WorldWideScience

Sample records for inappropriate sexual behaviours

  1. Inappropriate sexual behaviour experienced by speech-language therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T H; de Seriere, J; Boddington, L

    1999-01-01

    Inappropriate sexual behaviour by clients or patients of health professionals has been noted as a considerable problem in a number of professions. Similarly, sexual harassment by colleagues or employers has been identified as causing stress and harm. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the experience of speech-language therapists in New Zealand of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) by colleagues, clients, and care givers of clients. A questionnaire developed by McComas and colleagues to investigate ISB directed by patients at physical therapists in Canada was adapted to meet the broader requirements of this study. This questionnaire was sent to all members of the New Zealand Speech-Language Therapists' Association and to current third- and fourth-year students in the Bachelor of Speech and Language Therapy degree programme in 1994. The overall return rate was 70%. A large number of respondents (81%) reported experiencing some level of ISB. The number of incidents of ISB from clients and colleagues was identified with equal frequency; care givers less frequently. Fewer students than qualified therapists reported ISB as sexual harassment. ISB affects work performance (e.g. absenteeism) and causes psychological reactions (e.g. stress). A majority of respondents reported being satisfied with how they handled ISB but considered there would be value in having training for both qualified and student therapists in managing such behaviour. Conclusions drawn from the study are that colleagues as well as clients are a serious source of ISB for qualified and student speech-language therapists; that negative effects in this group are similar to those in other professions; that speech-language therapists experience less ISB from clients than some other professions; and that, despite legal steps to curb sexual harassment, it continues to be an issue that requires local administrative and educative attention.

  2. Inappropriate sexual behaviour in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: what education is recommended and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, Nicola; Brooks, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder impairing social skills and communication. Adolescents with ASD have sexual needs, but may not understand their physical and emotional development resulting in inappropriate sexual behaviour. The aim of this review is to describe the type of inappropriate behaviour that presents in these adolescents, explain why such behaviours occur, suggest what education is suitable and identify current gaps in research. The databases EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE and PSYCINFO were searched for relevant articles. In total, 5241 articles were found, with an additional 15 sources found via soft searches, of which 42 met inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Sexual behaviours that occur in these adolescents with ASD include hypermasturbation, public masturbation, inappropriate romantic gestures, inappropriate arousal and exhibitionism. Such behaviours are thought to be caused via a lack of understanding of normal puberty, the absence of appropriate sex education, the severity of their ASD and other associated problems. It is suggested that individualized, repetitive education should be started from an early age in an accessible form. Social skills development is also important before more technical aspects of sex education are taught. Despite being such a common problem for schools, institutions and families to manage, it is surprising how sparse literature is particularly regarding why inappropriate behaviour occurs and what education is effective. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of electrical aversion therapy for inappropriate sexual behaviour after traumatic brain injury: a single case experimental design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Mors, Bert Jan; van Heugten, Caroline M; van Harten, Peter N

    2012-08-24

    Inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury is a severe complication. Evidence for effective treatment is not available. Electrical aversion therapy (EAT) is a behavioural therapeutic option used in persons with intellectual disabilities, which might be suitable for brain-injured individuals for whom other therapies are not effective. The effect of EAT in brain injury has not been investigated previously. A single case experimental design was used. In an ABBA (baseline-treatment-treatment-withdrawal) design the frequency of the target behaviour (ie, inappropriate sexual behaviour) in a 40-year-old man was measured daily. A total of 551 measurements were recorded. A significant reduction of the target behaviour was seen after the first treatment phase (baseline 12.18 (2.59) vs 3.15 (3.19) mean target behaviours daily); this reduction remained stable over time. We conclude that EAT was effective in this patient with inappropriate sexual behaviour due to severe brain injury. EAT can therefore be considered in therapy resistant inappropriate sexual behaviour in brain-injured patients.

  4. "Normal" and "Inappropriate" Childhood Sexual Behaviours: Findings from a Delphi Study of Professionals in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosmer, Susanne; Hackett, Simon; Callanan, Margie

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a three-stage Delphi study examining the current level of consensus among 24 professionals in the United Kingdom regarding definitions of and distinctions between normal, inappropriate and sexually abusive behaviours in children under 10 years, as well as factors influencing their views. Although firm conclusions…

  5. Can attribution theory explain carers' propensity to help men with intellectual disabilities who display inappropriate sexual behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P; Smith, M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the responses of care managers and direct care staff to vignettes of inappropriate sexual behaviour by a man with an intellectual disability. The aim was to test the theory that helping behaviour is determined by emotional responses (positive and negative emotional reactions, and optimism), which in turn are determined by causal attributions (respectively: controllability and stability of the incident depicted in the vignette). The vignettes varied in response topography and the age of the victim. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between causal attributions, emotional responses, and willingness to invest extra time and effort in the service user's care. No support was found for the pathway: low controllability --> increased sympathy and/or decreased negative emotions --> increased helping. However, strong support was found for the pathway: low stability --> high optimism --> increased helping, particularly in direct care staff. High levels of sympathy were also associated with increased helping, the effect again being mediated by feelings of optimism. The data provide support for one (but not the other) strand of attribution theory as applied to inappropriate sexual behaviour. The discussion considers the discrepancy between the present data and the far less encouraging literature on attribution theory as applied to challenging behaviour.

  6. Bullying and Inappropriate Behaviour among Faculty Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Käyhkö, Katinka

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the degree, nature and consequences of bullying or inappropriate behaviour among faculty personnel (n = 303) in a Finnish university. A total of 114 (38%) faculty members answered the email questionnaire. According to the results, 15% of the respondents had experienced bullying; in addition, 45% had experienced inappropriate…

  7. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour....

  8. Risk Sexual Behaviour?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    lead to an increase in population-wide high-risk sexual behaviour (either because HIV transmission appears to be ... countries reported an increase in high-risk sexual behaviour amongst men who have sex with men ... government and resulted in a fall in the annual number of HIV incidence and a drop in HIV prevalence ...

  9. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Dementia and inappropriate sexual behavior (ISB: What we know and what we need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fabà

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been no place for sexuality in older age. However, research has shown that sexuality plays an important role in older people’s life, even in situations such as dementia. The goal of the article is to review the scientific literature regarding the inappropriate sexual behavior that these kind of patients might present. In order to do so, we will firstly address the definition of inappropriate sexual behavior or, more precisely, its multiple definitions. After that, we will deal with other issues such as its prevalence, factors that can cause its appearance, its consequences and some of the available therapeutic options. Finally, in the last section some recommendations for future research will be provided, such as the need to clarify the concept of inappropriate sexual behavior, to find more efficient ways to address this problem, and the desirability of considering sexuality as a human dimension with a high adaptive potential in old age.

  11. Dementia and inappropriate sexual behavior: What we know and what we need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fabà

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been no place for sexuality in older age. However, research has shown that sexuality plays an important role in older people’s life, even in situations such as dementia. The goal of the article is to review the scientific literature regarding the inappropriate sexual behavior that these kind of patients might present. In order to do so, we will firstly address the definition of inappropriate sexual behavior or, more precisely, its multiple definitions. After that, we will deal with other issues such as its prevalence, factors that can cause its appearance, its consequences and some of the available therapeutic options. Finally, in the last section some recommendations for future research will be provided, such as the need to clarify the concept of inappropriate sexual behavior, to find more efficient ways to address this problem, and the desirability of considering sexuality as a human dimension with a high potential for adaptation in old age.

  12. Inappropriate Lessons: Elementary Schools and the Social Organization of Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Erica Misako

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to the question: How is sexuality organized in elementary schools? I argue that despite the absence of overt discussions on sexuality in elementary schools, sexuality is "organized" through social processes that are recursively linked to ideology. Due to the widely held belief that "children" and…

  13. Quetiapine effective in treatment of inappropriate sexual behavior of lewy body disease with predominant frontal lobe signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Pathak, Amit; Munda, Sanjay; Bagati, Dhruv

    2009-01-01

    Dementia of Lewy body disease is the second most common degenerative cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, among all the dementias. The core features are a progressive dementia, fluctuations in cognitive functions, visual hallucinations, and spontaneous parkinsonism. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, severe neuroleptic sensitivity, and low dopamine transporter uptake in basal ganglia are other suggestive features. Behavioral abnormalities are commonly present in the form of aggressive behavior, irritability, and uninhibited behaviors. These are mostly seen in the advanced stages of dementia. However, inappropriate sexual behavior is uncommonly seen in such cases. Three types of inappropriate sexual behaviors commonly found in cases of dementia are sex talks, sexual acts, and implied sexual acts. Such inappropriate sexual behaviors have not been described adequately in dementia of Lewy body disease. We report inappropriate sexual behaviors in a case of dementia of Lewy body disease, which improved rapidly after treatment with quetiapine.

  14. Parental influence on adolescent sexual behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A significant relationship was found between participants' sexual behaviour and parental communication and parental monitoring (p<0.05). The study recommended increased parental involvement in communication and monitoring of adolescent sexual behaviour, bearing in mind the consequences of risky sexual ...

  15. A Review and Treatment Selection Model for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities Who Engage in Inappropriate Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N; Machalicek, Wendy; Scalzo, Rachel; Kobylecky, Alicia; Campbell, Vincent; Pinkelman, Sarah; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    Some individuals with developmental disabilities develop inappropriate sexual behaviors such as public masturbation, disrobing, and touching others in an unwanted sexual manner. Such acts are problematic given the taboo nature of the behaviors and the potential for significant negative consequences, such as restricted community access, injury, and legal ramifications. Therefore, it is necessary to equip caregivers and practitioners with effective treatment options. The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have evaluated behavioral treatments to reduce inappropriate sexual behavior in persons with developmental disabilities. The strengths and weaknesses of each treatment are reviewed, and a model for treatment selection is provided.

  16. Voluntary Rehabilitation? On Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment, Valid Consent and (In)appropriate Offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomann-Larsen, Lene

    2013-04-01

    Criminal offenders may be offered to participate in voluntary rehabilitation programs aiming at correcting undesirable behaviour, as a condition of early release. Behavioural treatment may include direct intervention into the central nervous system (CNS). This article discusses under which circumstances voluntary rehabilitation by CNS intervention is justified. It is argued that although the context of voluntary rehabilitation is a coercive circumstance, consent may still be effective, in the sense that it can meet formal criteria for informed consent. Further, for a consent to be normatively valid ("take the wronging out of the act") under a coercive circumstance, the subject to be treated must (1) have the sovereign authority to consent, and (2) the offer-giver must be in the right normative position to make the offer. While I argue that subjects do have the sovereign authority to consent to treatment, I also argue that inappropriate offers yield invalid consents. Considerations on inappropriate offers should therefore inform which kinds of CNS intervention-based rehabilitation schemes the state may propose as part of the criminal justice system. Yet as I conclude in this paper, while there are some intrinsic constraints on voluntary rehabilitation programs, the main constraints on voluntary rehabilitation are likely to be contingent overriders. However, CNS intervention is not ruled out as such in the context of voluntary rehabilitation.

  17. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually transmitted infections - the importance of traditional healers. R Zachariah, W Nkhoma, AD Harries, V Arendt,, A Chantulo, MP Spielmann, MP Mbereko, L Buhendwa ...

  18. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed to describe health seeking and sexual behaviour including condom use among patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections (STI) and, to identify socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors associated with “no condom use” during the symptomatic period. A cross-sectional study of consecutive new ...

  19. Sexual behaviours on acute inpatient psychiatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, L; Ross, J; Cutting, P; Stewart, D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the types and frequency of sexual behaviours displayed by patients during the first 2 weeks of admission to acute psychiatric units and what relationship these have to other challenging patient behaviours. The method used was a survey of sexual behaviours, conflict and containment events carried out by 522 patients during the first 2 weeks of admission in 84 wards in 31 hospitals in the South East of England. Incidents of sexual behaviour were common, with 13% of patients responsible for at least one incident. Although exposure was the most frequent of these behaviours, non-consensual sexual touching, was instigated by 1 in 20 patients. There were no differences in the numbers of sexual events between single sex and mixed gender wards. Few associations were found with the demographic features of perpetrators, although all those engaging in public masturbation were male, and male patients were more likely to sexually touch another without their consent. Single sex wards do not seem to necessarily offer significant protection to potentially vulnerable victims. Perpetrators do not seem to be predictable in advance, nor was there any common set or pattern of disruptive behavioural events indicating that a sexual incident was about to occur. © 2013 Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office/Queen's Printer for Scotland and Institute of Psychiatry.

  20. Gender differences in the sexual behaviour of selected adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the Falaye Adolescent' Sexual Behaviour Inventory (FASBI), adolescents' sexual behaviour was assessed using the proximate determinants of attitude towards pubertal changes and reproductive biology, adolescent source of sex information, adolescent sexual activities (intercourse and contraception) and attitude ...

  1. Sexual behavioural pattern of orchidectomised and hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The persistence or cessation of sexual behaviour after abrupt testosterone withdrawal i.e. castration depends among other things on the age of the animal at castration. The aim of this work is to ascertain the effect of early orchidectomy and subsequent hormone replacement to 24 weeks of age on restoration of sexual ...

  2. Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge, and Information Sources about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey of 202 final year students (114 females, 88 males) of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma was conducted to determine gender-specific differences in their knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sources of knowledge and sexual behaviours. Random sampling procedures were used to select students from ...

  3. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects. Standard 5, 6 and 7 pupils at both sexes. Outcome measures. Demographic and social characteristics, maturational and sexual behavioural milestones, and the prevalence of contraceptive use, pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Results. Data from 1 072 girls and 903 boys were anatysed.

  4. Reproductive Knowledge, Sexual Behaviour and Contraceptive Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More Gwari and Hausa respondents claimed that they did not use any family planning method during their first sexual relationship than Yoruba and Igbo respondents. There is need for reproductive health programmes to intensify efforts towards improving adolescents\\' attitudes to risky sexual behaviours and motivate them ...

  5. Paternal Influences and Adolescents' Sexual Risky Behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    05) and adolescents' sexual risky behaviour. The results further showed the significant position between Parents adolescent disclosure (X2 cal = 32.856) is the most potent factor followed Parental autonomy (X2 cal = 24.642); Parent adolescent relationship (X2 cal = 18.986); Positive adolescent behaviour (X2 cal = 11.626); ...

  6. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The continued poor reproductive health behaviour and outcomes among youths informed the investigation of the knowledge, attitudes, sexual behaviour, outcomes and care-seeking among university students in Zaria, north western Nigeria. Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, ...

  7. Parental Communication and Youth Sexual Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; McLeroy, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The role of parental communication and instruction concerning sexual behaviour were studied in a community-based sample of 1083 youth aged 13-17 (mean age of 15 years; 51% girls, 49% White). The Youth Asset Survey was administered along with items measuring demographics and youth risk behaviours. After controlling for demographic factors,…

  8. parental influence on adolescent sexual behaviour among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Adolescence is usually very adventurous and it is during this stage that behavioural patterns such as risky sexual behaviours which have long life consequences on the life of an adolescent are formed and established (Clement, Robert& Dermott et al, 2001). What happens to adolescents, either good or bad, is sometimes a ...

  9. Prevalence and Risk of Inappropriate Sexual Behavior of Patients Toward Physical Therapist Clinicians and Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissonnault, Jill S; Cambier, Ziádee; Hetzel, Scott J; Plack, Margaret M

    2017-11-01

    For health care providers in the United States, the risk for nonfatal violence in the workplace is 16 times greater than that for other workers. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior (IPSB) is directed at clinicians, staff, or other patients and may include leering, sexual remarks, deliberate touching, indecent exposure, and sexual assault. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior may adversely affect clinicians, the organization, or patients themselves. Few IPSB risk factors for physical therapists have been confirmed. The US prevalence was last assessed in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to determine career and 12-month exposure to IPSB among US physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, physical therapist students, and physical therapist assistant students and to identify IPSB risk factors. This was a retrospective and observational study. An electronic survey was developed; content validity and test-retest reliability were established. Participants were recruited through physical therapist and physical therapist assistant academic programs and sections of the American Physical Therapy Association. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior risk models were constructed individually for any, mild, moderate, and severe IPSB events reported over the past 12 months. Open-ended comments were analyzed using qualitative methods. Eight hundred ninety-two physical therapist professionals and students completed the survey. The career prevalence among respondents was 84%, and the 12-month prevalence was 47%. Statistical risk modeling for any IPSB over the past 12 months indicated the following risks: having fewer years of direct patient care, routinely working with patients with cognitive impairments, being a female practitioner, and treating male patients. Qualitative analysis of 187 open-ended comments revealed patient-related characteristics, provider-related characteristics, and abusive actions. Self-report, clinician memory, and convenience sampling are

  10. Sexual behaviour and contraception inadolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Sam-Soto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines the adolescence as the period between 10 and 19 years old. It is a critical developmental period, in which major physical, psychological, emotional and social changes take place. In terms of sexual and reproductive health, adolescents are considered a vulnerable group. Several risks and negative consequences of unprotected sexual relations are worrisome nationwide. According to the Mexican National Survey carried in 2010, 15.6% of Mexico’s population are adolescents. Sexual education in Mexico is not uniform and lacks an integral vision. There is no culture of prevention with respect to sexual and reproductive rights, sexual health, nor gender equality focused on adolescents. The consequences of these gaps are evident in our health indicators. We consider there is an urgent need to address this issue in an updated, integrative and age-focused manner in order to develop effective programs and diminish consequences such as unwanted pregnancies.

  11. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  12. 5. Sexual Behaviours and Vulnerabilities to HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    determine the risky sexual behaviours among the visually and hearing impaired pupils, determine ... Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, UNZA, Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia. Email address: skatuta2@yahoo.com ... to all known risk factors for HIV infection. For example, adolescents and adults with disability.

  13. KNOWLEDGE, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies Volume 4, Number 1, May 2007. KNOWLEDGE, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS. HIV/AIDS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NORTHERN GHANA. Felix Longi. Center for Interdisciplinary Research,. University for Development Studies, Ghana. ABSTRACT. Between ...

  14. A risky boundary: Unwanted sexual behaviour among youth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour: background characteristics, personality characteristics, family environment, school environment, friends and deviant behaviour and sexuality and...

  15. Preventing HIV: determinants of sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, B; Ross, M W

    2000-05-27

    AIDS has Invigorated and distorted the study of sexual behaviour. Because that study began so recently, there remain many unanswered questions about why we have sex at all, why we do sex one way rather than another, or even how we define sex. Yet in every instance in which well-designed and adequately resourced behavioural Interventions have been Implemented, these have netted success in the form of falling HIV incidences or prevalences. But, despite these successes, such interventions remain patchy and poorly supported. Perhaps humankind's traditional aversion for the public discussion of sexual matters underlies this reticence. Or maybe a new era of "creeping absolutism"--in which biomedical advances are given premature credit for what they can achieve in HIV control--has arrived.

  16. Review Sexual coercion and adolescent risk behaviour: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual coercion affects the individual through multiple short- and long-term medical, emotional, psychological and social consequences, and adolescents are particularly at high risk. Sexual coercion is hypothesised to negatively affect adolescents' decision-making around their sexual behaviours and other risk behaviours.

  17. Predictive Factors Influencing the Sexual Behaviour of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated predictive factors that can influence the sexual behaviour of Nigerian adolescents. The research deviates from the conventional dichotomy and perception of determining sexual behaviour among adolescents as those who have had sexual intercourse or not. The research assumption is based on the ...

  18. 6. Sexual Behaviour and Reproductive Health Among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the sexual behaviour and reproductive health amongst female senior secondary school students. Methods: Using cross-sectional descriptive study 374 students were studied. Information was collected on their sexual behaviours, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), prevalence of ...

  19. Using Existential-Humanistic Approaches in Counseling Adolescents with Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Mark S.; Stanard, Rebecca P.; Cobia, Debra C.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual acting out behaviors frequently occur in the context of comorbid issues, such as depression, trauma, behavioral disorders, and developmental deficits, thus rendering any single treatment modality less effective. Augmenting traditional treatment with an existential-humanistic (E-H) perspective enables counselors to more…

  20. Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Louise; Canter, David

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…

  1. Young Women, Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Hoggart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers young people's sexual decision-making in the context of New Labour's policies on teenage pregnancy. In 1999, the newly formed Social Exclusion Unit sought to understand why the UK had the highest number of teenage conceptions in Europe (SEU 1999. One of the conclusions was that young people in the UK are engaging in "risky" rather than "safe" sex. Although New Labour has since developed policies designed to help young people avoid what is seen as risky sexual activity, there is a tension in sexual health policy between the overall aim of providing young people with the knowledge and confidence to practice "safe sex", and an underlying belief amongst many in the undesirability of "underage sex". This is partly a legacy of disagreements evident in the 1980s and 1990s when some organisations argued against sex education and contraceptive provision for young people on the grounds that it encouraged promiscuous and risky behaviour. The paper shows how alternative meanings of risk and responsibility are present in young mothers' own representations of their sexual decision-making. It does this through an analysis of two research projects on Young Women, Sex and Choices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601283

  2. High-risk sexual behaviours and genital infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J M

    2001-12-01

    This article describes the sexual behaviours of some pregnant women that contribute to vaginal and cervical infections, and describes their lack of awareness about the dangers associated with sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy. It presents a subanalysis of data from a principal epidemiological study of the association between preterm delivery and genital hygiene habits and sexual behaviour during pregnancy. One-hundred and nine postpartum women were questioned about high-risk sexual behaviours during their pregnancies, their partner's sexually transmitted disease status and their knowledge about the effect of sexually transmitted infections on their pregnancy. Global concerns about the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of cervical and vaginal infection from sexually transmitted diseases are discussed. The dangers associated with high-risk sexual behaviours during pregnancy, and recommendations for clinicians, are included.

  3. Adolescent Sexual Behaviour and Practices in Nigeria: A Twelve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medline and other search engines. Results: Adolescents engage in unhealthy sexual behaviours, characterized by early age at sexual initiation, unsafe sex and multiple sex partners. Reasons given for this include curiosity, peer influence, ...

  4. Medical Therapy for Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors in a Teen With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coshway, Loyal; Broussard, Julia; Acharya, Kruti; Fried, Karen; Msall, Michael E; Lantos, John D; Nahata, Leena

    2016-04-01

    Teens with autism spectrum disorder often exhibit sexual behaviors in public that are disturbing to parents, teachers, and peers. Some have proposed that such behaviors can be curtailed with hormonal suppression. There is information on the Internet suggesting that such medications work, and some reports in the peer-reviewed medical literature support these claims. Such medications can have serious side effects. In this paper, we present a case in which parents requested such treatment of their teenage son with autism spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. An exploration of the judgement of sexual situations by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders versus typically developing adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Kirsten; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Tick, Nouchka T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Maras, Athanasios; van der Vegt, Esther J M

    2017-01-01

    Background Inappropriate sexual behaviour, sexual problems and sexual victimization in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is regularly reported in previous research, but little is known about factors associated with these problems, nor about factors associated with a healthy sexuality

  6. Relationships among sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and safe sex behaviour among adolescents: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a cause-and-effect model of factors affecting sexual health among Taiwanese adolescents. A structural equation model was proposed in which the relationships among sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and safe sex behaviour were explored. The study collected data from 823 adolescent students at a junior college in Central Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Knowledge Scale, Sexual Attitudes Scale, and Safe Sex Behaviour Questionnaire and the demographic data were collected. The preliminary model fit criteria, overall model fit, and fit of internal structure of model was used to assess the sexual health model fit. Results revealed that sexual knowledge had a negative effect on sex attitudes and had no significant effect on safe sex behaviour. Adolescents with more sexual knowledge had less positive sexual attitudes and did not show increased practices of safe sex behaviour. No significant correlation was found between sexual knowledge and safe sex behaviour of adolescents. Improvements in sexual attitudes were found to be irrelevant to the promotion of safe sex behaviour of adolescents. In order to ensure safe sexual health, it is strongly suggested that adolescents learn to be responsible for their own behaviours and attitudes and obtain correct knowledge about their understandings and evaluations of sexuality.

