and isocitrate. Whilst other metabolites such as asparagine, although only exhibiting a small increase in maize roots following bacterial infection, were specific for the two Fix+ bacterial strains, in comparison to their Fix- counterparts. Moreover, a number

  15. Effect of grain boundary layer strain on the magnetic and transport properties of (100-x) La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/(x) BaTiO3 composites showing enhanced magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Esa; Taran, S.; Karmakar, S.; Chaudhuri, B.K.; Pal, S.; Sun, C.P.; Yang, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    A ferromagnetic/ferroelectric composite system, viz. (100-x)La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 [LCMO]/(x) BaTiO 3 [BTO] (with x=0.0%, 1.0%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0% and 15.0%, in wt%) has been synthesized and the temperature-dependent DC magnetization M(T), resistivity ρ(T), magnetoresistance (MR), and thermoelectric power S(T) have been studied. Both metal-insulator transition temperature (T MI ) and the corresponding Curie temperature (T C ) decrease whereas peak resistivity at T MI increases as x is enhanced from 0.0% to 10.0%. For x>10.0%, this trend of variation is reversed. A maximum three-fold increase of magnetoresistance (MR) is observed (for sample with x=10.0%) due to the addition of ferroelectric (non-magnetic) perovskite BTO (compared to the mother compound LCMO). Interestingly, thermoelectric power S(T) shows a pronounced depression (dip) near the magnetic transition region for the composite samples. The above results have been analyzed considering strain induced by the LCMO/BTO grain boundary layer (BL)

  16. Citrobacter rodentium is an unstable pathogen showing evidence of significant genomic flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Petty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that causes attaching and effacing (A/E lesions. It shares a common virulence strategy with the clinically significant human A/E pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and is widely used to model this route of pathogenesis. We previously reported the complete genome sequence of C. rodentium ICC168, where we found that the genome displayed many characteristics of a newly evolved pathogen. In this study, through PFGE, sequencing of isolates showing variation, whole genome transcriptome analysis and examination of the mobile genetic elements, we found that, consistent with our previous hypothesis, the genome of C. rodentium is unstable as a result of repeat-mediated, large-scale genome recombination and because of active transposition of mobile genetic elements such as the prophages. We sequenced an additional C. rodentium strain, EX-33, to reveal that the reference strain ICC168 is representative of the species and that most of the inactivating mutations were common to both isolates and likely to have occurred early on in the evolution of this pathogen. We draw parallels with the evolution of other bacterial pathogens and conclude that C. rodentium is a recently evolved pathogen that may have emerged alongside the development of inbred mice as a model for human disease.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Brazilian subtype B variant showed an increasing avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies over time compared to the subtype B US/European strain in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casseb Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 subtype B, (serotype B"-GWGR, has a tryptophan replacing the proline in position 328 the HIV-1 envelope. A longer median time period from infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS for serotype B (B"-GWGR infected subjects compared to the B-GPGR US/European strain was reported. In a cohort study, in São Paulo city, 10 B"-GWGR patients had a statistically significant increased avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies, from 79% ± 33% to 85% ± 75%, versus from 48% ± 59% to 32% ± 17% for the 10 B-GPGR subjects (p = 0.02. The T CD4+ cells showed a mean increase of + 0.45 cells/month for the B-GPGR subjects and for B"-GWGR the slope was + 1.24 cells/month (p = 0.06, for 62 and 55 months of follow up, respectively. RNA plasma viral load decreased from 3.98 ± 1.75 to 2.16 ± 1.54 log10 in the B"-GWGR group while B-GPGR patients showed one log10 reduction in viral load from 4.09 ± 0.38 to 3.17 ± 1.47 log10 over time (p = 0.23, with a decreasing slope of 0.0042 ± log10,/month and 0.0080 ± log10/month, for B-GPGR and B"-GWGR patients, respectively (p = 0.53. Neither group presented any AIDS defining events during the study, according to Center for Diseases Control criteria. Although the sample size is small, these results may indicate that differences in the pathogenicity of the 2 HIV-1 B serotypes which co-circulate in Brazil may be correlated to the avidity of anti-V3 antibodies.

  18. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva......, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying...... the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from...

  19. Combining abilities of inbred lines for dry matter yield of maize (Zea mays L. Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study encompass the investigation on combining abilities of six maize inbred lines and their diallel hybrids of F1 generation for dry matter yield of both, the whole plant and the ear. The analysis of combining abilities was performed following Griffing (1956 method 2, model I, without reciprocal crosses, while the analysis the genetic components of variance and the regression analysis were done after the model proposed by Hayman and Jinks (1954 and Mather and Jink (1971. Dominant gene effects in inheritance of dry matter yield of the whole plant and the ear were determined by the analysis of combining abilities. The role of these effects are also observable from the analysis of genetic components of variations and results of the Vr/Wr regression analysis. The inbred line ZPLB 406 was the inbred with the highest GCA effects. .

  20. Strain differences in intermale aggression and possible factors regulating increased aggression in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Nagino, Koki; Yang, Jiaxin; Htike, Nang T T; Tsukahara, Shinji; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kawashima, Takaharu

    2018-01-15

    The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan established a strain of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) known as NIES-L by rotation breeding in a closed colony for over 35years; accordingly, the strain has highly inbred-like characteristics. Another strain called NIES-Brn has been maintained by randomized breeding in a closed colony to produce outbred-like characteristics. The current study aimed to characterize intermale aggressive behaviors in both strains and to identify possible factors regulating higher aggression in the hypothalamus, such as sex hormone and neuropeptide expression. Both strains displayed a common set of intermale aggressive behaviors that included pecking, grabbing, mounting, and cloacal contact behavior, although NIES-Brn quail showed significantly more grabbing, mounting, and cloacal contact behavior than did NIES-L quail. We examined sex hormone levels in the blood and diencephalon in both strains. Testosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the blood and diencephalon of NIES-Brn quail compared to NIES-L quail. We next examined gene expression in the hypothalamus of both strains using an Agilent gene expression microarray and real-time RT-PCR and found that gene expression of mesotocin (an oxytocin homologue) was significantly higher in the hypothalamus of NIES-Brn quail compared to NIES-L quail. Immunohistochemistry of the hypothalamus revealed that numbers of large cells (cell area>500μm 2 ) expressing mesotocin were significantly higher in the NIES-Brn strain compared to the NIES-L strain. Taken together, our findings suggest that higher testosterone and mesotocin levels in the hypothalamus may be responsible for higher aggression in the NIES-Brn quail strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Combining ability of maize inbred lines evaluated in three environments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nass Luciano Lourenço

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For tropical areas like Brazil, genotype x environment interaction is an important source of variation. Our objectives were to examine the combining abilities and their interaction with environments in ten selected maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines in diallel crosses and to identify candidates for promising hybrid combinations. Crosses and checks were evaluated through a 7 x 7 triple lattice design at three locations during the 1984/85 season. Several agronomic traits were evaluated, but here only data on ear yield are discussed. Yield data were adjusted for stand variation (correction to 50 plants per plot and grain moisture (15.5%. Data for ear yield were analysed using an adaptation of Griffing?s method IV for complete diallel crosses, and experiments were repeated in several environments. The means of the crosses over all environments ranged from 6.6 t/ha to 10.3 t/ha. The combining ability analysis of diallel data across environments showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects for environment, general combining ability (GCA, specific combining ability (SCA, and GCA x environment interaction. The SCA x environment interaction was not significant. Results showed that both GCA and SCA were important for this diallel cross. Considering the 13 hybrids that showed higher yields than the commercial hybrid controls, contributions by GCA and SCA effects were 56% and 44%, respectively. On the other hand, selecting only the best five hybrids, SCA effects were always more important than GCA effects for each environment and over all environments.

  2. Genetic diversity for RFLPs in European maize inbreds : II. Relation to performance of hybrids within versus between heterotic groups for forage traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, A E; Boppenmaier, J; Dhillon, B S; Pollmer, W G; Herrmann, R G

    1992-08-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been proposed for the prediction of the yield potential of hybrids and the assignment of inbreds to heterotic groups. Such use was investigated in 66 diallel crosses among 6 flint and 6 dent inbreds from European maize (Zea mays L.) germ plasm. Inbreds and hybrids were evaluated for seven forage traits in four environments in the Federal Republic of Germany. Midparent heterosis (MPH) and specific combining ability (SCA) were calculated. Genetic distances (GD) between lines were calculated from RFLP data of 194 clone-enzyme combinations. GDs were greater for flint x dent than for flint x flint and dent x dent line combinations. Cluster analysis based on GDs showed separate groupings of flint and dent lines and agreed with pedigree information, except for 1 inbred. GDs of all line combinations in the diallel were partitioned into general (GGD) and specific (SGD) genetic distances; GGD explained approximately 20% of the variation among GD values. For the 62 diallel crosses (excluding 4 crosses of highly related lines), correlations of GD with F1 performance, MPH, and SCA for dry matter yield (DMY) of stover, ear, and forage were positive but mostly of moderate size (0.09≤r≤0.60) compared with the higher correlations (0.39≤r≤0.77) of SGD with these traits. When separate calculations were performed for various subsets, correlations of GD and SGD with DMY traits were generally small (r<0.47) for the 36 flint x dent crosses, significantly positive (r<0.53) for the 14 flint x flint crosses, and inconclusive for the 12 dent x dent crosses because of the lack of significant genotypic variation. Results indicated that RFLPs can be used for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups. RFLP-based genetic distance measures seem to be useful for predicting forage yield of (1) crosses between lines from the same germ plasm group or (2) crosses including line combinations from the same as well as different heterotic groups

  3. Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures of macroparasitic immunity than outbred individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S N; Barnett, C A; Pettinger, A M; Weddle, C B; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2010-09-01

    Inbreeding is assumed to have negative effects on fitness, including the reduced ability to withstand immune challenges. We examined the immunological consequences of inbreeding in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, by comparing lytic activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and encapsulation ability of crickets from eight inbred lines with that of crickets from the outbred founder population. Surprisingly, crickets from inbred lines had a greater encapsulation ability compared with crickets from the outbred population. We suggest that because inbred crickets have reduced reproductive effort, they may, therefore, have the option of devoting more resources to this form of immunity than outbred individuals. We also found that both inbred and outbred females had higher immunity than males in PO activity and implant darkness. This result supports the hypothesis that females should devote more effort to somatic maintenance and immunity than males. PO activity and implant darkness were heritable in both males and females, but lytic activity was only heritable in females. Males and females differed in the heritability of, and genetic correlations among, immune traits, suggesting that differences in selective pressures on males and females may have resulted in a sexual conflict over optimal immune trait values.

  4. Determination of the Heterotic groups of Maize inbred lines and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...

  5. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD...

  6. Doubled haploid inbred lines USVL048 and USVL131 of heading broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two inbred lines of heading broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), designated USVL048 and USVL131, were released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2012. Both of the released lines are doubled haploids originally derived from another culture. As do...

  7. Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Cátedra de Producción de Bovinos para carne, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, CIC, Universidad Nacional de Rosario,. Argentina, Ov. Lagos y Ruta 33 (2170) Casilda, Argentina. [Renny M., Julio N. B., Bernardi S. F., Gardenal C. N. and Oyarzabal M. I. 2014 Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse.

  8. Combining ability of maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines resistant to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten inbred parents with varying resistance levels to Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca were crossed in a half diallel mating scheme to generate 45 F1 hybrids. The hybrids and five commercial checks were evaluated across four locations in Kenya under artificial and natural infestation in 2009. Genotype (G) by environment ...

  9. Analysis of natural allelic variation in Arabidopsis using a multiparent recombinant inbred line population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Boer, M.P.; Effgen, S.; Keizer, P.; Koornneef, M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2011-01-01

    To exploit the diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana, eight founder accessions were crossed to produce six recombinant inbred line (RIL) subpopulations, together called an Arabidopsis multiparent RIL (AMPRIL) population. Founders were crossed pairwise to produce four F1 hybrids. These F1s were crossed

  10. Study of yield and yield components of corn ( Zea mays L.) inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of seven corn inbred lines, a field trial was conducted under non-stress and different drought stress conditions (stress at vegetative (6 to 7 leaves), pollination and grain filling stages) at the Agricultural College of Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar ...

  11. USDA 846-1 fractal melon and derived recombinant inbred lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a melon (Cucumis melo L.) breeding line with highly branched, fractal-type architectural growth habit and 81 derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL). The indeterminate, monoecious USDA 846-1 produces 2...

  12. DFT study on the mechanism of InBr3-catalyzed [2+2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    Abstract. Density functional theory calculations at the M06-2X level were done to study the reaction mech- anism and regioselectivity for the [2+2] cycloaddition of allyltrimethylsilane with alkynones using InBr3 as the catalyst. The solvent effect was described by the single-point calculations with SMD model in 1,2-.

  13. Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semagn, Kassa; Magorokosho, Cosmos; Vivek, Bindiganavile S; Makumbi, Dan; Beyene, Yoseph; Mugo, Stephen; Prasanna, B M; Warburton, Marilyn L

    2012-03-25

    Knowledge of germplasm diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials is fundamentally important in crop improvement. We genotyped 450 maize inbred lines developed and/or widely used by CIMMYT breeding programs in both Kenya and Zimbabwe using 1065 SNP markers to (i) investigate population structure and patterns of relationship of the germplasm for better exploitation in breeding programs; (ii) assess the usefulness of SNPs for identifying heterotic groups commonly used by CIMMYT breeding programs; and (iii) identify a subset of highly informative SNP markers for routine and low cost genotyping of CIMMYT germplasm in the region using uniplex assays. Genetic distance for about 94% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Eighty four percent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values ≤ 0.500. Model-based population structure analysis, principal component analysis, neighbor-joining cluster analysis and discriminant analysis revealed the presence of 3 major groups and generally agree with pedigree information. The SNP markers did not show clear separation of heterotic groups A and B that were established based on combining ability tests through diallel and line x tester analyses. Our results demonstrated large differences among the SNP markers in terms of reproducibility, ease of scoring, polymorphism, minor allele frequency and polymorphic information content. About 40% of the SNPs in the multiplexed chip-based GoldenGate assays were found to be uninformative in this study and we recommend 644 of the 1065 for low to medium density genotyping in tropical maize germplasm using uniplex assays. There were high genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines, clearly indicating the uniqueness of the majority of the inbred lines in these maize breeding programs. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in selecting best parental combinations for new breeding crosses, mapping population development

  14. Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semagn Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of germplasm diversity and relationships among elite breeding materials is fundamentally important in crop improvement. We genotyped 450 maize inbred lines developed and/or widely used by CIMMYT breeding programs in both Kenya and Zimbabwe using 1065 SNP markers to (i investigate population structure and patterns of relationship of the germplasm for better exploitation in breeding programs; (ii assess the usefulness of SNPs for identifying heterotic groups commonly used by CIMMYT breeding programs; and (iii identify a subset of highly informative SNP markers for routine and low cost genotyping of CIMMYT germplasm in the region using uniplex assays. Results Genetic distance for about 94% of the pairs of lines fell between 0.300 and 0.400. Eighty four percent of the pairs of lines also showed relative kinship values ≤ 0.500. Model-based population structure analysis, principal component analysis, neighbor-joining cluster analysis and discriminant analysis revealed the presence of 3 major groups and generally agree with pedigree information. The SNP markers did not show clear separation of heterotic groups A and B that were established based on combining ability tests through diallel and line x tester analyses. Our results demonstrated large differences among the SNP markers in terms of reproducibility, ease of scoring, polymorphism, minor allele frequency and polymorphic information content. About 40% of the SNPs in the multiplexed chip-based GoldenGate assays were found to be uninformative in this study and we recommend 644 of the 1065 for low to medium density genotyping in tropical maize germplasm using uniplex assays. Conclusions There were high genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines, clearly indicating the uniqueness of the majority of the inbred lines in these maize breeding programs. The results from this study will be useful to breeders in selecting best parental combinations

  15. Complementation contributes to transcriptome complexity in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids relative to their inbred parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschold, Anja; Jia, Yi; Marcon, Caroline; Lund, Steve; Larson, Nick B.; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Typically, F1-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two parents and 42%–55% of expressed genes were differentially expressed between one of the parents and one of the hybrids. In both hybrids, ∼10% of expressed genes exhibited nonadditive gene expression. Consistent with the dominance model (i.e., complementation) for heterosis, 1124 genes that were expressed in the hybrids were expressed in only one of the two parents. For 65 genes, it could be shown that this was a consequence of complementation of genomic presence/absence variation. For dozens of other genes, alleles from the inactive inbred were activated in the hybrid, presumably via interactions with regulatory factors from the active inbred. As a consequence of these types of complementation, both hybrids expressed more genes than did either parental inbred. Finally, in hybrids, ∼14% of expressed genes exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) levels that differed significantly from the parental-inbred expression ratios, providing further evidence for interactions of regulatory factors from one parental genome with target genes from the other parental genome. PMID:23086286

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism of the growth hormone (GH encoding gene in inbred and outbred domestic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyana Gencheva Hristova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the growth hormone (GH gene in rabbits is a candidate for meat production, understanding the genetic diversity and variation in this locus is of particular relevance. The present study comprised 86 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus divided into 3 groups: New Zealand White (NZW outbred rabbits; first-generation inbred rabbits (F1 and second-generation inbred rabbits (F2. They were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A 231 bp fragment of the polymorphic site of the GH gene was digested with Bsh1236 restriction enzyme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for the studied GH locus corresponding to 3 genotypes were detected in the studied rabbit populations: CC, CT and TT. In the synthetic inbred F1 and F2 populations, the frequency of the heterozygous genotype CT was 0.696 and 0.609, respectively, while for the homozygous CC genotype the frequency was lower (0.043 and 0.000, and respective values for the homozygous TT genotype were 0.261 and 0.391. This presumed a preponderance of the T allele (0.609 and 0.696 over the C allele (0.391 and 0.304 in these groups. In outbred rabbits, the allele frequencies were 0.613 (allele C and 0.387 (allele Т; consequently, the frequency of the homozygous CC genotype was higher than that of the homozygous TT genotype (0.300 vs. 0.075. Observed heterozygosity for the GH gene was higher than expected, and the result was therefore a negative inbreeding coefficient (Fis=–0.317 for outbred NZW rabbits; –0.460 for inbred F1 and –0.438 for inbred F2, indicating a sufficient number of heterozygous forms in all studied groups of rabbits. The application of narrow inbreeding by breeding full sibs in the synthetic population did not cause a rapid increase in homozygosity.

  17. Display of individuality in avoidance behavior and risk assessment of inbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben eHager

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors determining individuality are still poorly understood. Rodents are excellent model organisms to study individuality, due to a rich behavioral repertoire and the availability of well-characterized isogenic populations. However, most current behavioral assays for rodents have short test duration in novel test environments and require human interference, which introduce coercion, thereby limiting the assessment of naturally occurring individuality. Thus, we developed an automated behavior system to longitudinally monitor conditioned fear for assessing PTSD-like behavior in individual mice. The system consists of a safe home compartment connected to a risk-prone test compartment (TC. Entry and exploration of the TC is solely based on deliberate choice determined by individual fear responsiveness and fear extinction. In this novel ethological assay, C57BL/6J mice show homogeneous responses after shock exposure (innate fear, but striking variation in long-lasting fear responses based on avoidance and risk assessment (learned fear, including automated stretch-attend posture quantification. TC entry (retention latencies after foot shock differed >24 h and the re-explored TC area differed >50% among inbred mice. Next, we compared two closely related C57BL/6 substrains. Despite substantial individual differences, previously observed higher fear of C57BL/6N versus C57BL/6J mice was reconfirmed, whereas fear extinction was fast and did not differ. The observed variation in fear expression in isogenic mice suggests individual differences in coping style with PTSD-like avoidance. Investigating the assumed epigenetic mechanisms, with reduced interpretational ambiguity and enhanced translational value in this assay, may help improve understanding of personality type-dependent susceptibility and resilience to neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD.

  18. Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Degen

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

  19. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  20. Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

  1. Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Moinul Haque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2 and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45 rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (% declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties.

  2. No postnatal maternal effect on male aggressiveness in wild-derived strains of house mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďureje, Ľudovít; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2011), s. 48-55 ISSN 0096-140X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : aggression * cross-fostering * wild-derived inbred strains * house mouse Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2011

  3. TSE strain differentiation in mice by immunohistochemical PrPSc profiles and triplex Western blot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Dolstra, C.H.; Jacobs, J.G.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2015-01-01

    TSE strains are routinely identified by their incubation period and vacuolation profile in the brain after intracerebral inoculation and serial passaging in inbred mouse lines. There are some major drawbacks to this method that are related to the variation in vacuolation that exists in the brains of

  4. Genetic susceptibility of the arterial wall is an important determinant of atherosclerosis in C57BL/6 and FVB/N mouse strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Jeong; Handberg, Aase; Ostergren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    How genetic variations among inbred mouse strains translate into differences in atherosclerosis susceptibility is of significant interest for the development of new therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study was to examine whether genetically controlled arterial wall properties...... influence atherosclerosis susceptibility in FVB/N (FVB) and C57BL/6 (B6) apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mouse strains....

  5. An integrated in silico gene mapping strategy in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervino, Alessandra C L; Darvasi, Ariel; Fallahi, Mohammad; Mader, Christopher C; Tsinoremas, Nicholas F

    2007-01-01

    In recent years in silico analysis of common laboratory mice has been introduced and subsequently applied, in slightly different ways, as a methodology for gene mapping. Previously we have demonstrated some limitation of the methodology due to sporadic genetic correlations across the genome. Here, we revisit the three main aspects that affect in silico analysis. First, we report on the use of marker maps: we compared our existing 20,000 SNP map to the newly released 140,000 SNP map. Second, we investigated the effect of varying strain numbers on power to map QTL. Third, we introduced a novel statistical approach: a cladistic analysis, which is well suited for mouse genetics and has increased flexibility over existing in silico approaches. We have found that in our examples of complex traits, in silico analysis by itself does fail to uniquely identify quantitative trait gene (QTG)-containing regions. However, when combined with additional information, it may significantly help to prioritize candidate genes. We therefore recommend using an integrated work flow that uses other genomic information such as linkage regions, regions of shared ancestry, and gene expression information to obtain a list of candidate genes from the genome.

  6. Digital phenotyping for quantification of genetic diversity in inbred guava (Psidium guajava) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W; Viana, A P; Cavalcante, N R; Ambrósio, M; Santos, E A; Vieira, H D

    2017-03-22

    Digital image analysis of seeds has been used for the identification of cultivars, determination of seed color and mechanical damage, and classification of different seed sizes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of digital image analysis of seeds for the quantification of genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava (Psidium guajava L.) families. The SAS Mini equipment, which consists of a capture module and a software program for analysis, was employed for the capture and analysis of the seed images. Different genetic diversity quantification strategies were tested using the Ward-Modified Location Model method. The set of variables related to geometry of the seeds was the largest contributor to divergence among the guava genotypes. The use of seed descriptors obtained by digital image analysis via the SAS system was efficient at quantifying the genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava families associated with the use of the Ward-Modified Location Model method.

  7. Seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines affected by seed treatment with pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Tamindžić, Gordana D.; Nikolić, Zorica T.; Savić, Jasna Ž.; Milošević, Dragana N.; Petrović, Gordana R.; Ivanović, Dragana D.; Ignjatov, Maja V.

    2016-01-01

    Seed treatment is a common way of fungicide and insecticide use nowadays, since this way of pesticide application can provide the best protection in the vicinity of the future plant. The aim of research was to evaluate the effects of different seed treatments on germination and seedling growth in three maize inbred lines. The research included the seed treatment with several combinations of a fungicide Maxim XL 035-FS (a.i. metalaxil-M + fludioxonil) and ne...

  8. Genetic repairing through storage of gamma irradiated seeds in inbred maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR, Girjesh; RAI, Prashant KUMAR

    2009-01-01

    Gamma irradiation can induce beneficial as well as deleterious impacts on chromosome behavior in crop plants. The cytogenetic changes occurring due to the storage of inbred seeds after gamma irradiation in the somatic and gametic cells of Zea mays L. were investigated in this study. A wide spectrum of chromosomal anomalies was encountered in somatic and gametic cells of maize that are gamma irradiated, stored (aged), and treated with a combination of both of these treatments. Gamma rays and a...

  9. Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimation of genetic variability level in inbred CF1 mouse lines selected for body weight. MAURICIO RENNY1, NORMA B. JULIO1, SANDRA F. BERNARDI2, CRISTINA N. GARDENAL1 and MARÍA INÉS OYARZABAL3∗. 1Cátedra de Genética de Poblaciones y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales ...

  10. Fibre type composition of soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles in normal female inbred Lewis rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2002), s. 399-405 ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Grant - others:CZ - SI Czech-Slovenian Intergovernmental S&T Co-operation(XC) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : inbred Lewis rats * skeletal muscles * soleus and EDL muscles Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.867, year: 2002

  11. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Andrić Luka; Kovačević Vlado; Kadar Imre; Jambrović Antun; Plavšić Hrvoje; Šimić Domagoj

    2016-01-01

    Boron (B) deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008) and 2) to determine response and relation...

  12. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jige Xin

    Full Text Available Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 gene biallelic knockout (KO pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26 among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209 among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209 of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  13. Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Andrew L; Novais, Joana; Grift, Tony E; Bohn, Martin O

    2015-01-01

    The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

  14. Popping volume and grain yield in diallel set of popcorn inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Popping volume and yield are traits caused by several heredity factors. It is difficult to obtain superior genotypes for both traits but it is possible to develop genotypes with good popping volume and satisfactory yield. The hybrid ZPPL2 x ZPPL5 was superior in yield, heterosis and SCA for both yield and popping volume. As inbred ZPPL4 in all combinations has a good value for popping volume could be concluded that this inbred may be used as parent in further crosses. Analysis of variance of the combining ability indicating significant SCA effect for grain yield, and significant both GCA and SCA effects for popping volume. Therefore it can be stated that yield is influenced by non-additive and popping volume by both additive and non- additive gene effects. Analysis of variance of genetic components for popping volume indicates that the additive as well as dominant components significantly affected the inheritance of this trait in popcorn. The objective of this study was to evaluate heteorsis and combing ability for grain yield and popping volume in dialalel set of six maize inbred lines.

  15. Strain-dependent Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Kenney, Justin W.; Sullivan, Colleen; Gould, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory. The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning, somatic signs, and the elevated plus maze in 8 strains of inbred mice. Strain-dependent effects of acute ...

  16. Prepulse inhibition predicts spatial working memory performance in the inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats and in genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rats: relevance for studying pre-attentive and cognitive anomalies in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi eOliveras

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms are increasingly important for progress in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for discovering novel and more specific treatments. Prepulse inhibition (PPI and working memory, which are impaired in schizophrenic patients, are among the symptoms/processes modeled in those animal analogues. We have evaluated whether a genetically-selected rat model, the Roman high-avoidance inbred strain (RHA-I, displays PPI deficits as compared with its Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I counterpart and the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. We have investigated whether PPI deficits predict spatial working memory impairments (in the Morris water maze; MWM in these three rat types (Experiment 1, as well as in a separate sample of NIH-HS rats stratified according to their extreme (High, Medium, Low PPI scores (Experiment 2. The results from Exp. 1 show that RHA-I rats display PPI and spatial working memory deficits compared to both RLA-I and NIH-HS rats. Likewise, in Exp. 2, Low-PPI NIH-HS rats present significantly impaired working memory with respect to Medium-PPI and High-PPI NIH-HS subgroups. Further support to these results comes from correlational, factorial and multiple regression analyses, which reveal that PPI is positively associated with spatial working memory performance. Conversely, cued learning in the MWM was not associated with PPI. Thus, using genetically-selected and genetically heterogeneous rats, the present study shows, for the first time, that PPI is a positive predictor of performance in a spatial working memory task. These results may have translational value for schizophrenia symptom research in humans, as they suggest that either by psychogenetic selection or by focusing on extreme PPI scores from a genetically heterogeneous rat stock, it is possible to detect a useful (perhaps at risk phenotype to study cognitive anomalies linked to schizophrenia.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF A MAJOR QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS CONFERRING RICE BLAST RESISTANCE USING RECOMBINANT INBRED LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobrizal Sobrizal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blast disease caused by Pyricularia oryzae is one of the limiting factors for rice production world wide. The use of resistant varieties for managing blast disease is considered as the most eco-friendly approaches. However, their resistances may be broken down within a few years due to the appearance of new virulent blast races in the field. The objective of the present study was to identify the quantitative trait locus (QTL conferring resistance to blast disease using 126 recombinant inbred (RI lines originated from a crossing of a durably resistant upland rice genotype (Laka and a highly susceptible rice accession cultivar (Kencana Bali. The RI population was developed through a single seed descent method from 1997 to 2004. Resistance of the RI lines was evaluated for blast in an endemic area of Sukabumi, West Java, in 2005. Disease intensity of the blast was examined following the standard evaluation system developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI. At the same year the RI lines were analyzed with 134 DNA markers. Results of the study showed that one major QTL was found to be associated with blast resistance, and this QTL was located near RM2136 marker on the long arm of chromosome 11. This QTL explained 87% of the phenotypic variation with 37% additive effect. The map position of this QTL differed from that of a partial resistant gene, Pi34, identified previously on chromosome 11 in the Japanese durably resistant variety, Chubu 32. The QTL, however, was almost at the same position as that of the multiple allele-resistant gene, Pik. Therefore, an allelic test should be conducted to clarify the allelic relationship between QTL identified in this study and the Pik. The RI lines are the permanent segregating population that could be very useful for analysing phenotypic variations of important agronomic traits possibly owned by the RI lines. The major QTL identified in this study could be used as a genetic resource in

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RED STRAIN OF THE EGYPTIAN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish (Clarias gariepinus strain introduced to Indonesia has not been extensively explored yet, especially the red strain. Previous studies suggested that at the same body length, body weight of the red strain was higher and it was more rotund than that of the normal (black ones. These differences need to be further investigated to find out which parts of the body mainly contributed to shape the differences. The present study was carried out to explore morphological differences of the red strain of Egyptian African catfish compared to the black strain through morphometric and meristic characterizations. Meristic and morphometric characterizations in the present study were carried out following standard method for morphological characterization of Clarias catfish. The fish samples consisted of each 35 red and black table-sized fish samples resulted from inbred and outbred spawnings. Results of the morphometric and meristic analysis in the present study revealed that the red strain of Egyptian African catfish resulted from inbred spawning of red strain brooders was morphologically different from that of either parental fishes or the black strains. At the same body length, head of the red strain was bigger (wider and longer than other strains, and its body was stumpy (more rotund and shorter than other strains, deviated from those normal characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish. Its meristic characters were also differed from those of other strains, assigned by reduced dorsal and anal fin rays number.

  19. Radiation tumorigenesis in inbred laboratory animals and cancer risks in irradiated human populations. Two widely different problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1978-01-01

    The mammal has efficient defence mechanisms against the development of tumours. These mechanisms are successively deteriorated by ionizing radiation when the dose increases beyond certain 'borderline levels'. Consequently, most animal strains demonstrate a bi-phasic dose-tumour relationship with a low-dose limb, the slope of which cannot be distinguished from zero, and a high-dose limb that increases with increasing doses. There are four or five exceptions to this 'rule' but in most of these cases the probable reasons for the deviations are known. Some human tumours as observed in epidemiological investigations do not demonstrate a similar clearly bi-phasic dose response. In all probability, this discrepancy does not reflect a higher susceptibility to radiation-induced tumours in man compared with other mammals. It is rather a consequence of a greater statistical variation in radiosensitivity in heterogeneous human populations than among inbred animals living standardized conditions. Accordingly, when maximum permissible dose levels are to be determined one should extrapolate from epidemiological data. Furthermore, these extrapolations should be linear if the data do not clearly deviate from a straight line, and if there are no scientific reasons to assume that a threshold exists. This formal method would not produce a biological description of what may happen in the low-dose area but rather an upper risk limit for the population studied. The real low-dose risk cannot be known. For the same pragmatic reason other radiological or non-radiological risks should be determined in the same manner, particularly when risks are to be compared. (author)

  20. Combining ability and heterotic grouping of early maturing provitamin A maize inbreds across Striga infested and optimal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Konate

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development, deployment and production of stress tolerant provitamin A maize is crucial to the fight against vitamin A deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA where maize is a major staple food crop. Fifteen early maturing provitamin A and two early normal yellow endosperm maize inbreds were crossed using the diallel mating design to generate 136 single-cross hybrids. The hybrids were evaluated during 2015 growing season at three locations under two Striga infested and three optimal growing environments in Nigeria. The objectives were to (i determine the combining ability and heterotic groups of early maturing provitamin A inbreds; (ii examine the performance of the inbreds in hybrid combinations across environments and (iii identify early maturing provitamin A inbred testers for use in tropical maize breeding programs. The general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA effects were significant for grain yield and most other traits indicating that additive and non-additive genetic effects were important in the inheritance of these characters. Inbreds TZEI 10, TZEIOR 108, and TZEI 17 had significant positive GCA for grain yield. TZEIOR 108, TZEIOR 42, and TZEI 10 had significant negative GCA for Striga damage while TZEIOR 122, TZEIOR 127, TZEIOR 108, and TZEI 10 had significant negative GCA for number of emerged Striga plants. The inbreds were classified based on heterotic groups’ SCA and GCA of grain yield (HSGCA, SCA and GCA of multiple traits (HGCAMT methods into four, three and five heterotic groups, respectively. The inbreds TZEIOR 108, TZEI 10 and TZEI 17 were identified as testers. Hybrids 8, 3, 5, 10 and 1 were identified as high yielding and most stable across environments.

  1. A non-synonymous SNP within the isopentenyl transferase 2 locus is associated with kernel weight in Chinese maize inbreds (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Bo; Liu, Changlin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongwei; Hao, Zhuanfang; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Ci, Xiaoke; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Shihuang

    2013-07-05

    Kernel weight, controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), is an important component of grain yield in maize. Cytokinins (CKs) participate in determining grain morphology and final grain yield in crops. ZmIPT2, which is expressed mainly in the basal transfer cell layer, endosperm, and embryo during maize kernel development, encodes an isopentenyl transferase (IPT) that is involved in CK biosynthesis. The coding region of ZmIPT2 was sequenced across a panel of 175 maize inbred lines that are currently used in Chinese maize breeding programs. Only 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven haplotypes were detected among these inbred lines. Nucleotide diversity (π) within the ZmIPT2 window and coding region were 0.347 and 0.0047, respectively, and they were significantly lower than the mean nucleotide diversity value of 0.372 for maize Chromosome 2 (P maize germplasm, with the most frequent favorable allele identified in subgroup PB (Partner B). These results showed that ZmIPT2, which is associated with kernel weight, was subjected to artificial selection during the maize breeding process. ZmIPT2-T had higher IPT activity than ZmIPT2-C, and this favorable allele for kernel weight could be used in molecular marker-assisted selection for improvement of grain yield components in Chinese maize breeding programs.

  2. Differential expression of hepatic genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in high- and low-responding strains of laboratory opossums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Jeannie; Donalson, Lisa M.; Kushwaha, Rampratap S.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Vandeberg, Jane F.; Vandeberg, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL) cholesterol levels of 2 partially inbred strains of opossums (Monodelphis domestica) differ markedly when they are fed a high-cholesterol and low-fat (HCLF) diet. High-responding opossums exhibit a dramatic increase

  3. Diallel analysis of leaf disease resistance in inbred Brazilian popcorn cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A; Moterle, L M; Tessmann, D J; Conrado, T V; Amaral Júnior, A T

    2009-12-01

    We estimated general and specific combining abilities and examined resistance to northern leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and to gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in a set of nine inbred popcorn lines. These inbreds were crossed in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, which produced 36 F(1) hybrids. Two experiments with a square lattice design and three replications were conducted during the 2008/2009 crop season, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The severity of northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot was assessed under natural infestation conditions. Data were examined by individual and joint analysis of variance. Individual and joint Griffing's diallel analyses were carried out for adjusted means. General combining ability and specific combining ability were significant (P < 0.10) by the F-test for northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot infestation levels. This denotes that additive and non-additive gene effects both contributed to resistance to these diseases, but that the additive gene effects were more important. Among the inbred lines, P(8) and P(9) gave the highest resistance to northern leaf blight, and P(3) and P(4.3) gave the highest resistance to gray leaf spot. The hybrids P(7.4) x P(8) and P(4.3) x P(9) could be exploited by reciprocal recurrent selection to provide genotypes with both northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot resistance. Significant interaction between general combining ability and crop season (P < 0.10) denotes the importance of environment, even though the disease levels in the hybrids were quite consistent.

  4. Reciprocal translocation of small numbers of inbred individuals rescues immunogenetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueber, Catherine E; Sutton, Jolene T; Heber, Sol; Briskie, James V; Jamieson, Ian G; Robertson, Bruce C

    2017-05-01

    Genetic rescue can reduce inbreeding depression and increase fitness of small populations, even when the donor populations are highly inbred. In a recent experiment involving two inbred island populations of the New Zealand South Island robin, Petroica australis, reciprocal translocations improved microsatellite diversity and individual fitness. While microsatellite loci may reflect patterns of genome-wide diversity, they generally do not indicate the specific genetic regions responsible for increased fitness. We tested the effectiveness of this reciprocal translocation for rescuing diversity of two immunogenetic regions: Toll-like receptor (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. We found that the relatively small number of migrants (seven and ten per island) effectively brought the characteristic TLR gene diversity of each source population into the recipient population. However, when migrants transmitted TLR alleles that were already present at high frequency in the recipient population, it was possible for offspring of mixed heritage to have decreased gene diversity compared to recipient population diversity prior to translocation. In contrast to TLRs, we did not observe substantial changes in MHC allelic diversity following translocation, with limited evidence of a decrease in differentiation, perhaps because most MHC alleles were observed at both sites prior to the translocation. Overall, we conclude that small numbers of migrants may successfully restore the diversity of immunogenetic loci with few alleles, but that translocating larger numbers of animals would provide additional opportunity for the genetic rescue of highly polymorphic immunity regions, such as the MHC, even when the source population is inbred. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genotypic effects on boron concentrations and response on boron fertilization in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Luka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B deficiency in maize can result in barren cobs attributed to silks being nonreceptive which is particularly important for the female parent in seed production. The objectives of this study were 1 to investigate genotypic differences among nine female inbred lines used in seed production for B concentration in ear-leaf and grain, as well as for grain yield and moisture in a three-year experiment (2006-2008 and 2 to determine response and relations among the traits when four of the female inbred lines are treated by foliar boron fertilization - three times in 10-days interval with 0.5% Solubor solution (17.5% B during one growing season (2008. The investigations were performed on Experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek, (soil type: eutrical cambisol. Highly significant differences among the nine female inbred lines were detected for B concentration in ear-leaf (from 14.7 to 46.7 mg B kg-1 and grain (from 1.20 to 2.06 mg B kg-1 as well as for grain yield (from 3.33 to 4.83 t ha-1 and grain moisture (from 14.7% to 26.6%. However, there were also significant effects of growing season and the genotype by environment interaction for all four traits. Positive and moderate correlations were found between the boron status in plant and grain yield. Although B concentrations were considerably increased by foliar boron fertilization (averages 41.7 and 125.3 mg B kg-1 in leaves, 1.79 and 2.80 mg B kg-1 in grain, for control and fertilization, respectively, in general grain yield differences among treatments were non-significant. (averages 5.21 and 5.15 t ha-1, respectively.

  6. DFT study on the mechanism of InBr3-catalyzed [2+2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    anism results in the final product (P1) and regenera- tion of the catalyst (InBr3) through a-TS2. In a-TS2, the C2–C4 bond distance is 1.974 Å. The activation free energy for the last step is 10.7 kcal/mol, and the whole catalytic process is exothermic by −14.1 kcal/mol. The intermediate a-IN1 is easy to obtain the product (P1).

  7. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection on Fiber Traits Using Two Recombinant Inbred Lines and Their Backcross Populations in Upland Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-09-08

    Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.

  8. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  9. Genetic, sex, and diet effects on body weight and obesity in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Asja; Schmitt, Armin O; Aksu, Soner; Schlote, Werner; Neuschl, Christina; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2006-11-27

    Mouse lines long-term selected for high fatness offer the possibility to identify individual genes involved in the development of obesity. The Berlin Fat Mouse (BFM) line has been selected for low protein content and afterward for high fatness. Three Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) lines, which are derivates of the selection line BFM and an unselected control line (C57BL/6; B6) were systematically phenotyped between 3 and 20 wk. The body weights and body compositions were measured on a weekly basis. We demonstrated that the BFMI lines dispose of more body weight, body fat mass, and body lean mass than the control line B6 because of a better feed efficiency in these lines. In contrast to other growth-selected mouse lines, the BFMI lines exhibited a general increase in body fat mass but only a marginal increase in body lean mass. The three BFMI lines also showed line- and sex-specific patterns and varied in their response to high-fat diet. The phenotypic differences between the BFMI lines can be traced back to different sets of fixed alleles contributing to fat accumulation and diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the genetically related BFMI lines are novel models to study the genetic as well as the nutritional aspects of obesity.

  10. [Construction and characterization of normalized cDNA library of maize inbred Mo17 from multiple tissues and developmental stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z X; Zhang, F D; Tang, W H; Pi, Y J; Zheng, Y L

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive complementary DNA (cDNA) library is a valuable resource for functional genomics. In this study, we set up a normalized cDNA library of Mo17 (MONL) by saturation hybridization with genomic DNA, which contained expressed genes of eight tissues and organs from inbred Mo17 of maize (Zea mays L.). In this library, the insert sizes range from 0.4 kb to 4 kb and the average size is 1.18 kb. 10.830 clones were spotted on nylon membrane to make a cDNA microarray. Randomly picked 300 clones from the cDNA library were sequenced. The cDNA microarry was hybridized with pooled tissue mRNA probes or housekeeping gene cDNA probes. The results showed the normalized cDNA library comprehensively includes tissue-specific genes in which 71% are unique ESTs (expressed sequence tags) based on the 300 sequences analyzed. Using BLAST program to compare the sequences against online nucleotide databases, 88% sequences were found in ZmDB or NCBI, and 12% sequences were not found in existing nucleotide databases. More than 73% sequences are of unknown function. The library could be extensively used in developing DNA markers, sequencing ESTs, mining new genes, identifying positional cloning and candidate gene, and developing microarrays in maize genomics research.

  11. RNA-Seq using bulked recombinant inbred line populations uncovers the importance of brassinosteroid for seed longevity after priming treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Kim, June-Sik; Onda, Yoshihiko; Nomura, Takahito; Mochida, Keiichi; Okamoto, Masanori; Seo, Mitsunori

    2017-08-14

    Seed priming is a commercially used technique for improving seed performance including germination. However, the treatment sometimes reduces seed longevity as a side effect, limiting the storable period or longevity of the seeds. To overcome this problem, molecular mechanisms involved in the loss of seed longevity during priming were analyzed using natural variations of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the Est-1 accession retained longevity for longer after priming compared to the reference accession Col-0. QTL analysis using 279 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the Est-1 × Col-0 detected three QTL regions associated with the loss of seed longevity during priming. Bulked transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq with bulked RIL populations) revealed that genes related to brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis/signaling and cell wall modification were highly expressed in primed seeds with shorter longevity. After priming, BR-deficient mutants cyp85a1/a2 and det2 showed significantly longer longevity than the wild type (WT). Moreover, tetrazolium staining indicated that mutant seed coats were less permeable after priming than those of WT. We suggest that the loss of seed longevity in primed seed is due to increased seed coat permeability, which is positively regulated, at least partly, via BR signaling.

  12. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  13. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions show exceptional resistance to noise exposure in MOLF/Ei mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candreia, Claudia; Martin, Glen K; Stagner, Barden B; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L

    2004-08-01

    Baseline distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) at several primary-tone levels were compared between naive 2- to 3-month old inbred CBA/CaJ (CBA) and wild-derived MOLF/Ei (MOLF) mice. Only minor DPOAE differences were noted between the two strains and these differences were not systematic across frequency or test levels. These emission findings were consistent with earlier results on auditory brainstem response thresholds reported by others [Zheng et al., Hear. Res. 130 (1999) 94-107] thus suggesting that both CBA and MOLF strains have normal hearing. Subsequent episodes of over-exposure to a 105-dB SPL, octave-band noise centered at 10 kHz for 8 h revealed that MOLF DPOAEs were exceptionally resistant to the adverse aftereffects of excessive noise exposure as compared to CBA mice. Unlike the noise-exposure resistant inbred 129/SvEvTac strain, which has reduced baseline DPOAE levels especially at high frequencies, MOLF mice have normal DPOAEs making the interpretation of noise-exposure effects more straightforward.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Silk Viability in Maize Inbred Lines and Their Corresponding Hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Ma

    Full Text Available A long period of silk viability is critical for a good seed setting rate in maize (Zea mays L., especially for inbred lines and hybrids with a long interval between anthesis and silking. To explore the molecular mechanism of silk viability and its heterosis, three inbred lines with different silk viability characteristics (Xun928, Lx9801, and Zong3 and their two hybrids (Xun928×Zong3 and Lx9801×Zong3 were analyzed at different developmental stages by a proteomic method. The differentially accumulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified into metabolism, protein biosynthesis and folding, signal transduction and hormone homeostasis, stress and defense responses, and cellular processes. Proteins involved in nutrient (methionine and energy (ATP supply, which support the pollen tube growth in the silk, were important for silk viability and its heterosis. The additive and dominant effects at a single locus, as well as complex epistatic interactions at two or more loci in metabolic pathways, were the primary contributors for mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. Additionally, the proteins involved in the metabolism of anthocyanins, which indirectly negatively regulate local hormone accumulation, were also important for the mid-parent heterosis of silk viability. These results also might imply the developmental dependence of heterosis, because many of the differentially accumulated proteins made distinct contributions to the heterosis of silk viability at specific developmental stages.

  15. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Myelogenous leukemia in adult inbred MHC-defined miniature swine: a model for human myeloid leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Cho, Patricia S; Teague, Alexander G S; Fishman, Brian; Fishman, Aaron S; Hanekamp, John S; Moran, Shannon G; Wikiel, Krzysztof J; Ferguson, Kelly K; Lo, Diana P; Duggan, Michael; Arn, J Scott; Billiter, Bob; Horner, Ben; Houser, Stuart; Yeap, Beow Yong; Westmoreland, Susan V; Spitzer, Thomas R; McMorrow, Isabel M; Sachs, David H; Bronson, Roderick T; Huang, Christene A

    2010-06-15

    This manuscript reports on five cases of spontaneous myelogenous leukemia, similar to human disease, occurring within highly inbred, histocompatible sublines of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) MHC-defined miniature swine. In cases where a neoplasm was suspected based on clinical observations, samples were obtained for complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, and flow cytometric analysis. Animals confirmed to have neoplasms were euthanized and underwent necropsy. Histological samples were obtained from abnormal tissues and suspect lesions. The phenotype of the malignancies was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of processed peripheral blood mononuclear cells and affected tissues. Five cases of spontaneous myeloid leukemia were identified in adult animals older than 30 months of age. All animals presented with symptoms of weight loss, lethargy, and marked leukocytosis. At autopsy, all animals had systemic disease involvement and presented with severe hepatosplenomegaly. Three of the five myelogenous leukemias have successfully been expanded in vitro. The clustered incidence of disease in this closed herd suggests that genetic factors may be contributing to disease development. Myelogenous leukemia cell lines established from inbred sublines of MGH MHC-defined miniature swine have the potential to be utilized as a model to evaluate therapies of human leukemia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioural characterisation of wild derived male mice (Mus musculus musculus) of the PWD/Ph inbred strain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandes, C.; Liu, L.; Paya-Cano, J. L.; Gregorová, Soňa; Forejt, Jiří; Schalkwyk, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 6 (2004), s. 621-630 ISSN 0001-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GA204/02/1373 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLRI-2000-00233; HHMI(US) 555000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse * behavior Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.215, year: 2004

  18. Progress in Using Mouse Inbred Strains, Consomics, and Mutants to Identify Genes Related to Stress, Anxiety, and Alcohol Phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Matthews, Douglas B. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Mittleman, Guy [University of Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Becker, Howard C. [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Lopez, Marcelo F. [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Jones, Sara R. [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Mathews, Tiffany A [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Miles, Michael F. [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond; Kerns, Robnet [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond; Grant, Kathleen A. [Oregon Health and Science University, Portland

    2006-01-01

    ALCOHOL ABUSE AND alcoholism result from the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Stress is a factor that is widely thought to contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. One consequence of stressful experiences is anxiety, and there is a rich literature on the interactions between alcohol and anxiety. Less is known about brain mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, and system levels that mediate stress effects that contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. In addition, it is not clear whether and/or how genetic factors that contribute to excessive drinking interact with neural stress mechanisms.

  19. The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains

    OpenAIRE

    Jegstrup, Inger Marie; Nygaard Hansen, Marianne; Brandt, Kirsten; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2003-01-01

    In this experiment we study the effects of various culturing methods of plant based foods on health and fertility parameters in a two-generation study in rats. The organic method of growing plants without pesticides and synthetic fertiliser will be compared to a conventional method of growing plants (using pesticides and artificial fertiliser). The diets have been supplemented with minerals and vitamins according to the recommendations of the National Research Council for rats (1995), in orde...

  20. Commensal intestinal bacterial strains trigger ankylosing enthesopathy of the ankle in inbred B10.BR (H-2k) male mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkorová, Z.; Čapková, Jana; Niederlová, J.; Štěpánková, Renata; Šinkora, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 12 (2008), s. 845-850 ISSN 0198-8859 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/0287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : Spondyloarthropathies * Ankylosing enthesopathy * Intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.061, year: 2008

  1. Enterococcus faecalis strains show culture heterogeneity in cell surface charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merode, Annet; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Waar, K; Krom, BP

    Adhesion of micro-organisms to biotic and abiotic surfaces is an important virulence factor and involves different types of interactions. Enterococcus faecalis, a human commensal and an important opportunistic pathogen, has the ability to adhere to surfaces. Biliary stents frequently become clogged

  2. Comparison of three mouse strains by radiosensitivity of hemato-immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Deguan; Wu, Hongying; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Junling; Wang, Yueying; Lu, Lu; Meng, Aimin

    2008-01-01

    IRM-2, developed in our Lab, is an inbred strain mouse created by cross of a ICR/JCL female and 615 male mouse. Compared to the parent strains, the IRM-2 mouse exhibit increased resistance to radiation. We examine the damage of hemato-immune system induced by radiation in IRM-2, ICR and 615 mice in order to elucidate the radiation resistant mechanism of IRM-2 mouse. The hemato-immune function and radiosensitivities of three mouse strains (IRM-2, ICR/JCL, 615) have been compared using the following parameters: the white blood cells (WBC) in peripheral blood (PB), the bone marrow nucleated cells (BMC) per femur. Percent of phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophage (PM) was checked by chicken red blood cells. Lymphocyte phenotype in PB were analyzed by flow cytometry. Damage induced by radiation were analysed in the bone marrows cells, splenocytes and thymocyte exposed to irradiation in vitro by cell viability assay (ATP Bioluminescence assay) and apoptosis assay (Annexin V/PI). The WBC and BMC of IRM-2 mice were significantly higher than those in ICR mice and 615 mice, respectively (P<0.01). The ratio of CD4/CD8 in PB of IRM-2 mouse was lower than those in ICR and 615, P<0.01. Cell viability showed difference after 18 hs incubation post radiation in three mouse strains. The results of our primary study suggest that the hemato-immune function in IRM-2 mouse is different to its parent strains. The IRM-2 mouse provides an animal model to conducted further investigation to explore the role of hemato-immune system in radiation resistance. (author)

  3. Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1:K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangkai Zhu Ge

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic E. coli and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli serotypes O1, O2 and O18 strains isolated from different hosts are generally located in phylogroup B2 and ST complex 95, and they share similar genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, with no or minimal host specificity. They are popular objects for the study of ExPEC genetic characteristics and pathogenesis in recent years. Here, we investigated the evolution and genetic blueprint of APEC pathotype by performing phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis of avian pathogenic E. coli strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 with other E. coli pathotypes. Phylogeny analyses indicated that IMT5155 has closest evolutionary relationship with APEC O1, IHE3034, and UTI89. Comparative genomic analysis showed that IMT5155 and APEC O1 shared significant genetic overlap/similarities with human ExPEC dominant O18:K1 strains (IHE3034 and UTI89. Furthermore, the unique PAI I5155 (GI-12 was identified and found to be conserved in APEC O2 serotype isolates. GI-7 and GI-16 encoding two typical T6SSs in IMT5155 might be useful markers for the identification of ExPEC dominant serotypes (O1, O2, and O18 strains. IMT5155 contained a ColV plasmid p1ColV5155, which defined the APEC pathotype. The distribution analysis of 10 sequenced ExPEC pan-genome virulence factors among 47 sequenced E. coli strains provided meaningful information for B2 APEC/ExPEC-specific virulence factors, including several adhesins, invasins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and so on. The pathogenicity tests of IMT5155 and other APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 serotypes strains (isolated in China through four animal models showed that they were highly virulent for avian colisepticemia and able to cause septicemia and meningitis in neonatal rats, suggesting zoonotic potential of these APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 isolates.

  4. Genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in two maize recombinant inbred line populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng; Yang, Xiaohong

    2014-06-03

    Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide and provides food for billions of people. Stalk lodging can greatly undermine the standability of maize plants and therefore decrease crop yields. Rind penetrometer resistance is an effective and reliable method for evaluating maize stalk strength, which is highly correlated with stalk lodging resistance. In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations were constructed from crosses between the H127R and Chang7-2 lines, and between the B73 and By804 lines. We genotyped these two populations and their parents using 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed phenotypic assessment of rind penetrometer resistance in multiple environments to dissect the genetic architecture of rind penetrometer resistance in maize. Based on two linkage maps of 1,397.1 and 1,600.4 cM with average interval of 1.7 and 2.1 cM between adjacent makers, respectively, seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rind penetrometer resistance were detected in the two recombinant inbred line populations. These QTL were distributed in seven genomic regions, and each accounted for 4.4-18.9% of the rind penetrometer resistance variation. The QTL with the largest effect on rind penetrometer resistance, qRPR3-1, was located on chromosome 3 with the flanking markers PZE-103123325 and SYN23245. This locus was further narrowed down to a 3.1-Mb interval by haplotype analysis using high-density markers in the target region. Within this interval, four genes associated with the biosynthesis of cell wall components were considered as potential candidate genes for the rind penetrometer resistance effect. The inheritance of rind penetrometer resistance is rather complex. A few large-effect quantitative trait loci, together with a several minor-effect QTL, contributed to the phenotypic variation in rind penetrometer resistance in the two recombinant inbred line populations that were examined. A potential approach for

  5. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; El-Soda, M.; Oorschot, van I.; Hanhart, C.J.; Bonnema, A.B.; Jansen-van den Bosch, T.; Mank, R.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Meng, L.; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms

  6. Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...

  7. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated α-carotene and β-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and β-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed β-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression.

  8. Draft assembly of elite inbred line PH207 provides insights into genomic and transcriptome diversity in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intense artificial selection over the last 100 years has produced elite maize (Zea mays) inbred lines that combine to produce high-yielding hybrids. To further our understanding of how genome and transcriptome variation contribute to the production of high-yielding hybrids, we generated a draft geno...

  9. Cholesterol metabolism and esterases in four strains of rats with differential cholesterolemic responses to a high-cholesterol, high-cholate diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Lemmens, A.G.; Katan, M.B.; Bruijne, de J.J.; Zutphen, van L.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    1. 1. The increase in serum cholesterol after feeding a diet containing 2% (w/w) of cholesterol and 0.5% of cholate for 13 days was 200 and 800% in two hypo- and two hyper-responsive inbred strains of rats, respectively. 2. 2. While remaining on the high-cholesterol, high-cholate diet for longer

  10. [Anatomy of heart in banna mini-pig inbred-lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ying, Da-jun; Sun, Jian-sen

    2003-01-01

    To observe the heart anatomic and histological structure of the Banna mini-pig inbred-lined and to provide the morphological data for heart xenotransplantation and breeding transgens pig. Ten Banna mini-pigs (12-18 months old) were affused and fixed by common coratid artery. The heart were observed and measured by gross anatomy and histology. There were many similarities between the Banna pig heart and the human heart in anatomy and histology. However, the following differences were observed in the Banna pig heart: 1. Azygos vein directly drew into right atrium cordis. 2. The intercalated disk of cardiac muscle was less than that of human. 3. The Purkinje's fibre was bigger than that of human. On the morphology and histology, the structure of Banna pig heart is similar to the heart of human being. It is possible that Banna minipig heart becomes organ donors for xenotransplantation.