  7. Risky sexual behaviour of university students: Perceptions and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing HIV incidence amongst people aged 15-24 years and the reported gaps in sexeducation received at school and reported risky sexual behaviour in South Africa justifies the importance of this study. This study examines the risky sexual behaviour and perceptions among first-year students enrolled at Monash ...

  8. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV .... risky sexual behaviour of sex workers, adolescents and patients were ... consequences including loss of confidence in clinical abilities and mental health issues, which could affect patient care.16.

  9. Perceptions of social capital and sexual behaviour among youth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of social capital and sexual behaviour among youth in South Africa. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... may act as protective factors that lessen the likelihood of negative consequences; while others have concluded that social capital may be a risk factor for risky sexual behaviour among youth.

  10. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-27

    Nov 27, 2017 ... Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long distance truck drivers in. Lagos, Nigeria. Abiodun Musbau Lawal & Benjamin Oladapo Olley. To cite this article: Abiodun Musbau Lawal & Benjamin Oladapo Olley (2017) Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

  11. Sexual Behaviour and Patterns of Contraceptive Use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Conclusions: High risk sexual behaviour was common among respondents. Knowledge of, and practice of ... Sexual behaviours and contraceptive use among youths not only vary across countries and regions, but also vary within a particular country.1 Youths around the world ... factors, unintended pregnancies could create.

  12. Influence of HIV/AIDS Awareness on Sexual Behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The awareness of HIV/AIDS can influence sexual behaviour which can in turn decrease the rate of transmission of HIV. This study was done at Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU), Awka, Anambra State, to determine the awareness of HIV/AIDS and its effect on sexual behaviour of undergraduate students.

  13. The Influence Of School Type In Modifying Sexual Behaviour Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was a quasi-experimental research aimed at modifying sexual behaviour of secondary school adolescents. The effect which the mediating variable of school type has on the sexual behaviour of secondary school adolescents was also assessed. The study made use of a sample of one hundred and seventy three ...

  14. A comparison of risky sexual behaviours between circumcised and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The principal mode of HIV transmission in Southern Africa is through sexual intercourse, and this has prompted uptake of safe male circumcision. Engaging in risky sexual behaviour by circumcised men increases the risks of acquiring HIV, though male circumcision coupled with preventive behaviour reduces ...

  15. Sexual behaviours of undergraduates of tertiary institutions in Kwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also examined whether or not variables of gender and school type had significant influence on the sexual behaviours of undergraduates of tertiary ... the school counsellors and teachers should provide guidance to students on developmental challenges and help youths to abstain from risky sexual behaviours.

  16. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...

  17. Risky Sexual Behaviours among Adolescents in Owerri Municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-03-01

    Mar 1, 2009 ... This study examined the risky sexual behaviours (RSBs) of adolescents in Owerri Municipal in Imo. State. Adopting the descriptive ... sexuality information for adolescents (Afr J Reprod Health 2009; 13[1]:135-145). R SUM es comportements ..... Sexual relations among young people in developing countries: ...

  18. Socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours: A cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of great worry is that unrestricted/uncontrolled adolescents sexual behaviours may expose them to sexually transmitted infections/HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortion and dropping out of school. Thus comprehensive sex education was recommended. Keywords: Socio-Demographic, Correlates, Sexual, ...

  19. Risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: This study revealed risky sexual behaviours among Debre Tabor University students. Thus, continuous and intensified public health strategies on health education and reproductive health services are required to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of the students. Key words: Risky sexual ...

  20. Sexual Risk Behaviour Among In-School Adolescents in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Several studies have documented the high sexual activities and risky sexual behaviours among adolescents in most parts of the world thus putting them at high risk of contacting the HIV infection and other complications. This study aimed to determine sexual risk factors among adolescents in secondary schools in ...

  1. An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A total of 300 randomly selected migrant oil workers were assessed using structured questionnaires to evaluate key high – risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism. Sampling period was two months with ...

  2. Adolescent Sexual Behaviour and the Aids Pandemic: Challenge for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of HIV infections among adolescents is high due to their sexual behaviours. The best way to control the spread of HIV among adolescents is to work towards influencing their sexual beliefs and practices. Since the school brings together adolescents with varied sexual experiences, the role the school counsellor ...

  3. Family communication about HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually active adolescents in Ghana are increasingly at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. As a primary agent of socialization, the family can exert a strong influence on adolescent sexual behaviour. Therefore, to aid in the design and implementation of effective prevention programmes, it is ...

  4. Exposure to Media Content and Sexual Health Behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to Media Content and Sexual Health Behaviour among Adolescents in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal ...

  5. Risky sexual behaviour among young men in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Govinda P.; Hennink, Monique; Hinde, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    We use the Nepal Adolescents and Young Adults (NAYA) Survey of 2000 to analyse the prevalence of sexual activity and risky sexual behaviour among Nepalese males aged 14-22 years. Risky sexual behaviour is considered to be characterised by having multiple partners, or having one non-regular partner with whom a condom was not used, in the 12 months before the survey. About 9 per cent of the sexually active married men aged 14-22 years, and about 20 per cent of sexually active single men in the ...

  6. Gang masculinity and high-risk sexual behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Quinn, Katherine; Broaddus, Michelle; Pacella, Maria

    2017-02-01

    High-risk sexual behaviours include practices such as relationship violence and substance use, which often cluster together among young people in high-risk settings. Youth gang members often show high rates of such behaviours, substance use and relationship violence. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews with male and female gang members from six different gangs to explore the role of powerful socialising peer groups that set gender, sexual and relationship roles and expectations for their male and female members. High-risk sexual behaviours among gang members included sex with multiple partners and group sex. Gang norms included the belief that male members were sexually insatiable with multiple sexual partners and that female gang members should be sexually available to male members. Alcohol and drugs were seen to have a large influence on sexual desire and the inability to use condoms. Much sexual behaviour with gangs, such as group sex, was viewed with ambivalence and seen as somewhat coercive. Finally, gendered sexual expectations (boys as sexually insatiable and girls as sexually available) made forming long-term romantic relationships problematic for gang members. The influence of gang norms such as these must be addressed in future programmes and interventions with gang members.

  7. Perception of peers' behaviour regarding sexual health decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High-risk sexual behaviours are prevalent in tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria, but little is known about the social influences that bear on the reproductive health decision-making and behaviour of the undergraduates. On the other hand, perceptions regarding the behaviour and influence of peers have ...

  8. General characteristics of adolescent sexual behaviour: national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Miodrag; Miljković, Srbobran; Grbesa, Grozdanko; Visnjić, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behaviour has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behaviour. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female), aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire "Sexual Behaviour" was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners) were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia), abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behaviour is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and reproductive risks within the Serbian speaking territory. An

  9. Intimacy and sexual risk behaviour in serodiscordant male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remien, R H; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Wagner, G

    1995-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated individual-level determinants of HIV sexual risk behaviour. Very little research has been conducted to identify couple-level factors associated with unsafe sexual behaviour. As part of a three-year study of more than 100 serodiscordant male couples, we conducted an in-depth qualitative study of 15 Latino and non-Latino male couples via focus groups and a follow-up telephone survey. We identified the sexual risk behaviour that occurs in these male couples, their perceptions of susceptibility for HIV transmission, and numerous couple-level and intrapsychic factors associated with their risk behaviour. We also describe the challenges confronted by these couples and barriers to emotional intimacy and couple satisfaction. Finally, we provide suggestions for ways of intervening to facilitate improved couple functioning, pleasure, satisfaction, and communication, and ways of reducing sexual risk behaviour without loss of emotional intimacy.

  10. Sexual behaviour and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: It is recommended that sex education should start at primary school level to educate female teenagers on the dangers of early initiation of sexual activity; and ways of protecting themselves against the sexual advances of the male gender. Key Words: Female adolescents, Sexual behavior, knowledge, Sexually ...

  11. Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-10-01

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.

  12. HIV in Kenya: Sexual behaviour and quality of care of sexually transmitted diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health

  13. HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour and sexual mixing patterns among migrants in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, M. J.; Weide, J. F.; Langendam, M. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, A.

    1999-01-01

    To study (1) HIV prevalence; (2) sexual risk behaviour; (3) sexual mixing patterns; (4) determinants of disassortative (between-group) mixing among migrant groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and to gain insight into the potential for heterosexual spread of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases.

  14. Mental disorder, sexual risk behaviour, sexual violence and HIV in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...

  15. ESTIMATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND VULNERABILITY OF ADOLESCENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Stanojević

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are reproductive potential of society. Protection of their reproductive health is one of the biggest challenges of modern society. Adolescent reproductive health is endangered by early sexual activities, inadequate protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. It is necessary to take measures which would protect and improve adolescent reproductive health.Adoption of knowledge about sexuality, physiology of reproduction, protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexual infections are prerequisites for formation of correct attitudes related to family planning and taking over responsibility for their own sexual behaviour.

  16. Relationship between knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS among in-school adolescents in Delta state of Nigeria and their sexual behaviour. Method: A questionnaire based descriptive study of randomly selected secondary school students in Asaba, Delta state. Results: A total of 437 students ...

  17. The human papillomavirus immunisation programme and sexual behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has caused some parents to report concern that their daughters may change their sexual behaviour following vaccination. This concern consistently relates to vaccination acceptance, but had not been investigated in detail. Accordingly, five studies addressed the thesis objective: to explore parents’ concern about adolescent sexual behaviour following HPV vaccination in the context of the UK immunisation programme and to ...

  18. Differences in sexual behaviour and sexual practices of adolescents in Nigeria based on sex and self-reported HIV status

    OpenAIRE

    Folayan, Morenike O; Odetoyinbo, Morolake; Brown, Brandon; Harrison, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour and sexual practices affect the risk for acquisition and transmission of HIV infection. This study tries to identify differences in sexual behaviour (condom use with non-marital partners, multiple sexual partnerships transactional sex and age mixing in sexual relationships), sexual practices (oral, anal and vagina sex), and forced sexual initiation based on sex and HIV status of adolescents in Nigeria. Method Face to face interviewer-administered questionnaires wer...

  19. Mental health variables and sexual risk behaviour among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...

  20. The prevalence of risky sexual behaviours amongst undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young adults including university students are at high risk of acquiring HIV due to their risky sexual practices. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours amongst regular undergraduate students in Jigjiga University. The researcher used a quantitative, univariate cross-sectional ...

  1. Clinical and demographic factors associated with sexual behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The sexual behaviour and development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been mostly overlooked in research and practice. This study aimed to determine the association between certain clinical and demographic factors found in a sample of children with ASDs, and their reported sexual ...

  2. Sexually transmitted infections and health seeking behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually transmitted infections and health seeking behaviour among Ghanaian women in Accra. RMK Adanu, AG Hill, JD Seffah, R Darko, JK Anarfi, RB Duda. Abstract. The study was to measure the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms among women in Accra, Ghana, to identify characteristics that ...

  3. Concurrent sexual and substance-use risk behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While many studies confirm the association between HIV, alcohol and injecting drug use by female sex workers (FSWs), little is known about their use of marijuana, khat and other substances and the association of these substances with HIV, risky sexual behaviour, and sexual violence. To better understand this association, ...

  4. original article sexual behaviour and condom use among nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Background/Objective: Studies have shown that military personnel are aware and knowledgeable about. HIV/AIDS and its impact on combat preparedness and efficiency. However, this knowledge did not appear to have translated to reduced risky sexual behaviours. This study, therefore aimed at determining the sexual ...

  5. Sexual behaviour and practices among adolescent blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevertheless, they also reported on the acceptability of unprotected sex with sexual partners perceived to be HIV negative. Social status ascribed to blood donors, and mandatory HIV screening of donated blood, were protective against risky sexual behaviour. However, socio-economic and cultural factors may override this.

  6. Parental Influences on Young People's Sexual Behaviour: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Daniel; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Both family structure and processes have been associated with young people's sexual behaviour, but most studies are cross-sectional and focus on only one outcome: age at first intercourse. This paper uses longitudinal data from a survey of Scottish teenagers (N=5041) to show how low parental monitoring predicts early sexual activity for both sexes…

  7. A Risky Boundary: Unwanted Sexual Behaviour among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants…

  8. A risky boundary : Unwanted sexual behaviour among youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of

  9. Religion, religiosity and adolescent risky sexual health behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of premarital sexual intercourse among adolescents in Nigeria is alarming, despite its prohibition by several religious groups. This contradiction prompted the question: what is the prevailing relationship between religion, religiosity, and adolescents' sexual behaviour in the country? This relationship was examined ...

  10. Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge, Behaviour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    ABSTRACT. Adolescence is marked by progression from the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics to sexual and reproductive maturity. Curiosity about bodily changes is heightened. However, adolescents' perceived sexuality education needs have been poorly documented. A survey of 989 adolescents from 24.

  11. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar Uni...

  12. Meiotic chromosome behaviour and sexual sterility in two Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of meiotic chromosomes and the subsequent behaviour of the meiotic products were investigated in two Nigerian species of Aloe, namely Aloe keayi and Aloe macrocarpa var major with a view to uncovering the cause of their inability to reproduce sexually. The two plant materials used in this study were ...

  13. Sexual behaviour and condom use among university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the number of known HIV-infected students in Madagascar increased significantly between 1989 and 1995, very little is known about student behaviour with regard to AIDS. The study objectives were: to describe Malagasy students\\' sexual behaviour and condom use; to document students\\' perceptions about ...

  14. A comparison of risky sexual behaviours between circumcised and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    though male circumcision coupled with preventive behaviour reduces this risk. Objective: To compare the factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among circumcised and uncircumcised men in Bo- tswana. Methods: Nationally representative data from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey III were used. A sample of 313 ...

  15. Traditional Gender Roles As Precursors Of Risky Sexual Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... it was recommended that those in the helping professions should take cognizance of those variables that have been found to influence risky sexual behaviours and decisions among couples. The result also recommends intervention strategy to help couples achieve a better reproductive health behaviour, relationship and ...

  16. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-27

    Nov 27, 2017 ... how large his sample size needs to be to ensure a reasonable accuracy of ... graphic variables and standardised scales with acceptable .... risk behaviour. This result implies that drivers with high. Table 2. Shows multiple regression of psychological factors predicting sexual risk behaviours of. LDTDs. Model.

  17. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university ... analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and ..... risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents.

  18. Romantic, sexual, and sexual risk behaviours of adolescent females with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, J N; Zeller, M H; Noll, J G; Sarwer, D B; Reiter-Purtill, J; Michalsky, M; Peugh, J; Biro, F M

    2017-10-01

    There is an increasing adolescent population with severe obesity with impairments in social and romantic relationships that are seeking clinical weight management, including weight loss surgery (WLS). To document romantic, sexual and sexual risk behaviours in a clinical sample of adolescent females with severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m 2 ) compared to those of healthy weight (HW). This multi-site study-an ancillary to a prospective longitudinal observational study documenting health in adolescents having WLS-presents pre-operative/baseline data from 108 females undergoing WLS, 68 severely obese seeking lifestyle intervention and 118 of HW. Romantic and sexual risk behaviour and birth control information sources were assessed using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire (SAAQ). Severely obese females reported engaging in fewer romantic and sexual behaviours compared to HW. Similar to HW, a subgroup (25%) of severely females were engaging in higher rates of sexual risk behaviours and reported pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A considerable number (28-44%) reported receiving no birth control information from physicians. Discussion topics with the adolescent patient should extend beyond reproductive health needs (e.g. contraception, unintended pregnancies) to include guidance around navigating romantic and sexual health behaviours that are precursors to these outcomes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Sexual Behaviour and Practices Among Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), adolescents are persons aged 10 to 19 years. Adolescence is the progression from appearance of sexual characteristics to sexual and reproductive maturity; development of adult mental processes and adult identity and a period of transition from total ...

  20. Sexual and reproductive health knowledge, behaviour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knew when ovulation occurs, 47% knew pregnancy could result from first coitus and 56% knew of contraception. 84% opined that adolescents should be given sexuality education but only 48.3% had received any. Sexuality education should be provided for in-school adolescents through their preferred and reliable sources ...

  1. Multiple violence victimisation associated with sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in Swedish youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela

    2016-01-01

    To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.

  2. Behaviour genetics of Drosophila: Non-sexual behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Several approaches have been made to unravel the genetic complexity of the behaviour, which have provided information that may be useful in dif- ... and environment, the study of the genetic control of behaviour habits has tended to lag ... are rapidly expanding mostly due to the excellent tools for genetic analysis readily.

  3. The sexual behaviour of British backpackers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K; Downing, J; Bellis, M A; Dillon, P; Copeland, J

    2009-10-01

    To explore sexual behaviour and risk-taking among British backpackers in Australia and to investigate the influence of substance use and social settings on sexual behaviour abroad. A cross-sectional design was used. The questionnaire gathered information on sexual and substance use behaviour in the 12 months prior to leaving the UK and during backpackers' stays in Australia. A total of 1008 backpackers, recruited in hostels in Sydney and Cairns, were included in the study. In total, 73.2% had sex during their stay in Australia, including 68.9% of those who arrived without a partner. Across all backpackers, mean number of sexual partners increased from 0.3 per 4-week period in the UK in the 12 months prior to the trip to 1.0 per 4-week period spent in Australia. Over a third (39.7%) had multiple partners in Australia, increasing to 45.7% in those arriving single. Of those arriving single and having sex, 40.9% reported inconsistent condom use and 24.0% had unprotected sex with multiple partners. Number of sexual partners in the UK, length of stay in Australia at time of interview, planned length of stay, frequent visits to bars/clubs, high frequency of alcohol intake and use of illicit substances in Australia were indicators for risky sexual behaviour. Backpackers are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections and other negative sexual health outcomes. Multi-agency sexual health promotion strategies that address the relationship between sex, drugs and alcohol should be targeted at backpackers prior to, and during, their travels.

  4. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  5. Sexual-risk behaviour among sexually active first-year students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, new HIV infections are concentrated among persons aged 15–24 years. The university population falls within this age group and are prone to higher-risk behaviours that place them at risk of acquiring HIV. In a study to assess this risk among sexually active students, we classified higher-risk sexual ...

  6. Age of Sexual Debut and Patterns of Sexual Behaviour in Two Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of alcohol, with their implications for the spread of HIV and AIDS. The study underscores the need for adolescent sexual and reproductive health education and behaviour change communication among all segments of the population and inculcation of values less favourable for the spread of sexually transmitted infection.

  7. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Navarro-Cremades

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI, but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms. Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]. Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05 included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008 and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001. Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI.

  8. Effect of alcohol treatment on sexual behaviour of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Abraham, E; Velasco Plaza, A; Marin, B

    1991-08-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol treatment on sexual parameters of the male rats was studied. The results showed that the ingestion of cognac leads to significant alterations in the sexual behaviour of the male rat. Sexual parameters indicated that sexual behaviour is drastically affected by cognac consumption. The parameters affected were the number of ejaculation; initial latency, ejaculation latencies and neuromotor activities which showed significant variation (P less than 0.01). Further, mounts without, with and total intromissions and refractory periods were significantly affected by alcohol consumption. In addition, the percentage of tests during which an ejaculation was observed was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) in the alcohol-treated males when compared with control groups.

  9. Governing sexual behaviour through humanitarian codes of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    Since 2001, there has been a growing consensus that sexual exploitation and abuse of intended beneficiaries by humanitarian workers is a real and widespread problem that requires governance. Codes of conduct have been promoted as a key mechanism for governing the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers and, ultimately, preventing sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA). This article presents a systematic study of PSEA codes of conduct adopted by humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and how they govern the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers. It draws on Foucault's analytics of governance and speech act theory to examine the findings of a survey of references to codes of conduct made on the websites of 100 humanitarian NGOs, and to analyse some features of the organisation-specific PSEA codes identified. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  10. Sexual Behaviour and Interest in Using a Sexual Health Mobile App to Help Improve and Manage College Students' Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R.; Webb, Monica C.; Brinkley, Jason; Martin, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Many US college students are reported to engage in risky sexual behaviour. Smartphone applications are a popular way to provide users with information in real time. We explored the potential for mobile technology to be used in promoting the sexual health of college students. Using findings from an online survey among a random sample of 5000…

  11. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking dur...

  12. Assessment of knowledge and sexual behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and introduction: The achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly goals 5 and 6, is strongly underpinned by the progress that can be made on sexual and reproductive health education of young adults.The large population of young single adults in tertiary institutions in Nigeria and ...

  13. 5. Sexual Behaviours and Vulnerabilities to HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    counseling and testing while expanding treatment for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. INTRODUCTION. 8states that there is a real need to understand the issue of HIV/AIDS in disabled people in global terms and to design and implement programmes and policy in a more coherent and comprehensive manner. The.

  14. Reproductive, Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviour of Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a multi-stage random sampling study involving 896 male and female adolescents aged 11-25 years in Niger State of Nigeria. Thirty three per cent of them had already had first sexual experience. Only 3.6% were married. Most of the Gwari and Hausa respondents acknowledged that they married at an earlier age ...

  15. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age) attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms,...

  16. Behaviour genetics of Drosophila: Non-sexual behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sophila have low mobility due to which their survival depends largely on ... pressure. The genetic architecture of a behavioural habit may indicate the nature of the relationship between expression of the character and fitness. Characters closely ... are due mainly to the accumulation of factor for low gre- garious oviposition on ...

  17. How to improve the validity of sexual behaviour reporting: systematic review of questionnaire delivery modes in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhaug, Lisa F; Sherr, Lorraine; Cowan, Frances M

    2010-03-01

    To systematically review comparative research from developing countries on the effects of questionnaire delivery mode. We searched Medline, EMbase and PsychINFO and ISSTDR conference proceedings. Randomized control trials and quasi-experimental studies were included if they compared two or more questionnaire delivery modes, were conducted in a developing country, reported on sexual behaviours and occurred after 1980. A total of 28 articles reporting on 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of reported trial outcomes between studies made it inappropriate to combine trial outcomes. Eighteen studies compared audio computer-assisted survey instruments (ACASI) or its derivatives [personal digital assistant (PDA) or computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)] against another self-administered questionnaires, face-to-face interviews or random response technique. Despite wide variation in geography and populations sampled, there was strong evidence that computer-assisted interviews lowered item-response rates and raised rates of reporting sensitive behaviours. ACASI also improved data entry quality. A wide range of sexual behaviours were reported including vaginal, oral, anal and/or forced sex, age of sexual debut, condom use at first and/or last sex. Validation of self-reports using biomarkers was rare. These data reaffirm that questionnaire delivery modes do affect self-reported sexual behaviours and that use of ACASI can significantly reduce reporting bias. Its acceptability and feasibility in developing country settings should encourage researchers to consider its use when conducting sexual health research. Triangulation of self-reported data using biomarkers is recommended. Standardizing sexual behaviour measures would allow for meta-analysis.