  11. Mercury toxicokinetics-dependency on strain and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Jimmy; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Havarinasab, Said; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Soederkvist, Peter; Hultman, Per

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from dental amalgam fillings and thimerosal in vaccines is not a major health hazard, but adverse health effects cannot be ruled out in a small and more susceptible part of the exposed population. Individual differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility to mercury. Inbred, H-2-congenic A.SW and B10.S mice and their F1- and F2-hybrids were given HgCl 2 with 2.0 mg Hg/L drinking water and traces of 203 Hg. Whole-body retention (WBR) was monitored until steady state after 5 weeks, when the organ Hg content was assessed. Despite similar Hg intake, A.SW males attained a 20-30% significantly higher WBR and 2- to 5-fold higher total renal Hg retention/concentration than A.SW females and B10.S mice. A selective renal Hg accumulation but of lower magnitude was seen also in B10.S males compared with females. Differences in WBR and organ Hg accumulation are therefore regulated by non-H-2 genes and gender. Lymph nodes lacked the strain- and gender-dependent Hg accumulation profile of kidney, liver and spleen. After 15 days without Hg A.SW mice showed a 4-fold higher WBR and liver Hg concentration, but 11-fold higher renal Hg concentration, showing the key role for the kidneys in explaining the slower Hg elimination in A.SW mice. The trait causing higher mercury accumulation was not dominantly inherited in the F1 hybrids. F2 mice showed a large inter-individual variation in Hg accumulation, showing that multiple genetic factors influence the Hg toxicokinetics in the mouse. The genetically heterogeneous human population may therefore show a large variation in mercury toxicokinetics.

  12. Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

  13. The Genetic Basis of Plant Architecture in 10 Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingchun; Xu, Yuancheng; Li, Kun; Peng, Yong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Wenqiang; Li, Lin; Yan, Jianbing

    2017-10-01

    Plant architecture is a key factor affecting planting density and grain yield in maize ( Zea mays ). However, the genetic mechanisms underlying plant architecture in diverse genetic backgrounds have not been fully addressed. Here, we performed a large-scale phenotyping of 10 plant architecture-related traits and dissected the genetic loci controlling these traits in 10 recombinant inbred line populations derived from 14 diverse genetic backgrounds. Nearly 800 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with major and minor effects were identified as contributing to the phenotypic variation of plant architecture-related traits. Ninety-two percent of these QTLs were detected in only one population, confirming the diverse genetic backgrounds of the mapping populations and the prevalence of rare alleles in maize. The numbers and effects of QTLs are positively associated with the phenotypic variation in the population, which, in turn, correlates positively with parental phenotypic and genetic variations. A large proportion (38.5%) of QTLs was associated with at least two traits, suggestive of the frequent occurrence of pleiotropic loci or closely linked loci. Key developmental genes, which previously were shown to affect plant architecture in mutant studies, were found to colocalize with many QTLs. Five QTLs were further validated using the segregating populations developed from residual heterozygous lines present in the recombinant inbred line populations. Additionally, one new plant height QTL, qPH3 , has been fine-mapped to a 600-kb genomic region where three candidate genes are located. These results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms controlling plant architecture and will benefit the selection of ideal plant architecture in maize breeding. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  15. Comparative miRNAs analysis of Two contrasting broccoli inbred lines with divergent head-forming capacity under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chien; Fu, Shih-Feng; Norikazu, Monma; Yang, Yau-Wen; Liu, Yu-Ju; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in growth, development, and stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italic) is an important vegetable crop, and the yield and quality of broccoli are decreased by heat stress. The broccoli inbred lines that are capable of producing head at high temperature in summer are unique varieties in Taiwan. However, knowledge of miRNAomes during the broccoli head formation under heat stress is limited. In this study, molecular characterization of two nearly isogenic lines with contrasting head-forming capacity was investigated. Head-forming capacity was better for heat-tolerant (HT) than heat-sensitive (HS) broccoli under heat stress. By deep sequencing and computational analysis, 20 known miRNAs showed significant differential expression between HT and HS genotypes. According to the criteria for annotation of new miRNAs, 24 novel miRNA sequences with differential expression between the two genotypes were identified. To gain insight into functional significance, 213 unique potential targets of these 44 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. These targets were implicated in shoot apical development, phase change, response to temperature stimulus, hormone and energy metabolism. The head-forming capacity of the unique HT line was related to autonomous regulation of Bo-FT genes and less expression level of heat shock protein genes as compared to HS. For the genotypic comparison, a set of miRNAs and their targets had consistent expression patterns in various HT genotypes. This large-scale characterization of broccoli miRNAs and their potential targets is to unravel the regulatory roles of miRNAs underlying heat-tolerant head-forming capacity.

  16. Inbreeding depression increases susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in lions: an experimental test using an inbred-outbred contrast through translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkel, Martina; Cooper, Dave; Packer, Craig; Slotow, Rob

    2011-07-01

    Disease can dramatically influence the dynamics of endangered wildlife populations, especially when they are small and isolated, with increased risk of inbreeding. In Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), a small, enclosed reserve in South Africa, a large lion (Panthera leo) population arose from a small founder group in the 1960s and started showing conspicuous signs of inbreeding. To restore the health status of the HiP lion population, outbred lions were translocated into the existing population. In this study, we determined the susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and the prevalence of antibody to feline viruses of native lions, and compared the findings with those from translocated outbred lions and their offspring. Antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, and feline coronavirus were present in the lion population, but there was no significant difference in antibody prevalence between native and translocated lions and their offspring, and these feline viruses did not appear to have an effect on the clinical health of HiP lions. However, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which was previously absent from HiP, appears to have been introduced into the lion population through translocation. Within 7 yr, the prevalence of antibody to FIV increased up to 42%. Bovine tuberculosis posed a major threat to the inbred native lion population, but not to translocated lions and their offspring. More than 30% of the native lion population died from bTB or malnutrition compared with lions and their offspring. We have demonstrated that management of population genetics through supplementation can successfully combat a disease that threatens population persistence. However, great care must be taken not to introduce new diseases into populations through translocation.

  17. Sequence analysis of European maize inbred line F2 provides new insights into molecular and chromosomal characteristics of presence/absence variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darracq, Aude; Vitte, Clémentine; Nicolas, Stéphane; Duarte, Jorge; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Chevalier, Céline; Bérard, Aurélie; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Rogowsky, Peter; Charcosset, Alain; Joets, Johann

    2018-02-05

    Maize is well known for its exceptional structural diversity, including copy number variants (CNVs) and presence/absence variants (PAVs), and there is growing evidence for the role of structural variation in maize adaptation. While PAVs have been described in this important crop species, they have been only scarcely characterized at the sequence level and the extent of presence/absence variation and relative chromosomal landscape of inbred-specific regions remain to be elucidated. De novo genome sequencing of the French F2 maize inbred line revealed 10,044 novel genomic regions larger than 1 kb, making up 88 Mb of DNA, that are present in F2 but not in B73 (PAV). This set of maize PAV sequences allowed us to annotate PAV content and to analyze sequence breakpoints. Using PAV genotyping on a collection of 25 temperate lines, we also analyzed Linkage Disequilibrium in PAVs and flanking regions, and PAV frequencies within maize genetic groups. We highlight the possible role of MMEJ-type double strand break repair in maize PAV formation and discover 395 new genes with transcriptional support. Pattern of linkage disequilibrium within PAVs strikingly differs from this of flanking regions and is in accordance with the intuition that PAVs may recombine less than other genomic regions. We show that most PAVs are ancient, while some are found only in European Flint material, thus pinpointing structural features that may be at the origin of adaptive traits involved in the success of this material. Characterization of such PAVs will provide useful material for further association genetic studies in European and temperate maize.

  18. SNP array profiling of mouse cell lines identifies their strains of origin and reveals cross-contamination and widespread aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, John P; Buus, Ryan J; Naghashfar, Zohreh; Threadgill, David W; Morse, Herbert C; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2014-10-03

    The crisis of Misidentified and contaminated cell lines have plagued the biological research community for decades. Some repositories and journals have heeded calls for mandatory authentication of human cell lines, yet misidentification of mouse cell lines has received little publicity despite their importance in sponsored research. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling is the standard authentication method, but it may fail to distinguish cell lines derived from the same inbred strain of mice. Additionally, STR profiling does not reveal karyotypic changes that occur in some high-passage lines and may have functional consequences. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiling has been suggested as a more accurate and versatile alternative to STR profiling; however, a high-throughput method for SNP-based authentication of mouse cell lines has not been described. We have developed computational methods (Cell Line Authentication by SNP Profiling, CLASP) for cell line authentication and copy number analysis based on a cost-efficient SNP array, and we provide a reference database of commonly used mouse strains and cell lines. We show that CLASP readily discriminates among cell lines of diverse taxonomic origins, including multiple cell lines derived from a single inbred strain, intercross or wild caught mouse. CLASP is also capable of detecting contaminants present at concentrations as low as 5%. Of the 99 cell lines we tested, 15 exhibited substantial divergence from the reported genetic background. In all cases, we were able to distinguish whether the authentication failure was due to misidentification (one cell line, Ba/F3), the presence of multiple strain backgrounds (five cell lines), contamination by other cells and/or the presence of aneuploid chromosomes (nine cell lines). Misidentification and contamination of mouse cell lines is potentially as widespread as it is in human cell culture. This may have substantial implications for studies that are dependent on the

  19. Rat Strain Ontology: structured controlled vocabulary designed to facilitate access to strain data at RGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Rajni; Munzenmaier, Diane H; Worthey, Elizabeth A; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary; Jacob, Howard J

    2013-11-22

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) ( http://rgd.mcw.edu/) is the premier site for comprehensive data on the different strains of the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). The strain data are collected from various publications, direct submissions from individual researchers, and rat providers worldwide. Rat strain, substrain designation and nomenclature follow the Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains, instituted by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. While symbols and names aid in identifying strains correctly, the flat nature of this information prohibits easy search and retrieval, as well as other data mining functions. In order to improve these functionalities, particularly in ontology-based tools, the Rat Strain Ontology (RS) was developed. The Rat Strain Ontology (RS) reflects the breeding history, parental background, and genetic manipulation of rat strains. This controlled vocabulary organizes strains by type: inbred, outbred, chromosome altered, congenic, mutant and so on. In addition, under the chromosome altered category, strains are organized by chromosome, and further by type of manipulations, such as mutant or congenic. This allows users to easily retrieve strains of interest with modifications in specific genomic regions. The ontology was developed using the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) file format, and is organized on the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) structure. Rat Strain Ontology IDs are included as part of the strain report (RS: ######). As rat researchers are often unaware of the number of substrains or altered strains within a breeding line, this vocabulary now provides an easy way to retrieve all substrains and accompanying information. Its usefulness is particularly evident in tools such as the PhenoMiner at RGD, where users can now easily retrieve phenotype measurement data for related strains, strains with similar backgrounds or those with similar introgressed regions. This

  20. Quantitative trait Loci association mapping by imputation of strain origins in multifounder crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin J; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Sobel, Eric M; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Lange, Kenneth

    2012-02-01

    Although mapping quantitative traits in inbred strains is simpler than mapping the analogous traits in humans, classical inbred crosses suffer from reduced genetic diversity compared to experimental designs involving outbred animal populations. Multiple crosses, for example the Complex Trait Consortium's eight-way cross, circumvent these difficulties. However, complex mating schemes and systematic inbreeding raise substantial computational difficulties. Here we present a method for locally imputing the strain origins of each genotyped animal along its genome. Imputed origins then serve as mean effects in a multivariate Gaussian model for testing association between trait levels and local genomic variation. Imputation is a combinatorial process that assigns the maternal and paternal strain origin of each animal on the basis of observed genotypes and prior pedigree information. Without smoothing, imputation is likely to be ill-defined or jump erratically from one strain to another as an animal's genome is traversed. In practice, one expects to see long stretches where strain origins are invariant. Smoothing can be achieved by penalizing strain changes from one marker to the next. A dynamic programming algorithm then solves the strain imputation process in one quick pass through the genome of an animal. Imputation accuracy exceeds 99% in practical examples and leads to high-resolution mapping in simulated and real data. The previous fastest quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping software for dense genome scans reduced compute times to hours. Our implementation further reduces compute times from hours to minutes with no loss in statistical power. Indeed, power is enhanced for full pedigree data.

  1. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  2. Ethnic and mouse strain differences in central corneal thickness and association with pigmentation phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Dimasi

    Full Text Available The cornea is a transparent structure that permits the refraction of light into the eye. Evidence from a range of studies indicates that central corneal thickness (CCT is strongly genetically determined. Support for a genetic component comes from data showing significant variation in CCT between different human ethnic groups. Interestingly, these studies also appear to show that skin pigmentation may influence CCT. To validate these observations, we undertook the first analysis of CCT in an oculocutaneous albinism (OCA and Ugandan cohort, populations with distinct skin pigmentation phenotypes. There was a significant difference in the mean CCT of the OCA, Ugandan and Australian-Caucasian cohorts (Ugandan: 517.3±37 µm; Caucasian: 539.7±32.8 µm, OCA: 563.3±37.2 µm; p<0.001. A meta-analysis of 53 studies investigating the CCT of different ethnic groups was then performed and demonstrated that darker skin pigmentation is associated with a thinner CCT (p<0.001. To further verify these observations, we measured CCT in 13 different inbred mouse strains and found a significant difference between the albino and pigmented strains (p = 0.008. Specific mutations within the melanin synthesis pathway were then investigated in mice for an association with CCT. Significant differences between mutant and wild type strains were seen with the nonagouti (p<0.001, myosin VA (p<0.001, tyrosinase (p = 0.025 and tyrosinase related protein (p = 0.001 genes. These findings provide support for our hypothesis that pigmentation is associated with CCT and identifies pigment-related genes as candidates for developmental determination of a non-pigmented structure.

  3. Physics Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    The attention span of K-12 students is very short; they are used to digesting information in short snippets through social media and TV. To get the students interested in physics, we created the Physics Reality Show: a series of staged short videos with duration no longer than a few minutes. Each video explains and illustrates one physics concept or law through a fast-paced sequence of physics demonstrations and experiments. The cast consists entirely of physics undergraduate students with artistic abilities and substantial experience in showing physics demonstrations at current outreach events run by the department: Physics Shows and Physics & Engineering Festival. Undergraduate students are of almost the same age as their high-school audience. They are in the best position to connect with kids and convey their fascination with physics. The PI and other faculty members who are involved in the outreach advise and coach the cast. They help students in staging the episodes and choosing the most exciting and relevant demonstrations. Supported by the APS mini-outreach Grant.

  4. Evaluation of Hbr (MITE) markers for assessment of genetic relationships among maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, A M; Mitchell, S E; Smith, O S; Register, J C; Wessler, S R; Kresovich, S

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a new type of molecular marker has been developed that is based on the presence or absence of the miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE) family Heartbreaker ( Hbr) in the maize genome. These so-called Hbr markers have been shown to be stable, highly polymorphic, easily mapped, and evenly distributed throughout the maize genome. In this work, we used Hbr-derived markers for genetic characterization of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to Stiff Stalk (SS) and Non-Stiff Stalk (NSS) heterotic groups. In total, 111 markers were evaluated across 62 SS and NSS lines. Seventy six markers (68%) were shared between the two groups, and 25 of the common markers occurred at fairly low frequency (Hbr data were congruent with those derived from pedigree information). Distance matrices generated from Hbr markers were significantly correlated ( pHbr markers could be used in conjunction with other molecular markers for genotyping and relationship studies of related maize inbred lines.

  5. Capacidade combinatória de nove linhagens endogâmicas de milho (Zea mays L. em dois ambientes Combining ability for nine inbred lines of maize in two locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Locatelli

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O milho é um cereal que faz parte de um grande número de produtos e apresenta produção crescente em nível mundial. A maior parte das áreas produtivas no Brasil são ocupadas por híbridos obtidos a partir de linhagens endogâmicas. Nos anos de 1991/92, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em blocos ao acaso e três repetições, com 36 híbridos de nove linhagens endogâmicas de milho em Não Me Toque e Tapera, ambos locais no Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de avaliar estes híbridos quanto à capacidade combinatória em dois ambientes, para os caracteres altura de inserção da espiga superior, porcentagem de tombamento, prolificidade e rendimento de grãos. A significância da interação C.G.C. e C.E.C. com ambiente, evidenciou as diferenças de comportamento dos genótipos nos dois locais. As linhagens presentes nas melhores combinações foram as mesmas nos dois ambientes, mostrando que a C.G.C. foi um bom indicador do desempenho das linhagens em combinações híbridas, embora os melhores híbridos não tenham sido os mesmos nos dois locais. As linhagens que se destacaram foram ID01, IMD04, IMD06 e ID09.Corn is present in a great number of products and its area and production is growing in the world. In 1991/92 two evaluation trials were conducted in a complete randomised block design and three replications, with 36 hybrids of nine inbred lines in "Não Me Toque" and "Tapera", both in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, with the aim of evaluating the genetic diversity and combining ability of these hybrids for ear height, stalk-root, lodging, prolificacy and grain yield. The significant interaction for CGA and SCA with location showed that the genotypes had different performance in the two environments. The inbred lines in the best combinations were the same at the two locations, showing that the CGA was a good indicator of inbred lines performance at hybrid combinations, although the best hybrids were not the same at the two locations

  6. Genetic analysis of resistance to six virus diseases in a multiple virus-resistant maize inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Jose Luis; Jones, Mark W; Brenner, Eric; Francis, David M; Tomas, Adriana; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2014-04-01

    Novel and previously known resistance loci for six phylogenetically diverse viruses were tightly clustered on chromosomes 2, 3, 6 and 10 in the multiply virus-resistant maize inbred line, Oh1VI. Virus diseases in maize can cause severe yield reductions that threaten crop production and food supplies in some regions of the world. Genetic resistance to different viruses has been characterized in maize populations in diverse environments using different screening techniques, and resistance loci have been mapped to all maize chromosomes. The maize inbred line, Oh1VI, is resistant to at least ten viruses, including viruses in five different families. To determine the genes and inheritance mechanisms responsible for the multiple virus resistance in this line, F1 hybrids, F2 progeny and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross of Oh1VI and the virus-susceptible inbred line Oh28 were evaluated. Progeny were screened for their responses to Maize dwarf mosaic virus, Sugarcane mosaic virus, Wheat streak mosaic virus, Maize chlorotic dwarf virus, Maize fine streak virus, and Maize mosaic virus. Depending on the virus, dominant, recessive, or additive gene effects were responsible for the resistance observed in F1 plants. One to three gene models explained the observed segregation of resistance in the F2 generation for all six viruses. Composite interval mapping in the RIL population identified 17 resistance QTLs associated with the six viruses. Of these, 15 were clustered in specific regions of chr. 2, 3, 6, and 10. It is unknown whether these QTL clusters contain single or multiple virus resistance genes, but the coupling phase linkage of genes conferring resistance to multiple virus diseases in this population could facilitate breeding efforts to develop multi-virus resistant crops.

  7. The ear-leaf percentage of calcium and magnesium in maize inbred lines and their diallel progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, V

    1984-10-01

    Eight maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their single cross hybrids were grown for one year under field conditions near Osijek. The ear-leaf was taken in the tasseling stage and analysed for Ca and Mg percentage. Parental effects on ear-leaf content of Ca and Mg were very high. The hybrids of line C103 had low mean percentages of ear-leaf Ca and Mg while the hybrids of line Os64 had high mean percentages.

  8. Photosynthetic properties of erect leaf maize inbred lines as the efficient photo-model in breeding and seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Čedomir N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial idea of this study was a hypothesis that erect leaf maize inbred lines were characterized by properties of an efficient photo-model and that as such were very desirable in increasing the number of plants per area unit (plant density in the process of contemporary selection and seed production. The application of a non-invasive bioluminescence-photosynthetic method, suitable for the efficiency estimation of the photo-model, verified the hypothesis. Obtained photosynthetic properties of observed erect leaf maize inbred lines were based on the effects and characteristics of thermal processes of delayed chlorophyll fluorescence occurring in their thylakoid membranes. The temperature dependence of the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence intensity phase transitions (critical temperatures in the thylakoid membranes and activation energy are the principal parameters of the thermal processes. Based on obtained photosynthetic properties it is possible to select erect leaf maize inbred lines that are resistant and tolerant to high and very high temperatures, as well as, to drought. They could be good and efficient photo-models wherewith.

  9. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC EFFECTS ON PLANT HEIGHT IN TWO SPECIFIC PAIRS OF INBRED LINES AND ITS SIX BASIC GENERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Zdunić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of genetic effects on economically important traits is a common procedure in the most breeding programmes at Agricultural Institute Osijek. This paper deals with estimation of adequacy over additive/dominance model of inheritance as well as estimation and comparison of genetic effects on plant height for two specific pairs of inbreds (A672×Va99; A672×Os6-2, and its six basic generations (P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2. Two year investigation was carried out at two locations in eastern Croatia. The trails consisted of 121 entries of different inbreeding level derived by partial diallel mating design followed by selfing and back crossing. Simple lattice experimental design was used in both investigated years. Goodness of fit test results indicated the additive/dominance model failed to explain all differences among generation means. Digenic epistatic model appeared to be adequate in both investigated pairs of inbreds at least in one of the investigated years. Estimations and comparisons of genetic effects for selected pairs of inbreds and basic generations revealed prevailing dominance effects when compared to additive.

  10. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Kashiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei, Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703, while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10.

  11. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lisboa Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency.

  12. Large-scale in silico mapping of complex quantitative traits in inbred mice.

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    Pengyuan Liu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA scans in inbred mice with a wide range of genetic variation. We identified 937 quantitative trait loci (QTLs from a survey of 173 mouse phenotypes, which include models of human disease (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity as well as behavioral, hematological, immunological, metabolic, and neurological traits. 67% of QTLs were refined into genomic regions <0.5 Mb with approximately 40-fold increase in mapping precision as compared with classical linkage analysis. This makes for more efficient identification of the genes that underlie disease. We have identified two QTL genes, Adam12 and Cdh2, as causal genetic variants for atherogenic diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate that GWA analysis in mice has the potential to resolve multiple tightly linked QTLs and achieve single-gene resolution. These high-resolution QTL data can serve as a primary resource for positional cloning and gene identification in the research community.

  13. Inheritance of nitrogen use efficiency in inbred progenies of tropical maize based on multivariate diallel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency.

  14. Determination of some quality traits and relationships among traits in popcorn inbred lines

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    Ahmet ÖZTÜRK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Popcorn is different from other maize types with its popping ability. Popcorn has a special place in human nutrition of nutrient content, vitamins and minerals it contains. It is also a good diet product with the stomach acid absorption, reducing the feeling of hunger, giving the feeling of satiety and being low in calories as a whole grain. This study was carried out in Batı Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute’s (BATEM Field Crops Department in 2014. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Some quality traits of thirty five popcorn inbred lines were examined. In the research, kernel moisture value 14.97-17.63%, popping volume 8.3-29.3 cm3 g-1, rate of unpopped kernels 1.8-35.4%, kernel size 58.3-102.3 number 10 g -1, flavor test 1.4-3.6, gumminess 1.5-4.0 were found. As a result of the research 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 16, 17, 24 and 26 lines came into prominence from the point of quality. When the relationships between quality traits were investigated, significant and positive correlations were determined between gumminess and flavor, popping volume and kernel size as well as flavor and grain moisture. Also, significant and negative correlations were determined between rate of unpopped kernels and popping volume, rate of unpopped kernels and kernel size, as well as popping volume and flavor.

  15. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  16. Showing Value (Editorial

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    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  17. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from yak milk show probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Harjodh; Jangra, Manoj; Kaur, Lakhwinder; Jaswal, Pallavi; Dureja, Chetna; Nandanwar, Hemraj; Chaudhuri, Saumya Ray; Raje, Manoj; Mishra, Sunita; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Probiotic industries strive for new, efficient and promising probiotic strains that impart a positive impact on consumer health. Challenges are persisting in isolation, screening, and selection of the new indigenous probiotic strains. In the present research, we explored the probiotic potential of 17 lactic acid bacteria isolated from Yak milk in a series of in vitro tests. We also demonstrated their health benefits, i.e., cholesterol degradation, lactose digestion, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Principal component analysis revealed that more than 50% of the strains fulfilled the examined criteria, e.g., survival in acidic pH, bile concentrations, and adherent property. Approximately all the strains produced antimicrobial substances against the maximum number of tested strains including clinical strains. Most strains degraded cholesterol in comparison to the reference probiotic strain whereas strain Yc showed 1.5 times higher the degradation efficiency of the control strain. Lan4 strain exhibited remarkable anticancer activity and induced the maximum apoptosis (87%) in the Hela cells and was non-toxic to the non-cancerous HEK293 cells. Around ten strains showed positive lactose digestion. Overall, this can be concluded that selected lactic acid bacteria revealed excellent probiotic properties along with desirable health benefits. These strains need to be further investigated in details for their application in the development of novel probiotic preparations for the improvement of public health.

  18. Expression Profiling of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Inbred Lines Reveals Their Association with Glucosinolate Content

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    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are the biochemical compounds that provide defense to plants against pathogens and herbivores. In this study, the relative expression level of 48 glucosinolate biosynthesis genes was explored in four morphologically-different cabbage inbred lines by qPCR analysis. The content of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate molecules present in those cabbage lines was also estimated by HPLC analysis. The possible association between glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression level was explored by principal component analysis (PCA. The genotype-dependent variation in the relative expression level of different aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes is the novel result of this study. A total of eight different types of glucosinolates, including five aliphatic and three indolic glucosinolates, was detected in four cabbage lines. Three inbred lines BN3383, BN4059 and BN4072 had no glucoraphanin, sinigrin and gluconapin detected, but the inbred line BN3273 had these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA revealed that a higher expression level of ST5b genes and lower expression of GSL-OH was associated with the accumulation of these three aliphatic glucosinolate compounds. PCA further revealed that comparatively higher accumulation of neoglucobrassicin in the inbred line, BN4072, was associated with a high level of expression of MYB34 (Bol017062 and CYP81F1 genes. The Dof1 and IQD1 genes probably trans-activated the genes related to biosynthesis of glucoerucin and methoxyglucobrassicin for their comparatively higher accumulation in the BN4059 and BN4072 lines compared to the other two lines, BN3273 and BN3383. A comparatively higher progoitrin level in BN3273 was probably associated with the higher expression level of the GSL-OH gene. The cabbage inbred line BN3383 accounted for the significantly higher relative expression level for the 12 genes out of 48, but this line had comparatively lower total

  19. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

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    Santiago Rogelio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.

  20. Combining ability estimates for earliness in cotton leaf curl virus resistant inbred parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Baloch, Q.B.

    2005-01-01

    Four female cotton leaf curl virus-resistant resistant (cclv) parents consisting of advance strains and commercial varieties (VH-137, FH-901, CRIS-467 and Cyto-51) and four male parents, all clcv resistant Punjab varieties (FH-945, CIM-707, CIM-473 and FH-1000) were mated in a cross classification Design-II fashion. The results show that genetic variances due to additive genes were higher than the dominant variances, yet both types of variances were substantial, implying that significant improvement could reliably be made from segregating populations. The general combining ability (gca) estimates by and large suggested that for improvement in the appearance of first white flower and 1st sympodial branch node number, parents FH-945 and VH-137 whereas for 1st effective boll setting, parents FH-1000 and FH-901 and for percent of open bolls at 120 days after planting, parents CIM-707 and CRIS-467 may be given preference. However, for hybrid cotton development regarding earliness, hybrids CRIS-467 x CIM-707, VH-137 x FH-945 and Cyto-51 x FH-1000 may be chosen. (author)

  1. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Huanhu; Jing Hua; Ma Aiping; Kang Xiuli; Yang Liping; Huang Mingjing; Ma Buzhou; Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan

    2005-01-01

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 10 16 Ar + /cm 2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation. (authors)

  2. Assessment and genetic analysis of heavy metal content in rice grain using an Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon backcross inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Run; Fan, Ye-Yang; Hu, Biao-Lin; Xiao, Ye-Qing; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhuang, Jie-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in rice is a growing concern for public health. Backcross inbred lines derived from an interspecific cross of Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon were grown in two distinct ecological locations (Hangzhou and Lingshui, China). The objective of this study was to characterise the contents of heavy metal in rice grains, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heavy metal contents. The contents of Ni, As, Pb, Cr and Hg in milled rice showed a significant decline as compared with those in brown rice, whereas the content of Cd showed little change. The concentration of heavy metal in rice grain varied greatly between the two environments. A total of 24 QTLs responsible for heavy metal contents were detected, including two for both the brown and milled rice, 13 for brown rice only, and nine for milled rice only. All the QTLs except two had the enhancing alleles derived from O. rufipogon. Sixteen QTLs were clustered in six chromosomal regions. Environmental variation plays an important role in the heavy metal contents in rice grain. QTLs detected in this study might be useful for breeding rice varieties with low heavy metal content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  4. Rapidly progressive renal disease as part of Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family due to a novel WFS1 mutation (p.Leu511Pro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boulahbel, Houda; Lodahl, Marianne; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Cesur, Yasar; Dogan, Murat; Yilmaz, Cahide; Akgun, Cihangir; Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome, also named "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is an inherited association of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as key diagnostic criteria. Renal tract abnormalities and neurodegenerative disorder may occur in the third and fourth decade. The wolframin gene, WFS1, associated with this syndrome, is located on chromosome 4p16.1. Many mutations have been described since the identification of WFS1 as the cause of Wolfram syndrome. We identified a new homozygous WFS1 mutation (c.1532T>C; p.Leu511Pro) causing Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family. The patients showed early onset of IDDM, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment and very rapid progression to renal failure before age 12 in three females. Ectopic expression of the wolframin mutant in HEK cells results in greatly reduced levels of protein expression compared to wild-type wolframin, strongly supporting that this mutation is disease-causing. The mutation showed perfect segregation with disease in the family, characterized by early and severe clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Splicing landscape of the eight collaborative cross founder strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Christina L; Wilmot, Beth; Walter, Nicole Ar; Oberbeck, Denesa; Kawane, Sunita; Searles, Robert P; McWeeney, Shannon K; Hitzemann, Robert

    2015-02-05

    The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a large panel of genetically diverse recombinant inbred mouse strains specifically designed to provide a systems genetics resource for the study of complex traits. In part, the utility of the CC stems from the extensive genome-wide annotations of founder strain sequence and structural variation. Still missing, however, are transcriptome-specific annotations of the CC founder strains that could further enhance the utility of this resource. We provide a comprehensive survey of the splicing landscape of the 8 CC founder strains by leveraging the high level of alternative splicing within the brain. Using deep transcriptome sequencing, we found that a majority of the splicing landscape is conserved among the 8 strains, with ~65% of junctions being shared by at least 2 strains. We, however, found a large number of potential strain-specific splicing events as well, with an average of ~3000 and ~500 with ≥3 and ≥10 sequence read coverage, respectively, within each strain. To better understand strain-specific splicing within the CC founder strains, we defined criteria for and identified high-confidence strain-specific splicing events. These splicing events were defined as exon-exon junctions 1) found within only one strain, 2) with a read coverage ≥10, and 3) defined by a canonical splice site. With these criteria, a total of 1509 high-confidence strain-specific splicing events were identified, with the majority found within two of the wild-derived strains, CAST and PWK. Strikingly, the overwhelming majority, 94%, of these strain-specific splicing events are not yet annotated. Strain-specific splicing was also located within genomic regions recently reported to be over- and under-represented within CC populations. Phenotypic characterization of CC populations is increasing; thus these results will not only aid in further elucidating the transcriptomic architecture of the individual CC founder strains, but they will also help in guiding

  6. Characterization of miRNAs in response to short-term waterlogging in three inbred lines of Zea mays.

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    Zhijie Liu

    Full Text Available Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17. Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways.

  7. Stress Alters the Discriminative Stimulus and Response Rate Effects of Cocaine Differentially in Lewis and Fischer Inbred Rats

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    Therese A. Kosten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344 rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10 procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures. Among cocaine-tested rats, restraint stress enhanced cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects in F344 rats. Shock and shock-context increased response rates in Lewis rats. Stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels showed strain differences but did not correlate with behavior. These data suggest that the behavioral effects of cocaine can be differentially affected by stress in a strain-selective manner.

  8. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach

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    Heinz Ruth A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and short insertion and/or deletions (indels to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (θ = 0.0056, as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88. Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2, with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1. Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance. Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop

  9. Vaccination with M2e-based multiple antigenic peptides: characterization of the B cell response and protection efficacy in inbred and outbred mice.

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    Amaya I Wolf

    Full Text Available The extracellular domain of the influenza A virus protein matrix protein 2 (M2e is remarkably conserved between various human isolates and thus is a viable target antigen for a universal influenza vaccine. With the goal of inducing protection in multiple mouse haplotypes, M2e-based multiple antigenic peptides (M2e-MAP were synthesized to contain promiscuous T helper determinants from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein, the hepatitis B virus antigen and the influenza virus hemagglutinin. Here, we investigated the nature of the M2e-MAP-induced B cell response in terms of the distribution of antibody (Ab secreting cells (ASCs and Ab isotypes, and tested the protective efficacy in various mouse strains.Immunization of BALB/c mice with M2e-MAPs together with potent adjuvants, CpG 1826 oligonucleotides (ODN and cholera toxin (CT elicited high M2e-specific serum Ab titers that protected mice against viral challenge. Subcutaneous (s.c. and intranasal (i.n. delivery of M2e-MAPs resulted in the induction of IgG in serum and airway secretions, however only i.n. immunization induced anti-M2e IgA ASCs locally in the lungs, correlating with M2-specific IgA in the bronchio-alveolar lavage (BAL. Interestingly, both routes of vaccination resulted in equal protection against viral challenge. Moreover, M2e-MAPs induced cross-reactive and protective responses to diverse M2e peptides and variant influenza viruses. However, in contrast to BALB/c mice, immunization of other inbred and outbred mouse strains did not induce protective Abs. This correlated with a defect in T cell but not B cell responsiveness to the M2e-MAPs.Anti-M2e Abs induced by M2e-MAPs are highly cross-reactive and can mediate protection to variant viruses. Although synthetic MAPs are promising designs for vaccines, future constructs will need to be optimized for use in the genetically heterogeneous human population.

  10. Heritability and Components of Resistance to Cercospora zeae-maydis Derived from Maize Inbred VO613Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart G; Lipps, Patrick E; Pratt, Richard C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most important foliar diseases of maize. This study was undertaken to estimate heritability of C. zeae-maydis resistance and examine the relationship between previously identified resistance loci and certain components of resistance including incubation period, lesion number, and maximum lesion length. Partially inbred progenies arising from hybridization between maize inbred lines VO613Y (high level of partial resistance) and Pa405 (susceptible) were examined in Ohio and South Africa. Heritability estimates of resistance were calculated based on severity and incubation period values. The range of heritability estimates based on severity was broad, with values ranging from approximately 0.46 to 0.81 (mean = 0.59). Estimates of mean heritability for incubation period were lowest (0.18), indicating that this component would likely be unsuitable for selection of germ plasm intended for deployment in diverse regions. Length of GLS lesions was significantly affected by host genotype, with resistant genotypes having shorter lesions from one site in Ohio during two seasons. Genotype also had a significant effect on incubation period and lesion number; the lower values for these components also were associated with resistant genotypes. The combined action of these resistance components resulted in lower overall disease severity.

  11. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of Entamoeba histolytica strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Avalos, D.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Silva, E. F.; Orozco, E.; de Menezes, L. F.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of E. histolytica are studied using photoacoustic spectroscopy. It is shown that the pathogenic strain presents a spectrum similar to that of iron sulfur proteins. The non-pathogenic strain does not show any relevant absorption at the studied wavelength range. The differences observed between the optical absorption spectra of both strains opens the possibility of using photoacoustic spectroscopy as a reliable and simple technique to identify different types of E. histolytica strains.

  12. A Versatile New Model of Chemically Induced Chronic Colitis Using an Outbred Murine Strain

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    Monica Barone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine colitis models are crucial tools for understanding intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. However, most current models utilize a highly inbred strain of mice, and often only one sex is employed to limit bias. This targeted approach, which in itself is biased, means that murine genetic diversity and sex-related differences are ignored, making it even more difficult to extend findings to humans, who are highly heterogeneous. Furthermore, most models do not examine the chronic form of colitis, an important fact taking into account the chronic nature of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Here, we attempted to create a more realistic murine colitis model by addressing these three issues. Using chemically induced chronic colon inflammation in an outbred strain of mice (RjOrl:SWISS [CD-1], we (i mimicked the relapsing nature of the disease, (ii better represented normal genetic variability, and (iii employed both female and male mice. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS. After a recovery period and 3 days before the mice were euthanized, colitis was reactivated by a second administration of DNBS. Protocol length was 24 days. Colitis severity was assessed using body mass, macroscopic scores, and histological scores. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, cytokine levels, and lymphocyte populations were also characterized. Our results show that the intrarectal administration of DNBS effectively causes colitis in both female and male CD-1 mice in a dose-dependent manner, as reflected by loss of body mass, macroscopic scores and histological scores. Furthermore, colon cytokine levels and mesenteric lymph node characteristics indicate that this model involves immune system activation. Although some variables were sex-specific, most of the results support including both females and males in the model. Our ultimate goal is to make this model available to researchers for testing candidate anti

  13. Effects of the time of application and the form of nitrogen on two maize inbred lines seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojka Zdravko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the experimental filed of the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, on calcareous chernozem in the period 2001-2003. The traits of two maize inbred lines (L1-FAO 400 and L2-FAO 600 were observed in dependence on the time of the nitrogen application (No-control without fertilizing; Nautumn - 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 60 kg K2O ha-1 applied in autumn (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in autumn; Nspring - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in spring; N1/2 - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (half of which was applied in autumn and the other half in spring; N1/2-PK (const 100 kg N ha-1 (1/3 of which was applied in autumn, 1/3 in spring and 1/3 through soil dressing; Nmin - PK (const + fertilizing in spring on the basis of the Nmin method, and forms of applied nitrogen: Urea (amide form KAN (ammonium-nitrate form and (NH42SO4 (ammonium form. The highest average yield was obtained by the use of Nmin method (3,486 kg ha-1, as well as, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in sprig (Nspring (3,337 kg ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn and spring (N1/2 (3,020 kgha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn, spring and soil dressing (N1/3 (3,005 kg ha-1 in the ammonium-nitrate form (KAN. The highest average seed yield of observed maize inbred lines (3,264 kg ha-1 was obtained by the application of ammonium-sulphate in the primary tillage (Nautumn. The use of the Nmin method (N ranging from 17 to 35 kg ha-1, in dependence on the soil mineral nitrogen content, especially in years with lower precipitation sums resulted in the highest increase in seed yield (39.2% of observed maize inbred lines in relation to the control.

  14. Maize inbreds exhibit high levels of copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV) in genome content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathan M; Ying, Kai; Fu, Yan; Ji, Tieming; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Jia, Yi; Wu, Wei; Richmond, Todd; Kitzman, Jacob; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Iniguez, A Leonardo; Barbazuk, W Brad; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Nettleton, Daniel; Schnable, Patrick S

    2009-11-01

    Following the domestication of maize over the past approximately 10,000 years, breeders have exploited the extensive genetic diversity of this species to mold its phenotype to meet human needs. The extent of structural variation, including copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV), which are thought to contribute to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity and plasticity of this important crop, have not been elucidated. Whole-genome, array-based, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a level of structural diversity between the inbred lines B73 and Mo17 that is unprecedented among higher eukaryotes. A detailed analysis of altered segments of DNA conservatively estimates that there are several hundred CNV sequences among the two genotypes, as well as several thousand PAV sequences that are present in B73 but not Mo17. Haplotype-specific PAVs contain hundreds of single-copy, expressed genes that may contribute to heterosis and to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity of this important crop.

  15. Construction and characterization of a cDNA library from liver tissue of Chinese Banna minipig inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W; Chen, Y; Zhang, L; Lu, Y; Li, S; Zeng, R; Zeng, Y; Li, Y; Cheng, J

    2006-09-01

    A xenograft that performs efficient functions is an essential premise for successful xenotransplantation. Our early study indicated that Chinese Banna minipig inbred line (BMI) was an ideal xenograft donor. However, the activities of some proteins synthesized by the BMI liver are different from the human, which could lead to functional disorders in coagulation, fibrinolysis, and anticoagulation after liver xenotransplantation. Therefore, it is important to investigate the genetic background of protein incompatibility and to provide new strategies for gene manipulation. In this study we constructed a cDNA expression library using BMI liver tissue to obtain an understanding of nucleic acid and protein differences between the two species. We extracted total RNA and purified mRNA of the liver tissue from one of the sixteenth inbred generation of BMI/JS 151 substrain. After double-strand cDNA synthesis, we fractionated it on a CHROMA APIN-400 column; ligated the longer than 500bp cDNA into a ZAP Express Vector; and performed a lambda: phage packaging reaction, library amplification, and titer. We randomly picked 12 plaques and tested the length of inserts. The titers of the primary and amplified libraries were 1.0 x 10(6) pfu/mL and 5.0 x 10(9) pfu/mL, respectively. The percentages of recombinants were 97.0% in the primary library and 98.0% in the amplified library. The lengths of most inserts were between 750 bp and 2.0 kb. Thus, we successfully constructed a cDNA expression library from BMI liver tissue. Using the library, we hope to get a full-length cDNA of some important genes and conduct further studies on porcine liver function in xenotransplantation.

  16. Marker-assisted breeding for introgression of opaque-2 allele into elite maize inbred line BML-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M S R; Sokka Reddy, S; Satyanarayana, Sadam D V

    2017-07-01

    Improvement of quality protein maize (QPM) along with high content of lysine and tryptophan had foremost importance in maize breeding program. The efficient and easiest way of developing QPM hybrids was by backcross breeding in marker aided selection. Hence, the present investigation aimed at conversion of elite maize inbred line BML-7 into QPM line. CML-186 was identified to be a donor variety as it revealed high-quality polymorphism with BML-7 for opaque-2 gene specific marker umc1066. Non-QPM inbred line BML-7 was crossed with QPM donor CML-186 and produced F 1 followed by the development of BC 1 F 1 and BC 2 F 1 population. Foreground selection was carried out with umc1066 in F 1 , and selected plants were used for BC 1 F 1 and BC 2 F 1 populations. Two hundred plants were screened in both BC 1 F 1 and BC 2 F 1 population with umc1066 for foreground selection amino acid modifiers. Foreground selected plants for both opaque-2 and amino acid modifiers were screened for background selection for BML-7 genome. Recurrent parent genome (RPG) was calculated for BC 2 F 1 population plants. Two plants have shown with RPG 90-93% in two generation with back cross population. Two BC 2 F 2 populations resulted from marker recognized BC 2 F 1 individuals subjected toward foreground selection followed by tryptophan estimation. The tryptophan and lysine concentration was improved in all the plants. BC 2 F 2 lines developed from hard endosperm kernels were selfed for BC 2 F 2 lines and finest line was selected to illustrate the QPM version of BML-7, with 0.97% of tryptophan and 4.04% of lysine concentration in protein. Therefore, the QPM version of BML-7 line can be used for the development of single cross hybrid QPM maize version.

  17. Something old and something new: wedding recombinant inbred lines with traditional line cross analysis increases power to describe gene interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaccash, Tarek W; Tonsor, Stephen J

    2010-04-16

    In this paper we present a novel approach to quantifying genetic architecture that combines recombinant inbred lines (RIL) with line cross analysis (LCA). LCA is a method of quantifying directional genetic effects (i.e. summed effects of all loci) that differentiate two parental lines. Directional genetic effects are thought to be critical components of genetic architecture for the long term response to selection and as a cause of inbreeding depression. LCA typically begins with two inbred parental lines that are crossed to produce several generations such as F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent. When a RIL population (founded from the same P1 and P2 as was used to found the line cross population) is added to the LCA, the sampling variance of several nonadditive genetic effect estimates is greatly reduced. Specifically, estimates of directional dominance, additive x additive, and dominance x dominance epistatic effects are reduced by 92%, 94%, and 56% respectively. The RIL population can be simultaneously used for QTL identification, thus uncovering the effects of specific loci or genomic regions as elements of genetic architecture. LCA and QTL mapping with RIL provide two qualitatively different measures of genetic architecture with the potential to overcome weaknesses of each approach alone. This approach provides cross-validation of the estimates of additive and additive x additive effects, much smaller confidence intervals on dominance, additive x additive and dominance x dominance estimates, qualitatively different measures of genetic architecture, and the potential when used together to balance the weaknesses of LCA or RIL QTL analyses when used alone.

  18. Adoptive autoimmune encephalomyelitis in inbred guinea pigs: immunological and histological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, S H; Lerner, E M; Goode, J H

    1968-03-01

    Major variables which determine the induction and severity of adoptive autoimmune encephalomyelitis are the age and strain of the animal, and the amount of killed mycobacteria in the adjuvant. Control of these factors results in consistent production of this disease in high incidence and in severe form. The pathologic changes in the central nervous system can be correlated with the clinical disease. Maturity of the target tissues in the central nervous system of the newborn appears to be an important factor which distinguishes the response of the guinea pig from that of other species.

  19. Intraspecies prion transmission results in selection of sheep scrapie strains.

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    Takashi Yokoyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheep scrapie is caused by multiple prion strains, which have been classified on the basis of their biological characteristics in inbred mice. The heterogeneity of natural scrapie prions in individual sheep and in sheep flocks has not been clearly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we intravenously injected 2 sheep (Suffolk and Corriedale with material from a natural case of sheep scrapie (Suffolk breed. These 3 sheep had identical prion protein (PrP genotypes. The protease-resistant core of PrP (PrPres in the experimental Suffolk sheep was similar to that in the original Suffolk sheep. In contrast, PrPres in the Corriedale sheep differed from the original PrPres but resembled the unusual scrapie isolate, CH1641. This unusual PrPres was not detected in the original sheep. The PrPres distributions in the brain and peripheral tissues differed between the 2 breeds of challenged sheep. A transmission study in wild-type and TgBoPrP mice, which overexpressing bovine PrP, led to the selection of different prion strains. The pathological features of prion diseases are thought to depend on the dominantly propagated strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that prion strain selection occurs after both inter- and intraspecies transmission. The unusual scrapie prion was a hidden or an unexpressed component in typical sheep scrapie.

  20. Cyclic electron flow around PSI monitored by afterglow luminescence in leaves of maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.): correlation with chilling tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducruet, Jean-Marc; Roman, Miruna; Havaux, Michel; Janda, Tibor; Gallais, André

    2005-06-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines of contrasting chilling sensitivity (three tolerant, three sensitive lines) were acclimated to 280 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1) white light at a 17 degrees C sub-optimal temperature. They showed no symptoms of photoinhibition, despite slight changes in photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties in two tolerant lines. A luminescence "afterglow" emission [Bertsch and Azzi (1965) Biochim Biophys Acta 94:15-26], inducible by a far-red (FR) illumination of unfrozen leaf discs, was detected either as a bounce in decay kinetics at constant temperatures or as a sharp thermoluminescence afterglow band at about 45 degrees C, in dark-adapted leaves. This band reflects the induction by warming of an electron pathway from stromal reductants to plastoquinones and to the Q(B) secondary acceptor of PSII, resulting in a luminescence-emitting charge recombination in the fraction of centres that were initially in the S(2/3)Q(B) non-luminescent state. A 5-h exposure of plants to growth chamber light shifted this luminescence emission towards shorter times and lower temperatures for several hours in the three chilling-tolerant lines. This downshift was not observed, or only transiently, in the three sensitive lines. In darkness, the downshifted afterglow band relaxed within hours to resume its dark-adapted location, similar for all maize lines. A faster dark re-reduction of P700(+) oxidized by FR light (monitored by 820-nm absorbance) and an increase of photochemical energy storage under FR excitation (determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy) confirmed that a cyclic pathway induced by white actinic light remained activated for several hours in the tolerant maize lines.

  1. SCREENING FOR MOISTURE DEFICIT TOLERANCE IN FOUR MAIZE (Zea mays L. POPULATIONS DERIVED FROM DROUGHT TOLERANT INBRED X ADAPTED CULTIVAR CROSSES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbadebo Lawrence Olaoye

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of soil water utilization under moisture deficit condition can help reduce the adverse effects of drought stress in crops. Growth, physiological responses and grain yield loss due to moisture deficits around flowering, were investigated in maize populations derived by reciprocal crosses between two adapted maize cultivars (DMR-LSR-Y and AFO and two drought tolerant (DT inbred lines (DT-S3-Y and DT-S3-W under glass house conditions. The crosses and their parents and crosses were subjected to irrigation treatments equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% field capacity (FC as well as water withdrawal for two weeks at vegetative, pre and post-anthesis stages respectively.  Reduction in biomass yield (BMY under low moisture regimes were within the range of 75 to 61% of BMY obtained under favourable irrigation treatments while Pre and post- anthesis moisture deficits also significantly reduced grain yield by 49 and 66% of well-watered condition. Reciprocal crosses between AFO and DT-S3-Y consistently gave highest BMY under irrigation treatment equivalent to 75% FC and above with % gains ranging from 3.05 to 44.2 respectively. All crosses except two of them (DT-S3-Y x AFO and AFO x DT-S3-W evidenced superiority for BMY and water use efficiency (WUE over their respective better parents, under low moisture conditions. Heterotic response for grain yield differed among crosses depending on soil moisture condition. There was no direct association between drought sensitivity index (DSI and grain yield in the populations but genotypes with short anthesis-silking-interval (ASI under moisture deficit conditions showed superiority for grain yield over those with longer ASI. The above results suggest that short ASI when combined with high grain yield under moisture deficit conditions is a better selection tool for identifying drought tolerant genotypes than DSI.

  2. Strain gradients in epitaxial ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, G.; Noheda, B.; McAneney, J.; Sinnamon, L.J.; Gregg, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray analysis of ferroelectric thin layers of Ba 1/2 Sr 1/2 TiO 3 with different thicknesses reveals the presence of strain gradients across the films and allows us to propose a functional form for the internal strain profile. We use this to calculate the influence of strain gradient, through flexoelectric coupling, on the degradation of the ferroelectric properties of films with decreasing thickness, in excellent agreement with the observed behavior. This paper shows that strain relaxation can lead to smooth, continuous gradients across hundreds of nanometers, and it highlights the pressing need to avoid such strain gradients in order to obtain ferroelectric films with bulklike properties

  3. Hypothalamic expression of Peg3 gene is associated with maternal care differences between SM/J and LG/J mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, Silvana; Sauce, Bruno; Ambar, Guilherme; Cheverud, James M; Peripato, Andrea C

    2012-07-01

    Maternal care is essential in mammals, and variations in the environment provided by mothers may directly influence the viability of newborns and emotional behavior later in life. A previous study investigated genetic variations associated with maternal care in an intercross of LG/J and SM/J inbred mouse strains and identified two single-locus QTLs (quantitative trait loci). Here, we selected three candidate genes located within these QTLs intervals; Oxt on chromosome 2, and FosB and Peg3 on chromosome 7 and tested their association with maternal care. LG/J females showed impaired postpartum nest building and pup retrieval, a one-day delay in milk ejection, reduced exploratory activity, and higher anxiety-like behavior when compared to SM/J females. The nucleotide sequences of Oxt and FosB were similar between strains, as were their hypothalamic expression levels. Conversely, Peg3 nucleotide sequences showed four nonsynonymous replacement substitutions on LG/J dams, T11062G, G13744A, A13808G, and G13813A, and a 30 base pair (10 aa) in tandem repeat in the coding region with three copies in SM/J and five copies in LG/J. Maternal care impaired LG/J mothers express 37% lower Peg3 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus on the second postpartum day. We also found an association of the Peg3 repeat-variant and poor maternal care in F(2) heterozygote females derived from a LG/J × SM/J intercross. These results may suggest that the maternally imprinted Peg3 gene is responsible for the single-locus QTL on chromosome 7 that has been shown to influence maternal care in these strains. Furthermore, these data provide additional support for an epigenetic regulation of maternal behavior.

  4. Triticale: avaliação de linhagens em diferentes regiões paulistas Triticale: evaluation on inbred lines in different regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se entre si vinte e quatro linhagens de triticale e o cultivar de trigo IAC-21, através de ensaios em diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, nos anos de 1986 e 1987, analisando-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo em dias da emergência ao florescimento, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, peso de cem grãos e resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e às manchas-foliares em condições de campo. A linhagem de triticale Nutria 7272 foi a mais produtiva (3.098kg/ha, diferindo do 'IAC-21' (2.241 kg/ha e das demais linhagens de triticale, com exceção da Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-20 e 21, Nutria 440 e Juanillo 159, com 2.891, 2.870, 2.805 e 2.645kg/ha respectivamente. As linhagens de triticale exibiram maior resistência à ferrugem-da-folha com relação ao 'IAC-21'. A Panche 7287 mostrou-se moderadamente resistente às manchas-foliares e, as demais, suscetíveis. As linhagens M2A-KLA"S" x MA (T-6, Faro"S" e Panche 7287 apresentaram ciclo da emergência ao florescimento significativamente maior que o 'IAC-21', e M2A-CML 360 x M2A (T-2, Turk DWF-V 127 x 6TA 204/IA 146, M2A-CML x IA, TCEP 77138, BGL "S"-IGA x PND"S" e BCM"S"-Addax"S" exibiram plantas significativamente mais baixas. A Juanillo 159 apresentou o maior peso de cem grãos, diferindo do 'IAC-21' e das demais linhagens, com exceção da Nutria 7272 e Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-21.Twenty four triticale inbred lines and the wheat cultivar IAC-21 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at different locations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years of 1986 and 1987. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering, percentage of layed plants, weight of 100 grains, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia graminis sp. tritici and to leaf spots (Helminthosporium sp. and Septoria sp. were evaluated under field conditions. The triticale inbred line Nutria 7272 pre-sented the best grain yield (3,098 kg/ha, showing

  5. Mapping QTL Contributing to Variation in Posterior Lobe Morphology between Strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Jennifer L Hackett

    Full Text Available Closely-related, and otherwise morphologically similar insect species frequently show striking divergence in the shape and/or size of male genital structures, a phenomenon thought to be driven by sexual selection. Comparative interspecific studies can help elucidate the evolutionary forces acting on genital structures to drive this rapid differentiation. However, genetic dissection of sexual trait divergence between species is frequently hampered by the difficulty generating interspecific recombinants. Intraspecific variation can be leveraged to investigate the genetics of rapidly-evolving sexual traits, and here we carry out a genetic analysis of variation in the posterior lobe within D. melanogaster. The lobe is a male-specific process emerging from the genital arch of D. melanogaster and three closely-related species, is essential for copulation, and shows radical divergence in form across species. There is also abundant variation within species in the shape and size of the lobe, and while this variation is considerably more subtle than that seen among species, it nonetheless provides the raw material for QTL mapping. We created an advanced intercross population from a pair of phenotypically-different inbred strains, and after phenotyping and genotyping-by-sequencing the recombinants, mapped several QTL contributing to various measures of lobe morphology. The additional generations of crossing over in our mapping population led to QTL intervals that are smaller than is typical for an F2 mapping design. The intervals we map overlap with a pair of lobe QTL we previously identified in an independent mapping cross, potentially suggesting a level of shared genetic control of trait variation. Our QTL additionally implicate a suite of genes that have been shown to contribute to the development of the posterior lobe. These loci are strong candidates to harbor naturally-segregating sites contributing to phenotypic variation within D. melanogaster, and

  6. Haldane model under nonuniform strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.

  7. Virulence assessment of a Neospora caninum isolate for inbred C57BL/6 mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum (N. caninum is an apicomplexan parasite and causes abortion and congenital neosporosis in cattle worldwide. In this study, we evaluate the virulence of a N. caninum isolate on mouse strain C57BL/6. Six groups of five mice C57BL/6 were intraperitoneally inoculated with 1 × l07, 1.5 × l07, 2 × l07, 3 × l07 and 4 × l07 tachyzoites and a control inoculum of DMEM, respectively. Clinical signs and mortality rate were recorded and confirmed by histopathological findings and molecular method. The results of this study indicated that LD50 was 2.5 × l07 tachyzoites of N. caninum per C57BL/6 mouse. This can be used as a lethal challenge model in vaccine development studies.