  18. Alcohol and drug usage; and adolescents' sexual behaviour in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagu, Evelyn N

    2016-06-01

    This study determined students' perception of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire. The population for the study comprised all students in government secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 600 students randomly selected from the population. Means, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that there were significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean perception of the students of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours when they were classified by gender and class. All the students irrespective of age agreed that alcohol and drug usage negatively influence sexual behaviour. The students perceived that students who do not take alcohol usually control their sexual desires while rape is common with students who are drug users. It was recommended among others that preventive health programmes meant to address adolescents' sexuality should be combined with appropriate drug education for maximum benefit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Sexual risk behaviour among HIV-positive persons in Kumasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... tics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs and sexual risk behaviours. Results: Forty-four .... The ques- tionnaire covered various topics such as demographic characteristics; health information (including most re- cent CD4 cell count, current health status, year partici- pants first tested HIV positive, HIV ...

  20. Virginity, Sex, Money and Desire: Premarital Sexual Behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youths in Bolgatanga municipality in the Upper East Region in the rural north of Ghana suffer health and social problems that are caused by their premarital and unsafe sexual behaviour. This study provides more knowledge of and insight into the youths' conceptions, motives and practices concerning premarital sex in the ...

  1. Hiv/aids – related knowledge and sexual behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hiv/aids – related knowledge and sexual behaviour among secondary school students in Benin city. ... International Journal of Health Research ... 1917 students (48.7% male and 51.3% female; age: 11-24 years) systematically selected from 13 secondary schools in Benin City to assess HIV/AID related knowledge and ...

  2. Risky sexual behaviours among HIV Sero-discordant individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgound: HIV/AIDS pandemic is a great public health concern hence the need to identify interventions to prevent new infections among risk groups. Objective: To determine risky sexual behaviours among HIV sero-discordant individuals attending Defence Forces Memorial Hospital (DFMH). Design: A descriptive ...

  3. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract ... review research conducted in Cape Town on the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour. Method: A ... in school, out of school youth, adults in the community, men who have sex with men and sex workers.

  4. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social factors that included age, number of years of education, number of wives, number of intercourses in the last three months, number of partners apart from primary partners, and number of weeks spent outside home significantly jointly predicted sexual risk behaviour (R2 = .15, F(6, 147) = 4.39; p < .05) by accounting for ...

  5. Sexual Behaviour And Condom Use Among Nigerian Soldiers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, therefore aimed at determining the sexual behaviour and condom use among Nigerian Army personnel in Ilorin, Nigeria. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study using a multistage sampling technique to select 400 participants. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was administered.

  6. Sexual behaviour of Cape Town high-school students | Flisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To document prevalence rates for selected aspects of sexual behaviour among Cape Town high-school students and to conduct a survival analysis of age at first intercourse. Design. Cross-sectional survey. Setting. State high schools in Cape Town. Subjects. A multistage cluster sample of 2 740 grade 8 and 11 ...

  7. prevention decreased sexual risk behaviour after the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-01

    Dec 1, 2006 ... Condom use with casual partners increased from 53% among the men and 46% among the women before the diagnosis ... Conclusions. The ART had an overall positive effect on health with no increase of sexual risk behaviour. ... were calculated by a statistician using the computer program for binominal ...

  8. Adolescents\\' Risky Sexual Behaviour and Efficacy of Psycho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescents\\' Risky Sexual Behaviour and Efficacy of Psycho-Education Intervention Programme amoung Secondary School Students in Oyo State. GA Adejuwon, PO Olapegba, AO Taiwo. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.7(2) 2004: 205-219. Full Text:.

  9. Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviours and HIV/AIDS: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavioural factors that are driving HIV/AIDS remain largely elusive despite vast number of quantitative studies. It is widely acknowledged that sensitive issues like sexual mores are better studied, using the qualitative methods. An ethnographic semi-longitudinal study was conducted in three of Nigeria's communities ...

  10. Influence Of Sexuality Education On The Behavioural Disposition Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of sexuality education on the behavioural disposition of Nigerian adolescents and its implications for counselling. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The participants included two hundred adolescents randomly selected from ten secondary schools in Lagos State.

  11. Sexual and reproductive health risk behaviours among South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual and reproductive health risk behaviours among South African university students: results from a representative campus-wide survey. Susie Hoffman, Michael Levasseur, Joanne E. Mantell, Mags Beksinska, Zonke Mabude, Claudia Ngoloyi, Elizabeth A. Kelvin, Theresa Exner, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Lavanya Pillay, ...

  12. Sexual Behaviour and Contraceptive Use Among Student Nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a survey study designed to determine the sexual behaviour and contraceptive use among student Nurses, School of Nursing, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H.), Maiduguri, Borno State. The population of this study was the entire 136 student Nurses, School of Nursing, U.M.T.H.), Maiduguri.

  13. Sexual behaviour and patterns of contraceptive use among students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proper contraception is a likely panacea to unsafe abortions often complicated by preventable deaths. This study identified sexual behaviours and associated patterns of contraceptive use among students of higher institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional analytic study of 420 ...

  14. Influence Of Mass Media On Sexual Health Behaviour Of College ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of mass media on the sexual health behaviour of single college students in Nigeria. Simple random sampling procedure was adopted. A total of 300 pre-coded questionnaires were administered in study population. Data analysis reveals that the respondents are more frequently exposed to ...

  15. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joshua Kembo

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Terms & Conditions of ... Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young .... Communities are urged to give young people opportunities to play a role in poli-.

  16. Knowledge, sexual behaviour and attitude towards HIV/AIDS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, sexual behaviour and attitude towards HIV/AIDS in tertiary institutions in northern Ghana. F Longi. Abstract. No Abstract. Ghana Journal of Development Studies Vol.4 (1) 2007: pp. 46-59. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Impact of Health Education on Sexual Risk Behaviour of Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They could also be easily reached with health education interventions. There is as yet no global consensus on the nature, content and effectiveness of this intervention among this group. It is also not known how effective this intervention is in reducing sexual risk behaviour among secondary school students in our ...

  18. Sexual Behaviour and Perception of AIDS among Adolescent Girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the knowledge and perception of AIDS and sexual behaviour among 723 randomly selected secondary school adolescent girls, aged 13 to 18 years, was carried out in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Over 94% of the study population was aware of AIDS, while 64% rightly knew that AIDS can be transmitted ...

  19. HIV/AIDS-related sexual behaviour among commercial motorcyclists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    HIV/AIDS and related sexual behavior among commercial motorcyclists. METHODOLOGY. This study was carried out in Sagamu, the headquarters of Sagamu Local ... assessed the demographic characteristics, awareness of and HIV/AIDS related behaviour commercial motorcyclists. Statistical analysis. Data were analysed ...

  20. Date Fighting and Sexual Risk Behaviours among Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to examine the prevalence of date fighting and its role in sexual risk behaviours among 1079 boys and 1211 girls in 22 public secondary schools in Ibadan Nigeria. About 60% (1367) reported to have ever experienced at least a form of date fighting. Risk factors for date fighting in boys include, non use of ...

  1. Factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the 2002 Lesotho Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire Survey (CWIQ) data the paper examined variables associated with risky sexual behaviour among Basotho adolescents. The results of the paper suggest that HIV programmes targeting girls should be different from those targeting boys. Results further indicate ...

  2. Assessment of Sexual Behaviour, Attitude and Risk Perception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess sexual behaviour, attitudes and risk perception about HIV/AIDS among out-of-school anti-AIDS club member and non-member youths in Mettu and Bedelle towns. The study applied a case control study design. The cases are club members those registered in the out-of-school anti-AIDS clubs and actively ...

  3. Risky Sexual Behaviours among Adolescents in Owerri Municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the risky sexual behaviours (RSBs) of adolescents in Owerri Municipal in Imo State. Adopting the descriptive Survey research design, a stratified sampling technique was used to enroll 1008 adolescents aged 10 – 19 from 4 secondary schools into the study. A structured questionnaire was used for data ...

  4. Sexual Behaviours among Orphaned Adolescents in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teenage sexual behaviours present a myriad of problems to the orphaned adolescents, the immediate family, and the society, all of which invariably end up with aborted prospects of developing to the limits of their full potentials. Most of these adolescents have no knowledge of the implications of indulging in adolescent ...

  5. Religion, religiosity and adolescent risky sexual health behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contradiction prompted the question: what is the prevailing relationship between religion, religiosity, and adolescents' sexual behaviour in the country? This relationship was examined through survey data collected between December 2009 and February 2010 in the Lagos metropolis. A multistage sampling procedure ...

  6. Sexual behaviour, contraception and fertility among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross- sectional study was conducted among in-school adolescents in six secondary schools in the health districts of Ikenne Local Government to assess the sexual behaviour, contraception and fertility experiences of the adolescents between the months of May and November 2002.Relevant information was collected ...

  7. Is Poverty a Driver for Risky Sexual Behaviour? Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper contributes to conflicting evidence on the link between poverty and risky sexual behaviour by examining the effect of wealth status on age at first sex, condom use, and multiple partners using nationally representative adolescents\\' data from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. The results show that the ...

  8. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact ... decreases in drug use practices such as use of cannabis, heroin, cocaine and Ecstasy after the intervention with drug users; however, there .... institutions such as further education training colleges and spiri-.

  9. Kenyan pastors' perspectives on communicating about sexual behaviour and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; Kizito, Mary N; Mwithia, Jesica Kinya; Njoroge, Lucy; Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Davis, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    The article presents an analysis of in-depth interviews with 18 leaders of Christian churches in Nairobi, Kenya, regarding the content and context of messages they disseminate to their congregations about sexual behaviour and HIV. The content of messages was nearly consistent across the different denominations. However, three sorts of tensions were identified within pastoral communication about these topics: the need to discuss sex and HIV versus societal taboos against speaking about those issues from the pulpit; traditional cultural norms versus current lifestyles; and the ideals of abstinence and fidelity versus the reality of congregants' sexual behaviour. Although some of the religious leaders accepted the idea of condom use, no denominational patterns were noted on that subject, except with respect to Catholic priests. Pentecostal leaders were notable for describing proactive strategies to address both the ideal/real dilemma and the tension between church norms and current media content about sexuality and HIV.

  10. Sexual behaviours and preconception health in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual behaviours have been recognized as a threat for sexual and reproductive health. AIM: This article shows the results of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk" in relation to determining how a large sample of university students in Italy cope with preconception health, especially in the domains of sexual transmitted infections (STIs, fertility and vaccination preventable disease. METHODS: Twentythree questions of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey about sexual behaviour and reproductive health were analysed. Besides, results were stratified for sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: 19.7% of students have had first sexual intercourse before age 15. 21.8% of female students used emergency contraception. 66.4% of the 74.0% sexual active students reported using contraceptives, but about 32% of them used methods ineffective against STIs. A general low coverage for rubella, measles and mumps vaccination was revealed. 63.7% of men and 30.9% of woman never had urologic or gynaecological examinations. DISCUSSION: Overall, young adults in Italy are not still enough sensitized on fertility and preconception care. High schools and universities should increase awareness towards preservation of male and female fertility and preconception care.

  11. HIV health literacy, sexual behaviour and self-reports of having ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The HIV prevalence among young South African adults makes it important to understand their HIV knowledge, sexual behaviour and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) behaviour in this group. This paper presents the demographics, knowledge, sexual behaviour and cues to action as reported by sexually active students' ...

  12. GOOD HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOUR DECREASE PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISSEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The homosexual behaviour were become indicators of sexually transmitted diseases’s (STDs prevalencies. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual community was very high but until recently study it was conducted sporadically. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation of homosexual behaviour with prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency. Method:  Analytic design with cross sectional methode was used in this study. The population were all visitors of Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency (353 people. Sample were 40 people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was homosexual behaviour and the dependent variable was prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data for homosexual behaviour were collected by using questionnaire and indhept interview with content analyze and data for prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were collected by using laboratorium test for STDs. Result: The research result was presented in the form diagram, table of cross tabulation and analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level ρ=0.005. The result showed that there was correlation of homosexual knowledge (ρ=0.001, attitude (ρ=0.000 and  practice (ρ=0.000 with prevalence of STDs. Dsicussion:  It can be concluded that the better knowledge, attitude and practice of homosexual could be decrease prevalence of STDs. Futher studies are recomended to analyze the correlation between homosexual behaviour and prevalence of STDs with Health Believe approach.

  13. Problematic Sexual Behaviour in a Secure Psychiatric Setting: Challenges and Developing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth V.; Hebb, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Sexually abusive behaviours are common in a forensic psychiatric population, both before admission and while hospitalized. A survey of our medium security facility found that 41% of patients had a history of sexually abusive behaviours, ranging from convictions for sexual assault through to current episodes of sexual harassment. Most forensic…

  14. The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmerman Marleen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs. It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in relation to sexual behaviour. Discussion G. vaginalis carriage and BV occurs rarely with children, but has been observed among adolescent, even sexually non-experienced girls, contradicting that sexual transmission is a necessary prerequisite to disease acquisition. G. vaginalis carriage is enhanced by penetrative sexual contact but also by non-penetrative digito-genital contact and oral sex, again indicating that sex per se, but not necessarily coital transmission is involved. Several observations also point at female-to-male rather than at male-to-female transmission of G. vaginalis, presumably explaining the high concordance rates of G. vaginalis carriage among couples. Male antibiotic treatment has not been found to protect against BV, condom use is slightly protective, whereas male circumcision might protect against BV. BV is also common among women-who-have-sex-with-women and this relates at least in part to non-coital sexual behaviours. Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is little evidence that BV acts as an STD. Rather, we suggest BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease (SED, with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This may relate to two distinct pathogenetic mechanisms: (1 in case of unprotected intercourse alkalinisation of the vaginal niche enhances a shift from lactobacilli-dominated microflora to a BV-like type of microflora and (2 in case of unprotected and protected intercourse mechanical transfer of perineal enteric bacteria is enhanced by coitus. A similar

  15. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The study sought to establish university students' perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private). Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners' sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners' sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. More state university respondents felt exposed to HIV infections due to own sexual behaviours than their private university counterparts. Despite these revelations, only 66.56% had earlier thought of their chances of getting infected with HIV. Personal HIV risk perceptions were low, reported by 27.76% of the sexually active respondents. Almost all respondents described their fellows' sexual behaviours as either risky or very risky. PMID:24921968

  16. Analysis of sexual behaviour in male rabbits across successive tests leading to sexual exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Various parameters of sexual behaviour were studied in ten male rabbits daily tested with sexually receptive females (ovariectomized, given estradiol benzoate s.c. 5 µg/day.  The aim of this study was to analyse rabbit sexual behaviour during successive tests leading to sexual exhaustion.  We allowed copulation ad libitum and determined if sexual satiety was reached within a day and sexual exhaustion across several days.  The pair was allowed to copulate freely until the male failed to show sexual interest in that female for 30 minutes. The female was then removed and replaced by another; this procedure was repeated using as many does as needed, until the male showed no interest in any female for 2 hours. Scent-marking (chinning was also recorded, before and after the copulation test.  This whole procedure was repeated daily until the male showed no sexual behaviour at all on a given day.  Within a test, copulation ad libitum led to a gradual increase in the time interval between successive mounts and ejaculations, regardless of the day of testing.  Such increments predicted that the buck was reaching sexual satiety.  The “miss” rate (i.e., the proportion of mounts that did not culminate in ejaculation significantly increased from a median of 25 on the first day to 55 on the last day of testing.  The mean time to reach copulatory inactivity decreased from 4 hrs on the first day to 1 hr on the last day.  The total number of ejaculations within a test decreased from an average of 22 to 6 (first vs last day, respectively and the number of chin marks was reduced by 69% compared with pre-mating values, regardless of the day of testing.  All bucks eventually stopped copulating after a variable number of days (range=2-15 days.  We concluded that, following copulation ad libitum with  several females, male rabbits reach sexual satiety (i.e., they are unable to continue copulating on the same day and, after several days, they also attain

  17. Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Voon

    Full Text Available Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.

  18. Sexual behaviour under the influence of alcohol among Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A; Carballo, José L

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to compare sexual behaviour and risk and protective factors between samples of adolescents who have sex under the influence of alcohol and those who do not, and to determine predictors factors for having had sex under the influence of alcohol. We analysed differences between these two groups in sexual practices, attitudes towards HIV, subjective norms and HIV knowledge. Drawing on survey data collected from 1216 Spanish adolescents aged 14-18 (M = 15.92; SD = .76), a subset of 297 sexually experienced participants was selected. Of these, 117 reported having had sex under the influence of alcohol in the past six months (51% girls). Adolescents who combined sex and alcohol engaged more in vaginal sex, oral sex and anal sex than those who did not. Having had sex under the influence of alcohol in the past six months was associated with negative attitudes towards condom use, when there are obstacles on using them, and less consistent condom use. There were no differences in knowledge about STIs/HIV between both groups. Adolescents who combined sex and alcohol showed further characteristics associated with sexual risk. Preventive measures must address the particular characteristics of this risk group. Further evidence is need about alcohol effects on sexual behaviour.

  19. Recreational urethral sounding is associated with high risk sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Shindel, Alan W

    2012-09-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Most of the medical literature regarding recreational urethral sounding pertains to foreign body retrieval. Very little is known about men who perform sounding and do not require medical attention. Of >2000 men, who responded to a urinary and sexual wellness survey, 10% had a history of recreational urethral sounding. Compared with men who did not sound, men who did reported higher risk sexual behaviours such as multiple sexual partners, sex with strangers and reported more sexually transmitted infections. Men who seek medical attention for complications resulting from sounding should be counselled regarding the hazards of the practice. Realistic strategies for risk reduction should be discussed with men who engage in recreational sounding. To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED

  20. Sexual risk behaviours and sexual abuse in persons with severe mental illness in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Patric; Johansson, Eva; Okello, Elialilia; Allebeck, Peter; Thorson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1) casual sex during illness episodes, (2) rape by non-partners, (3) exploitation by partners, (4) non-monogamous partners, and (5) sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.

  1. Sexual risk behaviours and sexual abuse in persons with severe mental illness in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Lundberg

    Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1 casual sex during illness episodes, (2 rape by non-partners, (3 exploitation by partners, (4 non-monogamous partners, and (5 sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.

  2. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  3. Substance use and risky sexual behaviours among sexually experienced Ghanaian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doku David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between risky sexual behaviours and substance uses among Ghanaian youth were investigated. Methods An in-school cross-sectional representative survey was conducted among 12-18-year- old youth in Ghana in 2008 (N = 1195, response rate =90%. Logistic regression analyses were employed to investigate the association between substance use (tobacco use, drunkenness, marijuana use and other drug uses and risky sexual behaviours (sexual debut, condom use and number of sexual partners. Results Of all youth, 25% (28% boys and 23% girls were sexually experienced. The mean age for first sexual intercourse was 14.8 years (14.4 years for boys and 15.1 years for girls. Among the sexually experienced, 31% had multiple sexual partners. Older age (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4 and rural residency (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1 were independently associated with sexual debut while only older age (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4 was associated with condom use. Additionally, smoking (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.0-6.8, tawa use (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.3-4.7, tobacco use (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7-4.7 drunkenness (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.8 and marijuana use (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.6-7.0 were independently associated with sexual debut. Furthermore, all substance uses studied were associated with having one or multiple sexual partners. Conclusion Substance use seems to be a gateway for risky sexual behaviours among Ghanaian youth. Public health interventions should take into account the likelihood of substance use among sexually experienced youth.

  4. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of

  5. Age of Sexual Debut and Patterns of Sexual Behaviour in Two Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of high prevalence of transactional sex and spontaneous or unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol, with their implications for the spread of HIV and AIDS. The study underscores the need for adolescent sexual and reproductive health education and behaviour change communication among all segments of the ...

  6. Sexual behaviours, sex toy and sexual safety methods reported by women who have sex with women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa; Dodge, Brian; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Baldwin, Aleta; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Background Relative to women who engage in sex with exclusively men or women, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) are more likely to report a history of sexually transmissible infections. Knowledge of the diversity and specificity of the sexual behaviours in which they engage may provide insight into the behavioural modes of infection. The present study sought to document a range of behaviours including concurrent multi-person sexual activity (e.g. orgy, threesome), anal sexual activity and sex toy use. Barrier use methods during specific behaviours were also assessed. Eighty women who reported recent genital contact with at least one man and one woman were recruited via targeted Internet, venue-based and snowball sampling methods. Consenting participants were directed to an online survey. During an in-person timeline follow-back interview (the SEQUENCE(©) calendar method), a subset of participants (n=53) provided detailed sexual behaviour data for each sexual partner over the previous 12 months. Almost three-quarters of the sample reported at least one concurrent multi-person sexual activity. Nearly two-thirds of participants reported engaging in sexual behaviour that involved their own (66.7%) or their partner's (49.4%) anus in the past year. Barrier use for sexual behaviours other than penile-vaginal intercourse was uncommon. Behaviours and safety strategies were similar with men and women regardless of partner gender. The sexual repertoires reported by participants in this study were diverse. Understanding the range of diverse sexual behaviours of the participants may enable the construction of tailored recommendations for sexual health maintenance among WSWM.

  7. Youth sexual behaviour in a boomtown: implications for the control of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, S; Shoveller, J; Ostry, A; Koehoorn, M

    2008-06-01

    Northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is undergoing rapid in-migration of young, primarily male, workers in response to the "boom" in the oil/gas industries. Chlamydia rates in the region exceed the provincial average by 32% (294.6 cases per 100 000 persons compared with 213.3). Evidence indicates that sociocultural and structural determinants of young people's sexual health are key to consider in the design of interventions. To investigate how sociocultural and structural features related to the oil/gas boom are perceived to affect the sexual behaviour of youth in a Northeastern "boomtown". The study included ethnographic fieldwork (8 weeks) and in-depth interviews with 25 youth (ages 15-25 years) and 14 health/social service providers. Participants identified four main ways in which the sociocultural and structural conditions created by the boom affect sexual behaviours, fuelling the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): mobility of oil/gas workers; binge partying; high levels of disposable income and gendered power dynamics. The sociocultural and structural conditions that are fostered by a resource-extraction boom appear to exacerbate sexual health inequalities among youths who live and work in these rapidly urbanising, remote locales. To meet the needs of this population, we recommend STI prevention and testing service delivery models that incorporate STI testing outreach to oil/gas workers and condom distribution. Global, national and local STI control efforts should consider the realities and needs of similar subpopulations of young people.

  8. Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education ...