  8. Differential effects of diazepam and MPEP on habituation and neuro-behavioural processes in inbred mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated a profound lack of habituation in 129P3 mice compared to the habituating, but initially more anxious, BALB/c mice. The present study investigated whether this non-adaptive phenotype of 129P3 mice is primarily based on anxiety-related characteristics. Methods To test this hypothesis and extend our knowledge on the behavioural profile of 129P3 mice, the effects of the anxiolyticdiazepam (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) and the putative anxiolytic metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5R) antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) treatment on within-trial (intrasession) habituation, object recognition (diazepam: 1 mg/kg; MPEP 10 mg/kg) and on the central-nervous expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos (diazepam: 1 mg/kg; MPEP 10 mg/kg) were investigated. Results Behavioural findings validated the initially high, but habituating phenotype of BALB/c mice, while 129P3 mice were characterized by impaired intrasession habituation. Diazepam had an anxiolytic effect in BALB/c mice, while in higher doses caused behavioural inactivity in 129P3 mice. MPEP revealed almost no anxiolytic effects on behaviour in both strains, but reduced stress-induced corticosterone responses only in 129P3 mice. These results were complemented by reduced expression of c-Fos after MPEP treatment in brain areas related to emotional processes, and increased c-Fos expression in higher integrating brain areas such as the prelimbic cortex compared to vehicle-treated 129P3 mice. Conclusions These results suggest that the strain differences observed in (non)adaptive anxiety behaviour are at least in part mediated by differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid- A and mGluR5 mediated transmission. PMID:22686184

  9. Systems genetics of intravenous cocaine self-administration in the BXD recombinant inbred mouse panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Price E; Miller, Mellessa M; Calton, Michele A; Bubier, Jason A; Cook, Melloni N; Goldowitz, Daniel; Chesler, Elissa J; Mittleman, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem with a substantial genetic basis for which the biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Systems genetics is a powerful method for discovering novel mechanisms underlying complex traits, and intravenous drug self-administration (IVSA) is the gold standard for assessing volitional drug use in preclinical studies. We have integrated these approaches to identify novel genes and networks underlying cocaine use in mice. Mice from 39 BXD strains acquired cocaine IVSA (0.56 mg/kg/infusion). Mice from 29 BXD strains completed a full dose-response curve (0.032-1.8 mg/kg/infusion). We identified independent genetic correlations between cocaine IVSA and measures of environmental exploration and cocaine sensitization. We identified genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 7 and 11 associated with shifts in the dose-response curve and on chromosome 16 associated with sessions to acquire cocaine IVSA. Using publicly available gene expression data from the nucleus accumbens, midbrain, and prefrontal cortex of drug-naïve mice, we identified Aplp1 and Cyfip2 as positional candidates underlying the behavioral QTL on chromosomes 7 and 11, respectively. A genome-wide significant trans-eQTL linking Fam53b (a GWAS candidate for human cocaine dependence) on chromosome 7 to the cocaine IVSA behavioral QTL on chromosome 11 was identified in the midbrain; Fam53b and Cyfip2 were co-expressed genome-wide significantly in the midbrain. This finding indicates that cocaine IVSA studies using mice can identify genes involved in human cocaine use. These data provide novel candidate genes underlying cocaine IVSA in mice and suggest mechanisms driving human cocaine use.

  10. The Unilateral Urogenital Anomalies (UUA) Rat: A New Mutant Strain Associated with Unilateral Renal Agenesis, Cryptorchidism, and Malformations of Reproductive Organs Restricted to the Left Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakasu, Kohei; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2009-01-01

    We established an inbred rat strain with unilateral urogenital anomalies from an incidentally identified male rat with unilateral renal agenesis and an undescended left testis. These rats were characterized by unilateral renal agenesis in both sexes, undescended testes with agenesis and hypoplasia of the accessory sex organs in male rats, and complete and partial agenesis of the uterine horn in female rats. All of these urogenital anomalies were unilateral and restricted to the left side; we named this phenotype unilateral urogenital anomalies (UUA). Breeding tests showed that these abnormalities were inherited as polygenic traits. The weight of right kidneys of affected rats was 1.7-fold higher than that of normal rats; histologically, glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilations, and tubular casts were detected at 30 wk of age. These alterations may have resulted from compensatory renal adaptation to the lack of 1 kidney. The cryptorchid left testes of affected male rats showed atrophy of seminiferous tubules and degeneration of spermatocytes and spermatids. These results indicate that the UUA rat may be a good model to study the etiology of unilateral renal agenesis accompanied by agenesis of the reproductive tract and to study compensatory alterations resulting from the congenital loss of 1 kidney. PMID:19619415

  11. PWD/Ph and PWK/Ph inbred mouse strains of Mus .I.m. musculus ./I.Subspecies - a Valuable Resource of Phenotypic Variations and Genomic Polymorphisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregorová, Soňa; Forejt, Jiří

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2000), s. 31-42 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV204/98/K015; GA ČR GA301/99/0354; GA AV ČR IAA5052709; GA AV ČR KSK2052601; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.351, year: 2000

  12. Strain and cocaine-induced differential opioid gene expression may predispose Lewis but not Fischer rats to escalate cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Marta; Picetti, Roberto; Yuferov, Vadim; Butelman, Eduardo R; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in gene expression of opioid system components induced by extended access (18 h) cocaine self-administration and to determine the impact of genetic background in the vulnerability to escalate cocaine intake. Comparing two inbred rat strains, we previously reported that Lewis rats progressively escalated cocaine consumption compared to Fischer rats, in a new translational model of intravenous cocaine self-administration, which included 14 sessions of 18-h operant sessions in which rats were allowed to select the cocaine unit dose to self-administer. We compare here Fischer and Lewis rats in the gene expression of endogenous opioid peptides (Pomc, Penk, Pdyn) and cognate receptors (Oprm, Oprk and Oprd) in reward-related brain regions, after exposure to either cocaine self-administration or yoked-saline, in the aforementioned translational paradigm. We performed a correlation analysis between the mRNA level, found in the Dorsal Striatum (DS), Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell and core respectively, and individual cocaine intake. Our findings show that the gene expression of all the aforementioned opioid genes exhibit strain-dependent differences in the DS, in absence of cocaine exposure. Also, different strain-specific cocaine-induced mRNA expression of Oprm and Oprk was found in DS. Only few differences were found in the ventral parts of the striatum. Moreover, gene expression level of Pdyn, Penk, Oprk, and Oprm in the DS was significantly correlated with cocaine intake only in Fischer rats. Overall, these data shed light on potential genetic differences which may predispose of subjects to initiate and escalate cocaine consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of vendor and genetic background on the composition of the fecal microbiota of inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Aaron C; Davis, J Wade; Spollen, William; Bivens, Nathan; Givan, Scott; Hagan, Catherine E; McIntosh, Mark; Franklin, Craig L

    2015-01-01

    The commensal gut microbiota has been implicated as a determinant in several human diseases and conditions. There is mounting evidence that the gut microbiota of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) similarly modulates the phenotype of mouse models used to study human disease and development. While differing model phenotypes have been reported using mice purchased from different vendors, the composition and uniformity of the fecal microbiota in mice of various genetic backgrounds from different vendors is unclear. Using culture-independent methods and robust statistical analysis, we demonstrate significant differences in the richness and diversity of fecal microbial populations in mice purchased from two large commercial vendors. Moreover, the abundance of many operational taxonomic units, often identified to the species level, as well as several higher taxa, differed in vendor- and strain-dependent manners. Such differences were evident in the fecal microbiota of weanling mice and persisted throughout the study, to twenty-four weeks of age. These data provide the first in-depth analysis of the developmental trajectory of the fecal microbiota in mice from different vendors, and a starting point from which researchers may be able to refine animal models affected by differences in the gut microbiota and thus possibly reduce the number of animals required to perform studies with sufficient statistical power.

  14. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games...

  15. Chromosomal assignment of quantitative trait loci influencing modified hole board behavior in laboratory mice using consomic strains, with special reference to anxiety-related behavior and mouse chromosome 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarakker, Marijke C; Ohl, Frauke; van Lith, Hein A

    2008-03-01

    Male mice from a panel of chromosome substitution strains (CSS, also called consomic strains or lines)--in which a single full-length chromosome from the A/J inbred strain has been transferred onto the genetic background of the C57BL/6J inbred strain--and the parental strains were examined in the modified hole board test. This behavioral test allows to assess for a variety of different motivational systems in parallel (i.e. anxiety, risk assessment, exploration, memory, locomotion, and arousal). Such an approach is essential for behavioral characterization since the motivational system of interest is strongly influenced by other behavioral systems. Both univariate and bivariate analyses, as well as a factor analysis, were performed. The C57BL/6J and A/J mouse parental inbred strains differed in all motivational systems. The chromosome substitution strain survey indicated that nearly all mouse chromosomes (with the exception of chromosome 2) each contain at least one quantitative trait locus (QTL) that is involved in modified hole board behavior. The results agreed well with previous reports of QTLs for anxiety-related behavior using the A/J and C57BL/6J as parental strains. The present study confirmed that mouse chromosomes 5, 8, 10, 15, 18 and 19 likely contain at least one anxiety QTL. There was also evidence for a novel anxiety QTL on the Y chromosome. With respect to anxiety-related avoidance behavior towards an unprotected area, we have special interest for mouse chromosome 19. CSS-19 (C57BL/6J-Chr19(A)/NaJ) differed in avoidance behavior from the C57BL/6J, but not in locomotion. Thus pleiotropic contribution of locomotion could be excluded.

  16. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake Walisundera MN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P 9-fold the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P P P P P angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. Conclusion These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. Therefore, even though phytosterols and phytostanols lower cholesterol levels, prospective clinical studies testing the net beneficial effects of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on cardiovascular events for subgroups of individuals that have an increased incorporation of these substances are needed.

  17. Romanian maize (Zea mays inbred lines as a source of genetic diversity in SE Europe, and their potential in future breeding efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Şuteu

    Full Text Available Maize has always been under constant human selection ever since it had been domesticated. Intensive breeding programs that resulted in the massive use of hybrids nowadays have started in the 60s. That brought significant yield increases but reduced the genetic diversity at the same time. Consequently, breeders and researchers alike turned their attention to national germplasm collections established decades ago in many countries, as they may hold allelic variations that could prove useful for future improvements. These collections are mainly composed of inbred lines originating from well-adapted local open pollinated varieties. However, there is an overall lack of data in the literature about the genetic diversity of maize in SE Europe, and its potential for future breeding efforts. There are no data, whatsoever, on the nutritional quality of the grain, primarily dictated by the zein proteins. We therefore sought to use the Romanian maize germplasm as an entry point in understanding the molecular make-up of maize in this part of Europe. By using 80 SSR markers, evenly spread throughout the genome, on 82 inbred lines from various parts of the country, we were able to decipher population structure and the existing relationships between those and the eight international standards used, including the reference sequenced genome B73. Corroborating molecular data with a standardized morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization of all 90 inbred lines, this is the first comprehensive such study on the existing SE European maize germplasm. The inbred lines we present here are an important addition to the ever-shrinking gene pool that the breeding programs are faced-with, because of the allelic richness they hold. They may serve as parental lines in crosses that will lead to new hybrids, characterized by a high level of heterosis, nationwide and beyond, due to their existing relationship with the international germplasm.

  18. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  19. Differential response of inbred and F1 hybrid embryos of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. to x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shome, A.; Hazra, S.

    1988-01-01

    Radio-response of HS 4288, HS 7910 and two F 1 hybrid embryos of H. sabdariffa to X-ray doses (2-8 kR) was assessed. Reduction in shoot and root length and incidence of root injuries increased always with the increase of X-ray doses. LD 50 values of HS 4288, HS 7910, F 1 HS 4288 x HS 7910 and F 1 HS 7910 x HS 428 were in between 5 and 6 kR, 2 and 4 kR, 6 and 8 kR, and 5 and 6 kR respectively. Judging by LD 50 values and 100 per cent seedling abnormality, relatively HS 4288 and F 1 HS 4288 x HS 7910 were resistant and HS 7910 and F 1 HS 7910 x HS 4288 were susceptible. Induction of macro-mutations was different in two inbreds and also in two F 1 hybrids. Role of cytoplasmic factors for the differential response are discussed. (author). 14 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line “Chiifu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Wook Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu, total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein.

  1. Genetic resistance to murine cryptococcosis: increased susceptibility in the CBA/N XID mutant strain of mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Marquis, G; Montplaisir, S; Pelletier, M; Mousseau, S; Auger, P

    1985-01-01

    In a survey of 301 normocomplementemic inbred mice (belonging to nine different strains: BALB/cN nu/nu and nu/+, CBA/N, C57BL/KsJ, C57BR/cdJ, CBA/CaJ, BRVR, DW/+, and C57BL/6J) for natural resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans, cumulative survival values were found to range from 12 to 22 days. When the average organ weights of infected animals were compared with reference values obtained in uninfected mice of the same age and genetic lineage, the following changes were documented. In the CBA/...

  2. A new framework marker-based linkage map and SDPs for the rat HXB/BXH strain set

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, M.; Křenová, D.; Křen, Vladimír; Breen, L.; Pravenec, Michal; Schork, N. J.; Printz, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2003), s. 537-546 ISSN 0938-8990 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GV204/98/K015 Grant - others:NIH(US) PO1 HL-35018 US:HHMI:55000331; NIH(US) U01 HL69758-02; NIH(US) U01 HL64777-04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : linkage map * rat * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.685, year: 2003

  3. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  4. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  5. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  6. Experimental tests of planar strain theory for predicting bone cross-sectional longitudinal and shear strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Kari A; Lehner, Michael; Lamas, Luis P; Main, Russell P

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the diversity of skeletal loading regimes in vertebrate long bones during locomotion has been significantly enhanced by the application of planar strain theory (PST) to in vivo bone strain data. PST is used to model the distribution of longitudinal strains normal to the bone's transverse cross-section and the location of the neutral axis of bending. To our knowledge, the application of this theory to skeletal biomechanics has not been experimentally validated. We evaluated the accuracy of PST using strain measurements from emu tibiotarsi instrumented with four strain gauges and loaded in ex vivo four-point bending. Using measured strains from three-gauge combinations, PST was applied to predict strain values at a fourth gauge's location. Experimentally measured and predicted strain values correlated linearly with a slope near 1.0, suggesting that PST accurately predicts longitudinal strains. Additionally, we assessed the use of PST to extrapolate shear strains to locations on a bone not instrumented with rosette strain gauges. Guineafowl tibiotarsi were instrumented with rosette strain gauges and in vivo longitudinal and shear strains were measured during treadmill running. Individual-specific and sample-mean ratios between measured longitudinal strains from the medial and posterior bone surfaces were used to extrapolate posterior-site shear strain from shear strains measured on the medial surface. Measured and predicted shear strains at the posterior gauge site using either ratio showed trends for a positive correlation between measured and predicted strains, but the correlation did not equal 1.0 and had a non-zero intercept, suggesting that the use of PST should be carefully considered in the context of the goals of the study and the desired precision for the predicted shear strains. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Strain-dependent Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, George S.; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Kenney, Justin W.; Sullivan, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes such as learning and memory may play an important role in the addictive liability of tobacco. However, it remains unknown whether genetic variability modulates the effects of nicotine on learning and memory. The present study characterized the effects of acute, chronic, and withdrawal from chronic nicotine administration on fear conditioning, somatic signs, and the elevated plus maze in 8 strains of inbred mice. Strain-dependent effects of acute nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on contextual fear conditioning, somatic signs, and the elevated plus maze were observed, but no association between the effects of acute nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on contextual fear conditioning were observed, suggesting that different genetic substrates may mediate these effects. The identification of genetic factors that may alter the effects of nicotine on cognition may lead to more efficacious treatments for nicotine addiction. PMID:21822688

  8. Genetic control of oromotor phenotypes: A survey of licking and ingestive behaviors in highly diverse strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W; Saputra, Jennifer; Boughter, John D

    2017-08-01

    In order to examine genetic influences on fluid ingestion, 20-min intake of either water or 0.1M sucrose was measured in a lickometer in 18 isogenic strains of mice, including 15 inbred strains and 3 F 1 hybrid crosses. Intake and licking data were examined at a number of levels, including lick rate as defined by mean or median interlick interval, as well as several microstructural parameters (i.e. burst-pause structure). In general, strain variation for ingestive phenotypes were correlated across water and sucrose in all strains, indicating fundamental, rather than stimulus-specific, mechanisms of intake. Strain variation was substantial and robust, with heritabilities for phenotypes ranging from 0.22 to 0.73. For mean interlick interval (MPI; a measure of lick rate) strains varied continuously from 94.3 to 127.0ms, a range consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, variation among strains for microstructural traits such as burst size and number suggested that strains possess different overall ingestive strategies, with some favoring more short bursts, and others favoring fewer, long bursts. Strains also varied in cumulative intake functions, exhibiting both linear and decelerated rates of intake across the session. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fiber quality traits across multiple environments in Gossypium hirsutum recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Muhammad; Jia, Fei; Gong, Juwu; Palanga, Koffi Kibalou; Shi, Yuzhen; Li, Junwen; Shang, Haihong; Liu, Aiying; Chen, Tingting; Zhang, Zhen; Cai, Juan; Ge, Qun; Liu, Zhi; Lu, Quanwei; Deng, Xiaoying; Tan, Yunna; Or Rashid, Harun; Sarfraz, Zareen; Hassan, Murtaza; Gong, Wankui; Yuan, Youlu

    2016-03-08

    The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that are stable and consistent across multiple environments and populations plays an essential role in marker-assisted selection (MAS). In the present study, we used 28,861 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which included 12,560 Gossypium raimondii (D genome) sequence-based SSR markers to identify polymorphism between two upland cotton strains 0-153 and sGK9708. A total of 851 polymorphic primers were finally selected and used to genotype 196 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between 0 and 153 and sGK9708 and used to construct a linkage map. The RIL population was evaluated for fiber quality traits in six locations in China for five years. Stable QTLs identified in this intraspecific cross could be used in future cotton breeding program and with fewer obstacles. The map covered a distance of 4,110 cM, which represents about 93.2 % of the upland cotton genome, and with an average distance of 5.2 cM between adjacent markers. We identified 165 QTLs for fiber quality traits, of which 47 QTLs were determined to be stable across multiple environments. Most of these QTLs aggregated into clusters with two or more traits. A total of 30 QTL clusters were identified which consisted of 103 QTLs. Sixteen clusters in the At sub-genome comprised 44 QTLs, whereas 14 clusters in the Dt sub-genome that included 59 QTLs for fiber quality were identified. Four chromosomes, including chromosome 4 (c4), c7, c14, and c25 were rich in clusters harboring 5, 4, 5, and 6 clusters respectively. A meta-analysis was performed using Biomercator V4.2 to integrate QTLs from 11 environmental datasets on the RIL populations of the above mentioned parents and previous QTL reports. Among the 165 identified QTLs, 90 were identified as common QTLs, whereas the remaining 75 QTLs were determined to be novel QTLs. The broad sense heritability estimates of fiber quality traits were high for fiber length (0.93), fiber strength (0

  10. Genetically Defined Strains in Drug Development and Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern about the poor quality and lack of repeatability of many pre-clinical experiments involving laboratory animals. According to one estimate as much as $28 billion is wasted annually in the USA alone in such studies. A decade ago the FDA's "Critical path" white paper noted that "The traditional tools used to assess product safety-animal toxicology and outcomes from human studies-have changed little over many decades and have largely not benefited from recent gains in scientific knowledge. The inability to better assess and predict product safety leads to failures during clinical development and, occasionally, after marketing." Repeat-dose 28-days and 90-days toxicity tests in rodents have been widely used as part of a strategy to assess the safety of drugs and chemicals but their repeatability and power to detect adverse effects have not been formally evaluated.The guidelines (OECD TG 407 and 408) for these tests specify the dose levels and number of animals per dose but do not specify the strain of animals which should be used. In practice, almost all the tests are done using genetically undefined "albino" rats or mice in which the genetic variation, a major cause of inter-individual and strain variability, is unknown and uncontrolled. This chapter suggests that a better strategy would be to use small numbers of animals of several genetically defined strains of mice or rats instead of the undefined animals used at present. Inbred strains are more stable providing more repeatable data than outbred stocks. Importantly their greater phenotypic uniformity should lead to more powerful and repeatable tests. Any observed strain differences would indicate genetic variation in response to the test substance, providing key data. We suggest that the FDA and other regulators and funding organizations should support research to evaluate this alternative.

  11. Avaliação da resistencia a ferrugem tropical em linhagens de milho Tropical rust evaluation in maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Lima

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 440 linhagens endogâmicas de milho do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, obtidas a partir de diversas populações, quanto à severidade da ferrugem tropical, causada por Physopella zeae, em condições naturais de infecção. Foram instalados 22 experimentos em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, em 1993/94, em Ribeirão Preto (SP e utilizados como testemunhas resistente e suscetível os híbridos Z 8568 e P 3069 respectivamente, incluídos de forma intercalar. A avaliação foi realizada aos 30 dias após o florescimento, mediante uma escala de notas de 1 a 9, correspondendo a 0%; 1%; 2,5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% e >75% de área foliar afetada. Todas as populações estudadas apresentaram variabilidade quanto à resistência a P. zeae, indicando que a utilização de métodos de seleção recorrente pode ser eficaz no melhoramento de populações visando à resistência ao patógeno.Four hundred and forty maize inbred lines, developed at Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, derived from several populations, were evaluated, in field conditions, as to tropical rust resistance caused by Physopella zeae. Twenty two experiments were carried out in randomized complete block designs, with two replications each, during 93/94 summer season, in Ribeirão Preto, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Resistant (Z 8568 and susceptible (P 3069 hybrids were used as controls. The evaluations were performed 30 days after flowering, according to a scale of notes from 1 to 9 (0%; 1%; 2.5%; 5%; 10%; 25%; 50%; 75% and >75% affected leaf area. All populations showed variability as to P. zeae reaction, suggesting that recurrent selection might be effective to achieve tropical rust resistance.

  12. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  13. Genetic dissection of maize plant architecture with an ultra-high density bin map based on recombinant inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chaoshu; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xing; Di, Hong; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Shihuang; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Xinhai

    2016-03-03

    Plant architecture attributes, such as plant height, ear height, and internode number, have played an important role in the historical increases in grain yield, lodging resistance, and biomass in maize (Zea mays L.). Analyzing the genetic basis of variation in plant architecture using high density QTL mapping will be of benefit for the breeding of maize for many traits. However, the low density of molecular markers in existing genetic maps has limited the efficiency and accuracy of QTL mapping. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an improved strategy for addressing a complex genome via next-generation sequencing technology. GBS has been a powerful tool for SNP discovery and high-density genetic map construction. The creation of ultra-high density genetic maps using large populations of advanced recombinant inbred lines (RILs) is an efficient way to identify QTL for complex agronomic traits. A set of 314 RILs derived from inbreds Ye478 and Qi319 were generated and subjected to GBS. A total of 137,699,000 reads with an average of 357,376 reads per individual RIL were generated, which is equivalent to approximately 0.07-fold coverage of the maize B73 RefGen_V3 genome for each individual RIL. A high-density genetic map was constructed using 4183 bin markers (100-Kb intervals with no recombination events). The total genetic distance covered by the linkage map was 1545.65 cM and the average distance between adjacent markers was 0.37 cM with a physical distance of about 0.51 Mb. Our results demonstrated a relatively high degree of collinearity between the genetic map and the B73 reference genome. The quality and accuracy of the bin map for QTL detection was verified by the mapping of a known gene, pericarp color 1 (P1), which controls the color of the cob, with a high LOD value of 80.78 on chromosome 1. Using this high-density bin map, 35 QTL affecting plant architecture, including 14 for plant height, 14 for ear height, and seven for internode number were detected

  14. Combining ability of inbred lines of maize and stability of their respective single-crosses Capacidade de combinação de linhagens endogâmicas de milho e estabilidade de seus respectivos híbridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Mendes Aguiar

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of diallel crosses for identification of superior combinations is a common practice in maize (Zea mays L. breeding programs. This methodology allows the estimation of the combining ability of genotypes being evaluated. In this work, five inbred lines were evaluated as to their general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities, by using a complete diallel scheme. The single-crosses produced between these inbred lines were evaluated in seven environments, along with two checks, by using a randomized complete block design. Traits analized were: grain yield, plant height, ear height, ear placement, and prolificacy. A diallel analysis was carried out, following an adaptation of Griffing's method IV, in addition to hybrid stability and adaptability analyses. Significant differences were detected for entries and environments for all traits. The interaction genotype vs. environment was significant for all traits. GCA's were significant for all traits, while SCA's were non-significant only for ear placement. For grain yield, both additive (GCA and non-additive (SCA effects were important, while for the remaining traits additive effects were more important. The high yielding single-cross was obtained from the cross of lines L-08-05F and L-38-05D. Those inbred lines showed higher GCA's and their cross also had high SCA; also, it is responsive to environment improvements and reasonably stable. The second in rank high yielding single-cross, L-46-10D x L-08-05F, showed wide adaptability and stability.No melhoramento de milho (Zea mays L., a utilização de cruzamentos dialélicos visando identificação de combinações superiores é uma prática comum. Esta metodologia visa estimar a capacidade de combinação dos materiais avaliados. Neste trabalho, cinco linhagens endogâmicas foram avaliadas quanto às capacidades gerais (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação, utilizando o esquema de dialelo completo. Os híbridos simples produzidos

  15. Joint Analysis of Near-Isogenic and Recombinant Inbred Line Populations Yields Precise Positional Estimates for Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Kump

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Data generated for initial quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL populations are usually ignored during subsequent fine-mapping using near-isogenic lines (NILs. Combining both datasets would increase the number of recombination events sampled and generate better position and effect estimates. Previously, several QTL for resistance to southern leaf blight of maize were mapped in two RIL populations, each independently derived from a cross between the lines B73 and Mo17. In each case the largest QTL was in bin 3.04. Here, two NIL pairs differing for this QTL were derived and used to create two distinct F family populations that were assessed for southern leaf blight (SLB resistance. By accounting for segregation of the other QTL in the original RIL data, we were able to combine these data with the new genotypic and phenotypic data from the F families. Joint analysis yielded a narrower QTL support interval compared to that derived from analysis of any one of the data sets alone, resulting in the localization of the QTL to a less than 0.5 cM interval. Candidate genes identified within this interval are discussed. This methodology allows combined QTL analysis in which data from RIL populations is combined with data derived from NIL populations segregating for the same pair of alleles. It improves mapping resolution over the conventional approach with virtually no additional resources. Because data sets of this type are commonly produced, this approach is likely to prove widely applicable.

  16. Genome-wide QTL mapping for wheat processing quality parameters in a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dough rheological and starch pasting properties play an important role in determining processing quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from a Gaocheng 8901/Zhoumai 16 cross grown in three environments was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for dough rheological and starch pasting properties evaluated by Mixograph, Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA and Mixolab parameters using 90K and 660K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip assays. A high-density linkage map constructed with 46,961 polymorphic SNP markers from the wheat 90K and 660K SNP assays spanned a total length of 4,121 cM, with an average chromosome length of 196.2 cM and marker density of 0.09 cM/marker; 6,596 new SNP markers were anchored to the bread wheat linkage map, with 1,046 and 5,550 markers from the 90K and 660K SNP assays, respectively. Composite interval mapping identified 119 additive QTLs on 20 chromosomes except 4D; among them, 15 accounted for more than 10% of the phenotypic variation across two or three environments. Twelve QTLs for Mixograph parameters, 17 for RVA parameters and 55 for Mixolab parameters were new. Eleven QTL clusters were identified. The closely linked SNP markers can be used in marker-assisted wheat breeding in combination with the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP technique for improvement of processing quality in bread wheat.

  17. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  18. Assessment of Newcastle Disease specific T cell proliferation in different inbred MHC chicken lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have described the establishment of an antigen-specific T cell proliferation assay based on recall stimulation with Newcastle disease (ND) antigen; further, we have described the results obtained after recall stimulation of animals containing different Major Histocompatibility...... Complex (MHC) haplotypes, vaccinated against ND. First optimization of the assay was performed to lower unspecific proliferation and to enhance antigen-specific T cell proliferation. These two issues were achieved using ethylene diamine tetra acetic-acid as stabilizing agent in blood samples...... and autologous immune serum in culture medium. The optimized assay was used to screen chickens with different MHC haplotypes for their ability to perform T cell proliferation. Results showed that the antigen-specific response of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from B12 chickens was generally low, whereas B13, B130 and B...