  9. Wealth and sexual behaviour among men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS in Cameroon revealed a higher prevalence of HIV in richest and most educated people than their poorest and least educated compatriots. It is not certain whether the higher prevalence results partly or wholly from wealthier people adopting more unsafe sexual behaviours, surviving longer due to greater access to treatment and care, or being exposed to unsafe injections or other HIV risk factors. As unsafe sex is currently believed to be the main driver of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, we designed this study to examine the association between wealth and sexual behaviour in Cameroon. Methods We analysed data from 4409 sexually active men aged 15–59 years who participated in the Cameroon DHS using logistic regression models, and have reported odds ratios (OR with confidence intervals (CI. Results When we controlled for the potential confounding effects of marital status, place of residence, religion and age, men in the richest third of the population were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.32–0.56 and more likely to have had at least two concurrent sex partners in the last 12 months (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12–1.19 and more than five lifetime sex partners (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60–2.43. However, there was no difference between the richest and poorest men in the purchase of sexual services. Regarding education, men with secondary or higher education were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.16–0.38 and more likely to have started sexual activity at age 17 years or less (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.10–3.56 and had more than five lifetime sexual partners (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.02–3.31. There was no significant association between education and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships in the last 12 months or purchase of sexual services

  10. A comparison between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    2005-01-01

    Background This study examines gender differences (and similarities) in the context, meaning and effects of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools. Purpose First, the study's purpose is exploration of variables that discriminate between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual

  11. The prevalence of sexual activity, and sexual dysfunction and behaviours in postmenopausal woman in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila B. Czajkowska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the aging of the population, there is limited data available about sexual life and behaviours among of postmenopausal and late postmenopausal women. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, behaviours, and preferences in the Polish population in 2015. Material and methods: This observational survey study involved 538 women, of whom 220 were over 50 years old. The main focus was on the differences and changes between older age groups, mainly 50-59 years and over 60 years. Results : For 80.9% of the women above 50 years old, sex played at least a moderately important role in life. Sex was definitely important and very important for 40.45% of them. Most women over 50 years old (65.5% were sexually active. Regardless of age, the respondents were more likely to have sexual intercourse several times a month. Less than half of the women over 50 years old (42.7% realised their sexual fantasies. Women in the group of 50-59 years old statistically less often than younger women declared that the frequency of intercourse they had was too small. There was a statistical tendency showing that women up to 49 years old declared more sexual problems than older women. Women over 50 years old reported fewer problems in comparison to younger women, e.g. less often they claimed that sex is not pleasurable (p = 0.064. Conclusions : The prevalence of sexual activity declines with age, yet a substantial number of woman engage in vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation even past the seventh decade of life.

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and...

  13. Correlates of sexual behaviour of rural college youth in Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ghule, Mohan; Donta, Balaiah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Although premarital sex relationships are widely discouraged in India, some youth do form such relationships. It is important to understand the nature and extent of youth sexual behaviour and examine the relationship between individual characteristics, knowledge and attitude towards reproductive health issues and sexual behaviour. In order to study the sexual behaviour of rural youth, quantitative data have been collected among 1500 students (800 male and 700 female) and qualitative...

  14. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...

  15. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner...

  16. Enhanced attentional bias towards sexually explicit cues in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy J Mechelmans

    Full Text Available Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance 'behavioural' addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB.

  17. Enhanced attentional bias towards sexually explicit cues in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelmans, Daisy J; Irvine, Michael; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Mitchell, Simon; Mole, Tom B; Lapa, Tatyana R; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance 'behavioural' addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB.

  18. Urbanisation, poverty and sexual behaviour: the tale of five African cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Meredith J; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo; Jayaraman, Anuja

    2011-01-01

    The question of how urbanisation and poverty are linked in sub-Saharan Africa is an increasingly pressing one. The urban character of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa exacerbates concern about the urbanisation - poverty relationship. Recent empirical work has linked urban poverty, and particularly slum residence, to risky sexual behaviour in Kenya's capital city, Nairobi. This paper explores the generalisability of these assertions about the relationship between urban poverty and sexual behaviour using Demographic and Health Survey data from five African cities: Accra (Ghana), Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), Harare (Zimbabwe), Kampala (Uganda) and Nairobi (Kenya). The study affirms that, although risky behaviour varies across the five cities, slum residents demonstrate riskier sexual behaviour compared with non-slum residents. There is earlier sexual debut, lower condom usage and more multiple sexual partners among women residing in slum households regardless of setting, suggesting a relatively uniform effect of urban poverty on sexual risk behaviour.

  19. Sex play and behavioural sexualization in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M; Signoret, J P

    1984-01-01

    The patterns of adult copulatory behaviour can be observed in piglets. This sex play is more frequent in young boars than in young sows and reaches a peak during the second neonatal month. The castration of young boars within 5 min after birth (7 animals) eliminated the intense sex play of the second month. Gonadectomy at 30 days (3 animals) did not change mounting frequency during the second month, but reduced it during the third month. Castration at 60 days (7 animals) did not influence later mounting frequency. As adults (6 to 8 months of age), boars castrated at birth or at 30 or 60 days displayed typical female immobilization after an injection of 1 mg of oestradiol benzoate intramuscularly. In those castrated at 120 or 150 days of age (4 animals in each case) the female reaction was observed in only 35% of cases. No female response was observed in boars castrated at 180 days (3 animals). Sexualization of the nervous mechanisms of sexual behaviour in boars develops slowly and progressively during the prepubertal period and is independent of the evolution of sex play.

  20. Planned sexual behaviour of young Australian visitors to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, B P; Hu, M; Thompson, M; Lin, F; Lupton, D; Mills, D; Maund, M; Cass, R; Millar, D

    1993-04-19

    To research the knowledge of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases among young Australian tourists to Thailand, and their intended sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional survey by anonymous, self-administered questionnaire, of persons seeking pre-travel medical advice in private clinics in five Australian cities. 213 consecutive patients travelling to Thailand without a spouse or partner. Only 34% of the sample reported a definite intention not to have sex in Thailand. Regarding choice of potential partners: 24.5% more men than women said they would have sex with a Thai national; 13.7% of men said they would have sex with a "bar girl"; and 21.7% more women than men said they would choose a fellow Australian traveller. Eighty-two per cent of the sample reported that they would use condoms 100% of the time, and there was no significant difference between the number of men and women who expressed this intention. Although not obviously "sex tourists", many young Australian travellers are likely to have sex while visiting Thailand. These data have important implications for education and prevention programs to control the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  1. Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J

    2006-06-01

    Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent-child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style.

  2. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, A.; Wight, D.; Hunt, K.; Henderson, M.; Sargent, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14–15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable ana...

  3. Serotonin, serotonergic receptors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, B; van Oorschot, R; Waldinger, M D

    1998-07-01

    The serotonergic system in the brain modulates many types of behavioural and physiological processes. An example of this modulatory function is seen with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which enhance serotonin transmission and influence mood, anxiety states, aggression, feeding and sexual behaviour. At present, 14 different serotonin receptors have been described and, although the function and localization of many of these receptors is becoming increasingly clear, much remains unknown. The SSRIs are intriguing drugs; by blocking presynaptic and somatodendritic serotonin transporters, they enhance serotonergic neurotransmission and thereby activate serotonin receptors. It is this effect which leads to the characteristic effects of the SSRIs. Theoretically, however, it appears possible that they may have differential effects on the various subpopulations of serotonin receptors. Differences between the SSRIs have recently been reported in males with rapid ejaculation; fluvoxamine, in contrast to other SSRIs, did not affect rapid ejaculation. What difference in the mechanism of action between the SSRIs is responsible for this differential profile? A conditioned taste aversion procedure has been used in mice to investigate the discriminatory stimuli (cues) of fluvoxamine and fluoxetine. It appeared that the discriminatory stimulus of fluvoxamine is primarily mediated via 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)1A receptors, whilst that of fluoxetine is primarily mediated via 5-HT2C receptors. Both types of receptors have been implicated in depression and it is conceivable that different SSRIs have intrinsic activity at these receptors. Investigations are now ongoing to determine whether this differential mechanism of action also applies to the other SSRIs and whether there are differences between the SSRIs with respect to their effect on sexual behaviour in rodents.

  4. HIV/AIDS, poverty and risky sexual behaviour in South Africa | le R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper employs data from the 1998 South African Demographic and Health Survey in exploring the nature of socio-economic inequalities in and determinants of risky sexual behaviour. Risky sexual behaviour was associated with poverty only in the case of multiple partnerships. Affluent women that have engaged in ...

  5. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN POSITIVE SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AMONG YOUTH IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Clifford; Somefun, Oluwaseyi Dolapo; Chisumpa, Vesper H

    2018-04-10

    SummaryThe question of youth sexual behaviour has been widely debated, with researchers such as Berhan and Berhan (2015) arguing that young adults aged 15-24 are more likely to engage in risky behaviours. However, research has not adequately addressed the issue of positive sexual behaviours, in particular among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. Adapting the compensatory model of risk and resiliency theory, this study examined the determinants of positive sexual behaviours among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Using recent data from Demographic and Health Surveys of sixteen countries representative of each African region (East, West, Southern and Central), it was hypothesized that positive sexual behaviours of youth (condom use at last sex and single sexual partnership) would be most strengthened by protective factors at the individual and family levels, and that these behaviours would differ by region due to regional variation in socio-cultural practices. Delayed age at sexual debut (first sex after the age of 15) was found to be the strongest protective factor for positive sexual behaviours among males and females in sub-Saharan Africa. Certain socioeconomic variables were found to be positively associated with positive sexual behaviours and the associations differed by gender.

  6. Sexual sensation seeking, sexual compulsivity, and high-risk sexual behaviours among gay/bisexual men in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Liu, Yong; Zheng, Yong

    2016-09-01

    High-risk sexual behaviours (HRSBs), such as having male casual sexual partners (MCSPs) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), are combined with a high prevalence of HIV infection among gay/bisexual men. Sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC), which are intrapersonal factors, were observed to have associations with HRSB among gay/bisexual men in Western nations. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between SSS, SC, socio-demographic factors, and HRSB (defined as having MCSP and UAI with MCSP) among self-identified gay and bisexual men in Southwest China. The study was cross-sectional, with a sample of 436 respondents. And their mean age was 24.5 years. The results confirmed that SSS, SC, and sexual attitude are associated with both having MCSP and UAI with MCSP in the Chinese cultural context, among the subgroup of men who have sex with men. Being older, not a student, and having transactional sex in the last 6 months were independently associated with having MCSP. Lower educational level, unemployed, having a relationship with a man, and an unsure HIV status were independently associated with UAI with MCSP. This study indicates that SSS and SC are cross-cultural personality traits related to HRSB. The results of this study may shed light on HIV prevention among gay/bisexual men in China.

  7. Exploring the Causes of Change in Adolescent Girls' Sexual Behaviour in Begoro, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyan, Sylvia E

    2017-06-01

    There is a changing trend in adolescent girls' sexual and reproductive behaviour in Ghana. However, contemporary perspectives on adolescent girls' sexual behaviours are largely missing hence this study. Thematic analysis of data collected through in-depth interviews with adolescent girls and community members as well as focus group discussions with adolescent boys identified several factors accounting for the changes in adolescent girls' sexual and reproductive behaviour. These factors include changes in girls' attitudes to traditional practices, diversity in the agents of socialization as well as the age at menarche. This has resulted in a clash of value system between girls' sexual behaviours and that of the elderly. Thus, the social context in which girls are experiencing sexual and reproductive life in Ghana is changing and this must be taken into consideration when designing any intervention to help adolescent girls become resilient in their sexual and reproductive lives.

  8. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…

  9. African-American men's exposure to music videos and their sexual attitudes and risk behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diclemente, Ralph J; Alexander, Adannaa O; Braxton, Nikia D; Ricks, Janelle M; Seth, Puja

    2013-07-01

    Media is a social determinant of HIV and sexually transmissible infection (STI) risk. However, limited empirical data have examined men's media exposure and their sexual attitudes and behaviour towards women. Eighty heterosexual African-American men were assessed on their exposure to music videos, sexual attitudes and behaviour. They also were tested for STIs. Findings indicated that men influenced by music videos reported more sexual adventurism, more condom barriers, more lifetime sexual partners, more condom request refusals, substance abuse and a history of incarceration. Further longitudinal research is needed to better understand this relationship and to address the role of media in HIV and STI prevention interventions.

  10. Do similar neural systems subserve aggressive and sexual behaviour in male rats? Insights from c-Fos and pharmacological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, Jan G.; Coolen, LM; de Jong, TR; Joosten, Henk W.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Olivier, B; Coolen, Lique M.; Boer, Sietze F. de

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared

  11. Do similar neural systems subserve aggressive and sexual behaviour in male rats? Insights from c-Fos and pharmacological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M.; Jong, T.R. de; Joosten, H.W.M.; Boer, S.F. de; Koolhaas, J.M.; Olivier, B.

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared

  12. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.

  13. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Self-reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that ...

  14. Happiness, rather than depression, is associated with sexual behaviour in partnered older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Jaspers, Loes; Pitts, Marian; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-19

    The relation between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and sexual behaviour is understudied in older adult groups. To examine the relation between PPWB (positive affect and life satisfaction) and sexual behaviour (sexual activity and physical tenderness) in older adults, and whether it is independent from depressive symptoms and uniform across older age groups. Cross-sectional. Community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Sexual behaviour, the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and partner status were assessed in 2,373 dementia-free older adults from the Rotterdam Study. For partnered participants, greater positive affect and life satisfaction was associated with more sexual activity and physical tenderness. Although CES-D was negatively associated with sexual behaviour within partnered older adults, there was no association between the negative affect sub-scale and sexual behaviour. The relations were independent of depressive symptoms, physical health and chronic disease status and were observed for both sexes at all older ages. For unpartnered participants, greater life satisfaction and was associated with more physical tenderness. There was low prevalence of sexual behaviour in unpartnered participants, limiting further stratification. Greater PPWB was associated with more sexual behaviour in partnered, community-dwelling older adults. We are the first to demonstrate that sexual behaviour is associated with PPWB, rather than lack of depressive symptoms; and that the association was present at all ages for partnered older adults. Limited conclusions can be drawn for unpartnered older adults as their sexual behaviour was infrequent. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS. Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of clients indicated possible dependence on alcohol or other drugs, and these clients were likely to cite their substance use as related to their attendance, and to accept the offer of help or advice. Conclusion The use of brief screening instruments as part of routine clinical practice is recommended. The STI clinic is well placed to identify substance use and to offer advice and/or onward referral to specialist services.

  16. Evaluating the Need for Sex Education in Developing Countries: Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections/HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…

  17. The Sexual Behaviour of Secondary School Adolescent Students in Tanzania: Patterns and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Madan Mohan Laddunuri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A surge of sexual interest occurs around puberty and continues through adolescence. Heightened adolescent sexuality may be caused by a number of factors, including bodily changes, sexual hormones, social forces, and rehearsal for adult gender roles. The main objective of the present study is to understand the patterns and trends of adolescent students’ sexual behaviour in Tanzania.Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted and 550 secondary school students (1...

  18. Prospective cohort study of childhood behaviour problems and adolescent sexual risk-taking: gender matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Marino, Jennifer; Rosenthal, Susan L; Cannon, Jeffrey; Doherty, Dorota A; Hickey, Martha

    2017-11-01

    Background Externalising (delinquent, aggressive) and internalising (anxious/depressed, withdrawn) behaviour problems are prevalent in childhood. Few studies have prospectively measured relationships between childhood behaviour problems and adolescent health risk behaviour, a major predictor of morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine relationships, by gender, between childhood behaviour problems and adolescent risky sexual behaviours and substance use. In a population-based birth cohort [The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study], total, externalising and internalising behaviour problems (domain-specific T≥60) were calculated from parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist at ages 2, 5, 8, 10 and 14 years. At age 17 years, 1200 (49% male) participants reported sexual and substance use activity Results: For both genders, those with earlier externalising behaviour problems were more likely to be sexually active (oral sex or sexual intercourse) by age 17 years. Males with childhood externalising behaviour problems were more likely to have multiple sexual partners by age 17 years than those without such problems [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-5.86]. Females with childhood externalising behaviour problems were more likely to have had unwanted sex (aOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04-3.53). Externalising behaviour problems were associated with substance use for both genders. No association was found between internalising behaviour problems and risky behaviour. Externalising behaviour problems from as early as 5 years old in boys and 8 years old in girls predict a range of risky sexual behaviour in adolescence, which has important implications for targeting interventions in adolescence.

  19. Cholinergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic control of sexual behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Per

    2000-01-01

    acethylcholine, noradrenalin, GABA, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, rat, human, male, female......acethylcholine, noradrenalin, GABA, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, rat, human, male, female...

  20. Sexual assault in childhood: risk HIV and AIDS behaviours in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandure, C

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that sexual assault in childhood is a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control in adulthood. It comprised 40 participants who were survivors of child sexual abuse and 40 participants who were not sexually abused. The sample had 20 sexually abused men, 20 non sexually abused men, 20 sexually abused women and 20 non sexually abused women. The group that had men and women who had a history of sexual assault reported higher HIV and AIDS risk behaviours than the non-abused comparison group. The survivors of sexual assault also had higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide ideation and external locus of control. They reported low self-esteem. This unhealthy psychological functioning was found to be a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control. Implications for future research are discussed.

  1. The Influence of Knowledge and Awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) on Change in Sexual Behaviour of Fresh Undergraduates of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, W. O.; Okewole, J. O.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the influence of knowledge and awareness of sexually transmitted diseases on change in sexual behaviour of fresh undergraduates with a view to providing useful suggestions for positive sexual behaviour of adolescents. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. A sample of 600 fresh undergraduates was selected from the…

  2. Sexual risk behaviour of rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional behavioural survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, T; Anderson, C; Evans, C; Rahman, M S

    2010-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research in Bangladesh has mainly focused on key vulnerable groups (e.g. sex workers, drug users). In order to develop appropriate HIV prevention strategies in an evolving epidemic, there is a need for evidence on sexual practices in other population groups. This research aims to describe the prevalence of risky behaviours and factors affecting sexual behaviour/practices among rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka. Cross-sectional study. This paper reports on the cross-sectional survey component of a mixed methods research study amongst migrant workers in Bangladesh. The sample (n = 437) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka (aged 18-35 years). The survey data were analysed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Very high levels of pre- and extramarital sexual behaviour were found (84% and 51%, respectively) amongst the sample (n = 437). The reported sexual activity included high levels of risky/unsafe sex in the past year: 64% of the sample reported sex with multiple commercial sex partners (mean = 13.21), and 21.7% reported sex with other males/transgenders (mean = 2.53). Protection against risk was low: 78.2% reported that their last commercial sexual encounter was unprotected, and only 5.6% used condoms consistently. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher in migrant men who were not married (odds ratio 35.3, P driver of risky sexual practices. This study provides important new information for understanding the dynamics of sexual behaviour in Bangladesh, and suggests that migrant men should be a key population for HIV prevention efforts. Nonetheless, the fact that most men were having unprotected sex with sex workers reinforces the importance of continuing to target interventions towards commercial sex contexts. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse and peer sexual contact among an urban sample of behaviourally bisexual Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, Brian; Levine, Ethan C; Martinez, Omar; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Bauermeister, José; Fernandez, M Isa; Operario, Don; Rodriguez-Diaz, Carlos

    2017-09-20

    While previous research indicates high rates of childhood sexual abuse among Latino men who have sex with men, few studies have examined the long-term health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse specifically among behaviourally bisexual Latino men. In a sample of 148 behaviourally bisexual Latino men in New York City, we examined associations between childhood sexual abuse and multiple dimensions of adult health: sexual risk behaviours; sexually transmitted infections incidence; polydrug use; depressive symptoms; and perceived stress. We compared outcomes between those with histories of childhood sexual abuse, those reporting peer sexual contact prior to age 13 and those with no sexual contact prior to age 13. Over one-fifth (22.3%) reported a history of childhood sexual abuse, which was significantly associated with engaging in receptive condomless anal intercourse (aOR = 3.59, p childhood sexual abuse screening and culturally appropriate treatment and care into practice.

  4. Gender relations, sexual behaviour, and risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections among women in union in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankinga, Olivia; Misinde, Cyprian; Kwagala, Betty

    2016-05-26

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major reproductive and public health concern, especially in the era of HIV/AIDS. This study examined the relationship between sexual empowerment and STI status of women in union (married or cohabiting) in Uganda, controlling for sexual behaviour, partner factors, and women's background characteristics. The study, based on data from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), analysed 1307 weighted cases of women age 15-49 in union and selected for the domestic violence module. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the predicators of STI status. The main explanatory variables included sexual empowerment, involvement in decision making on own health, experience of any sexual violence, condom use during last sex with most recent partner, number of lifetime partners and partner control behaviours. Sexual empowerment was measured with three indicators: a woman's reported ability to refuse sex, ability to ask her partner to use a condom, and opinion regarding whether a woman is justified to refuse sex with her husband if he is unfaithful. Results show that 28 % of women in union reported STIs in the last 12 months. Sexual violence and number of lifetime partners were the strongest predictors of reporting STIs. Women's sexual empowerment was a significant predictor of their STI status, but, surprisingly, the odds of reporting STIs were greater among women who were sexually empowered. Reporting of STIs was negatively associated with a woman's participation in decision-making with respect to her own health, and was positively associated with experience of sexual violence, partner's controlling behaviour, and having more than one life partner. Our findings suggest that, with respect to STIs, sexual empowerment as measured in the study does not protect women who have sexually violent and controlling partners. Interventions promoting sexual health must effectively address negative

  5. Gender relations, sexual behaviour, and risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections among women in union in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Nankinga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are a major reproductive and public health concern, especially in the era of HIV/AIDS. This study examined the relationship between sexual empowerment and STI status of women in union (married or cohabiting in Uganda, controlling for sexual behaviour, partner factors, and women’s background characteristics. Methods The study, based on data from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS, analysed 1307 weighted cases of women age 15–49 in union and selected for the domestic violence module. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the predicators of STI status. The main explanatory variables included sexual empowerment, involvement in decision making on own health, experience of any sexual violence, condom use during last sex with most recent partner, number of lifetime partners and partner control behaviours. Sexual empowerment was measured with three indicators: a woman’s reported ability to refuse sex, ability to ask her partner to use a condom, and opinion regarding whether a woman is justified to refuse sex with her husband if he is unfaithful. Results Results show that 28 % of women in union reported STIs in the last 12 months. Sexual violence and number of lifetime partners were the strongest predictors of reporting STIs. Women’s sexual empowerment was a significant predictor of their STI status, but, surprisingly, the odds of reporting STIs were greater among women who were sexually empowered. Reporting of STIs was negatively associated with a woman’s participation in decision-making with respect to her own health, and was positively associated with experience of sexual violence, partner’s controlling behaviour, and having more than one life partner. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, with respect to STIs, sexual empowerment as measured in the study does not protect women who have sexually violent and controlling

  6. Pornography consumption and non-marital sexual behaviour in a sample of young Indonesian university students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Mulya, Teguh Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    between pornography consumption and common non-marital sexual behaviours was explored. The study found that in this sample, pornography is as widely and readily consumed as in comparable international studies predominantly utilising Western background samples from more sexually liberal and less religious...... countries with very few laws on pornography. Gender differences in patterns of pornography consumption were pronounced and comparable with findings in international counterpart studies. For men only, pornography consumption was found to significantly predict common sexual behaviours in non-marital relations....... The study is the first to provide insights into prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption and its association with common non-marital sexual behaviours in a sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws....

  7. Clinical and demographic factors associated with sexual behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurike Fourie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sexual behaviour and development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have been mostly overlooked in research and practice. This study aimed to determine the association between certain clinical and demographic factors found in a sample of children with ASDs, and their reported sexual behaviour (RSB. Methods: The study was conducted at a school in Gauteng, South Africa, for learners with ASDs. Two questionnaires completed by caregivers/parents enquired about family stability, clinical profile and RSB (if any in their child. RSB was analysed via three domains: self-care, socio-sexual skills and actual RSB, with additional information from school records. Results: Of the 107 questionnaires distributed, only 31 parents responded and 24 agreed to participate. The 24 (100% children included 10 pubertal and 14 pre-pubertal children, of which 18 (n = 18 had more stable primary caregiver statuses as well as more stable socioeconomic and family environments. Two of the 14 pre-pubertal children had abnormal self-care, whereas none of the 10 pubertal children had any abnormal self-care. Eight of the 18 children from more stable environments displayed abnormal sexual behaviours. Of the 6 children from less stable environments, two displayed more abnormal socio-sexual skills, whereas 9 of the 18 children from more stable environments displayed more abnormal sexual behaviour. In contrast with the postulated hypothesis that children from less stable socioeconomic and family environments would exhibit more abnormal sexual behaviours, this study did not find any evidence of such a relationship or association. Conclusion: ASDs are characterised by deficits in communication and social skills. These may lead to an affected individual struggling to develop appropriate sexual behaviour. If specific risk factors that contribute to the development of abnormal sexual behaviour can be identified, one can try to modify/prevent these where

  8. The concentration of sexual behaviours in the USA: a closer examination of subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chesson, Harrell W; Sternberg, Maya; Aral, Sevgi O

    2010-12-01

    To examine the frequency of three sexual behaviours from the most active to the least active members of the population in various subpopulations using measures of inequality. Data from a US national probability sample of the population aged 15-44 years (National Survey of Family Growth) were used. Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves were calculated in order to examine the concentration of three sexual behaviours: vaginal sex acts (past 4 weeks) and number of opposite-sex partners (past 12 months; lifetime). Analyses were conducted separately for men and women and subpopulations of interest (by age, race/ethnicity, educational level and poverty level). The sexual behaviours examined were concentrated within the most active members of the population. This concentration was most pronounced for vaginal sex acts in the past 4 weeks and lifetime opposite-sex partners, with the top 5% of each population accounting for more of the sexual behaviour than the bottom 50% of the population. Sexual behaviours were most concentrated among adolescents, the least educated and the most impoverished. Some subpopulations had similar mean or median numbers of sex acts (or sex partners), but had different degrees of concentration of these behaviours. Finally, the most impoverished men and women had the highest concentration levels for two of the three sexual behaviours (vaginal sex acts, opposite-sex partners in past 12 months). Given that sexual behaviours tended to be highly concentrated in subpopulations that are often at the highest risk of sexually transmitted infections, targeted interventions may be the most efficient method to reduce risk in these groups while minimising potential unintended consequences.

  9. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  10. Sexually Abusive Behaviour in Juveniles: Deviant and Non-Deviant Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Outsem, Ron

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework is presented in an attempt to find an answer to the question of why some juveniles display sexually abusive behaviour and others do not. Until recently, this question has been approached mainly in terms of the presence of psychiatric illness, deviant sexual interests and/or impaired psychosocial development.…

  11. Sexuality in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder : Self-reported behaviours and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Lobbestael, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were

  12. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Lobbestael, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were

  13. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Self-reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074723286; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were

  14. Predictors of sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study design was used to assess sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices among students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia, in 2009. Among 1 220 students eligible for the study, approximately 29% reported experience of sex (36.3% of the males and 9.3% of the females). Of the total sexually ...

  15. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Njabulo Nkomazana

    2014-06-12

    Jun 12, 2014 ... http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rsah20. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe .... risk of the disease. In the context of HIV, an individual's percep- tion of the risk of HIV infections often affects a number of factors such as whether or not ...

  16. Covariates of high-risk sexual behaviour of men aged 50 years and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Furthermore, high-risk sexual behaviour by the older adults can lead to increased prevalence of HIV/AIDS among the younger age groups. This is because other studies have found that some older men are involved in sexual relationships with younger women over whom they have power and influence ...

  17. Food insecurity, HIV/AIDS pandemic and sexual behaviour of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of hunger and food insecurity in the sexual behaviour of female commercial sex workers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria within the context of HIV/AIDS. In addition, the study investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and induced abortion among the respondents.

  18. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.

  19. Risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Abstract. Introduction: Youth are the foundation of any society. Neglecting their sexual and reproductive health leads to high social and economic crisis. However, there is limited information on the sexual and reproductive health aspects of University students in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess risky sexual ...

  20. Risky Sexual Behaviour Associated with Alcohol Consumption among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    The relationship between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior has been found by several researchers, studies by (6), (7) had found that adolescents who use alcohol and drugs were more likely to have more sexual partners, more casual sex partners and higher risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.

  1. Sexual behaviour of male rats after gamma-irradiation: some radiobiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, I.B.; Rogacheva, I.V.; Stroganova, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A pronounced and stable decrease in sexual motivation of male rats immediately after γ-irradiation of the head with a dose of 2.58 C/kg is shown. Exposure of the body to 1.29-2.58 C/kg radiation also inhibited sexual behaviour but only by the 45th-55th minute following irradiation: with higher doses some increase in sexual activity was observed immediately after irradiation

  2. Alcohol Involvement in Sexual Behaviour and Adverse Sexual Health Outcomes from 26 to 38 Years of Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie L Connor

    Full Text Available Research on alcohol and sexual behaviour has focused on young adults or high-risk groups, showing alcohol use contributing to riskier sexual choices. Adults now in their late thirties have been exposed to heavier drinking norms than previously, raising questions about effects on sexual wellbeing. We examined self-reported use and consequences of alcohol in sexual contexts, and its association with usual drinking pattern at age 38, and also associations of heavy drinking occasion (HDO frequency with number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and terminations of pregnancy (TOPs, from 26-32 and 32-38 years of age.Members of the Dunedin Study birth cohort answered computer-presented questions about sexual behaviour and outcomes, and interviewer-administered alcohol consumption questions, at age 26, 32 and 38 years.Response level was >90% at each assessment. At 38, drinking before or during sex in the previous year was common (8.2% of men; 14.6% of women reported "usually/always", and unwanted consequences were reported by 13.5% of men and 11.9% of women, including regretted sex or failure to use contraception or condoms. Frequent heavy drinkers were more likely to "use alcohol to make it easier to have sex" and regret partner choice, particularly women. Heavy drinking frequency was strongly associated with partner numbers for men and women at 32, but only for women at 38. Significantly higher odds of STIs amongst the heaviest drinking men, and TOPs amongst the heaviest drinking women were seen at 32-38.Alcohol involvement in sex continues beyond young adulthood where it has been well documented, and is common at 38. Women appear to be more affected than men, and heavy drinking is associated with poorer outcomes for both. Improving sexual health and wellbeing throughout the life course needs to take account of the role of alcohol in sexual behaviour.

  3. Sexual behaviour of women in rural South Africa: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Henk Dubbink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual behaviour is a core determinant of the HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI epidemics in women living in rural South Africa. Knowledge of sexual behaviour in these areas is limited, but constitutes essential information for a combination prevention approach of behavioural change and biomedical interventions. Methods This descriptive study was conducted in rural Mopani District, South Africa, as part of a larger study on STI. Women of reproductive age (18–49 years who reported sexual activity were included regardless of the reason for visiting the facility. Questionnaires were administered to 570 women. We report sexual behaviour by age group, ethnic group and self-reported HIV status. Results Young women (34 years; there was no difference for condom use during last sex act (36 % overall. Sotho women were more likely to report concurrent sexual partners whereas Shangaan women reported more frequent intravaginal cleansing and vaginal scarring practice in our analysis. HIV-infected women were older, had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners, reported more frequent condom use during the last sex act and were more likely to have a known HIV-infected partner than women without HIV infection; hormonal contraceptive use, fellatio, and a circumcised partner were less often reported. Conclusions This study provides insight into women’s sexual behaviour in a rural South African region. There are important differences in sexual behaviour by age group and ethnicity and HIV status; these should be taken into account when designing tailor-made prevention packages.

  4. The Sexual Behaviour of Secondary School Adolescent Students in Tanzania: Patterns and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Laddunuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A surge of sexual interest occurs around puberty and continues through adolescence. Heightened adolescent sexuality may be caused by a number of factors, including bodily changes, sexual hormones, social forces, and rehearsal for adult gender roles. The main objective of the present study is to understand the patterns and trends of adolescent students’ sexual behaviour in Tanzania.Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted and 550 secondary school students (13 to 19 years old were recruited by using a multistage random sampling technique from Tanzania’s secondary schools. The data collection tool was a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed by using SPSS software package version 16.Results: More than one third (40.2% of the participant students had experienced intercourse with mean age 17.2±1.8 years and one sixth (17.6% of the participants had multiple sexual partners. The mean age for hugging, kissing and breast fondling was significantly younger when compared to the sexual intercourse. Most (78.5% of the students had used contraceptives but the frequency of contraception was less than half (48.6% “always”. The main reasons beyond sexual debut were “just for fun” (37% and “peer pressure” (27.6%. A male student was 1.46 times more likely to have had intercourse than a female. Parental education was the most significant association with sexual debut of adolescents and the odds ratio indicates that sexual intercourse among students is decreasing with the increasing of parental education.Conclusion: A relatively high sexual intercourse has been recorded and risky sexual behaviour also existed among the respondents. Hence, there is a need to promote specific intervention programmes built upon those factors which are associated with an increased likelihood for early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviour.

  5. Assessing the validity of sexual behaviour reports in a whole population survey in rural Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, J.R.; Kayuni, N.; Banda, E.; Parrott, F.; Floyd, S.; Chizororo, M.F.; Nkhata, M.; Tanton, C.; Hemmings, J.; Molesworth, A.; Crampin, A.C.; French, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour surveys are widely used, but under-reporting of particular risk behaviours is common, especially by women. Surveys in whole populations provide an unusual opportunity to understand the extent and nature of such under-reporting. Methods All consenting individuals aged

  6. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…

  7. The impact of HIV antiretroviral treatment perception on risky sexual behaviour in Botswana: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamo, Gobopamang; Keetile, Mpho; Navaneetham, Kannan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of ART perception on risky sexual behaviours in Botswana. Using binary logistic regression analysis controlling for individual characteristics, the results tend to support the hypothesis that ART misconceptions do not necessarily increase risky sexual behaviours. In particular, the study findings suggest the belief that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and that people on ARVs should not always use condoms do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, particularly among women. Gender differentials exist in the perceived sexual risk resulting from the use of ART. Risky sexual behaviours increase for women who, wrongly, believed that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and people on ARVs should not always use condoms. Although there is evidence to suggest ART perceptions do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, HIV and AIDS prevention programmes are needed to strengthen their information, education and communication intervention component that can address misconceptions about ART treatment and provide correct information that is gender-appropriate.

  8. Sexual behaviours in the context of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2017-09-20

    Evidence suggests that Ebola virus disease can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, in particular through contact with the semen of an infected person. Yet few studies examine sexual behaviours in the context of Ebola. Using data collected from 460 women and 340 men within 40 selected communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, this study employed hierarchical linear modelling to examine individual and community-level factors that influence willingness to engage in behaviours that protect against the sexual transmission of Ebola. Results indicate that both individual and community-level factors are significant predictors of respondents' willingness to engage in preventive behaviours. Compared with those with no risks, female respondents with low and medium risk perceptions were significantly more likely to indicate they would use condoms to prevent the sexual transmission of Ebola (AOR = 2.23; p Ebola virus disease (AOR = 1.93; p < 0.05).

  9. Sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge among Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic attendees, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choon, S E; Sapiah, W; Ismail, Z; Balan, V

    1997-12-01

    A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.

  10. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: Evidence from a large survey of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo T.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lisen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age....... Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who...... did not subsequently engage more in sexual risk taking behaviour than women who did not receive the HPV vaccine....

  11. Body mass index, sexual behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections : an analysis using the NHANES 1999–2000 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernsen Roos MD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES files of 1999–2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI. Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2 antibodies to BMI and other variables. Results Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93 and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03 individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men:2.00, women: 1.15 in the last year (p Conclusion Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV-2 antibodies provide information not contained in self-reported number of partners and may better estimate sexual risk than self-reported behaviour.

  12. The behaviour and sexual health of young international travellers (backpackers) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, A M; Egan, C; Wand, H; Donovan, B

    2010-06-01

    To study the demographics, risk behaviours and morbidity of young long-term international travellers (backpackers) attending a sexual health service in Sydney, Australia. Data on new patients were extracted from the Sydney Sexual Health Centre database for the period 1998 to 2006. The sexual risk behaviours and morbidity of the backpackers were compared with other patients of a similar age. The 5698 backpackers who attended the centre reported higher numbers of sexual partners (three or more partners in the past 3 months, 18% vs 12%, pbackpackers (22%) and the comparison population (19%). Backpackers had higher rates of genital chlamydia infection (7% vs 5%, pBackpackers should be a priority population for sexual health promotion and access to services.

  13. Associations between relational sexual behaviour, pornography use, and pornography acceptance among US college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, Larry J; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Pornography use among emerging adults in the USA has increased in recent decades, as has the acceptance of such consumption. While previous research has linked pornography use to both positive and negative outcomes in emerging adult populations, few studies have investigated how attitudes toward pornography may alter these associations, or how examining pornography use together with other sexual behaviours may offer unique insights into the outcomes associated with pornography use. Using a sample of 792 emerging adults, the present study explored how the combined examination of pornography use, acceptance, and sexual behaviour within a relationship might offer insight into emerging adults' development. Results suggested clear gender differences in both pornography use and acceptance patterns. High male pornography use tended to be associated with high engagement in sex within a relationship and was associated with elevated risk-taking behaviours. High female pornography use was not associated with engagement in sexual behaviours within a relationship and was general associated with negative mental health outcomes.

  14. Sexual risk behaviour amongst young people in the Vhembe district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol and marijuana ('dagga') were most commonly used amongst those respondents taking substances before sexual intercourse, and these were used predominantly in coerced and forced sexual intercourse. Opsomming. Die studie was 'n kwantitatiewe, deursnee-opname wat onder jongmense in vier dorpies in die ...

  15. Alcohol-Related Problems And High Risk Sexual Behaviour In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.

  16. Parents' Attitudes to Adolescent Sexual Behaviour in Lesotho | Mturi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and opinions of parents on various aspects of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health in Lesotho. The study used a qualitative methodology. Findings reveal that parents are aware that male and female adolescents engage in sexual relationships. Some parents believe ...

  17. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 722 students, 39.5% reported depression, 23.4% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 22% reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 33% reported .2 sexual partners in the past 12 months, 50% reported inconsistent condom use, 46% reported unknown HIV status of a sexual partner and ...

  18. Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Adolescents in Cross River State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was guided by two major research questions, namely: what percentage of adolescents indulge in risky sexual behavior and how does risky sexual behavior reflect parenting styles? A 26-item questionnaire was administered to 3000 respondents ( 1600 males and 1400 females) selected based on stratified and ...

  19. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-12-06

    Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar University students from December to February 2013. Multistage sampling and self administered questionnaires were employed. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and mean were used to describe the study participants in relation to relevant variables. Multivariate analysis was carried for those variables that had a p-value of ≤ 0.2 in the bivariate analysis to identify the predictor variables. Of the 817 study participants, 297 (36.4%) students had ever had sex. The mean age at first sexual practice was 18.6 years. Unprotected sex, having multiple sex partners, sex with commercial sex workers and sex for the exchange of money was practiced by 184 (62%), 126 (42.7%), 22 (7.4%) and 12 (4%) of sexually active students, respectively. The proportion of attending night clubs and watching porn videos was 130 (15.8%) and 534 (65.4%), respectively. Male respondents had significant positive association with watching porn videos (AOR = 4.8, CI = 3.49 - 6.54) and attending night clubs (AOR = 3.9, CI = 2.3 - 6.7). Watching porn videos, attending night clubs, khat chewing and taking alcohol frequently were significantly associated for ever had sex and having multiple sexual partners. Khat chewing practice (AOR = 8.5, CI =1.31 - 55.5) and attending night clubs (AOR = 4.6, CI = 1.8 - 11.77) had statistical significant association with the purpose of sexual intercourse for the sake of money and for having sex with commercial sex workers, respectively. Significant number of students had different risky sexual

  20. Sexual development and behaviour issues in Polish teenage magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S

    2006-12-01

    Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send warrant attention. The aim of this study is to perform a content analysis of sexual development and behavior information presented in Polish teenage magazines. Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical basis for this analysis. The media chosen for this study were general-themed publications targeting an adolescent female audience: Bravo Girl!, Filipinka and Dziewczyna. Each entry was analyzed using a structured key. The specific categories of behavior and development used for this study are: biological information, pedagogic instruction, topics of moral-ethical concern, results of sexual activity, and interpersonal relationships. Each category was then subdivided into separate units. The findings indicate that Polish teenage magazines predominantly focus on relationships, contraception and sex education. Relationships were most often of a romantic nature and discussed sexual activity or the potential of sexual activity. Non-prescription contraceptive methods were most often discussed, with attention given to pregnancy prevention. Sex education offered detailed information on sexual practices and behaviors with much discussion on losing one's virginity. The general approach of the analyzed magazines is that adolescents currently are, or soon will be, sexually active. As a result, certain sexual behavior and development issues are discussed in great detail, while other topics are somewhat neglected. Accepting information-seeking during adolescence as commonplace, these findings suggest that teenage magazines hold the potential for influencing adolescent

  1. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  2. Psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours among women aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhuong T; Subasinghe, Asvini K; Wark, John D; Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-12-01

    Identifying factors related to risky sexual behaviour may contribute to preventive and interventional approaches to reduce negative mental health outcomes among young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours in females aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted from the Young Female Health Initiative (YFHI), a study in which participants were recruited via advertisements on Facebook. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler 10 (K10) Psychological Distress Scale, and risky sexual behaviours. Data were available from 200 sexually active participants and 40 non-sexually active participants. We found that the K10 score was independently associated with sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence intervals: 1.2, 2.7; P = 0.006). Although data were collected from a small sample of young women, we found that those with underlying psychological distress may adopt risky sexual behaviours, especially if concomitantly drinking alcohol or taking drugs.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifru Berhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.

  4. Perceived quality of the parental relationship and divorce effects on sexual behaviour in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés, Mireia; Carratalá, Elena; Espada, José P

    2015-01-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to some risky sexual behaviour in previous studies. Here we examine whether the sexual behaviour of adolescents is related more to the perceived quality of the interparental relationship or to the parents' divorce in a sample from Spain, the country that has experienced the greatest recent increase in marital break-ups in the European Union. Participants were 801 adolescents aged between 14 and 17, who completed questionnaires anonymously. Adolescents who perceive high conflict in their parents' marriages have more sexual activity and engage in more risk practices in some sexual behaviours compared to adolescents with divorced parents and low interparental conflict. When adolescents perceive low conflict, those with divorced parents are more sexually active than adolescents with married parents, but they do not engage in more risk practices. The perceived quality of the parental relationship has a greater negative impact on adolescents than does the type of family structure. The study highlights the need to address the parents' marital relationship in the implementation of prevention programmes of sexual risk behaviours in Spanish adolescents.

  5. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.

    2007-01-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in ‘stalls’ or ‘domestic service’ tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499

  6. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2011-01-19

    Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for

  7. Influences on loneliness, depression, sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation among Thai transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Ho, Robert; Bahramabadian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of age, education level and number of sex partners on levels of loneliness, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual-risk behaviour in Thai male-to-female transgender youth. A total of 190 participants filled in the study's questionnaire, designed to tap the primary variables of age, level of education, number of sex partners, loneliness, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual-risk behaviour. Results reveal that level of education has a significant influence on depression and loneliness, the number of sex partners has a significant influence on sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation and age has a significant influence on sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation. Participants with higher levels of education reported more loneliness than participants who did not graduate from high school. In addition, participants who did not graduate from high school reported more depression than participants with some university credit. Furthermore, participants aged 15 to 19 years, compared with those of 20 to 25 years, reported higher level of sexual-risk behaviour and higher levels of suicidal ideation.

  8. Sexual behaviour and use of electronic media among undergraduates in the University of Ibadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawu, A T; Reis, S O; Fawole, O I; Dairo, M D

    2015-12-01

    Sexual behaviour among the youth contributes largely to the burden of reproductive health problems in Nigeria. This may have been worsened by the introduction of electronic media like internet and television (TV). However, little is known about the effects of electronic media on sexual behaviour of youth in Nigeria. Therefore, exploring the influence of effect of electronic media on sexual behaviour of youth may help policy maker to provide interventions to these problems. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the effect of electronic media on sexual behaviour of Undergraduates in the University of Ibadan. This was an analytical cross-sectional study, using a multistage sampling method and data were collected through self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Variables measured are socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to electronic media and sexual practices of youths. Frequency tables were generated, and data analyzed by logistic regression. Four hundred and thirty three questionnaires were returned out of 456 distributed, giving a response rate of 95%. Mean age of respondents was 18.75 (SD = 2.5) years. About 58.4% of males use the internet and 58.6% watch TV while 41.6% of female use the Internet and 41.4% watch TV. Watching sexually explicit program on internet increases risk of having premarital sex (OR = 3.1; CI = 1.2-7.7) while watching non sexually explicit programmes on T.V protects from having premarital sex (OR = 0.4 CI = 0.2-0.8). These observed influence of exposure to sexually charged materials on the internet and electronic media indicates the need for efforts to be directed to controlling access, of youths to these sexually explicit programmes on the internet and television programmes.

  9. THE COMPARISON OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND SELF-HARM BEHAVIOUR IN STIMULANTS/NARCOTIC SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Mirsoleimani

    2009-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS, the level of sexual behavior in cocaine abuses was at the most and in crack abusers was at the least. Also, the level of high risk sexual behavior in ice and cocaine was more than opium, heroin and crack. The level of self harm behavior in crack abuses was more than ice and opium abuses.