  19. Outcome of xenografted fetal porcine pancreatic tissue is superior in inbred scid (C.B-17/Icr-scid/scid) compared to outbred nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, B E; Casamento, F M

    1999-01-01

    Nude mice are used as recipients of foreign tissue because of their inability to reject these grafts. Our experience has been that there is variable rejection of fetal porcine insulin-producing tissue transplanted into CD-1 (athymic) outbred nude mice. To examine the suitability of this line of nude mouse as a recipient of the tissue, fetal porcine pancreas was grafted either into these outbred animals or into an inbred mutant strain of mice, the more immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse. Eight weeks after transplantation grafts were recovered from recipients and assayed for insulin content. Mean insulin levels were not significantly different between the two groups of mice, but a wider range of values was obtained from grafts recovered from nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice. Reversal of diabetes in hyperglycemic recipients was achieved in 4 of 8 nude mice and 8 of 8 scid (C.B-17/lcr-scid/scid) mice. The time taken to achieve this was longer in the nudes than the scid mice, 121 +/- 12 vs. 44 +/- 2 days, the grafts increasing in size at a slower rate in the nude mice. Time taken for the weight of the grafts to double in size was 94 +/- 17 vs. 32 +/- 1 days, respectively. Histologically the grafts in the scid mice contained mostly epithelial cell clusters, a majority of which were insulin containing. In the nude mice that achieved normoglycemia, a similar pattern was observed and, as well, there was a localized lymphoid infiltrate. In those nude mice that remained diabetic fibrous tissue predominated together with a lymphoid infiltrate. In summary, fetal porcine pancreatic tissue grows and develops more efficiently when xenografted into scid rather than outbred nude mice.

  20. Obturator internus muscle strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh, BAO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  1. Mouse strain-dependent caspase activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity does not result in apoptosis or modulation of inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Koerner, Michael R., E-mail: mkoern2@illinois.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Lampe, Jed N. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, Brackenridge Hospital, Austin, TX 78701 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The mechanisms of acetaminophen (APAP)-mediated hepatic oncotic necrosis have been extensively characterized. However, it was recently demonstrated that fed CD-1 mice have a transient caspase activation which initiates apoptosis. To evaluate these findings in more detail, outbred (Swiss Webster, SW) and inbred (C57BL/6) mice were treated with APAP with or without pan-caspase inhibitor and compared to the apoptosis model of galactosamine (GalN)/endotoxin (ET). Fasted or fed APAP-treated C57BL/6 mice showed no evidence of caspase-3 processing or activity. Interestingly, a minor, temporary increase in caspase-3 processing and activity (150% above baseline) was observed after APAP treatment only in fed SW mice. The degree of caspase-3 activation in SW mice after APAP was minor compared to that observed in GalN/ET-treated mice (1600% above baseline). The pancaspase inhibitor attenuated caspase activation and resulted in increased APAP-induced injury (plasma ALT, necrosis scoring). The caspase inhibitor did not affect apoptosis because regardless of treatment only < 0.5% of hepatocytes showed consistent apoptotic morphology after APAP. In contrast, > 20% apoptotic cells were observed in GalN/ET-treated mice. Presence of the caspase inhibitor altered hepatic glutathione levels in SW mice, which could explain the exacerbation of injury. Additionally, the infiltration of hepatic neutrophils was not altered by the fed state of either mouse strain. Conclusion: Minor caspase-3 activation without apoptotic cell death can be observed only in fed mice of some outbred strains. These findings suggest that although the severity of APAP-induced liver injury varies between fed and fasted animals, the mechanism of cell death does not fundamentally change. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer During acetaminophen overdose caspase-3 can be activated in fed mice of certain outbred strains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hepatic ATP levels are not the determining factor for caspase

  2. Molecular characterization of high performance inbred lines of Brazilian common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P C B; Veiga, M M; de Menezes, I P P; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Melo, L C; Del Peloso, M J; Brondani, C; Vianello, R P

    2013-02-06

    The identification of germplasm genetic variability in breeding programs of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is essential for determining the potential of each combination of parent plants to obtain superior genotypes. The present study aimed to estimated the extent of genetic diversity in 172 lineages and cultivars of the common bean by integrating five tests of value for cultivation and use (VCU) that were conducted over the last eight years by the breeding program of Embrapa Arroz e Feijão in Brazil. Nine multilocus genotyping systems composed of 36 fluorescent microsatellite markers distributed across 11 different chromosomes of the common bean were used, of which 24 were polymorphic in all trials. One hundred and eighty-seven alleles were identified, with an average of 7.79 alleles per locus and an average gene diversity of 0.65. The combined probability of identity for all loci was 1.32 x 10(-16). Lineages that are more genetically divergent between the selection cycles were identified, allowing the breeding program to develop a crossbreed between elite genotypes with a low degree of genetic relatedness. HE values ranged from 0.31 to 0.63, with a large reduction in the genetic base over successive selection cycles. The test showed a significant degree of differentiation (FST = 0.159). Private alleles (26%) were identified and can be directly incorporated into the gene pool of cultivated germplasm, thereby contributing effectively to the expansion of genetic diversity in this bean-breeding program.

  3. Tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio de linhagens e híbridos de milho em solução nutritiva Aluminium toxicity tolerance of maize inbred lines and hybrids evaluated in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dez linhagens de milho do programa de melhoramento do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, em cruzamentos dialélicos e os 45 híbridos resultantes quanto à tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio em laboratório. Estimou-se a tolerância pelo comprimento líquido da radícula (CLR de plântulas em solução nutritiva contendo 4,5 mg.L-1 de alumínio, em ensaio sob delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, utilizando-se como padrões linhagens sensível e tolerante de IAC Taiúba. Apresentam-se, ainda, resultados da produtividade desses cruzamentos em ensaios de campo. Identificaram-se linhagens que constituem fontes de tolerância (L 06 e L 09 e híbridos tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio com elevada produtividade em solos corrigidos. Na análise dialélica, o desdobramento dos efeitos de tratamentos, em capacidade geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação, indicou a predominância de efeitos aditivos na manifestação da tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. Obtiveram-se elevados valores de heterose, indicando a existência de interações não alélicas na manifestação do CLR. O híbrido HS 10X11 (denominado IAC 21 aliou alta produtividade e tolerância ao alumínio, apresentando a maior estimativa da CEC para CLR.Ten inbred lines and the resulting forty-five hybrids from the maize IAC breeding program were evaluated for Al tolerance by the nutrient solution technique. Net radicle lengths (CLR of plants grown with 4.5 mg.L-1 were used to estimate Al tolerance. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replications, and it was used two divergent inbred lines IAC Taiuba as control for Al tolerance and sensitivity, respectively. In addition to these data, it is shown also the grain yield of the same materials from field plots. It was identified two inbred lines (L 06 and L 09 as Al tolerance sources and hybrids potentially adapted to acid soil conditions (tolerant to Al toxicity

  4. Avaliação de dez linhagens e seus híbridos de milho superdoce em um dialelo completo Evaluation of ten inbred lines and their hybrids of supersweet maize in a complete diallel cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Agostinho Lemos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 1996/97 foram avaliados em Pesqueira e Vitória de Santo Antão (PE, 45 híbridos simples superdoce obtidos de um cruzamento dialélico completo entre dez linhagens S4 e suas linhagens parentais. O delineamento utilizado foi látice 7 x 8 com duas repetições por local. Foram estimados os efeitos das capacidades geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação e os valores de heterose para peso de espiga com palha (PECP, peso de espiga sem palha (PESP e rendimento de espiga (REND = PESP/PECP x 100. Os efeitos de CGC e CEC foram significativos (PIn 1996/97, 45 single cross supersweet maize hybrids, from a complete diallel cross involving ten inbred lines (S4 and their parents, were evaluated at Pesqueira and Vitória de Santo Antão, Brazil. A látice 7 x 8 design was used with two replications for each location. The general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability effects and heterosis value were estimated for husked ear weight (HEW, unhusked ear weight (UEW and ear rate (ER = UEW/HEW x 100. The general and specific combining ability effects were significant (P<0.01 for all characteristics. Inbreds L5 = 76.5%; L7 = 71.2% and L4 = 69.6% (Pesqueira; L4 = 70.8%; L5 = 69.4% and L7 = 65.3% (Vitória de Santo Antão showed the highest (ER, and the highest GCA effects at both locations. The best crosses for ER were: L4 x L8 = 74.9% (Pesqueira and L7 x L8 = 70.3% (Vitória de Santo Antão, with the highest SCA effects at both locations. For ER, heterosis values related to parental mean ranged from -20.19 to 24.01% (Pesqueira and -18.02 to 16.76% (Vitória de Santo Antão. Heterosis values related to the higher yielding parent ranged from -23.52 to 22.99% (Pesqueira and -22.05 to 12.03% (Vitória de Santo Antão.

  5. Identification, Characterization, and Functional Validation of Drought-responsive MicroRNAs in Subtropical Maize Inbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman Aravind

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation plays a crucial role in controlling drought tolerance. In the present investigation, 13 drought-associated miRNA families consisting of 65 members and regulating 42 unique target mRNAs were identified from drought-associated microarray expression data in maize and were subjected to structural and functional characterization. The largest number of members (14 was found in the zma-miR166 and zma-miR395 families, with several targets. However, zma-miR160, zma-miR390, zma-miR393, and zma-miR2275 each showed a single target. Twenty-three major drought-responsive cis-regulatory elements were found in the upstream regions of miRNAs. Many drought-related transcription factors, such as GAMYB, HD-Zip III, and NAC, were associated with the target mRNAs. Furthermore, two contrasting subtropical maize genotypes (tolerant: HKI-1532 and sensitive: V-372 were used to understand the miRNA-assisted regulation of target mRNA under drought stress. Approximately 35 and 31% of miRNAs were up-regulated in HKI-1532 and V-372, respectively. The up-regulation of target mRNAs was as high as 14.2% in HKI-1532 but was only 2.38% in V-372. The expression patterns of miRNA-target mRNA pairs were classified into four different types: Type I- up-regulation, Type II- down-regulation, Type III- neutral regulation, and Type IV- opposite regulation. HKI-1532 displayed 46 Type I, 13 Type II, and 23 Type III patterns, whereas V-372 had mostly Type IV interactions (151. A low level of negative regulations of miRNA associated with a higher level of mRNA activity in the tolerant genotype helped to maintain crucial biological functions such as ABA signaling, the auxin response pathway, the light-responsive pathway and endosperm expression under stress conditions, thereby leading to drought tolerance. Our study identified candidate miRNAs and mRNAs operating in important pathways under drought stress conditions, and these candidates will be useful in the

  6. Avaliação de linhagens de melão Evaluation of melon inbred lines for plant and fruit characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldelice Oliveira de Paiva

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de produzir híbridos de melão adaptados à região Nordeste do Brasil, foi avaliado, em Pacajús-CE o comportamento de 29 linhagens, sendo 23 do grupo cantalupensis, cinco do inodorus e uma do grupo momordica. Para efeito de comparação, foram utilizadas cultivares comerciais: o híbrido Hy-mark e a cultivar Eldorado-300. Na avaliação da precocidade a maturação das linhagens do grupo cantalupensis levaram em média 35,1 dias, as do grupo inodorus 30,6 dias e as do grupo momordica 24,4 dias. A concentração da produção, estimada aos 70 dias, foi mais elevada (75,8% numa linhagem que não produz frutos comerciais. A produção das linhagens variou de 16,2 t/ha a 65,1 t/ha, enquanto a média das testemunhas comerciais foi de 28,4 t/ha. Três linhagens do grupo cantalupensis e todas do grupo inodorus mostraram-se mais produtivas que as testemunhas. O teor de sólidos solúveis entre linhagens e testemunhas foi semelhante (8,6%, sendo que uma das linhagens, M46-00 se destacou pelos altos teores (Brix=12,2%. Em geral, os frutos das linhagens tardias mostraram elevado teor de sólidos solúveis.In order to obtain melon hybrids adapted for growing in the Northeast of Brazil, 29 inbred lines (23 belonging to the cantaloupensis group, 5 to the inodorus and 1 to the momordica group were evaluated in Pacajus, in the state of Ceará. Two commercial varieties, the hybrid Hy-mark and the cultivar Eldorado-300, were used as checks. It was observed that the average period for fruit ripening was 35.1 days for the cantalupensis group, 30.6 days for the inodorus group and 24.4 days for the momordica group. The highest yield concentration (75.8%, evaluated 70 days after sowing, was attained in a inbred line that does not produce commercial fruits. The yield of the lines ranged from 16.2 t/ha up to 65.1 t/ha, whereas the two commercial varieties produced 28.0 t/ha. Three of the cantalupensis group and all inbred lines of the inodorus group

  7. Methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in LG/J and SM/J mouse strains and an F45/F46 advanced intercross line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Camron D; Kole, Loren A; Guido, Michael A; Cheng, Riyan; Palmer, Abraham A

    2012-01-01

    The conditioned place preference (CPP) test is frequently used to evaluate the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse in mice. Despite its widespread use in transgenic and knockout experiments, there are few forward genetic studies using CPP to identify novel genes contributing to drug reward. In this study, we tested LG/J and SM/J inbred strains and the parents/offspring of 10 families of an F(45)/F(46) advanced intercross line (AIL) for methamphetamine-induced CPP (MA-CPP) once per week over 2 weeks. Both LG/J and SM/J mice exhibited significant MA-CPP that was not significantly different between the two strains. Furthermore, LG/J mice showed significantly less acute MA-induced locomotor activity as well as locomotor sensitization following subsequent MA injections. AIL mice (N = 105) segregating LG/J and SM/J alleles also demonstrated significant MA-CPP that was equal in magnitude between the first and second week of training. Importantly, MA-CPP in AIL mice did not correlate with drug-free or MA-induced locomotor activity, indicating that MA-CPP was not confounded by test session activity and implying that MA-CPP is genetically distinct from acute psychomotor sensitivity. We estimated the heritability of MA-CPP and locomotor phenotypes using midparent-offspring regression and maximum likelihood estimates derived from the kinship coefficients of the AIL pedigree. Heritability estimates of MA-CPP were low (0-0.21) and variable (SE = 0-0.33) which reflected our poor power to estimate heritability using only 10 midparent-offspring observations. In sum, we established a short-term protocol for MA-CPP in AIL mice that could reveal LG/J and SM/J alleles important for MA reward. The use of highly recombinant genetic populations like AIL should facilitate the identification of these genes and may have implications for understanding psychostimulant abuse in humans.

  8. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  9. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    CMV subgroup I has recently been subdivided into IA and. IB on the basis of gene sequences available for CMV strains. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate from geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) belongs to subgroup II†. NEERAJ VERMA*, B K MAHINGHARA, RAJA RAM and A A ZAIDI.

  10. Synthetic analogs of anoplin show improved antimicrobial activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Jens; Uggerhøj, Lars Erik; Poulsen, Tanja Juul

    2013-01-01

    We present the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the decapeptide anoplin and 19 analogs thereof tested against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ATCC...... compounds are more specific than anoplin. Both 2Nal(6) and Cha(6) show improved therapeutic index against all strains tested....

  11. Site and strain-specific variation in gut microbiota profiles and metabolism in experimental mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K Friswell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract microbiota (GTM of mammals is a complex microbial consortium, the composition and activities of which influences mucosal development, immunity, nutrition and drug metabolism. It remains unclear whether the composition of the dominant GTM is conserved within animals of the same strain and whether stable GTMs are selected for by host-specific factors or dictated by environmental variables.The GTM composition of six highly inbred, genetically distinct strains of mouse (C3H, C57, GFEC, CD1, CBA nu/nu and SCID was profiled using eubacterial -specific PCR-DGGE and quantitative PCR of feces. Animals exhibited strain-specific fecal eubacterial profiles that were highly stable (c. >95% concordance over 26 months for C57. Analyses of mice that had been relocated before and after maturity indicated marked, reproducible changes in fecal consortia and that occurred only in young animals. Implantation of a female BDF1 mouse with genetically distinct (C57 and Agoutie embryos produced highly similar GTM profiles (c. 95% concordance between mother and offspring, regardless of offspring strain, which was also reflected in urinary metabolite profiles. Marked institution-specific GTM profiles were apparent in C3H mice raised in two different research institutions.Strain-specific data were suggestive of genetic determination of the composition and activities of intestinal symbiotic consortia. However, relocation studies and uterine implantation demonstrated the dominance of environmental influences on the GTM. This was manifested in large variations between isogenic adult mice reared in different research institutions.

  12. QTL delineation for five fiber quality traits based on an intra-specific Gossypium hirsutum L. recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hantao; Pang, Chaoyou; Ma, Qifeng; Su, Junji; Wei, Hengling; Song, Meizhen; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2018-02-08

    Gossypium hirsutum L. is the most important fiber crop worldwide and contributes to more than 95% of global cotton production. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is an effective approach for improving fiber quality, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of fiber quality traits is important for cotton breeding. In this study, a permanent intra-specific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population containing 137 families was used for fiber quality testing. Based on a previously reported high-density genetic map with an average marker distance of 0.63 cM, 186 additive QTLs were obtained for five fiber quality traits over five consecutive years, including 39 for fiber length (FL), 36 for fiber strength (FS), 50 for fiber uniformity (FU), 33 for micronaire (MC) and 28 for fiber elongation (FE). Three stable QTLs, qMC-A4-1, qMC-D2-3 and qFS-D9-1, were detected in four datasets, and another eight stable QTLs, qMC-A4-2, qMC-D11-2, qFU-A9-1, qFU-A10-4, qFS-D11-1, qFL-D9-2, qFL-D11-1 and qFE-A3-2, were detected in three datasets. The annotated genes in these 11 stable QTLs were collected, and these genes included many transcription factors with functions during fiber development. 33 QTL coincidence regions were found, and these involved nearly half of the total QTLs. Four chromosome regions containing at least 6 QTLs were promising for fine mapping. In addition, 41 pairs of epistatic QTLs (e-QTLs) were screened, including 6 for FL, 30 for FS, 2 for FU and 3 for MC. The identification of stable QTLs adds valuable information for further QTL fine mapping and gene positional cloning for fiber quality genetic detection and provides useful markers for further molecular breeding in enhancing fiber quality.

  13. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  14. Thermoresistance in radioresistant strains of 'Drosophila nebulosa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, F.L.

    1977-01-01

    The detection of thermoresistance in radioresistant strains of 'D. nebulosa' is described, as well as some conclusions on the genetic nature of these differences are presented. The strains used in this experiment were MF 204, from 'Morro de Ferro', in Pocos de Caldas (MG) (one of the biggest radioactive anomalies in the world) whose radioresistance is due to its additive genetic components (Kratz, 1973 and 1975); 85(87) R, an induced radioresistant strain; and MF K a control 'pooled' strain obtained near 'Morro do Ferro'. Survival tests, 72 hours after temperature shocks, performed in the interval of 36 0 C to 39 0 C showed a decreasing gradient of thermoresistance with the following regression coefficients: MF 204 b= - 5,4; 85(87)R b= - 7,2 and MF K b= - 7,9. Bifactorial analysis (strains and sexes) performed at 38 0 C and 39 0 C confirmed differences among strains (P [pt

  15. Comparison of the Pathogenesis of the Angola and Ravn Strains of Marburg Virus in the Outbred Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Fenton, Karla A; Geisbert, Joan B; Ebihara, Hideki; Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Phylogenetic comparisons of known Marburg virus (MARV) strains reveal 2 distinct genetic lineages: Ravn and the Lake Victoria Marburg complex (eg, Musoke, Popp, and Angola strains). Nucleotide variances of >20% between Ravn and other MARV genomes suggest that differing virulence between lineages may accompany this genetic divergence. To date, there exists limited systematic experimental evidence of pathogenic differences between MARV strains. Uniformly lethal outbred guinea pig models of MARV-Angola (MARV-Ang) and MARV-Ravn (MARV-Rav) were developed by serial adaptation. Changes in genomic sequence, weight, temperature, histopathologic findings, immunohistochemical findings, hematologic profiles, circulating biochemical enzyme levels, coagulation parameters, viremia levels, cytokine levels, eicanosoid levels, and nitric oxide production were compared between strains. MARV-Rav infection resulted in delayed increases in circulating inflammatory and prothrombotic elements, notably lower viremia levels, less severe histologic alterations, and a delay in mean time to death, compared with MARV-Ang infection. Both strains produced more marked coagulation abnormalities than previously seen in MARV-infected mice or inbred guinea pigs. Although both strains exhibit great similarity to pathogenic markers of human and nonhuman primate MARV infection, these data highlight several key differences in pathogenicity that may serve to guide the choice of strain and model used for development of vaccines or therapeutics for Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Emotion and cognition in high and low stress sensitive mouse strains: a combined neuroendocrine and behavioral study in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing experiences and stress influence cognitive processes and vice versa. Understanding the relations and interactions between these three systems forms the core of this study. We tested two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6J; male; 3-month-old for glucocorticoid stress system markers (expression of MR and GR mRNA and protein in hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex; blood plasma corticosterone, used behavioral tasks for emotions and cognitive performance (elevated plus maze, holeboard to assess the interdependence of these factors. We hypothesize that BALB/c mice have a stress-vulnerable neuroendocrine phenotype and that emotional expressions in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice will differentially contribute to learning and memory. We applied factor analyses on emotional and cognitive parameters to determine the behavioral structure of BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. Glucocorticoid stress system markers indeed show that BALB/c mice are more stress-vulnerable than C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, emotional and explorative factors differed between naïve BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/c mice display high movement in anxiogenic zones and high risk assessment, while C57BL/6J mice show little movement in anxiogenic zones and display high vertical exploration. Furthermore, BALB/c mice are superior learners, showing learning related behavior which is highly structured and emotionally biased when exposed to a novel or changing situation. In contrast, C57BL/6J mice display a rather ‘‘chaotic’’ behavioral structure during learning in absence of an emotional factor. These results show that stress vulnerability coincides with more emotionality, which drives well orchestrated goal directed behavior to the benefit of cognition. Both phenotypes have their advantage depending on environmental demands.

  17. Genetic analysis of poliovirus strains isolated from sewage in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryk, Ł; Wieczorek, M; Diedrich, S; Böttcher, S; Witek, A; Litwińska, B

    2014-07-01

    The study describes genetic characterization of poliovirus (PV) strains isolated from sewage samples in Poland. The analyses were performed for the detection of any putative polio revertants and recombinants in three genomic regions by sequencing analysis. Thirty-six strains were analyzed. The analyzed strains were identified by neutralization assay as 7 strains of serotype P1, 10 strains of serotype P2, and 19 strains of serotype P3. Sewage isolates were sequenced in 5'UTR, VP1, and 3D genomic regions. All detected PVs were classified as vaccine strains on the basis of VP1 sequence. Mutational differences in the VP1 sequences of isolated viruses ranged from 0.0% to 0.4%, indicating a limited replication period. The genetic analysis of the 3D region showed that some strains have recombinant genomes. Nine strains were found as dipartite recombinants (seven strains--S3/S2, one strain--S2/S1, one strain--S3/S1), while one strain was found as tripartite recombinant (S3/S2/S1). No recombinants with non-PV enteroviruses were identified. None of wild-type PVs or vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were detected. This study showed the absence of wild or VDPV circulation in the country and demonstrated the usefulness of environmental surveillance in addition to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in support of polio eradication initiatives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Strain-engineered MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, CK

    2012-01-01

    Currently strain engineering is the main technique used to enhance the performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Written from an engineering application standpoint, Strain-Engineered MOSFETs introduces promising strain techniques to fabricate strain-engineered MOSFETs and to methods to assess the applications of these techniques. The book provides the background and physical insight needed to understand new and future developments in the modeling and design of n- and p-MOSFETs at nanoscale. This book focuses on recent developments in st

  19. Comparison of miRNAs and Their Targets in Seed Development between Two Maize Inbred Lines by High-Throughput Sequencing and Degradome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yao Wu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in plant growth, development, and response to environment. For identifying and comparing miRNAs and their targets in seed development between two maize inbred lines (i.e. PH6WC and PH4CV, two sRNAs and two degradome libraries were constructed. Through high-throughput sequencing and miRNA identification, 55 conserved and 24 novel unique miRNA sequences were identified in two sRNA libraries; moreover, through degradome sequencing and analysis, 137 target transcripts corresponding to 38 unique miRNA sequences were identified in two degradome libraries. Subsequently, 16 significantly differentially expressed miRNA sequences were verified by qRT-PCR, in which 9 verified sequences obviously target 30 transcripts mainly involved with regulation in flowering and development in embryo. Therefore, the results suggested that some miRNAs (e.g. miR156, miR171, miR396 and miR444 related reproductive development might differentially express in seed development between the PH6WC and PH4CV maize inbred lines in this present study.

  20. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bifidobacterium breve strains and genetic analysis of streptomycin resistance of probiotic B. breve strain Yakult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwaki, Mayumi; Sato, Takashi

    2009-09-15

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 17 antimicrobials for 26 Bifidobacterium breve strains of various origins were determined by broth microdilution. MIC distributions for 17 antimicrobials except streptomycin and tetracycline were unimodal for all strains tested, whereas bimodal distributions were observed for streptomycin and tetracycline. The probiotic strain B. breve strain Yakult showed intrinsic susceptibility to all antimicrobials except streptomycin to which the strain showed an atypically higher MIC of >256 microg/ml. Because this strain is a commercial strain, which is often ingested by many consumers on a daily basis, it is very important to determine the genetic basis for streptomycin resistance of this strain. Molecular analysis revealed that a mutation of the rpsL gene for ribosomal protein S12 was responsible for this streptomycin resistance. The resistance of B. breve strain Yakult to streptomycin, therefore, is caused by a chromosomal mutation and very unlikely to be transferred to other microorganisms.

  2. Amerindian Helicobacter pylori strains go extinct, as european strains expand their host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Domínguez-Bello

    Full Text Available We studied the diversity of bacteria and host in the H. pylori-human model. The human indigenous bacterium H. pylori diverged along with humans, into African, European, Asian and Amerindian groups. Of these, Amerindians have the least genetic diversity. Since niche diversity widens the sets of resources for colonizing species, we predicted that the Amerindian H. pylori strains would be the least diverse. We analyzed the multilocus sequence (7 housekeeping genes of 131 strains: 19 cultured from Africans, 36 from Spanish, 11 from Koreans, 43 from Amerindians and 22 from South American Mestizos. We found that all strains that had been cultured from Africans were African strains (hpAfrica1, all from Spanish were European (hpEurope and all from Koreans were hspEAsia but that Amerindians and Mestizos carried mixed strains: hspAmerind and hpEurope strains had been cultured from Amerindians and hpEurope and hpAfrica1 were cultured from Mestizos. The least genetically diverse H. pylori strains were hspAmerind. Strains hpEurope were the most diverse and showed remarkable multilocus sequence mosaicism (indicating recombination. The lower genetic structure in hpEurope strains is consistent with colonization of a diversity of hosts. If diversity is important for the success of H. pylori, then the low diversity of Amerindian strains might be linked to their apparent tendency to disappear. This suggests that Amerindian strains may lack the needed diversity to survive the diversity brought by non-Amerindian hosts.

  3. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Vial-Edwards, Cristian [Departemento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 6904411 Santiago (Chile); Montay, Guillaume [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Daniel, Laurent [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Lu, Jian [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2006-01-15

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force ({epsilon} {sup t} {approx_equal} 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements.

  4. Characterization of 3 Strains of Yersinia Pestis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kournikakis, B

    2000-01-01

    .... Antibiotic sensitivities showed that the 3 strains were sensitive to aminoglycosides, the cephalosporins/ cephams, most of the beta lactams/penicillins (e.g. ampicillin) and quinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin...

  5. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  6. Stability of germanene under tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-09-01

    The stability of germanene under biaxial tensile strain and the accompanying modifications of the electronic properties are studied by density functional theory. The phonon spectrum shows that up to 16% strain the germanene lattice is stable, where the Dirac cone shifts towards higher energy and hole-doped Dirac states are achieved. The latter is due to weakening of the Ge-Ge bonds and reduction of the s-p hybridization. Our calculated Grüneisen parameter shows a similar dependence on the strain as reported for silicene (which is different from that of graphene). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 strains antigenically related to both serotypes 2 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1996-01-01

    ). Immunodiffusion confirmed the antigenic relationship with serotype 2 and further demonstrated an antigenic relationship with strain WF83 (reference strain of serotype 7). SDS-PAGE with LPS from strains 1536, 4226, WF83 and strain 7317 (representative of the 9 isolates examined) showed that strains WF83 and 7317...