  10. Summer heat: a cross-sectional analysis of seasonal differences in sexual behaviour and sexually transmissible diseases in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Vincent J; Chow, Eric P F; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2016-06-01

    To date, no study has correlated seasonal differences in sexual behaviour with the seasonal differences in sexually transmitted infections (STIs); and no seasonal study of STIs has been conducted in the southern hemisphere. Our study aimed to describe seasonal differences in sexual behaviour and correlate this with seasonal differences in STI diagnoses in Melbourne, Australia. This was a cross-sectional study of individuals attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre over a 9-year period from 2006 to 2014. We conducted separate analyses for men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW), and women. Seasonal patterns of sexual behaviour and STI positivity were examined within each group. All groups reported a higher number of partners over the preceding three months for consultations in summer compared with winter (MSM mean 5.48 vs 5.03; MSW mean 2.46 vs 2.31; women mean 1.83 vs 1.72). Urethral gonorrhoea diagnoses among MSM were higher in summer compared with winter (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.46). Similarly, non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) diagnoses among MSW were the highest in summer (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.20), but there was no seasonal difference in NGU diagnoses when we adjusted for partner numbers. In women, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnoses peaked in autumn, when rates were higher than in winter (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.55). Our results describe a peak in sexual partner number and STI diagnoses during consultations in summer in men and a rise in PID in autumn in women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Sexual health and life experiences: Voices from behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Schnarrs, Philip; Rhodes, Scott; Goncalves, Gabriel; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Kelle, Guadalupe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Research on behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the USA has not yet examined sexual health issues among men living in diverse areas of the nation, including the Midwest. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to engage a diverse sample of 75 behaviourally bisexual men (25 White, 25 Black, and 25 Latino). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and, in this paper, standard qualitative analysis procedures were used to explore data from the 25 Latino participants. Men described their unique migration experiences as behaviourally bisexual men in this area of the USA, as well as related sexual risk behaviours and health concerns. Lack of culturally congruent public health and community resources for behaviourally bisexual men in the Midwestern USA were identified as significant barriers. As in other studies, familial and community relationships were significant for the participants, especially in terms of the decision to disclose or not disclose their bisexuality. Additionally, alcohol and other drugs were often used while engaging in sexual behaviours particularly with male and transgender, as well as female, partners. Behaviourally bisexual Latino men may benefit from receiving positive and affirmative individual- and structural-level support in regards to their unique experiences in this and other settings. PMID:21815839

  12. [Sexual risk behaviours and PAP testing in university women vaccinated against human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Feito, Ana; Antón-Fernández, Raquel; Paz-Zulueta, María

    2017-08-31

    To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). Cross-sectional study. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). Female university students. Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP. Furthermore, proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Approximately two-thirds (67.7%) of the sample was vaccinated against HPV, and 216 women (65.3%) were sexually active. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by 67.6% during their current intimate relationships, being less frequent in non-vaccinated women (54.9% vs. 75.4% in vaccinated female students) (P=.002). The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.29 (95%CI: 1.29-4.07). In addition, the probability of having a PAP test within the CCSP was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.18 (95%CI: 1.07-4.47). The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods. The vaccination against HPV could affect sexual behaviours and the participation in the CCSP. Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. HSV-2 seroincidence among Mexican college students: the delay of sexual debut is not enough to avoid risky sexual behaviours and virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel Angel; Uribe-Salas, Felipe Javier; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo Cesar; García-Cisneros, Santa; Eguiza-Fano, Sergio; Conde-Glez, Carlos Jesús

    2010-12-01

    Early sexual debut is a behaviour that has been associated with acquiring sexually transmitted infections. Higher schooling may delay sexual debut, thus the university population is categorised with low-risk sexual behaviours. The rate ratio of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seroincidence according to demographic characteristics and sexual behaviour was estimated for a cohort of university students. A dynamic cohort of university students was followed at the Autonomous University of Morelos, in central Mexico, during the years 2001-5. After obtaining informed consent, information was gathered annually regarding demographic characteristics and sexual behaviour and blood samples were obtained to determine HSV-2 antibodies. Seroincidence was estimated and the incidence rate ratio was evaluated using the Poisson regression model. A total of 404 students participated, with 669.2 person-years of follow-up. An incidence of 4.2 cases per 100 person-years was estimated. The variables delayed sexual debut (≥18 years) and multiple sexual partners (two or more sexual partners during the past year) had a rate ratio of 4.1 (95% CI 1.2 to 14.3) and 2.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 5.6), respectively. Incidence for students with delayed sexual debut and multiple partners is estimated to be 10.3 cases per 100 person-years. Delayed sexual debut was a risk factor for acquiring HSV-2, due to a subgroup with sexual debut at 18 years of age or older that had multiple sexual partners; therefore, in the university population that tends to delay sexual debut, it is necessary to implement prevention programmes to promote the decrease of other risky sexual behaviours, as well as the promotion of the consistent use of condoms.

  14. Sexual behaviour of young and middle aged men in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Forman, D.; Chilvers, C.

    1989-01-01

    Establishing patterns of sexual behaviour is essential in predicting the future spread of HIV. The sexual behaviour patterns of a randomly selected sample of 480 white men aged 15 to 49 were obtained by interview and analysed in relation to age, social class, and area of residence. Over half of the men had first had intercourse before the age of 18 and over three quarters had done so before the age of 20. Age at first intercourse tended to be lower in more recent birth cohorts and in social c...

  15. Effects of Terminalia catappa seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Dharmasiri, M G

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the aphrodisiac potential of Tenminalia catappa Linn. seeds using a suspension of its kernel (SS) in 1% methyl cellulose in rats. Male rats were orally treated with 1,500 mg/kg or 3,000 mg/kg SS or vehicle, and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Another group of rats was orally treated with either 3,000 mg/kg SS or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated on days 1, 4 and 7 of treatment and day 7 post-treatment by pairing overnight with a pro-oestrous female. The 1,500 mg/kg dose, had a marked aphrodisiac action (prolongation of ejaculation latency) but no effect on libido (% mounting, % intromission and % ejaculation), sexual vigour (mounting-and-intromission frequency), or sexual performance (intercopulatory interval). In contrast, the higher dose (3,000 mg/kg) reversibly inhibited all the parameters of sexual behaviour other than mounting-and-intromission frequency and copulatory efficiency. The effects of high dose SS were not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, haemotoxicity, stress, muscle deficiency, muscle incoordination, analgesia, hypoglycaemia or reduction in blood testosterone level. They were due to marked sedation. The kernel of T. catappa seeds has aphrodisiac activity and may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation.

  16. Effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum on sexual behaviour and sperm count in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenjale, Rakesh; Shah, Riddhi; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential of the aqueous extract of dried roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB) in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Rats were orally treated with (1) CONTROL GROUP: distilled water; (2) CB 125 mg/kg/day; (3) CB 250 mg/kg/day; and (4) Viagra((R)) group: 4 mg/kg/day sildenafil citrate and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Their sexual behaviour was evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of treatment by pairing with a pro-oestrous female rat. For sperm count the treatment was continued further in all groups except the Viagra((R)) group for 60 days. At 125 mg/kg, CB had a marked aphrodisiac action, increased libido, sexual vigor and sexual arousal. Similarly, at the higher dose (250 mg/kg) all the parameters of sexual behaviour were enhanced, but showed a saturation effect after day 14. On day 60 the sperm count increased significantly in both the CB groups, 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, in a dose dependent manner. Thus, roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum can be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation and oligospermia. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pornography consumption and non-marital sexual behaviour in a sample of young Indonesian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Mulya, Teguh Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of Indonesian university students and a cross sectional design, this study investigated prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption in Indonesia, a religious, sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws. Further, the association between pornography consumption and common non-marital sexual behaviours was explored. The study found that in this sample, pornography is as widely and readily consumed as in comparable international studies predominantly utilising Western background samples from more sexually liberal and less religious countries with very few laws on pornography. Gender differences in patterns of pornography consumption were pronounced and comparable with findings in international counterpart studies. For men only, pornography consumption was found to significantly predict common sexual behaviours in non-marital relations. The study is the first to provide insights into prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption and its association with common non-marital sexual behaviours in a sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws.

  18. Sexual behaviour, knowledge and awareness of related reproductive health issues among single youth in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouhabe, Maria

    2007-04-01

    This nationally representative study, encompassing all single youth (15-24 years), was carried out on the subpopulation of Ethiopia DHS 2000 to determine the influences of socio-demographic characteristics on sexual behaviour, and assess the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS and other STIs. There were a total of 890 male and 3,988 female youth. 25.5% of males and 16.1% of females ever had sexual intercourse. Among these, 65.8% males and 24.6% females had two or more sexual partners in the last 12 months. Condom use in the last sexual act was reported by 22.7% and 10% of male and female youth. 19.4% of male and 22.2% of female youth who ever had sexual intercourse ever used family planning method. Although the majority of youth is aware of HIV/AIDS, awareness about other STIs is low. On binary logistic regression analysis, the odds of ever having sexual intercourse were higher for the employed and older youth. Male urban youth was more likely to ever have sexual intercourse than male rural youth (Adjusted OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.8-9.5). Male youth with some form of education were more likely to use condom (Adjusted OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.01-24.7). Female youth with some form of education, the risk of ever having sexual intercourse was reduced by 50% but they were more likely to report having 2 sexual partners in the last 12 months (Adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.1). Female youth who had media exposure were more likely to report having 2 sexual partners in the last 12 months (Adjusted OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.3-6.8) but more likely to use condom during last sexual intercourse (Adjusted OR 15.7; 95% CI2.2-117). Among single Ethiopian youth the overall sexual activity is relatively lower than reported from other African countries but high risk sexual behaviour is common. Socio-demographic factors influence youth sexual behaviour.

  19. On inappropriately used neuronal circuits as a possible basis of the ``loop-swimming'' behaviour of fish under reduced gravity: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    One hypothesis for the explanation of the so-called ``loop-swimming'' behaviour in fish when being subjected to reduced gravity assumes that the activities of the differently weighted otoliths of the two labyrinths are well compensated on ground but that a functional asymmetry is induced in weightlessness, resulting in a tonus asymmetry of the body and by this generating the ``loop-swimming'' behaviour. The basis of this abnormal behaviour has to be searched for in the central nervous system (cns), where the signal-transduction from the inner ear- related signal internalisation to the signal response takes place. Circuits within the CNS of fish, that could possibly generate the ``loop-swimming'', might be as follows: An asymmetric activation of vestibulospinal circuits would directly result in a tonus asymmetry of the body. An asymmetric activation of the oculomotor nucleus would generate an asymmetrical rotation of the eyes. This would cause in its turn asymmetric images on the two retinas, which were forwarded to the diencephalic accessory optic system (AOS). It is the task of the AOS to stabilize retinal images, thereby involving the cerebellum, which is the main integration center for sensory and motor modalities. With this, the cerebellar output would generate a tonus asymmetry of the body in order to make the body of the fish follow its eyes. Such movements (especially when assuming an open loop control) would end up in the aforementioned ``loop-swimming'' behaviour.

  20. Criminality and Sexual Behaviours in Substance Dependents Seeking Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the link between violence, crime, and sexual behavior among patients with substance-related disorder admitted to a specialized inpatient care unit. This was a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, drug of choice (DOC), questions about sexual behavior, and instruments to evaluate the severity of dependence (SADD, DAST, FTND), level of impulsivity (BIS-11), and a screening sex addiction scale. The sample consisted of 587 adult subjects, of which 82.3% were men, 66.4% had used cocaine (sniffed and smoked) as their DOC, 24.4% had a history with the criminal justice system, 26.8% had committed crimes, 19.3% had engaged in violent behavior, and 12.2% had been involved in drug trafficking. In this sample, crime was strongly associated with various sexual behaviors and the severity of substance dependence.

  1. Sexual and reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in a school going population of Sri Lankan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Piercy, Hilary; Salway, Sarah; Samarage, Sarath

    2015-03-01

    The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean=16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Contraceptive Knowledge and Sexual Behaviour among Federal University Students in Nigeria: The Case of University of Ibadan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Blessing

    2011-01-01

    This study looked into contraceptives knowledge and sexual behaviour among federal university students in Ibadan. The main objective of this study was to find out the level of knowledge of contraceptive and the relationship between level of knowledge of contraceptive and safe sexual behaviour of federal university students in Ibadan. It is…

  3. Effects of a Short Teacher Training Programme on the Management of Children's Sexual Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Jean-Paul; Turner, William

    2015-01-01

    This small-scale quasi-experimental study set out to examine the effects of a brief training programme aiming to develop primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes and confidence in recognising and responding to children who display sexual behaviours. Data on prevalence of sexual behaviours observed by teachers in the study, their level of…

  4. Effects of Self-Efficacy Training Programmes on Adolescents' Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviour in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Titilayo Monsurat

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents' sexual risk-taking behavioural issues have generated concerns among parents, teachers and social workers. The study examined the effects of self-efficacy training programmes on adolescents' sexual risk-taking behaviour and also investigated whether socio-economic status and gender would moderate the effects of treatment on sexual…

  5. Brief sexuality communication--a behavioural intervention to advance sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevention: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B; Toskin, I; Kulier, R; Allen, T; Hawkes, S

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the last decade substantial research has been undertaken to develop evidence-based behaviour change interventions for sexual health promotion. Primary care could provide an opportunistic entry for brief sexual health communication. We conducted a systematic review to explore opportunistic sexual and reproductive health services for sexual health communication delivered at primary health care level. We searched for studies on PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, Jstor, Scopus/Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EBSCO, CINAHL, PsychoInfo, and Web of Knowledge. Both published and unpublished articles were reviewed. All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials were included. Participants of all ages, from adolescence onwards were included. Brief (10-60 minutes) interventions including some aspect of communication on sexual health issues were included. Data were extracted by two reviewers independently using a standardised form. Interventions differed from each other, hence meta-analysis was not performed, and results are presented individually. A total of 247 articles were selected for full-text evaluation, 31 of which were included. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV were less often reported in the intervention group compared with the control group. Condom use was higher in most studies in the intervention group. Numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse were lower in the intervention groups. There is evidence that brief counselling interventions have some effect in the reduction and prevention of STIs/HIV. Some questions could not be answered, such as the effect over time and in different settings and population groups. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Sexual segregation in marine fish, reptiles, birds and mammals behaviour patterns, mechanisms and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearmouth, Victoria J; Sims, David W

    2008-01-01

    Sexual segregation occurs when members of a species separate such that the sexes live apart, either singly or in single-sex groups. It can be broadly categorised into two types: habitat segregation and social segregation. Sexual segregation is a behavioural phenomenon that is widespread in the animal kingdom yet the underlying causes remain poorly understood. Sexual segregation has been widely studied among terrestrial mammals such as ungulates, but it has been less well documented in the marine environment. This chapter clarifies terms and concepts which have emerged from the investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ecology and examines how a similar methodological approach may be complicated by differences of marine species. Here we discuss the behavioural patterns of sexual segregation among marine fish, reptile, bird and mammal species. Five hypotheses have been forwarded to account for sexual segregation, largely emerging from investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ungulates: the predation risk, forage selection, activity budget, thermal niche-fecundity and social factors hypotheses. These mechanisms are reviewed following careful assessment of their applicability to marine vertebrate species and case studies of marine vertebrates which support each mechanism recounted. Rigorous testing of all hypotheses is lacking from both the terrestrial and marine vertebrate literature and those analyses which have been attempted are often confounded by factors such as sexual body-size dimorphism. In this context, we indicate the value of studying model species which are monomorphic with respect to body size and discuss possible underlying causes for sexual segregation in this species. We also discuss why it is important to understand sexual segregation, for example, by illustrating how differential exploitation of the sexes by humans can lead to population decline.

  7. Sexual behaviour of secondary-school students in Slovenia in the year 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Pinter

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order the aim to evaluate the risk-taking behaviour, a representative study on sexual behaviour of secondary-school students in Slovenia was performed.Methods: In the spring of 2004, 2380 1st and 3rd grade students from 48 randomly selected secondary schools in Slovenia anonymously completed a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.Results: The average students’ age was 15.4 years (1st grade and 17.4 years (3rd grade. Sexual intercourse had ever had 24 % of boys and 21 % of girls from the 1st grade, and 52 % of boys and 54 % of girls from the 3rd grade. At first sexual intercourse condom was used by 74 % of sexually active 1st grade and by 75 % of 3rd grade students; 6 % of 1st grade and 7 % of 3rd grade students used contraceptive pill. At last sexual intercourse condom was used by 65 % of sexually active 1st grade and by 50 % of 3rd grade students; 11 % of 1st grade and 32 % of 3rd grade students used the pill. Contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted infections are not sufficiently known to the students. Most students (34 % prefer professionals to be the source of information on sexuality. Two percent of boys and 10 % of girls had ever had at least one sexual contact with the same sex.Conclusions: The percentage of sexually active secondary-school students in Slovenia is high. The use of contraceptive pill is favourable, but the condom use needs to be further promoted.

  8. Interspecies sexual behaviour between a male Japanese macaque and female sika deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelé, Marie; Bonnefoy, Alexandre; Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric

    2017-04-01

    Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal. This is the first article to report mating behaviour between a male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) and female sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Although Japanese macaques are known to ride deer, this individual showed clearly sexual behaviour towards several female deer, some of which tried to escape whilst others accepted the mount. This male seems to belong to a group of peripheral males. Although this phenomenon may be explained as copulation learning, this is highly unlikely. The most realistic hypothesis would be that of mate deprivation, which states that males with limited access to females are more likely to display this behaviour. Whatever the cause for this event may be, the observation of highly unusual animal behaviour may be a key to understanding the evolution of heterospecific mating behaviour in the animal kingdom.

  9. Sexual risk behaviours associated with unlicensed driving among young adults in Miami's electronic dance music nightclub scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Paul, Roddia J

    2017-11-01

    Literature indicates that unlicensed driving (UD) offenders report substance use risk behaviours, yet data related to sexual risk behaviours is unknown. This study examined sexual and other risk behaviours among young adults in Miami, Florida, comparing UD and non-UD offenders (n=498). Compared with others, UD offenders were more likely to report group sex history, being high for sex half the time or more, purchasing sex and sexually transmissible infection history. Results suggest that locating sexual risk reduction interventions inside of the justice system would benefit UD offenders.

  10. Sexual harassment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescence: stronger associations among boys than girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-08-01

    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.

  11. Patterns of sexual behaviour and sexual healthcare needs among transgender individuals in Melbourne, Australia, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellhouse, Clare; Walker, Sandra; Fairley, Christopher K; Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Chen, Marcus Y; Chow, Eric P F

    2016-09-29

    Literature surrounding the healthcare needs of transgender individuals is limited in Australia. This study aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics, risk behaviours and HIV/STI positivity among male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) transgender individuals attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC), Australia, between 2011 and 2014. A retrospective cohort analysis for 133 transgender individuals was conducted based on the first visit of individuals to MSHC during the study period. Demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours and HIV/STI positivity were examined. The majority of transgender individuals were single or never married (74%; n=99). Almost half of the individuals (47%; n=62) had ever engaged in sex work during their lifetime. The median number of male sexual partners (MSP) reported in the last 3 months was 1 (IQR: 1-2) and with female sexual partners (FSP) was 2 (IQR: 1-4). For those who reported having sexual partners in the previous 3 months, always using condoms with MSP was 31% (n=22), and that with FSP was 18% (n=2). HIV/STI positivity during the study period was 7% (n=8) for chlamydia, 5% (n=6) for gonorrhoea, 5% (n=5) for syphilis and 1% (n=1) for HIV. Hormone use for reassignment was reported by 63% (n=90) of individuals and reassignment surgery was reported by 27% (n=29+6=35). Transgender individuals in this study were found to be a diverse group, with a history of sex work being a common feature. These findings indicate that transgender individuals' sexual healthcare needs differ substantially from those in other countries, including the US and Canada. Attention to differences in MTF and FTM transgender persons must be considered in healthcare settings in Australia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Has the HIV/AIDS epidemic changed sexual behaviour of high risk groups in Uganda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntozi, James P M; Najjumba, Innocent Mulindwa; Ahimbisibwe, Fred; Ayiga, Natal; Odwee, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    Uganda, was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to reverse its HIV/AIDS epidemic. Long distance drivers, prostitutes and barmaids have been identified as the groups that engage in risky sex, which promotes HIV transmission in Uganda and other countries across the continent. This paper investigates whether and why there were changes of sexual behaviour and practices among five risky groups in Uganda as a consequence of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The paper is based on data generated from a survey on 'resistance to sexual behaviour change in the African AIDS epidemic', which was conducted in the districts of Kabale, Kampala and Lira in 1999. For purposes of this paper, only data from the focus group discussions with high-risk groups have been analysed. These include commercial sex workers, street children, long haul truck drivers, bar maids and adolescents in three towns of Uganda (Kabale, Kampala, Lira). Results indicate that despite the HIV/AIDS epidemic, these groups had only changed their sexual behaviour a little, and they reported to be continuing with multiple sexual partners for a variety of reasons. The adolescents and street children were under peer pressure and a lot of sexual urge; commercial sex workers and bar maids attributed their risky behaviour to the need to survive due to the existing poverty; and the truck drivers reflected on the need for female company to reduce their stress while on the long lonely travels across Africa. Nevertheless, they are all aware and perceive people with multiple sexual partners as being highly vulnerable to contracting HIV and they all reported to have adopted condom use as an HIV preventive strategy. They also observed that married people were at a high risk of contracting HIV due to non-use of condoms in marital relationships and unfaithfulness of spouses. CONCLUSIONS Females engage in high-risk sexual relations as a means of economic survival, and perceive their acts as a strategy to improve their socio-economic well

  13. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behaviour and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the cognitive effect of knowledge and protective practices on the prevalence of HIV and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female students of the University of Buea, Cameroon. A cross-sectional study involving the analysis of a questionnaire completed by 522 female students and the ...

  14. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and

  15. Virginity, Sex, Money and Desire: Premarital Sexual Behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Virginity, Sex, Money and Desire. African Journal of ... Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Health Promotion, CAPHRI, School for Public Health and Primary Care, ..... Sexual activities take place on those events in hidden places. Sex is an important aspect in boyfriend– girlfriend relationships. Both male and female.

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: evidence from a large survey of Nordic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bo T; Kjær, Susanne K; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Liaw, Kai-Li; Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Munk, Christian; Nygård, Mari

    2014-09-03

    To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age at response. A random selection of women aged 18-46 years living in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2011-2012, eligible for opportunistic or organized catch-up HPV vaccination. A total of 3805 women reported to have received the HPV vaccine and 40,247 reported not to have received it. Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut versus women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccination did not result in younger age at first intercourse. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not have more sexual partners than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not subsequently engage more in sexual risk taking behaviour than women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental markers of risk or vulnerability? Young females who sexually abuse – characteristics, backgrounds, behaviours and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Helen; Hackett, Simon; Phillips, Josie; Balfe, Myles

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a sub-sample of 24 young females aged 8 to 16 years who were referred to specialist services in England during the 1990s because of their abusive sexual behaviours. The characteristics, backgrounds and behaviours of the sample are summarised and compared both with the males in the total population studied and with findings from the limited international literature on young female sexual abusers. Key findings include the higher rates of sexual victimisation am...

  18. Sexual behaviour and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviours in the general population of Slovenia, a low HIV prevalence country in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Wellings, K; Weiss, H A; Hayes, R

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe sexual and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviours in Slovenia. Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the general population aged 18–49 years in 1999–2001 was conducted. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews and anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Statistical methods for complex survey data were used. Results: 849 men and 903 women were interviewed. In the past 5 years, both men and women reported a median of one heterosexual partner (means 3.2, 1.5, respectively), concurrent heterosexual partnerships were reported by 24.4% of men and 8.2% of women, heterosexual sex with non-Slovenian partners by 12.6% of men and 12.2% of women, forced sex by 4.8% of women, paid heterosexual sex by 2.6% of men, sex with another man by 0.6% of men and heterosexual sex with an injecting drug user by 1.2% of men and 1.3% of women. In the past year, 22.7% of men and 9.5% of women reported forming at least one new heterosexual partnership. The mean numbers of episodes of heterosexual sex in the previous 4 weeks were 6.1 for men and 6.0 for women. Consistent and inconsistent condom use was reported more frequently among men reporting multiple female partners and those not married or cohabiting. Conclusions: Recent patterns of reported sexual behaviour are consistent with a low risk of HIV and STI transmission in Slovenia. The results will inform Slovenian sexual health policies including HIV/STI prevention, and are particularly valuable because population-based data on HIV/STI risk behaviour have not previously been available in low HIV prevalence countries of central Europe. PMID:19060036

  19. Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviour: Do Those with Learning Disabilities Form a Distinct Subgroup?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Louise; Giles, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The study examines 102 young people with Learning Disabilities (n = 51) and without a learning disability (NLD; n = 51) to explore ways in which LD young people with harmful sexual behaviours (HSB) should be recognized as a subgroup requiring specialized treatment and intervention. Throughout this comparison of perpetrator, victim and abuse…

  20. Children and Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: First Analysis of Data from a Scottish Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Linda; Whyte, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing awareness and acknowledgement of the incidence of sexually harmful behaviour by children and young people, research on this group remains limited. A number of recent publications have reviewed UK systems and practice and suggest that the issue is better appreciated than a decade ago. To date, however, there is no published…

  1. Effect of electrolytic lesion of the dorsomedial striatum on sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Pulido, R; Hernández-Briones, Z S; Tamariz-Rodríguez, A; Hernández, M E; Aranda-Abreu, G E; Coria-Avila, G A; Manzo, J; García, L I

    2017-06-01

    Cortical motor areas are influenced not only by peripheral sensory afferents and prefrontal association areas, but also by the basal ganglia, specifically the striatum. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum are involved in both spatial and stimulus-response learning; however, each of these areas may mediate different components of learning. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of electrolytic lesion to the DMS on the learning and performance of sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in male rats. Once the subjects had learned to perform motor tests of balance, maze navigation, ramp ascent, and sexual behaviour, they underwent electrolytic lesion to the DMS. Five days later, the tests were repeated on 2 occasions and researchers compared performance latencies for each test. Average latency values for performance on the maze and balance tests were higher after the lesion. However, the average values for the ramp test and for sexual behaviour did not differ between groups. Electrolytic lesion of the DMS modifies the performance of locomotor activity (maze test and balance), but not of sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual risk related behaviour among youth living with HIV in central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual risk related behaviour among youth living with HIV in central Uganda: implications for HIV prevention. ... Of the 283 respondents who desired to get married in future, 40% preferred negative marriage partners. Only 31% (39/126) of respondents in boy/girl relationships had disclosed their HIV status to their partners.

  3. The association of human papillomavirus vaccination with sexual behaviours and human papillomavirus knowledge: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Victoria A H; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n = 58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Sexual risk behaviour among Surinamese and Antillean migrants travelling to their countries of origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, M. A.; van den Hoek, A.; Coutinho, R. A.; Prins, M. [= Maria

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine travel related sexual risk behaviour among migrants living in Amsterdam. METHODS: People originating from Surinam (n = 798) and the Netherlands Antilles (n = 227) were recruited in order to study the heterosexual spread of HIV within ethnic groups. Log binomial regression was

  5. The genetics of complex human behaviour: Cannabis use, personality, sexuality and mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    I investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences in a variety of complex human behaviours, broadly captured within three domains - 1) cannabis use, 2) personality, and 3) sexuality and mating. Research questions and hypotheses are addressed with large community-based,

  6. Sexual Behaviour in the Era of Hiv/Aids Among in – School Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the level of knowledge of in-school female adolescents in Sabon Gari Local Government Area about HIV/AIDS and the influence of such knowledge on their sexual behaviour. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 400 in-school female adolescents randomly ...

  7. Sex Stereotypes and School Adolescents' Sexual Behaviour in Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Bayode Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association between sex stereotypes and the sexual behaviour of Nigerian school-going adolescents. It also ascertained the effects of age and sex on adolescents' beliefs about sex stereotypes. The study sample consisted of 658 (male = 287, female = 371) adolescents from nine randomly selected secondary schools in three…

  8. Has the HIV/AIDS epidemic changed sexual behaviour of high risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adolescents and street children were under peer pressure and a lot of sexual urge; commercial sex workers and bar maids attributed their risky behaviour to the need to survive due to the existing poverty; and the truck drivers reflected on the need for female company to reduce their stress while on the long lonely travels ...

  9. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour and perceived behavioural control among college students in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards risky sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control among students in Botswana. Data were collected from 445 students randomly selected from the University of Botswana and Boitekanelo College. Hundred and seventy three males and 272 females participated in the study. The study established that although more than 90% of students correctly identified routes of HIV transmission, misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS still exist. This includes the belief that people can be infected with HIV because of witchcraft and that only people who have sex with gay or homosexual partners can be infected with HIV. Majority of students were aware of various sexual risks. However, the percentage of students who indicated that “it is difficult to ask my partner to use a condom” was still relatively high (13.5% based on the assumption that students are supposed to know the consequences of sexual risky behaviour. It was also found that male students were 3.48 times more likely to negotiate sex than their female counterparts (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.09 − 11.13 and students who were 18 years and below were more likely to negotiate sex than students above 18 years of age (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42 − 18.32. Christians are four times less likely to negotiate sex compared to non-Christians (OR = 0.219, 95% CI: 0.095 − 0.506. More than 80% of students were comfortable discussing HIV or sex and sexuality with their friends, boyfriends/girlfriends or partners but uncomfortable discussing the same issues with their parents.

  10. Sexual behaviour of adolescents in Nigeria: cross sectional survey of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slap, Gail B; Lot, Lucy; Huang, Bin; Daniyam, Comfort A; Zink, Therese M; Succop, Paul A

    2003-01-04

    To determine whether family structure (polygamous or monogamous) is associated with sexual activity among school students in Nigeria. Cross sectional school survey with a two stage, clustered sampling design. 4218 students aged 12-21 years attending 39 schools in Plateau state, Nigeria. Responses from 2705 students were included in the analysis. Report of ever having had sexual intercourse. Variables of interest included sexual history, age, sex, religion, family polygamy, educational level of parents, having a dead parent, and sense of connectedness to parents and school. Overall 909 students (34%) reported ever having had sexual intercourse, and 1119 (41%) reported a polygamous family structure. Sexual activity was more common among students from polygamous families (42% of students) than monogamous families (28%) (chi2=64.23; Pforced sex. Secondary school students in Nigeria from a polygamous family structure are more likely to have engaged in sexual activity than students from a monogamous family structure. This effect is partly explained by a higher likelihood of marriage during adolescence and forced sex. Students' sense of connectedness to their parents and school, regardless of family structure, decreases the likelihood of sexual activity, and fostering this sense may help reduce risky sexual behaviour among Nigerian youth.

  11. Male sexually coercive behaviour drives increased swimming efficiency in female guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Croft, Darren P; Salin, Karine; Darden, Safi K

    2016-04-01

    Sexual coercion of females by males is widespread across sexually reproducing species. It stems from a conflict of interest over reproduction and exerts selective pressure on both sexes. For females, there is often a significant energetic cost of exposure to male sexually coercive behaviours.Our understanding of the efficiency of female resistance to male sexually coercive behaviour is key to understanding how sexual conflict contributes to population level dynamics and ultimately to the evolution of sexually antagonistic traits.Overlooked within this context are plastic physiological responses of traits within the lifetime of females that could moderate the energetic cost imposed by coercive males. Here, we examined whether conflict over the frequency and timing of mating between male and female guppies Poecilia reticulata can induce changes in swimming performance and aerobic capacity in females as they work to escape harassment by males.Females exposed to higher levels of harassment over a 5-month period used less oxygen to swim at a given speed, but displayed no difference in resting metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, maximal sustained swimming speed or aerobic scope compared to females receiving lower levels of harassment.The observed increase in swimming efficiency is at least partially related to differences in swimming mechanics, likely brought on by a training effect of increased activity, as highly harassed females spent less time performing pectoral fin-assisted swimming.Sexual conflict results in sexually antagonistic traits that impose a variety of costs, but our results show that females can reduce costs through phenotypic plasticity. It is also possible that phenotypic plasticity in swimming physiology or mechanics in response to sexual coercion can potentially give females more control over matings and affect which male traits are under selection.

  12. Low level of knowledge of heart attack symptoms and inappropriate anticipated treatment-seeking behaviour among older Chinese: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Pui Hing; Moe, Gordon; Lee, Siu Yin; Woo, Jean; Leung, Angela Y M; Chow, Chi-Ming; Kong, Cecilia; Lo, Wing Tung; Yuen, Ming Hay; Zerwic, Julie

    2018-03-26

    Prehospital delay of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is common globally, and Hong Kong-home of a rapidly ageing Chinese population-is not an exception. Seeking emergency medical care promptly is important for patients. Treatment-seeking behaviours have been shown to be associated with knowledge of AMI symptoms and specific cultural beliefs. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge of AMI symptoms and expected treatment-seeking behaviour among older Chinese in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted at the Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong from March to September 2016. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire based on previous studies and local adaptations. Among 1804 people aged 65 years and above who completed the questionnaire, chest pain (80.2%), palpitations (75.8%) and fainting (71.9%) were the major symptoms recognised as AMI related. Meanwhile, stomach ache (46.9%), coughing (45.4%) and neck pain (40.8%) were recognised as not AMI related. The mean expected discomfort intensity during AMI onset was 7.7 out of 10 (SD=2.1). Regarding the expected treatment-seeking behaviour, seeking non-emergent medical care was the most popular action when AMI symptoms emerged during the day, without chest pain or with lower discomfort intensity, whereas calling an ambulance was the most common option when AMI symptoms emerged at night or with high discomfort intensity. To minimise delays in seeking treatment, future health education should focus on increasing the public knowledge of AMI symptoms and the need to call an ambulance during an emergency. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Is overweight at 12 months associated with differences in eating behaviour or dietary intake among children selected for inappropriate bottle use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen; Avraham, Sivan Ben; Hearst, Mary; Kahn, Richard; Hyden, Christel

    2014-04-01

    Bottle feeding beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months is a risk factor for childhood obesity. This paper describes a sample of toddlers at high risk for obesity: prolonged bottle users from a low-income multi-ethnic community. We report here baseline mealtime and feeding behaviour, 24 h dietary recall and bottle intake data for Feeding Young Children Study (FYCS) participants, by overweight (≥85% weight-for-length) status. FYCS enrolled 12-13-month-olds from urban nutrition programmes for low-income families in the United States who were consuming ≥2 bottles per day. Our sample was predominately Hispanic (62%), 44% of mothers were born outside of the United States and 48% were male. Overall, 35% were overweight. Overweight status was not associated with mealtime/feeding behaviours, bottle use or dietary intake. Most (90%) children ate enough, were easily satisfied and did not exhibit negative (e.g. crying, screaming) mealtime behaviours, per parent report. The sample's median consumption of 4 bottles per day accounted for 50% of their total calories; each bottle averaged 7 ounces and contained 120 calories. Mean daily energy intake, 1098.3 kcal day(-1) (standard deviation = 346.1), did not differ by weight status, nor did intake of fat, saturated fat, protein or carbohydrates. Whole milk intake, primarily consumed via bottles, did not differ by weight status. Thus, overweight 12-13-month-olds in FYCS were remarkably similar to their non-overweight peers in terms of several obesity risk factors. Findings lend support to the set-point theory and prior work finding that weight and intake patterns in the first year of life alter subsequent obesity risk. © 2013 JohnWiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pre- to Post-Immigration Sexual Risk Behaviour and Alcohol Use among Recent Latino Immigrants in Miami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; Swank, Paul; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective pre-immigration data on sexual risk and alcohol use behaviours was collected from 527 recent Latino immigrants to the USA, ages 18–34. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on post-immigration behaviours. Using a mixed model, growth curve (MMGC) analysis, a six level sexual risk change variable was constructed combining measures of sexual partners and condom use. MMGC was also used to examine associations between changes in sexual risk behaviour and changes in alcohol use and for testing interaction effects of gender and documentation status. Results suggest individuals with high sexual risk behaviour at pre-immigration converge to low/moderate risk post-immigration, and those who were sexually inactive or had low sexual risk at pre-immigration increased their risk post-immigration. Individuals with moderately higher initial but decreasing sexual risk behaviour showed the steepest decline in alcohol use, but their drinking at time 3 was still higher than individuals reporting low sexual risk at time 1. On average, men drank more than women, except among women in one of the highest sexual risk categories at time 1—they seemed to drink as much, if not more, than men. Undocumented men reported more frequent drinking than documented men. In contrast, undocumented women reported lower alcohol use than documented women. PMID:27545840

  15. Trends in the sexual behaviour of 15-year olds in Scotland: 2002-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Fergus G; McEachran, Juliet; Aleman-Diaz, Aixa; Whitehead, Ross; Cosma, Alina; Currie, Dorothy; Currie, Candace

    2017-10-01

    Early sexual initiation and inadequate contraceptive use can place adolescents at increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. These behaviours are patterned by gender and may be linked to social inequalities. This paper examines trends in sexual initiation and contraceptive use by gender and family affluence for Scottish adolescents. Cross-sectional data from four nationally representative survey cycles (2002, 2004, 2010, 2014) (n = 8895) (mean age = 15.57) were analysed. Logistic regressions examined the impact of survey year on sexual initiation, condom use and birth control pill (BCP) use at last sex; as well as any changes over time in association between family affluence and the three sexual behaviours. Analyses were stratified by gender. Between 2002 and 2014, adolescent males and females became less likely to report having had sex. Low family affluence females were more likely to have had sex than high family affluence females, and this relationship did not change over time. Condom use at last sex was reported less by males since 2002, and by females since 2006. Low family affluence males and females were less likely to use condoms than high family affluence participants, and these relationships did not change over time. There were no effects of time or family affluence for BCP use. There has been a reduction in the proportion of 15-year olds in Scotland who have ever had sex, but also a decrease in condom use for this group. Economic inequalities persist for sexual initiation and condom use.

  16. [Pornography and sexual behaviour of schoolchildren in the Cocodydistrict of Abidjan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Dri, Kouamé Mathias; Yaya, Issifou; Saka, Bayaki; Aboubakari, Abdoul Samadou; Kouassi, Damus Paquin; Ekou, Kokora Franck

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the influence of pornography on the sexual behaviour of school children in the Cocody district of Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted from October to November 2013 with pupils from four schools in Cocody, Abidjan. A total of 398 pupils (224 boys and 174 girls) were interviewed: 14.3% of them had access to pornography on internet or television. 52.8% (210) of the 398 pupils interviewed were sexually active at the time of the survey, 41.9% (88/210) of whom had at least two sexual partners. On bivariate analysis,access to pornography was statistically associated with being sexually active (OR= 2.61; 95%CI [1.41; 4.83]), early onset of sexual intercourse (OR= 2.38; 95%CI = [1.19; 4.76]) and multiples exual partners (OR== 6.09; 95%CI= [2.79; 13.3])Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that access to pornography had a negative influence on the sexual behaviour of school children in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire].

  17. HIV/AIDS-related sexual behaviour among commercial motorcyclists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria are predominantly young males with high risk behaviour for HIV/AIDS. They may have become a reservoir for the continued transmission of HIV but they are often neglected in efforts to control the disease. It is important to pay special attention to this group. Aim: To assess ...

  18. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  19. South Africa youths' higher-risk sexual behaviour: an eco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors significantly associated with these risk behaviours occur at the individual and structural levels and include issues of race, gender, poverty and susceptibility to peer pressure. The paper concludes by recommending that future HIV-prevention interventions in South Africa should aim at building resilience among ...

  20. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... participants which recorded risk behaviours and a risk-reduction plan was developed with participants which consisted of reducing ... is possible to provide HIV risk-reduction services to a population of substance users who are less likely to receive ..... study. Given the intersectoral innovation underlying this.

  1. Covariates of high-risk sexual behaviour of men aged 50 years and above in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Clifford O; Mutanda, Nyasha

    2017-12-01

    Since the advent of HIV/AIDS, sexuality studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have focused mainly on the sexual behaviour of the younger generation (15-49 years) and little has been done to understand the sexual behaviour of those a 50 years and above. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the covariates of high-risk sexual behaviour among men aged 50 years plus within the SSA region. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys of 10 SSA countries were pooled together and a sample of 5394 men aged 50 years plus who have ever had sex was analysed. Findings show that in SSA, a large proportion of men aged 50 years plus (74%) were sexually active and a substantial proportion of these men engaged in unsafe sexual behaviours, such as having multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that involvement with multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with older age, urban residence, religion, having primary or secondary education, and ever taken an HIV test. Condom use at last sex was significantly associated with age at first sex, multiple sexual partners, level of education and ever been tested for HIV. These results suggest that HIV prevention and intervention programmes should also target older men as they are also sexually active and at risk of being infected because of unsafe sexual practices.

  2. Let's talk about sex : A qualitative study exploring the experiences of HIV nurses when discussing sexual risk behaviours with HIV-positive men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munnik, Sonja; den Daas, C; Ammerlaan, H S M; Kok, G; Raethke, M S; Vervoort, S C J M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite prevention efforts, the incidence of sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men remains high, which is indicative of unchanged sexual risk behaviour. Discussing sexual risk behaviour has been shown to help prevent sexually transmitted infections

  3. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James

    2013-01-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14–15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms. PMID:24215959

  4. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James

    2013-12-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14-15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Socio-Cultural and Socio-Sexual Factors Influence the Premarital Sexual Behaviour of Javanese Youth in the Era of HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Shaluhiyah, Zahroh

    2007-01-01

    Background: In recent years a public health research interest in sexual behaviour of young people has been stimulated by the growing public health concern at the global spread of HIV/AIDS. The research has been continuing to be undertaken for the reason of contributing to epidemiological forecasting of the spread of HIV/AIDS and develop a stronger understanding of sexual behaviour in order to design effective AIDS-related, health education strategies. Although in Indonesia reported that HIV h...

  6. Alcohol and drug abuse and risky sexual behaviours in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p sexual risk behavior.

  7. [Sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus testing in university students from Cuzco (Peru)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, M Paz; Ramiro, M Teresa; Teva, Inmaculada; Ramiro-Sánchez, Tamara; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2017-09-15

    To analyse sexual behaviour, HIV testing, HIV testing intentions and reasons for not testing for HIV in university students from Cuzco (Peru). The sample comprised 1,377 university students from several institutions from Cuzco (Peru). The size of the sample was set according to a maximum 3% error estimation and a 97% confidence interval. Ages ranged from 16 to 30 years old. The data were collected through a self-administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire regarding sexual behaviour and HIV testing. The data were collected in classrooms during teaching hours. A higher percentage of males than females reported having had vaginal, anal and oral sex, a higher number of sexual partners and an earlier age at first vaginal and oral sex. A higher percentage of females than males did not use condoms when they first had anal sex and had a higher anal sex-risk index. Most of the participants had never been HIV tested. The main reason was that they were sure that they were not HIV infected. It seems that there was a low HIV risk perception in these participants despite the fact that they had been involved in sexual risk behaviours. Prevention campaigns focused on the general population as well as the at-risk populations and young people are needed. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the validity of sexual behaviour reports in a whole population survey in rural Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Glynn

    Full Text Available Sexual behaviour surveys are widely used, but under-reporting of particular risk behaviours is common, especially by women. Surveys in whole populations provide an unusual opportunity to understand the extent and nature of such under-reporting.All consenting individuals aged between 15 and 59 within a demographic surveillance site in northern Malawi were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Validity of responses was assessed by analysis of probing questions; by comparison of results with in-depth interviews and with Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 seropositivity; by comparing reports to same sex and opposite sex interviewers; and by quantifying the partnerships within the local community reported by men and by women, adjusted for response rates.6,796 women and 5,253 men (83% and 72% of those eligible consented and took part in sexual behaviour interviews. Probing questions and HSV-2 antibody tests in those who denied sexual activity identified under-reporting for both men and women. Reports varied little by sex or age of the interviewer. The number of marital partnerships reported was comparable for men and women, but men reported about 4 times as many non-marital partnerships. The discrepancy in reporting of non-marital partnerships was most marked for married women (men reported about 7 times as many non-marital partnerships with married women as were reported by married women themselves, but was only apparent in younger married women.We have shown that the under-reporting of non-marital partnerships by women was strongly age-dependent. The extent of under-reporting of sexual activity by young men was surprisingly high. The results emphasise the importance of triangulation, including biomarkers, and the advantages of considering a whole population.

  9. Assessing the validity of sexual behaviour reports in a whole population survey in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Judith R; Kayuni, Ndoliwe; Banda, Emmanuel; Parrott, Fiona; Floyd, Sian; Francis-Chizororo, Monica; Nkhata, Misheck; Tanton, Clare; Hemmings, Joanne; Molesworth, Anna; Crampin, Amelia C; French, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behaviour surveys are widely used, but under-reporting of particular risk behaviours is common, especially by women. Surveys in whole populations provide an unusual opportunity to understand the extent and nature of such under-reporting. All consenting individuals aged between 15 and 59 within a demographic surveillance site in northern Malawi were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Validity of responses was assessed by analysis of probing questions; by comparison of results with in-depth interviews and with Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2) seropositivity; by comparing reports to same sex and opposite sex interviewers; and by quantifying the partnerships within the local community reported by men and by women, adjusted for response rates. 6,796 women and 5,253 men (83% and 72% of those eligible) consented and took part in sexual behaviour interviews. Probing questions and HSV-2 antibody tests in those who denied sexual activity identified under-reporting for both men and women. Reports varied little by sex or age of the interviewer. The number of marital partnerships reported was comparable for men and women, but men reported about 4 times as many non-marital partnerships. The discrepancy in reporting of non-marital partnerships was most marked for married women (men reported about 7 times as many non-marital partnerships with married women as were reported by married women themselves), but was only apparent in younger married women. We have shown that the under-reporting of non-marital partnerships by women was strongly age-dependent. The extent of under-reporting of sexual activity by young men was surprisingly high. The results emphasise the importance of triangulation, including biomarkers, and the advantages of considering a whole population.

  10. Ethnic differences in help-seeking behaviour following child sexual abuse: a multi-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Western societies, groups from a minority ethnic background are under-represented in formal mental health care. However, it is unknown if the minority ethnic victims of child sexual abuse differ from majority ethnic victims regarding their help-seeking behaviours. This study used a multi-method design to investigate the prevalence of (in) formal help-seeking after child sexual abuse and the influence of attitudes towards gender roles and sexuality on help-seeking among the Dutch minority ethnic and majority ethnic victims. We also examined differences in reasons not to seek help. Quantitative survey data on help-seeking patterns among 1496 child sexual abuse victims were collected. Four qualitative focus groups were conducted with professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse and minority ethnic groups to explore help-seeking behaviour. No significant differences between ethnicity emerged in help-seeking rates. However, respondents with more liberal gender attitudes were more likely to disclose than conservative respondents. Additionally, an interaction effect was observed between ethnicity and gender attitudes, indicating that, contrary to the main effect, young people of Moroccan and Turkish heritage with more liberal gender attitudes were less likely to disclose abuse. Reasons for not seeking help differed among groups. Focus group members emphasised mistrust towards counsellors and perceptions that inhibit minority ethnic youth from seeking help.

  11. From risky behaviour to sexy adventures: reconceptualising young people's online sexual activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naezer, Marijke

    2017-09-18

    Western discourses about young people and sexuality centre around the concept of risk. Anxieties have been fuelled by the increasing popularity of social media and practices such as 'sexting' and watching 'sexually explicit' materials online. Research has shown however that such risk discourses mainly serve to moralise about, pathologise and police particular behaviours and children. In order to counter such paternalism, researchers advocated a reconceptualisation of youth not as passive victims, but as active agents who actively negotiate sexual experiences and discourses. In this paper, which is based on ethnographic fieldwork among young people in The Netherlands, I argue that we need a reconceptualisation not only of youth, but also of their sexual practices, especially their online sexual practices. Mobilising an interdisciplinary interaction between critical socio-cultural studies of risk, feminist theory and adventure studies, I propose to reconceptualise these practices as 'adventures' rather than 'risky behaviour'. This opens up possibilities for a more reasoned analysis that acknowledges: (1) the distinction between risks and outcomes of an activity; (2) the constructive potential of risk; and (3) the subjective, dynamic character of risk and pleasure.