  8. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-03-11

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  9. Characterization of autochthonous Lactobacillus paracasei strains on potential probiotic ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Radulović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from traditional made cheeses constitute a reservoir of unexplored potential in biotechnology. In this study four autochthonous lactobacilli strains, isolated from traditional white brined cheeses and identified as Lactobacillus paracasei (08, 564, 05 and 02, were investigated on potential probiotic ability. The investigation comprised sensitivity to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity against wide range of pathogens, antibiotic resistance as well as autoaggregation ability. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was used as referent strain. Three tested strains grew well in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, but their sensitivity was greater on bile acids and pancreatin compared with pepsin low pH 2.5. The examined strains had different sensitivity to antibiotics, but three strains showed very good antimicrobial activity to pathogens. All strains demonstrated very good autoaggregation ability. For three of four examined strains of Lb. paracasei probiotic potential was similar with referent strain Lb. rhamnosus GG, determined in vitro

  10. Fischer 344 and Lewis rat strains as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCadoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Today it is well acknowledged that both nature and nurture play important roles in the genesis of psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute for at least 40-60 % of the variation in liability to drug dependence. Human genetic studies suggest that multiple genes of small effect, rather than single genes, contribute to the genesis of behavioral psychopathologies. Therefore the use of inbred rat strains might provide a valuable tool to identify differences, linked to genotype, important in liability to addiction and related disorders. In this regard, Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rats have been proposed as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction, given their innate differences in sensitivity to the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, as well their different responsiveness to stressful stimuli. This review will provide evidence in support of this model for the study of the genetic influence on addiction vulnerability, with particular emphasis to differences in mesolimbic dopamine (DA transmission, rewarding and emotional function. It will be highlighted that Lewis and Fischer 344 rats differ not only in several indices of DA transmission and adaptive changes following repeated drug exposure, but also in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness, influencing not only the ability of the individual to cope with stressful events, but also interfering with rewarding and motivational processes, given the influence of corticosteroids on dopamine neurons functionality.Further differences between the two strains, as impulsivity or anxiousness, might contribute to their different proneness to addiction, and likely these features might be linked to their different DA neurotransmission plasticity. Although differences in other neurotransmitter systems might deserve further investigations, results from the reviewed studies might open new vistas in

  11. Strain rate effects in stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkins, R.N. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)

    1990-03-01

    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why strain rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic strain provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow strain tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that strain or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.

  12. Potential of Laceyella sacchari strain B42 crude xylanase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylanase producing thermophilic actinomycetes strain B42 was isolated from bagasse. This strain was enriched on oat spelt xylan agar medium and screened onto xylan-congo red agar plate by the xylanolysis method. The phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA sequence data confirmed that strain B42 showed highest ...

  13. Validation of perceptual strain index to evaluate the thermal strain in experimental hot conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Dehghan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The research findings showed when there is no access to other forms of methods to evaluate the heat stress, it can be used the PeSI in evaluating the strain because of its favorable correlation with the thermal strain.

  14. Development of quantitative PCR and metagenomics-based approaches for strain quantification of a defined mixed-strain starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pernille; Vindeløv, Jannik; Arneborg, Nils; Brockmann, Elke

    2014-05-01

    Although the strain composition of mixed cultures may hugely affect production of various fermented foods, such as e.g. cheese, tools for investigating it have so far been limited. In this study, two new approaches for quantification of seven Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains (S1-S7) in a defined mixed-strain starter culture were developed and verified. By mapping NGS reads from 47 sequenced L. lactis strains to de novo assembly contigs of the seven strains, two strain-specific sequence regions (SEQ1 and SEQ2) were identified for each strain for qPCR primer design (A1 and A2). The qPCR assays amplified their strain-specific sequence region target efficiently. Additionally, high reproducibility was obtained in a validation sample containing equal amounts of the seven strains, and assay-to-assay coefficients of variance (CVs) for six (i.e. S1, S2, S4-S7) of the seven strains correlated to the inter-plate CVs. Hence, at least for six strains, the qPCR assay design approach was successful. The metagenomics-based approach quantified the seven strains based on average coverage of SEQ1 and SEQ2 by mapping sequencing reads from the validation sample to the strain-specific sequence regions. Average coverages of the SEQ1 and SEQ2 in the metagenomics data showed CVs of ≤17.3% for six strains (i.e. S1-S4, S6, S7). Thus, the metagenomics-based quantification approach was considered successful for six strains, regardless of the strain-specific sequence region used. When comparing qPCR- and metagenomics-based quantifications of the validation sample, the identified strain-specific sequence regions were considered suitable and applicable for quantification at a strain level of defined mixed-strain starter cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grando, S.; Baum, M.; Ceccarelli, S.

    2005-01-01

    , difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between...... a Hordeum vulgare cultivar (`Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including...... neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were...

  16. Effects of 60-Week Feeding Diet Containing Bt Rice Expressing the Cry1Ab Protein on the Offspring of Inbred Wuzhishan Pigs Fed the Same Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Yang, Weigang; Li, Mingjie; Wu, Yi; Wang, Yingzheng; Wu, Shuaishuai; Gao, Hui; Han, Ying; Yang, Feng; Feng, Shutang; Zeng, Shenming

    2017-11-29

    We evaluated the chronic effects of Bt rice carrying the Cry1Ab protein (1.64 mg/kg) on offspring of highly inbred WZSP, fed with Bt rice for 360 days, in a 60-week feeding study. The WZSP offspring (n = 27) were assigned to two groups (Minghui86 group, female n = 6, male n = 5; Bt group, female n = 11, male n = 5). The average obtained Cry1Ab protein dosage for female and male pigs was 1.003 and 1.234 mg/kg body weight after 10 weeks of feeding, respectively. The experimental feed in the study was nutritionally matched in both groups. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of the females in week 3 and males from weeks 1 to 10 were different between the Bt and Minghui86 groups (P rice carrying Cry1Ab protein exerts no unintended adverse effects on WZSP offspring.

  17. Photothermal strain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changhoon; Ahn, Joongho; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-07-01

    Vulnerable plaques are the major cause of cardiovascular disease, but they are difficult to detect with conventional intravascular imaging techniques. Techniques are needed to identify plaque vulnerability based on the presence of lipids in plaque. Thermal strain imaging (TSI) is an imaging technique based on ultrasound (US) wave propagation speed, which varies with the medium temperature. In TSI, the strain that occurs during tissue temperature change can be used for lipid detection because it has a different tendency depending on the type of tissue. Here, we demonstrate photothermal strain imaging (pTSI) using an intravascular ultrasound catheter. pTSI is performed by slightly and selectively heating lipid using a relatively inexpensive continuous laser source. We applied a speckle-tracking algorithm to US B-mode images for strain calculations. As a result, the strain produced in porcine fat was different from the strain produced in water-bearing gelatin phantom, which made it possible to distinguish the two. This suggests that pTSI could potentially be a way of differentiating lipids in coronary artery.

  18. Crosses of NOD mice with the related NON strain. A polygenic model for IDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, M A; Reifsnyder, P; Palmer, S M; Prochazka, M; Love, J M; Copeman, J B; Powell, E E; Rodrigues, N R; Prins, J B; Serreze, D V

    1995-10-01

    Chromosome locations of non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes contributing to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in mice have been determined by outcrossing NOD mice to other inbred strains congenic for the NOD MHC haplotype (H2g7). At least nine non-MHC IDDM susceptibility genes (Idd) were previously identified at first backcross (BC1) after outcross of NOD to C57BL/10.H2g7 congenic mice (B10.H2g7). We investigated whether the same set of Idd loci segregated with IDDM susceptibility after outcross of NOD to NON.H2g7 congenic mice. Since the outcrosses to NON.H2g7 and B10.H2g7 were performed in the same vivarium, direct comparisons were made of the chromosomal locations and relative strengths of Idd alleles in diabetic progeny from the two different outcrosses. In comparison with the NOD x B10.H2g7 outcross, the NOD x NON.H2g7 outcross produced significantly higher IDDM frequencies in F1, F2, and BC1 generations. The high F2 diabetes frequency allowed evaluation of the effects of homozygous expression of both the susceptibility and the resistance allele at Idd loci. This analysis demonstrated that no single non-MHC Idd locus was essential for the onset of diabetes in this cross. After outcross to NON.H2g7, Idd4 (chromosome [Chr] 11), Idd5 (Chr 1), and Idd8 (Chr 14) did not segregate with IDDM in either the BC1 or the F2 generation. Diabetogenic NOD-derived alleles at Idd2 (Chr 9), Idd3 (Chr 3), and Idd10 (Chr 3) were segregating in the BC1. An NON-derived allele contributing to susceptibility on Chr 7 (Idd7) was also detected. Dominant traits, detectable only in the F2 cross, were encoded by Chr 4 (Idd9) and two newly mapped loci on Chr 13 (Idd14) and 5 (Idd15). A third dominant trait was encoded by Chr 6 (possibly Idd6), but here, in contrast to Idd9, Idd14, and Idd15, the NON allele was diabetogenic. Stepwise logistic regression analysis of the BC1 and F2 data confirmed that the ability to identify certainty of the non-MHC Idd loci was

  19. SSR marker analysis on genetic variation of M3 from maize inbred lines 48-2 and R08 after irradiation inducement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Shi Haichun; Ke Yongpei; Yuan Jichao; Yu Xuejie

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing the biological effects and the genetic variations of maize mutagenic progenies is important to facilitate effective selections and utilization of the mutants. In this study, the genetic variation of 103 mutagenic progenies of M 3 lines of inbred lines 48-2 and R08 with 60 Co γ-rays inducement were evaluated with SSR molecular markers. The results indicated that, the amplitude of polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 48-2 and R08 M 3 lines ranged 0.307 ∼ 0.948 and 0.108 ∼ 0.955, with an average of 0.762 and 0.701, respectively. The amplitude of genetic diversity indexes (H') ranged 0.552 ∼ 2.830 and 0.254 ∼ 3.309, with an average of 1.830 and 1.777, respectively. The average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the 49 M 3 lines of 48-2 with its check (M673) was 0.8194. However, the average value of genetic similarity coefficient of the M 3 lines of R08 with its check (M487) was 0.8373. Based on the genetic similarity coefficient, inbred lines 48-2, R08 and their 101 M 3 lines were clustered in 7 and 5 populations respectively. This phenomenon indicated that massive genetic variation could appear in progenies due to irradiation. The strengthen of selection and utilization of mutants based on the breeding objectives and in accordance with the feature and regularity on genetic variations of main characteristics of mutant lines in various populations could be enhanced in breeding program, to some extent, which can increase the breeding efficiency of irradiation induced mutation in maize. (authors)

  20. Strain: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-04-01

    2017 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of John Ramsay's well known textbook "Folding and Fracturing of Rocks" - ... and the 30th anniversary of the rejection of a rather less well known paper entitled "Strain: Fact or Fiction?" submitted by Renée Panozzo to the Journal of Structural Geology. The gist of the paper was simple and straight forward: it was argued that not every fabric that can be observed in deformed rocks is necessarily a measure of the amount of strain the rock incurred. A distinction was made between a general "fabric", i.e., the traceable geometry of grain boundaries, for example, and a so-called "strain fabric", i.e., the model geometry that would result from homogeneously straining an initially isotropic fabric and that would exhibit at least orthorhombic symmetry. To verify if a given fabric was indeed a strain fabric it was therefore suggested to use the SURFOR method (published by Panozzo) and to carry out a so-called strain test, i.e., a check of symmetry, before interpreting the results of a fabric analysis in terms of strain. The problem with the paper was that it was very obviously written out of frustration. The frustration came form having reviewed a number of manuscripts which tried to use the then novel SURFOR method for strain analysis without first checking if the the fabric was a indeed a "strain fabric" or not, and then blaming the SURFOR method for producing ambiguous results. As a result, the paper was not exactly well balanced and carefully thought out. It was considered "interesting but not scholarly" by one of the reviewers and down-right offensive by the second. To tell the truth, however, the paper was not formally rejected. The editor Sue Treagus strongly encouraged Panozzo to revise the paper, ... and 30 years later, I will follow her advise and offer a revised paper as a tribute to John Ramsay. To quote from the original manuscript: "We should be a little more impressed that strain works so well, and less

  1. Genetic factors control nicotine self-administration in isogenic adolescent rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available Adult cigarette smokers usually become dependent on cigarettes during adolescence. Despite recent advances in addiction genetics, little data delineates the genetic factors that account for the vulnerability of humans to smoke tobacco. We studied the operant nicotine self-administration (SA behavior of six inbred strains of adolescent male rats (Fisher 344, Brown Norway, Dark Agouti, Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, Wistar Kyoto and Lewis and six selected F1 hybrids. All rats were trained to press a lever to obtain food starting on postnatal day (PN 32, and then nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, i.v. reinforcement was made available on PN41-42 (10 consecutive daily 2 h sessions. Of the 12 isogenic strains, Fisher rats self-administered the fewest nicotine infusions (1.45 ± 0.36/d during the last 3 d, while Lewis rats took the most nicotine (13.0 ± 1.4/d. These strains sorted into high, intermediate and low self-administration groups in 2, 2, and 8 strains, respectively. The influence of heredity on nicotine SA (0.64 is similar to that reported for humans. Therefore, this panel of isogenic rat strains effectively models the overall impact of genetics on the vulnerability to acquire nicotine-reinforced behavior during adolescence. Separate groups of rats responded for food starting on PN41. The correlation between nicotine and food reward was not significant. Hence, the genetic control of the motivation to obtain nicotine is distinctly different from food reward, indicating the specificity of the underlying genetic mechanisms. Lastly, the behavior of F1 hybrids was not predicted from the additive behavior of the parental strains, indicating the impact of significant gene-gene interactions on the susceptibility to nicotine reward. Taken together, the behavioral characteristics of this model indicate its strong potential to identify specific genes mediating the human vulnerability to smoke cigarettes.

  2. Capacidade de combinação entre linhagens de milho visando à produção de milho verde Combining ability of inbred lines of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    specific combining ability (SCA in vegetable corn production. Eight inbred lines and 28 hybrids derived from them were evaluated in 2004/2005 season in two environments, in Lavras and Ijaci, State of Minas Gerais. A randomized complete block design with two replications per environment were used, and seven traits of agronomic and commercial interest for vegetable corn production were studied. The quadratic component of specific of combining ability (SCA was greater than the general combining ability (GCA for all the traits assessed. Non-additive genetic effects were more important than additive effects for genotypes variation, indicating that heterosis is important for hybrid selection for vegetable corn production. The inbred line L55 showed higher concentration of favorable alleles to the increase of traits PEC, PEE, MASSA, COR e COMP, being more suitable for the formation of new hybrid and the hybrids HS27, HS48 and HS24 accumulated a larger number of traits with SCA positive effect, significant and of high magnitude, indicating that those combinations presented better performance for all the traits, simultaneously, and can be recommended to the market for vegetable corn.

  3. Methodology to measure strains at high temperatures using electrical strain gages with free filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanazio Filho, Nelson N.; Gomes, Paulo T. Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Silva, Luiz L. da; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental methodology used for strains measuring at high temperatures is show in this work. In order to do the measurements, it was used electric strain gages with loose filaments attached to a stainless steel 304 beam with specific cements. The beam has triangular shape and a constant thickness, so the strain is the same along its length. Unless the beam surface be carefully prepared, the strain gage attachment is not efficient. The showed results are for temperatures ranging from 20 deg C to 300 deg C, but the experimental methodology could be used to measure strains at a temperature up to 900 deg C. Analytical calculations based on solid mechanics were used to verify the strain gage electrical installation and the measured strains. At a first moment, beam deformations as a temperature function were plotted. After that, beam deformations with different weighs were plotted as a temperature function. The results shown allowed concluding that the experimental methodology is trustable to measure strains at temperatures up to 300 deg C. (author)

  4. Thermal strain measurement of EAST W/Cu divertor structure using electric resistance strain gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xingli [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Wanjing, E-mail: wjwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Jichao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wei, Ran; Sun, Zhaoxuan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Li, Qiang; Xie, Chunyi [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Chen, Hong-En; Wang, Kaiqiang; Wu, Lei; Chen, Zhenmao [State Key Lab for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University (China); Luo, Guang-Nan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230031 (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei, 230022 (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230027 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • To understand the service behavior of W/Cu divertor, an electrical resistance strain gauge system had been introduced in a thermal strain measurement experiment. • The measurement system successfully finished the experiment and obtained valued thermal strain data. • Two thermomechanical analyses had also been carried out and compared with the measurement results. • Experiment results corresponded well to simulations and threw a light upon the failure of W/Cu divertor in the previous baking tests. - Abstract: W/Cu divertor has complex structure and faces extreme work environment in EAST Tokamak device. To measure its thermal strain shall be a valued way to understand its service behavior and then optimize its design and manufacturing process. This work presents a preliminary study on measuring thermal strain of EAST W/Cu divertor structure using electric resistance strain gauges. Eight gauges had been used in the experiment and the heating temperature had been set to 230 °C with respect to the work temperature. To realize the measuring experiment, an appropriate fixing method of gauges in divertor narrow spaces had been taken and tested, which could not only withstand high temperature but also had no damage to the divertor sample. The measurement results were that three gauges showed positive strain while other three showed negative strain after having been compensated, which corresponded to tensile stress and compressed stress respectively. Two thermomechanical simulations had also been carried out and used for comparing with the experiment.

  5. Low cycle fatigue behavior of the extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy under different strain amplitudes and strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cycle fatigue behavior of extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy was investigated under uniaxial tension-compression at different strain amplitudes and strain rates. The results show that the extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy exhibits cyclic hardening at strain amplitudes ranging from 0.4% to 1.0%, the asymmetry of hysteresis loops becomes increasingly obvious when the strain amplitude increases. Higher strain rates correspond to higher stress amplitudes, high mean stresses and short fatigue life. {10–12} extension twins play a role in the cyclic deformation under higher strain amplitudes (0.8%, 1.0%. The relationship between total strain energy density and fatigue life can be described by the modified Morrow model. The effect of strain rate on the fatigue life can also be predicted by the model.

  6. Strain superlattices in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Kim, Youngseok; Lyding, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Mason, Nadya

    Superlattices have been widely explored to tailor the electronic properties of two-dimensional electron systems. Previous approaches to create superlattices have been limited to periodic potential modulations, either in the form of electrostatic gating or moiré heterostructures. Here we present a new strategy to generate superlattices in 2D materials. We deposit these 2D membranes on a periodic array of dielectric nanospheres, and achieve superlattices with periodic strain modulations. We studied the electronic and magneto-transport properties of strained graphene superlattices, and observed salient features of Dirac point cloning and Hofstadter's butterfly. Furthermore, we were able to tune the transport properties by changing the magnitude of strain in the graphene superlattice. This new degree of freedom provides a novel platform both for fundamental studies of 2D electron correlations and for prospective applications in 2D electronic devices. Y.Z. and N.M. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ENG-1434147.

  7. Strain and temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    A method of non-invasively measuring strain and temperature of an object, substantially simultaneously, using neutrons of selected energy levels is described. A pulsed neutron source is made to emit thermal and epithermal neutrons in a collimated beam directed at the object. Temperature is monitored by observing the thermal Doppler broadening of resonances in the neutron transmission characteristic for the epithermal neutrons and strain is measured from observations made of changes to the thermal neutron diffraction pattern. The object may be a gas turbine blade or a thrust bearing. (author)

  8. Potencial de híbridos simples de milho para extração de linhagens Potential of maize single hybrids to generate inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos simples comerciais de milho é uma das opções de populações para a extração de linhagens, porque são adaptados e provavelmente concentram alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis já fixados. Mesmo nos locos que estão segregando, a freqüência de alelos favoráveis é 0,5. Assim, a identificação de populações promissoras, derivadas de híbridos simples superiores, é uma boa estratégia para aumentar a eficiência dos programas de melhoramento. As populações derivadas dos híbridos simples comerciais AG9012 e C333 foram avaliadas com o objetivo de verificar o potencial dessas para extração de linhagens superiores, por meio das estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, da estimativa de m+a e a metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976. Foram avaliadas 169 famílias S1 de cada população, durante a safra agrícola de 1999/2000, na área experimental do Departamento de Biologia da UFLA, em Lavras - MG, em látice simples 13x13, sendo as parcelas constituídas por uma linha de 3 m. As características analisadas foram incidência de Phaeosphaeria maydis em duas épocas, altura de plantas, altura de espigas e produtividade de espigas despalhadas. Foi constatado que há possibilidade de se obterem linhagens com bom desempenho per se, sendo a população derivada do C333 a mais promissora, por associar resistência a Phaeosphaeria maydis e possuir média mais alta e maior probabilidade de obtenção de linhagens superiores. A metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976 mostrou-se mais informativa do que a estimativa de m+a para a escolha de populações, mas, quando possível, as duas podem ser utilizadas simultaneamente para auxiliar na decisão dos melhoristas.Populations derived from commercial single hybrids are one of the breeder options for inbred line extraction because of their adaptation and probable high frequency of loci with fixed favorable alleles. Even the segregating loci carry

  9. Long-term crustal strength: Strain vs. strain-rate weakening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Jonas B.

    2017-04-01

    In compressional systems, stress build-up in the continental crust is subject to horizontal forces. Upper differential stress thresholds in the Earth's crust are defined by the strength of brittle faults or ductile shear zones, depending of their rheological behavior. The longevity of such high strain rate zones is their mechanical weakness relative to surrounding, undeformed rocks. Whether weakening of brittle faults depends on accumulated strain (e.g., grain size reduction), strain rate (e.g., shear heating), or other effects is debated. I use a two-dimensional numerical code with a visco-elasto-plastic/brittle rheology to investigate the influence of strain and strain-rate weakening (often referred to as velocity weakening) on the long-term stress evolution of compressed continental crust. One of the main goals is to show whether average differential stresses remain similar during the formation of orogenic-scale fault zones of whether they occur in pulses.

  10. Phylogenomic analysis shows that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus methylotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-07-01

    The rhizosphere-isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of commercial interest. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of B. methylotrophicus KACC 13105(T) ( = CBMB205(T)). Comparative genomic analysis showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum type strain, with the genomes sharing approximately 95% of the same genes. The results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar. In fact, our results show that the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T) ( = DSM 23117(T) = BGSC 10A6(T)) does not cluster with other members of the B. amyloliquefaciens taxon. Instead, it clusters well within a clade of strains that are assigned to B. methylotrophicus, including the type strain of that species. Therefore, we propose that the subspecies B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus.

  11. Biochemical Characterization of Prion Strains in Bank Voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Nonno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prions exist as different strains exhibiting distinct disease phenotypes. Currently, the identification of prion strains is still based on biological strain typing in rodents. However, it has been shown that prion strains may be associated with distinct PrPSc biochemical types. Taking advantage of the availability of several prion strains adapted to a novel rodent model, the bank vole, we investigated if any prion strain was actually associated with distinctive PrPSc biochemical characteristics and if it was possible to univocally identify strains through PrPSc biochemical phenotypes. We selected six different vole-adapted strains (three human-derived and three animal-derived and analyzed PrPSc from individual voles by epitope mapping of protease resistant core of PrPSc (PrPres and by conformational stability and solubility assay. Overall, we discriminated five out of six prion strains, while two different scrapie strains showed identical PrPSc types. Our results suggest that the biochemical strain typing approach here proposed was highly discriminative, although by itself it did not allow us to identify all prion strains analyzed.

  12. Avoidance Expression in Rats as a Function of Signal-Shock Interval: Strain and Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Servatius

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats express inhibited temperament, increased sensitivity to stress, and exaggerated expressions of avoidance. A long-standing observation for lever press escape/avoidance learning in rats is the duration of the warning signal (WS determines whether avoidance is expressed over escape. Outbred female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats trained with a 10-s WS efficiently escaped, but failed to exhibit avoidance; avoidance was exhibited to a high degree with WSs longer than 20-s. We examined this longstanding WS duration function and extended it to male SD and male and female WKY rats. A cross-over design with two WS durations (10 s or 60 s was employed. Rats were trained (20 trials/session in four phases: acquisition (10 sessions, extinction (10 sessions, re-acquisition (8 sessions and re-extinction (8 sessions. Consistent with the literature, female and male SD rats failed to express avoidance to an appreciable degree with a 10-s WS. When these rats were switched to a 60-s WS, performance levels in the initial session of training resembled the peak performance of rats trained with a 60-s WS. Therefore, the avoidance relationship was acquired, but not expressed at 10-s WS. Further, poor avoidance at 10-s does not adversely affect expression at 60-s. Failure to express avoidance with a 10-s WS likely reflects contrasting reinforcement value of avoidance, not a reduction in the amount of time available to respond or competing responses. In contrast, WKY rats exhibited robust avoidance with a 10-s WS, which was most apparent in female WKY rats. Exaggerated expression of avoidances by WKY rats, especially female rats, further confirms this inbred strain as a model of anxiety vulnerability.

  13. Identification of candidate genes associated with cell wall digestibility and eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci analysis in a Flint × Flint maize recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-wall digestibility is the major target for improving the feeding value of forage maize. An understanding of the molecular basis for cell-wall digestibility is crucial towards breeding of highly digestible maize. Results 865 candidate ESTs for cell-wall digestibility were selected according to the analysis of expression profiles in 1 three sets of brown-midrib isogenic lines in the genetic background of inbreds 1332 (1332 and 1332 bm3, 5361 (5361 and 5361 bm3, and F2 (F2, F2 bm1, F2 bm2, and F2 bm3, 2 the contrasting extreme lines of FD (Flint × Dent, AS08 × AS 06, DD1 (Dent × Dent, AS11 × AS09, and DD2 (Dent × Dent, AS29 × AS30 mapping populations, and 3 two contrasting isogenic inbreds, AS20 and AS21. Out of those, 439 ESTs were assembled on our "Forage Quality Array", a small microarray specific for cell wall digestibility related experiments. Transcript profiles of 40 lines of a Flint × Flint population were monitored using the Forage Quality Array, which were contrasting for cell wall digestibility. Using t-tests (p Conclusion 102 candidate genes for cell-wall digestibility were validated by genetical genomics approach. Although the cDNA array highlights gene types (the tested gene and any close family members, trans-acting factors or metabolic bottlenecks seem to play the major role in controlling heritable variation of gene expression related to cell-wall digestibility, since no in silico mapped ESTs were in the same location as their own eQTL. Transcriptional variation was generally found to be oligogenic rather than monogenic inherited due to only 26% ESTs detected a single eQTL in the present study. One eQTL hotspot was co-localized with cell wall digestibility related QTL cluster on bins 3.05, implying that in this case the gene(s underlying QTL and eQTL are identical. As the field of genetical genomics develops, it is expected to significantly improve our knowledge about complex traits, such as cell

  14. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: development of cell-mediated immunity after vaccination of inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrells, T.R.; Palmer, B.A.; Osterman, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Mice immunized with three injections of gamma-irradiated Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were evaluated for the presence of cell-mediated immunity by using delayed-type hypersensitivity, antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, and antigen-induced lymphokine production. These animals also were evaluated for levels of circulating antibody after immunization as well as for the presence of rickettsemia after intraperitoneal challenge with viable Karp rickettsiae. After immunization with irradiated Karp rickettsiae, a demonstrable cell-mediated immunity was present as evidenced by delayed-type hypersensitivity responsiveness, lymphocyte proliferation, and production of migration inhibition factor and interferon by immune spleen lymphocytes. Also, a reduction in circulating rickettsiae was seen in mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae after challenge with 1,000 50% mouse lethal doses of viable, homologous rickettsiae. All responses except antibody titer and reduction of rickettsemia were similar to the responses noted in mice immunized with viable organisms. Antibody levels were lower in mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae than in mice immunized with viable rickettsiae. Furthermore, mice that were immunized with viable rickettsiae demonstrated markedly lower levels of rickettsemia after intraperitoneal challenge compared with either mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae or nonimmunized mice

  15. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhead, S. D., E-mail: S.Rhead@warwick.ac.uk; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shah, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  16. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhead, S. D.; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R.; Shah, V. A.; Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Reparaz, J. S.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ∼4 μm spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge

  17. STRAIN RATE EFFECT ON THE FAILURE STRAIN AND HARDNESS OF METALLIC ARMOR PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH VELOCITY PROJECTILE IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QASIM H. SHAH

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Post impact strain measurements of damaged plates were carried out experimentally after launching a spherical steel projectile at varying velocities against a fixed thin plate targets made of copper and steel materials and constrained at their outer periphery. Penetration or partial perforation of the target plates was achieved for projectile velocities of 120 m/s. The strain rates achieved during the experiments varied from 8000s-1 to 15000 s-1 for steel specimens and from 9000 s-1 to 19000 s-1 for copper specimens for the projectile speeds of 68 to 120 m/s. Strain measurements for static and dynamic loading showed that steel deformation is excessive before failure resulting in higher failure strain at high strain rates while the failure strain for copper at high loading rates causes separation of material before reaching very large strains. At the same loading rates the plate thinning of steel was recorded to be severe than copper. Hardness values of materials subjected to high strain rate were measured experimentally showing a strong dependency upon strain rates calculated by using LS-DYNA software. Strain rate effect on the failure strain of metals was investigated.

  18. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shokryazdan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits.

  19. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antimicrobial Activity against Some Human Pathogenic Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147

  20. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to its unique electromechanical properties. In this comprehensive review paper, we discussed some important aspects of carbon nanotubes for strain sensing at both the nanoscale and macroscale. Carbon nanotubes undergo changes in their band structures when subjected to mechanical deformations. This phenomenon makes them applicable for strain sensing applications. This paper signifies the type of carbon nanotubes best suitable for piezoresistive strain sensors. The electrical resistivities of carbon nanotube thin film increase linearly with strain, making it an ideal material for a piezoresistive strain sensor. Carbon nanotube composite films, which are usually fabricated by mixing small amounts of single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with selected polymers, have shown promising characteristics of piezoresistive strain sensors. Studies also show that carbon nanotubes display a stable and predictable voltage response as a function of temperature.

  1. Production of {alpha}-glucosidases by Bacillus sp. strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G.R. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina); Baigori, M.D. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina); Sineriz, F. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    {alpha}-Glucosidase was detected in four wild-type amylolytic production strains belonging to the Bacillus genus. The strains showed {alpha}-glucosidase activity in extracellular and membrane-bound fractions. Kinetic studies of the {alpha}-glucosidase synthesis in the batch cultures of four strains of the Bacillus genus showed two profiles: partially and totally growth-linked synthesis. The presence of different activities and production profiles of {alpha}-glucosidase in the strains at high or low glucose concentrations in the medium would indicate that {alpha}-glucosidase may have a role in the regulation of the metabolism of {alpha}-polysaccharides. (orig.)

  2. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Lo Curto, Alberto; Faulks, Richard Martin; Le Marc, Yvan; Bisignano, Carlo; Caggia, Cinzia; Wickham, Martin Sean John

    2010-12-01

    In the present study six probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were investigated for their ability to survive in the human upper gastrointestinal tract through a dynamic gastric model of digestion. MRS broth was used as delivery vehicle and survival was investigated during in vitro gastric and gastric plus duodenal digestion. Results highlighted that all tested strains showed good survival rate during both gastric and duodenal digestion. In particular, three strains exhibited a great survival showing a recovery percentage in the range between 117 and 276%. In agreement with survival data, high lactic acid production was detected for all strains, confirming their metabolic activity during digestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. LAOS: The strain softening/strain hardening paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mermet-Guyennet, M.R.B.; de Castro, J.G.; Habibi, M.; Martzel, N.; Denn, M.M.; Bonn, D.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous materials, from biopolymers to filled rubbers, exhibit strain softening at high strain amplitudes during a strain sweep in oscillatory rheology: The modulus decreases with increasing deformation. On the other hand, if the nonlinear elastic response is analyzed within a single oscillation

  4. Ratchetting strain prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noban, Mohammad; Jahed, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    A time-efficient method for predicting ratchetting strain is proposed. The ratchetting strain at any cycle is determined by finding the ratchetting rate at only a few cycles. This determination is done by first defining the trajectory of the origin of stress in the deviatoric stress space and then incorporating this moving origin into a cyclic plasticity model. It is shown that at the beginning of the loading, the starting point of this trajectory coincides with the initial stress origin and approaches the mean stress, displaying a power-law relationship with the number of loading cycles. The method of obtaining this trajectory from a standard uniaxial asymmetric cyclic loading is presented. Ratchetting rates are calculated with the help of this trajectory and through the use of a constitutive cyclic plasticity model which incorporates deviatoric stresses and back stresses that are measured with respect to this moving frame. The proposed model is used to predict the ratchetting strain of two types of steels under single- and multi-step loadings. Results obtained agree well with the available experimental measurements

  5. Quantitative trait loci underlying resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS) in MD96-5722 by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line population of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Akond, M; Kassem, M A; Meksem, K; Kantartzi, S K

    2015-04-01

    The best way to protect yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] due to sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme (Aoki, O'Donnel, Homma & Lattanzi), is the development and use of resistant lines. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to SDS help developing resistant soybean germplasm through molecular marker-assisted selection strategy. QTL for SDS presented herein are from a high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map of MD 96-5722 (a.k.a 'Monocacy') by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line using SoySNP6K Illumina Infinium BeadChip genotyping array. Ninety-four F 5:7 lines were evaluated for 2 years (2010 and 2011) at two locations (Carbondale and Valmeyer) in southern Illinois, USA to identify QTL controlling SDS resistance using disease index (DX). Composite interval mapping identified 19 SDS controlling QTL which were mapped on 11 separate linkage group (LG) or chromosomes (Chr) out of 20 LG or Chr of soybean genome. Many of these significant QTL identified in one environment/year were confirmed in another year or environment, which suggests a common genetic effects and modes of the pathogen. These new QTL are useful sources for SDS resistance studies in soybean breeding, complementing previously reported loci.

  6. Genetic and diet effects on Ppar-α and Ppar-γ signaling pathways in the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred line with genetic predisposition for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagener Asja

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI line is a new mouse model for obesity, which was long-term selected for high fatness. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are involved in the control of energy homeostasis, nutrient metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we studied the expression patterns of the different Ppar genes and the genes in the PPAR pathway in the BFMI line in comparison to physiological changes. Results At the age of 10 weeks, the BFMI mice exhibited marked obesity with enlarged adipocytes and high serum triglycerides concentrations in comparison to the often used mouse line C57BL/6 (B6. Between these two lines, gene expression analyses revealed differentially expressed genes belonging to the PPAR pathway, in particular genes of the lipogenesis and the fatty acid transport. Conclusion Surprisingly, the Ppar-α gene expression was up-regulated in liver and Ppar-γ gene expression was down-regulated in the white adipose tissue, indicating the activation of a mechanism that counteracts the rise of obesity.

  7. Development of a near-isogenic line population of Arabidopsis thaliana and comparison of mapping power with a recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keurentjes, Joost J B; Bentsink, Leónie; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Hanhart, Corrie J; Blankestijn-De Vries, Hetty; Effgen, Sigi; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Koornneef, Maarten

    2007-02-01

    In Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations are widely used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. However, mapping analyses with this type of population can be limited because of the masking effects of major QTL and epistatic interactions of multiple QTL. An alternative type of immortal experimental population commonly used in plant species are sets of introgression lines. Here we introduce the development of a genomewide coverage near-isogenic line (NIL) population of Arabidopsis thaliana, by introgressing genomic regions from the Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) accession into the Landsberg erecta (Ler) genetic background. We have empirically compared the QTL mapping power of this new population with an already existing RIL population derived from the same parents. For that, we analyzed and mapped QTL affecting six developmental traits with different heritability. Overall, in the NIL population smaller-effect QTL than in the RIL population could be detected although the localization resolution was lower. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of population size and of the number of replicates on the detection power of QTL affecting the developmental traits. In general, population size is more important than the number of replicates to increase the mapping power of RILs, whereas for NILs several replicates are absolutely required. These analyses are expected to facilitate experimental design for QTL mapping using these two common types of segregating populations.

  8. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  9. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  10. Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and β-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations.

  11. Clinical strains of acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernberg, I.; Ursing, J.

    1989-01-01

    A collection of Acinetobacter strains consisting of 168 consecutive clinical strains and 30 type and reference strains was studied by DNA-DNA hybridization and a few phenotypic tests. The field strains could be allotted to 13 DNA groups. By means of reference strains ten of these could be identified with groups described by Bouvet and Grimont (1986), while three groups were new; they were given the numbers 13-15. The type strain of A. radioresistens- recently described by Nishimura et al. (1988) - was shown to be a member of DNA group 12, which comprised 31 clinical isolates. Of the 19 strains of A. junii, eight showed hemolytic acitivity on sheep and human blood agar and an additional four strains on human blood agar only. Strains of this species have previously been regarded as non-hemolytic. Reciprocal DNA pairing data for the reference strains of the DNA gropus were treated by UPGMA clustering. The reference strains for A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii and DNA groups 3 and 13 formed a cluster with about 70% relatedness within the cluster. Other DNA groups joined at levels below 60%. (author)

  12. Clinical strains of acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjernberg, I.; Ursing, J. (Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Malmoe General Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    A collection of Acinetobacter strains consisting of 168 consecutive clinical strains and 30 type and reference strains was studied by DNA-DNA hybridization and a few phenotypic tests. The field strains could be allotted to 13 DNA groups. By means of reference strains ten of these could be identified with groups described by Bouvet and Grimont (1986), while three groups were new; they were given the numbers 13-15. The type strain of A. radioresistens- recently described by Nishimura et al. (1988) - was shown to be a member of DNA group 12, which comprised 31 clinical isolates. Of the 19 strains of A. junii, eight showed hemolytic acitivity on sheep and human blood agar and an additional four strains on human blood agar only. Strains of this species have previously been regarded as non-hemolytic. Reciprocal DNA pairing data for the reference strains of the DNA gropus were treated by UPGMA clustering. The reference strains for A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii and DNA groups 3 and 13 formed a cluster with about 70% relatedness within the cluster. Other DNA groups joined at levels below 60%. (author).

  13. Genome analysis and physiological comparison of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Veuskens, Teun [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Saia, Flavia Talarico [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Weelink, Sander A.B. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Daligault, Hajnalka E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Langenhoff, A. M. [Deltares, The Netherlands; Gerritse, Jan [Deltares, The Netherlands; Van Berkel, Willem J. H. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Pieper, Dietmar [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Junca, Howard [CorpoGen, Bogota Colombia; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Schraa, Gosse [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Davids, Mark [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Schaap, Peter J [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Plugge, Caroline M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Stams, Alfons J. M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

    2013-01-01

    The genomes of the Betaproteobacteria Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601T have been sequenced to get insight into the physiology of the two strains. Strain BC degrades benzene with chlorate as electron acceptor. The cyclohexanol-degrading denitrifying strain K601T is not able to use chlorate as electron acceptor, while strain BC cannot degrade cyclohexanol. The 16S rRNA sequences of strains BC and K601T are identical and the fatty acid methyl ester patterns of the strains are similar. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of predicted open reading frames of both strains showed most hits with Acidovorax sp. JS42, a bacterium that degrades nitro-aromatics. The genomes include strain-specific plasmids (pAlide201 in strain K601T and pAlide01 and pAlide02 in strain BC). Key genes of chlorate reduction in strain BC were located on a 120 kb megaplasmid (pAlide01), which was absent in strain K601T. Genes involved in cyclohexanol degradation were only found in strain K601T. Benzene and toluene are degraded via oxygenase-mediated pathways in both strains. Genes involved in the meta-cleavage pathway of catechol are present in the genomes of both strains. Strain BC also contains all genes of the ortho-cleavage pathway. The large number of mono- and dioxygenase genes in the genomes suggests that the two strains have a broader substrate range than known thus far.

  14. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  15. Commonly administered BCG strains including an evolutionarily early strain and evolutionarily late strains of disparate genealogy induce comparable protective immunity against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Marcus A; Harth, Günter; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Maslesa-Galić, Sasa

    2009-01-14

    BCG has been administered to over 4 billion persons worldwide, but its efficacy in preventing tuberculosis in adults has been highly variable. One hypothesis for its variability is that different strains of BCG vary in protective efficacy, and moreover, that evolutionarily early strains are more efficacious than the more attenuated evolutionarily late strains, which lack region of deletion 2. To examine this hypothesis, we tested six widely used BCG strains--the evolutionarily early strain BCG Japanese, two evolutionarily late strains in DU2 Group III (BCG Danish and Glaxo), and three evolutionarily late strains in DU2 Group IV (BCG Connaught, Pasteur, and Tice)--in the guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis. With the exception of BCG Glaxo, which had relatively poor efficacy, we found no substantial differences in efficacy between the early strain and the late strains, and only small differences in efficacy among late strains. BCG Tice was the most efficacious BCG vaccine, with significantly fewer Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung and spleen than BCG Danish and BCG Japanese, although absolute differences in the organ burden of M. tuberculosis among these three vaccines were small (Pasteur were not significantly different. rBCG30, a recombinant BCG Tice vaccine overexpressing the M. tuberculosis 30 kDa major secretory protein (Antigen 85B), was more potent than any BCG vaccine (P < 0.0001 for differences in organ burden). Our study shows that late strains are not less potent than an early strain and argues against strain differences as a major factor in the variability of outcomes in BCG vaccine trials.

  16. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  17. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  18. Strain-tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Baoyue; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Miao; Ma, Tianxing

    2017-09-13

    Using the determinant quantum Monte-Carlo method, we elucidate the strain tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons. Our intensive numerical results show that a relatively weak Coulomb interaction may induce a ferromagnetic-like behaviour with a proper strain, and the edge magnetism can be enhanced greatly as the strain along the zigzag edge increases, which provides another way to control graphene magnetism even at room temperature.

  19. Late-night talk show v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Halamásek, Šimon

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the history of talk show in USA with emphasis on its specific form, which is late-night talk show. The first chapter focuses on the creation of new television networks and the overall state of american broadcasting during the first era of the television talk show format. The thesis briefly describes radio broadcasting which served not only as an important source of inspiration for television but also as a starting platform for most talk show hosts. Next chapter theoreti...

  20. Unpolished Thai Rice Strain of Leum Phua

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    g sample, respectively. Interestingly, phytophenolic chromatogram and anthocyanin pigment levels showed a strong correlation. Conclusion: Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice strain of Leum Phua, has high levels of anthocyanin pigment, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Its pure phytochemical contents should be ...

  1. Lattice strain measurement in rock sample by neutron diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Jun; Ito, Takayoshi; Sekine, Kotaro; Harjo, Stefanus; Aizawa, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Strain gauge and mechanical extensometers are commonly used to measure strain in rock samples. In recent years, diffraction techniques with X-rays and neutrons for investigating strain in engineering materials have been developed. Strain measurements using diffraction technique are based on Bragg's law. Lattice spacing changes with strain, which induces peak shift of Bragg peak. Strain value can be estimated from this peak shift value. Strain measurements using the world's highest intensity neutron beam can be performed at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) constructed at Tokai in Ibaraki. Neutron powder diffractometer dedicating to investigate strain state in engineering materials has been constructed at BL19 in J-PARC, which is named as The Engineering Materials Diffractometer 'TAKUMI'. In order to examine applicability of the diffractometer to rock materials, in situ neutron diffraction experiments on rock samples under uni-axial compression have been performed. Higher resolution strain data has been obtained in shorter time compared to other diffractometers. In addition, neutron diffraction peaks of not only major component, such as quartz, but also minor components, such as feldspars, could be observed. Anisotropy of strain with respect to the quartz crystal orientation and discrepancy between macroscopic strain (measured by strain gauge) and lattice strain (measured by neutron diffraction) were also recognized. Change in peak width with respect to stress magnitude showed a different behavior depending on rock type. Strain measurements using neutron diffraction technique give us new insight in rock deformation which cannot be obtained by common technique. (author)

  2. Methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in LG/J and SM/J mouse strains and an F45/F46 advanced intercross line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camron D Bryant

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The conditioned place preference (CPP test is frequently used to evaluate the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse in mice. Despite its widespread use in transgenic and knockout experiments, there are few forward genetic studies using CPP to identify novel genes contributing to drug reward. In this study, we tested LG/J and SM/J inbred strains and the parents/offspring of 10 families of an F45/F46 advanced intercross line (AIL for methamphetamine-induced CPP (MA-CPP once per week over two weeks. Both LG/J and SM/J mice exhibited significant MA-CPP that was not significantly different between the two strains. Furthermore, LG/J mice showed significantly less acute MA-induced locomotor activity as well as locomotor sensitization following subsequent MA injections. AIL mice (N = 105 segregating LG/J and SM/J alleles also demonstrated significant MA-CPP that was equal in magnitude between the first and second week of training. Importantly, MA-CPP in AIL mice did not correlate with drug-free or MA-induced locomotor activity, indicating that MA-CPP was not confounded by test session activity and implying that MA-CPP is genetically distinct from acute psychomotor sensitivity. We estimated the heritability of MA-CPP and locomotor phenotypes using midparent-offspring regression and maximum likelihood estimates derived from the kinship coefficients of the AIL pedigree. Heritability estimates of MA-CPP were low (0-0.21 and variable (S.E. = 0-0.33 which reflected our poor power to estimate heritability using only 10 midparent-offspring observations. In sum, we established a short-term protocol for MA-CPP in AIL mice that could reveal LG/J and SM/J alleles important for MA reward. The use of highly recombinant genetic populations like AIL should facilitate the identification of these genes and may have implications for understanding psychostimulant abuse in humans.

  3. [Echinococcus and strain concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utük, Armağan Erdem; Simsek, Sami

    2008-01-01

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is one of the most important parasitic zoonoses and remains a public health and economic problem all over the world. Echinococcus granulosus includes a number of genetic variants and, up to date, analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences have identified ten distinct genetic types (genotypes G1-10). This categorization follows closely the pattern of strain variation emerging based on biological characteristics. The extensive variation in E. granulosus may influence life-cycle patterns, host specificity, development rate, antigenicity, transmission dynamics, sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents, and pathology. In this review, the recent genetic characterizations of Echinococcus genus have been summarized.

  4. An improved procedure for integrated behavioral z-scoring illustrated with modified Hole Board behavior of male inbred laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labots, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411290835; Laarakker, M.C.; Schetters, D.; Arndt, S.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483615X; van Lith, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/091342422

    2018-01-01

    Background: Guilloux et al. introduced: integrated behavioral z-scoring, a method for behavioral pheno-typing of mice. Using this method multiple ethological variables can be combined to show an overall description of a certain behavioral dimension or motivational system. However, a problem may

  5. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  6. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  7. Intramyocardial strain estimation from cardiac cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakib, Ahmed; Beache, Garth M; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2015-08-01

    proposed geometrical method showed the ability to track the LV wall points throughout the cardiac cycle, thus permitting more accurate strain estimation.

  8. Mercury toxicokinetics--dependency on strain and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Jimmy; Nielsen, Jesper B; Havarinasab, Said

    2010-01-01

    . Inbred, H-2-congenic A.SW and B10.S mice and their F1- and F2-hybrids were given HgCl2 with 2.0 mg Hg/L drinking water and traces of (203)Hg. Whole-body retention (WBR) was monitored until steady state after 5 weeks, when the organ Hg content was assessed. Despite similar Hg intake, A.SW males attained......Mercury (Hg) exposure from dental amalgam fillings and thimerosal in vaccines is not a major health hazard, but adverse health effects cannot be ruled out in a small and more susceptible part of the exposed population. Individual differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility to mercury...... for the kidneys in explaining the slower Hg elimination in A.SW mice. The trait causing higher mercury accumulation was not dominantly inherited in the F1 hybrids. F2 mice showed a large inter-individual variation in Hg accumulation, showing that multiple genetic factors influence the Hg toxicokinetics...

  9. Reconstruction of axisymmetric strain distributions via neutron strain tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Brian; Zhang, Shu Yan; Vorster, Wim; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the behaviour of structural components under a particular set of loading conditions requires knowledge of the residual elastic strain distribution throughout the bulk of these components. Characterising the 3D strain state at any particular point involves the measurement of six independent components which make up the second order strain tensor. Mapping the complete strain distribution throughout large volumes thus presents significant practical challenges. One possible solution to this problem is to reconstruct the 3D variation of strain components using tomographic techniques. The basic principle underpinning this idea is that the multi-component strain tensor can be reconstructed from a redundant set of lower order projection data. Here we demonstrate this fundamental concept for two samples: a shrink fit 'ring-and-plug' sample, and a spray-quenched circular cylinder, both possessing axially symmetric internal strain distribution. We present and contrast different approaches to the strain tomography problem. The methods described here can also be readily applied to high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements and represent an important step toward developing the tomographic reconstruction framework for strain tensor distributions of arbitrary complexity. The major benefit of neutron strain tomography is that the incident beam flux is utilised more fully, greatly reducing the data collection times. Using micro-channel plate (MCP) neutron detectors, a spatial resolution of the order of 0.1 mm can be achieved [1].

  10. Efficient characterization of inhomogeneity in contraction strain pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Christina M; Mulligan, Lawrence J; Criscione, John C

    2012-05-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony often accompanies patients with heart failure (HF) and can lead to an increase in mortality rate. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to provide substantial benefits to the HF population with ventricular dyssynchrony; however, there still exists a group of patients who do not respond to this treatment. In order to better understand patient response to CRT, it is necessary to quantitatively characterize both electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony. The quantification of mechanical dyssynchrony via characterization of contraction strain field inhomogeneity is the focus of this modeling investigation. Raw data from a 3D finite element (FE) model were received from Roy Kerckhoffs et al. and analyzed in MATLAB. The FE model consisted of canine left and right ventricles coupled to a closed circulation with the effects of the pericardium acting as a pressure on the epicardial surface. For each of three simulations (normal synchronous, SYNC, right ventricular apical pacing, RVA, and left ventricular free wall pacing, LVFW) the Gauss point locations and values were used to generate lookup tables (LUTs) with each entry representing a location in the heart. In essence, we employed piecewise cubic interpolation to generate a fine point cloud (LUTs) from a course point cloud (Gauss points). Strain was calculated in the fiber direction and was then displayed in multiple ways to better characterize strain inhomogeneity. By plotting average strain and standard deviation over time, the point of maximum contraction and the point of maximal inhomogeneity were found for each simulation. Strain values were organized into seven strain bins to show operative strain ranges and extent of inhomogeneity throughout the heart wall. In order to visualize strain propagation, magnitude, and inhomogeneity over time, we created 2D area maps displaying strain over the entire cardiac cycle. To visualize spatial strain distribution at the time point of maximum

  11. Brucella abortus strain 2308 Wisconsin genome: importance of the definition of reference strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suárez-Esquivel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS analysis of the reference strain Brucella abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version at www.wikipedia.Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised.

  12. Brucella abortus Strain 2308 Wisconsin Genome: Importance of the Definition of Reference Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Roop II, R. Martin; Comerci, Diego J.; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Caswell, Clayton C.; Baker, Kate S.; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Moreno, Edgardo; Letesson, Jean J.; De Bolle, Xavier; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference strain B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brucella#Genomics. Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised. PMID:27746773

  13. Sadovskii vortex in strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    A Sadovskii vortex is a patch of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. Using a boundary element type method, we investigate the steady states of this flow in an incompressible, inviscid straining flow. Outside the vortex, the fluid is irrotational. In the limiting case where the entire circulation is due to the vortex patch, this is a patch vortex (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971). In the other limiting case, where all the circulation is due to the vortex sheet, this is a hollow vortex (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691, 2012). This flow has two governing nondimensional parameters, relating the strengths of the straining field, vortex sheet, and patch vorticity. We study the relationship between these two parameters, and examine the shape of the resulting vortices. We also work towards a bifurcation diagram of the steady states of the Sadovskii vortex in an attempt to understand the connection between vortex sheet and vortex patch desingularizations of the point vortex. Support from NSF-CMMI-0970113.

  14. Career development at London Vet Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. British Veterinary Association.

  15. MWCNTs based flexible and stretchable strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed Ahmed; Gao, Min; Zhu, Yuechang; Yan, Zhuocheng; Lin, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes have potential applications in flexible and stretchable devices due to their remarkable electromechanical properties. Flexible and stretchable strain sensors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with aligned or random structures were fabricated on poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with different techniques. It was observed that the spraycoatedtechniquebased strain sensor fabricated on PDMS substrate showed higher sensitivity higher stretchability, better linearity and excellent longer time stability than the sensor fabricated with other methods presented in this work. The scanning electron microscopy images indicated the spray coating technique can produce a better uniform and compact CNT network, which is the important role affecting the performance of CNT-based flexible strain sensors. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB351905), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61306015), the Technology Innovative Research Team of Sichuan Province of China (No.2015TD0005), and “111” Project (No. B13042)

  16. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  17. Isolation and identification of a novel radio-resistant strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhidong; Mao Jun; Wang Wei; Tang Qiyong; Shi Yuhu

    2008-01-01

    A novel radio-resistant strain named RL2 was studied polyphasically, which was isolated from the soils in the Gurban-Tunggut Desert, Xinjiang. The strain is Gam-positive, sphere-shaped and pink pigmented; The DNA (G+C) contents of RL2 is 71.62mo1%; The 16S rDNA genes of RL2 and D. radiodurans type strain DSM20539 shows a high level of similarity (97.2%). According to phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, it can be suggested that the strain RL2 has been identified as Deinococcus. sp and it may be a novel species. (authors)

  18. Twinning in copper deformed at high strain rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Copper samples having varying microstructures were deformed at high strain rates using a split-. Hopkinson pressure bar. Transmission electron microscopy results show deformation twins present in samples that were both annealed and strained, whereas samples that were annealed and left unstrained, as well ...

  19. Stress-strain state of pipeline depending on complicated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, P. V.; Filimonenko, M. A.; Burkova, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the 3D model and FEM analysis of the stress-strain state of the soil- pipe interaction system. The analysis shows that the geological environment has shown a strong effect on the pipelines. This stress-strain analysis is carried out using the ANSYS finite element program.

  20. Characterization of Streptomyces strain SLO-105 isolated from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A microbial strain, SLO-105, isolated from Lake Oubeira sediment was screened for its antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The strain showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, Bacillus subtilus, Micrococcus leutus, Streptococcus ...

  1. Evaluation of antifungal activity from Bacillus strains against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 30 bacterial strains isolated from marine biofilms were screened for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani by dual culture assay. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showed a clear antagonism against R. solani on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The antagonistic activity ...

  2. Rhodococcus jostii: a home for Rhodococcus strain RHA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amanda L; Davies, Julian; Fukuda, Masao; Brown, Roselyn; Lim, Jesmine; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The taxonomic position of Rhodococcus strain RHA1, an effective degrader of polychlorinated biphenyls with a large linear chromosome, was established using a polyphasic approach. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the strain were typical of members of the genus Rhodococcus. The strain shared a high level of 16S rRNA sequence similarity (99.9 %) with the type strain of Rhodococcus jostii, a member of the Rhodococcus erythropolis subclade. The two strains shared a DNA:DNA relatedness value well above the cut-off point recommended for the circumscription of genomic species and had a broad range of phenotypic properties in common. The combination of genomic and phenotypic data show strain RHA1 to be a bona fide member of the species Rhodococcus jostii.

  3. Streptococcus mitis Strains Causing Severe Clinical Disease in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldana, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Horstmann, Nicola; Thompson, Erika; Flores, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The genetically diverse viridans group streptococci (VGS) are increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of human diseases. We used a recently developed multilocus sequence analysis scheme to define the species of 118 unique VGS strains causing bacteremia in patients with cancer; Streptococcus mitis (68 patients) and S. oralis (22 patients) were the most frequently identified strains. Compared with patients infected with non–S. mitis strains, patients infected with S. mitis strains were more likely to have moderate or severe clinical disease (e.g., VGS shock syndrome). Combined with the sequence data, whole-genome analyses showed that S. mitis strains may more precisely be considered as >2 species. Furthermore, we found that multiple S. mitis strains induced disease in neutropenic mice in a dose-dependent fashion. Our data define the prominent clinical effect of the group of organisms currently classified as S. mitis and lay the groundwork for increased understanding of this understudied pathogen. PMID:24750901

  4. Biaxial Compressive Strain Engineering in Graphene/Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Xiao, Jianliang; Zhu, Junwei; Yu, Chenxi; Zhang, Gang; Ni, Zhenhua; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran

    2012-11-01

    Strain engineered graphene has been predicted to show many interesting physics and device applications. Here we study biaxial compressive strain in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures after thermal cycling to high temperatures likely due to their thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. The appearance of sub-micron self-supporting bubbles indicates that the strain is spatially inhomogeneous. Finite element modeling suggests that the strain is concentrated on the edges with regular nano-scale wrinkles, which could be a playground for strain engineering in graphene. Raman spectroscopy and mapping is employed to quantitatively probe the magnitude and di