  12. Illegal yet developmentally normative: a descriptive analysis of young, urban adolescents' dating and sexual behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Mathews, Cathy; Cupp, Pam; Russell, Marcia; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-07-10

    In South Africa, it is illegal for adolescents under age 16 years to engage in any sexual behaviour whether kissing, petting, or penetrative sex, regardless of consent. This cross-sectional study investigated the extent to which young adolescents engage in various sexual behaviours and the associations between dating status and sexual behaviours. Grade 8 adolescents (N = 474, ages 12-15 years, mean = 14.14 years) recruited from Cape Town schools completed surveys providing information about their sociodemographic backgrounds, dating experience, sexual behaviour, and substance use. Lower hierarchy sexual behaviours, such as kissing (71.4% of girls; 88.4% of boys), were more common than oral (3.9% of girls; 13.8% of boys), vaginal (9.3% of girls; 30.0% of boys), or anal (1.4% of girls; 10.5% of boys) sex. Currently dating girls and boys were more likely to engage in sexual behaviours including several risk behaviours in comparison to their currently non-dating counterparts. These risk behaviours included penetrative sex (21.1% of dating vs. 4.5% of non-dating girls; 49.4% of dating vs. 20.2% of non-dating boys), sex with co-occurring substance use (22.2% of dating vs. 0 non-dating girls; 32.1% of dating vs. 40% of non-dating boys), and no contraceptive use (26.1% of sexually experienced girls; 44.4% of sexually experienced boys). Among girls, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and SES (OR = 2.592, p = 0.017) and never dating (OR = 0.330, p = 0.016). Among boys, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and never dating (OR = 0.162, p = 0.008). Although the currently dating group of young adolescents appear to be a precocious group in terms of risk behaviour relative to the currently non-dating group, teenagers in both groups had experience in the full range of sexual behaviours. Many young adolescents are engaging in a variety of sexual behaviours ranging from

  13. Relationship of delay aversion and response inhibition to extinction learning, aggression, and sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, Filip; Spronk, Marjolein; Ferreira, Leila; Bloemarts, Emilie; Groenink, Lucianne; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald

    2006-11-25

    Impulsivity is an important symptom of many psychiatric disorders, and can be divided into two subtypes: response inhibition deficits and delay aversion. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between delay aversion and response inhibition, both to each other and to locomotion, extinction of conditioned responses, sexual behaviour, and aggressive behaviour. To that end, we quantified the behaviour of 24 rats in several tests. To measure response inhibition, rats were trained in a stop-signal task. In this operant task, rats were rewarded food if they inhibited execution of a response after presentation of an audible stop-signal. Delay aversion was measured in an operant task in which rats made a choice between a small, immediately available reward and a large reward available after a delay. The results showed that delay aversion and response inhibition were independent. Responses during extinction and various measures of aggressive behaviour were positively correlated to delay aversion. The speed of go-trials in the stop-task was correlated to non-aggressive behaviour. We conclude that the role of response inhibition in various behaviours is small, but delay aversion in particular contributes to several other behaviours, such as aggressive behaviour and extinction.

  14. Aspects of Sexuality in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lucrecia Cabral; Gillberg, Carina I.; Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The literature concerning sexuality in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited regarding inappropriate sexual behaviours and paraphilias and its relation to age, verbal ability, symptom severity, intellectual ability, or adaptive functioning. A cohort of 184 adolescents and young adults (ages 15-39 years) with ASD diagnosed in childhood,…

  15. Consuming sex: the association between modern goods, lifestyles and sexual behaviour among youth in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnographic evidence suggests that transactional sex is sometimes motivated by youth’s interest in the consumption of modern goods as much as it is in basic survival. There are very few quantitative studies that examine the association between young people’s interests in the consumption of modern goods and their sexual behaviour. We examined this association in two regions and four residence zones of Madagascar: urban, peri-urban and rural Antananarivo, and urban Antsiranana. We expected risky sexual behaviour would be associated with interests in consuming modern goods or lifestyles; urban residence; and socio-cultural characteristics. Methods We administered a population-based survey to 2, 255 youth ages 15–24 in all four residence zones. Focus group discussions guided the survey instrument which assessed socio-demographic and economic characteristics, consumption of modern goods, preferred activities and sexual behaviour. Our outcomes measures included: multiple sexual partners in the last year (for men and women); and ever practicing transactional sex (for women). Results Overall, 7.3% of women and 30.7% of men reported having had multiple partners in the last year; and 5.9% of women reported ever practicing transactional sex. Bivariate results suggested that for both men and women having multiple partners was associated with perceptions concerning the importance of fashion and a series of activities associated with modern lifestyles. A subset of lifestyle characteristics remained significant in multivariate models. For transactional sex bivariate results suggested perceptions around fashion, nightclub attendance, and getting to know a foreigner were key determinants; and all remained significant in multivariate analysis. We found peri-urban residence more associated with transactional sex than urban residence; and ethnic origin was the strongest predictor of both outcomes for women. Conclusions While we found indication of an association

  16. Consuming sex: the association between modern goods, lifestyles and sexual behaviour among youth in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoebenau, Kirsten; Nair, Rama C; Rambeloson, Valérie; Rakotoarison, Paul Ghislain; Razafintsalama, Violette; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-03-19

    Ethnographic evidence suggests that transactional sex is sometimes motivated by youth's interest in the consumption of modern goods as much as it is in basic survival. There are very few quantitative studies that examine the association between young people's interests in the consumption of modern goods and their sexual behaviour. We examined this association in two regions and four residence zones of Madagascar: urban, peri-urban and rural Antananarivo, and urban Antsiranana. We expected risky sexual behaviour would be associated with interests in consuming modern goods or lifestyles; urban residence; and socio-cultural characteristics. We administered a population-based survey to 2, 255 youth ages 15-24 in all four residence zones. Focus group discussions guided the survey instrument which assessed socio-demographic and economic characteristics, consumption of modern goods, preferred activities and sexual behaviour. Our outcomes measures included: multiple sexual partners in the last year (for men and women); and ever practicing transactional sex (for women). Overall, 7.3% of women and 30.7% of men reported having had multiple partners in the last year; and 5.9% of women reported ever practicing transactional sex. Bivariate results suggested that for both men and women having multiple partners was associated with perceptions concerning the importance of fashion and a series of activities associated with modern lifestyles. A subset of lifestyle characteristics remained significant in multivariate models. For transactional sex bivariate results suggested perceptions around fashion, nightclub attendance, and getting to know a foreigner were key determinants; and all remained significant in multivariate analysis. We found peri-urban residence more associated with transactional sex than urban residence; and ethnic origin was the strongest predictor of both outcomes for women. While we found indication of an association between sexual behaviour and interest in modern

  17. Factors Influencing Sexual Behaviour Between Tourists and Tourism Employees: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditi; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Beanland, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased travel abroad has a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Previous reviews have focused on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of tourists and acquisition of STIs. Less is known about the impact on tourism operators in countries visited by tourists. The aim of this review is to ascertain factors influencing sexual behaviour between workers in the tourism industry and tourists; exploring the prevalence of sexual behaviour between the two populations, their perceptions of sexual risk while engaging in sexual activities and the knowledge of tourism operators regarding STIs. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. Database searches were performed in Medline/Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane library and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and March 2016. Grey literature searches were completed in the NHS database and Google Scholar between 2000 and December 2013. Papers were independently selected by two researchers. Data were extracted and critically appraised using a pre-designed extraction form and adapted CASP checklist. Results: The search identified 1,602 studies and 16 were included after review of the full text. Studies were conducted in nine countries. Findings suggest that STI knowledge, attitude and practice were fairly good among tourists and tourism workers, but there is a need for pre-travel advice for travellers, especially those travelling to low and middle-income countries. Greater importance was given to tourists than to tourism operators and locals interacting with tourists. Studies suggest that as a group both tourist and tourist workers were likely to engage in sexual activities. Overall, both condom use and STI screening were low, among tourists as well as tourism operators. Furthermore, studies reported links between drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviour and risk taking. Conclusion: Although less research appeared to have been conducted among tourism workers than

  18. Factors Influencing Sexual Behaviour Between Tourists and Tourism Employees: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, Padam P; Sharma, Aditi; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Beanland, Rachel L

    2016-03-01

    Increased travel abroad has a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Previous reviews have focused on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of tourists and acquisition of STIs. Less is known about the impact on tourism operators in countries visited by tourists. The aim of this review is to ascertain factors influencing sexual behaviour between workers in the tourism industry and tourists; exploring the prevalence of sexual behaviour between the two populations, their perceptions of sexual risk while engaging in sexual activities and the knowledge of tourism operators regarding STIs. A systematic review was conducted. Database searches were performed in Medline/Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane library and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and March 2016. Grey literature searches were completed in the NHS database and Google Scholar between 2000 and December 2013. Papers were independently selected by two researchers. Data were extracted and critically appraised using a pre-designed extraction form and adapted CASP checklist. The search identified 1,602 studies and 16 were included after review of the full text. Studies were conducted in nine countries. Findings suggest that STI knowledge, attitude and practice were fairly good among tourists and tourism workers, but there is a need for pre-travel advice for travellers, especially those travelling to low and middle-income countries. Greater importance was given to tourists than to tourism operators and locals interacting with tourists. Studies suggest that as a group both tourist and tourist workers were likely to engage in sexual activities. Overall, both condom use and STI screening were low, among tourists as well as tourism operators. Furthermore, studies reported links between drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviour and risk taking. Although less research appeared to have been conducted among tourism workers than tourists, it does demonstrate the need for

  19. Sexual behaviour of women with human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, K; Väyrynen, M; Castrén, O; Yliskoski, M; Mäntyjärvi, R; Pyrhönen, S; Saarikoski, S

    1984-08-01

    To analyse the epidemiological aspects contributing to the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions (flat, inverted, and papillomatous condylomas) of the uterine cervix, we recorded the sexual behaviour of 146 women who consecutively attended the department of obstetrics and gynaecology of Kuopio University Central Hospital with a cervical HPV lesion (with or without concomitant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN]. Similar data were collected from an age matched group of women with no signs of gynaecological infection. The sexual habits of the women infected with HPV differed from those of healthy controls in most aspects studied, including an earlier onset of sexual activity (p less than 0.05), lower number of deliveries (p less than 0.05), less regular use of contraceptive measures (p less than 0.05), and use of the condom instead of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) (p less than 0.0001). They also differed from controls in giving histories of more frequent episodes of: CIN (p less than 0.005), abnormal Pap (Papanicolaou) smears (p less than 0.0001), sexually transmitted disease (STD) (p less than 0.05), and genital warts (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, they had more multiple sexual partnerships (both past and current) than the controls (p less than 0.0001 and 0.005 respectively), they had not established permanent partnerships as often as the controls (p less than 0.001), and they had a higher frequency of casual relationships (p less than 0.0001). In addition, their own and their partners' sexual hygiene was poorer than in the control subjects (p less than 0.05 and 0.001 respectively). The results show the dramatic influence of sexual behaviour on the transmission of cervical HPV lesions, which are known to be intimately associated with CIN in many cases.

  20. Sexual behaviour and sexual and reproductive health education: a cross-sectional study in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cornelia

    2014-06-23

    Up-to-date, genuine sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes have been possible in Romania only since communism collapsed in 1990. Since 2006, Romania has had no national strategy in this field. Under current global circumstances (high labour mobility, internationally mixed marriages), issues previously considered solely national have become worldwide concerns. In 2011-2012, 1215 respondents homogeneously distributed on background, gender, educational level and age group (18-74) were sampled. This article uses a 96-item questionnaire about family and SRH, presenting results on nine items: first intercourse (FI), virginity, knowing first sexual partner, safe sex, number of sexual partners and sexual education. The data were analysed using Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Some participants (7.2%) engaged in FI at age 15 or earlier. The average age at FI was lower for men (18.08), for individuals with a lower education level (18.07) and for those in rural areas (18.27), compared with that for women, those with more education and those in urban areas, respectively. The average age at FI was over 2.5 years lower for people aged 18-24 (16.99) than for those aged 60-74 (p education and those aged 18-35 (p sexual partners were found among men (6.56, compared with 2.37 among women), in urban areas (5.07, compared with 3.75 in rural areas) and among those with higher levels of education (p sexual activity and poor SRH education from schools, experts and parents require a multidisciplinary approach within prevention programmes, especially among the populations at risk: rural residents, those with low levels of education and youth.

  1. Effect of Sex Education Programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of school-going adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esere, Mary Ogechi

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education programmes that are geared towards enlightenment and appropriate education about sex and sexuality. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents. Pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. A randomly selected co-educational school in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. 24 school-going adolescents aged 13-19 years. Sex Education Programme (treatment group) versus Control programme (placebo). Self-reported exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non use of condom. When the treatment (intervention) group was compared with the control group in an intention to treat analysis, there were significant differences in at-risk sexual behaviours of the two groups. Those in the intervention group reported less at-risk sexual behaviours than their counterparts in the control group. The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health improved. Lack of behavioural effect on the control group could be linked to differential quality of delivery of intervention. Compared with the control group, this specially designed intervention sex education programme reduced at-risk sexual behaviour in adolescents. Based on this finding, it was recommended that sex education be introduced into the curriculum of secondary school education in Nigeria.

  2. Risky sexual behaviour among women: Does economic empowerment matter? Case of Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra-Leone and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Clifford O; De Wet, Nicole; Banda, Pamela C

    2016-12-01

    The link between economic empowerment and high risky sexual behaviour has been debated by different scholars in various settings. However, no consistently clear connection between poverty and lack of education has been found regarding engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Also, not much research has been done to examine the strength of these relationships for adolescents and women. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between female economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour in Africa. Using the latest Demographic and Health Surveys Data (DHS 2011-2014) from Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Zambia, univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done on women aged 15 to 49 to examine the patterns of and differences in the association between women's economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour. The findings both at community and individual level indicate that empowered women (higher education and wealth household) and adolescents aged 15 to 19 are highly significantly associated with engagement in high risky behaviour. The result of this study stresses the need to look further than individual factors in the quest to resolve risky sexual behaviour in Africa. The interrelations between female economic empowerment and engagement in risky sexual behaviour are more complicated and less straightforward than usually presumed.

  3. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-04-13

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  4. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Drago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  5. Focus-on-Teens, sexual risk-reduction intervention for high-school adolescents: impact on knowledge, change of risk-behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B

    2008-10-01

    A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n=1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards 'safer' sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (Pcorrect knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (Pcondom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention.

  6. Sexual behaviour and sexual and reproductive health education: a cross-sectional study in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Up-to-date, genuine sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes have been possible in Romania only since communism collapsed in 1990. Since 2006, Romania has had no national strategy in this field. Under current global circumstances (high labour mobility, internationally mixed marriages), issues previously considered solely national have become worldwide concerns. Methods In 2011–2012, 1215 respondents homogeneously distributed on background, gender, educational level and age group (18–74) were sampled. This article uses a 96-item questionnaire about family and SRH, presenting results on nine items: first intercourse (FI), virginity, knowing first sexual partner, safe sex, number of sexual partners and sexual education. The data were analysed using Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Results Some participants (7.2%) engaged in FI at age 15 or earlier. The average age at FI was lower for men (18.08), for individuals with a lower education level (18.07) and for those in rural areas (18.27), compared with that for women, those with more education and those in urban areas, respectively. The average age at FI was over 2.5 years lower for people aged 18–24 (16.99) than for those aged 60–74 (p sex at FI, with higher proportions for the urban sample, those with an average level of education and those aged 18–35 (p education (p source. Conclusions Unsafe sex, early initiation of sexual activity and poor SRH education from schools, experts and parents require a multidisciplinary approach within prevention programmes, especially among the populations at risk: rural residents, those with low levels of education and youth. PMID:24957900

  7. Survival Outside Home: Sexual Behaviour of Homeless and Runaway Young Adults in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    William Wilberforce Amoah; Augustina Amoah; Alexander Atiogbe; Jacob Owusu Sarfo

    2014-01-01

    Although homeless young adults are often seen on the streets of Ghana, little research had examined the nature of sexual behaviour among these homeless and runaway young adults. Due to the culturally sensitive nature of such studies in the Ghanaian setting, only fifty (50) respondents agreed to participate in the study. A thirty–five (35) item questionnaire, comprising of twenty-eight (28) closed-ended and seven (7) open-ended questions was used for data collection. The findings indicated pov...

  8. Sexual behaviour of women with human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions of the uterine cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjänen, K; Väyrynen, M; Castrén, O; Yliskoski, M; Mäntyjärvi, R; Pyrhönen, S; Saarikoski, S

    1984-01-01

    To analyse the epidemiological aspects contributing to the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions (flat, inverted, and papillomatous condylomas) of the uterine cervix, we recorded the sexual behaviour of 146 women who consecutively attended the department of obstetrics and gynaecology of Kuopio University Central Hospital with a cervical HPV lesion (with or without concomitant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN]. Similar data were collected from an age matched group of women ...

  9. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pengpid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little attention has been paid to the role of poor mental health among young people with regard to HIV risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. Objective. To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in South Africa. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students who were recruited conveniently from public campus venues at the University of Limpopo Medical University of Southern Africa (Medunsa campus. The sample included 722 university students (57.6% men and 42.4% women with a mean age of 21.7 years (standard deviation ±8.8. Results. Of the 722 students, 39.5% reported depression, 23.4% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, 22% reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 33% reported ≥2 sexual partners in the past 12 months, 50% reported inconsistent condom use, 46% reported unknown HIV status of a sexual partner and 20% reported alcohol use in the context of sex in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and among women, being in the 4th or more year of study and current cannabis use. Conclusion. Poor mental health, including substance use, was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Co-ordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services that meet the needs of university students would be desirable.

  10. Does substance use moderate the effects of parents and peers on risky sexual behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    DONENBERG, GERI R.; EMERSON, ERIN; BRYANT, FRED B.; KING, SCOTT

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiven...

  11. Dollars are a girl's best friend? Female tourists' sexual behaviour in the Caribbean \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jacqueline Sanchez

    2001-01-01

    Though increasingly a focus of both political concern and academic research, ‘sex tourism’ is a difficult term to define. This article presents both quantitative and qualitative data on the sexual behaviour and attitudes of single and/or unaccompanied heterosexual female tourists in the Dominican Republic and Jamaica. In so doing it aims to contribute to the body of research evidence on the phenomenon, as well as to highlight some of the conceptual problems associated with existing analyses o...

  12. Sexual Behaviour of the Elderly at Ile-Ife, Nigeria | Ekundayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the pattern of sexual behaviour, that is, holding hands 53.2%, hugging 52.1%, kissing 50.9%, fondling 58.0%, caressing 60.1%, vaginal sex 51.5%, use of condom with spouse 72.7%and use of condom with someone other than spouse 90.9%, and transactional sex 61.1% are more prevalent among ...

  13. Interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour for preventing HIV infection in workers in occupational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Olumuyiwa; Verbeek, Jos H; Rasanen, Kimmo; Heikkinen, Jarmo; Isotalo, Leena K; Mngoma, Nomusa; Ruotsalainen, Eija

    2011-12-07

    The workplace provides an important avenue to prevent HIV. To evaluate the effect of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV on high risk sexual behavior when delivered in an occupational setting. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up until March 2011 and CINAHL, LILACS, DARE, OSH Update, and EPPI database up until October 2010. Randomised control trials (RCTs) in occupational settings or among workers at high risk for HIV that measured HIV, sexual transmitted diseases (STD), Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), or risky sexual behaviour. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We pooled studies that were similar. We found 8 RCTs with 11,164 participants but one study did not provide enough data. Studies compared VCT to no VCT and education to no intervention and to alternative education.VCT uptake increased to 51% when provided at the workplace compared to a voucher for VCT (RR=14.0 (95% CI 11.8 to16.7)). After VCT, self-reported STD decreased (RR = 0.10 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.73)) but HIV incidence (RR=1.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.7)) and unprotected sex (RR=0.71 (0.48 to 1.06)) did not decrease significantly. .Education reduced STDs (RR = 0.68 (95%CI 0.48 to 0.96)), unprotected sex (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD)= -0.17 (95% CI -0.29 to -0.05), sex with a commercial sex worker (RR = 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96) but not multiple sexual partners (Mean Difference (MD) = -0.22 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.08) nor use of alcohol before sex (MD = -0.01 (95% CI of -0.11 to 0.08). Workplace interventions to prevent HIV are feasible. There is moderate quality evidence that VCT offered at the work site increases the uptake of testing. Even though this did no lower HIV-incidence, there was a decrease in self-reported sexual transmitted diseases and a decrease in risky sexual behaviour. There is low quality evidence that educational interventions decrease sexually

  14. [The impact of family characteristics in sexual risk behaviour of teens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle-Sotomayor, Pilar; Jiménez-Valdez, Fanianel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Arturo; Aguirre-García, María del Carmen; Castillo-Trejo, Martha; Vega-Mendoza, Santa

    2014-01-01

    To assess risk sexual behaviour in adolescents and its relationship with family characteristics. In a representative and random sample of 909 teenagers, their sex life, structure, satisfaction and family dynamics were evaluated. It was used chi-squared test, in order to compare the frequency of family negative characteristics between the groups of adolescents with and without risky sexual behaviors. The early onset of sexual life was more frequent in adolescents with dysfunctional expression of affection in their families, and single-parent or nuclear family structure. The lack of condom use was associated with a lack of affection, and a poor comunication within the family. Having more than three partners was related to the expression of affection and the degree of satisfaction of the teenager with his family. Unplanned pregnancies and sex transmission diseases were most frequent in adolescents belonging to extended families with a poor expression of affection. The level of communication, the monitoring of conduct, the warmth and proximity play a very important role as protectors of sexual risk behaviour in teens.

  15. Sex and sport: sexual risk behaviour in young people in rural and regional Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fabian Y S; Hocking, Jane S; Link, Chris Kyle; Chen, Marcus Y; Hellard, Margaret E

    2010-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of chlamydia and understand sexual risk behaviour in 16-29 year olds in rural Victoria through a chlamydia testing program undertaken at local sporting clubs. Young people were recruited from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample and completed a brief questionnaire about sexual risk behaviour. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female) in the study; 77% were sexually active. Overall chlamydia prevalence in sexually active participants was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-7.3); 7.4% in females (95% CI: 3.5-13.6) and 4.5% in males (95% CI: 2.7-6.9). Approximately 60% of males and 20% of females consumed alcohol at high 'Risky Single Occasion Drinking' levels at least weekly and 60% had used an illicit drug in their lifetime. Nearly 45% reported having sex in the past year when they usually would not have because they were too drunk or high. Sexually transmissible infection (STI) knowledge was generally poor and only 25% used a condom the last time they had sex. Chlamydia prevalence was high in our study population. Many participants had poor knowledge about STIs and low condom use. These findings combined with high levels of risky alcohol use and having sex while intoxicated highlights the need for programs in rural and regional Victoria that combine both STI testing and prevention and education programs.

  16. Teen dating violence perpetration and relation to STI and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. The costs of risky male behaviour: sex differences in seasonal survival in a small sexually monomorphic primate

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky male behavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate...

  18. Understanding sexual healthcare seeking behaviour: why a broader research perspective is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Fiona; Wellings, Kaye; Hickson, Ford; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-07-06

    Despite effective and accessible treatments, many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in high-income countries go untreated, causing poor sexual health for individuals and their partners. Research into STI care has tended to focus on biomedical aspects of infections using patient samples and prioritised attendance at healthcare services. This approach overlooks the broader social context of STIs and healthcare-seeking behaviours, which are important to better understand the issue of untreated infections. This paper is structured around three main arguments to improve understanding of help-seeking behaviour for STIs in order to help reduce the burden of untreated STIs for both individuals and public health. Firstly, biomedical perspectives must be combined with sociological approaches to align individual priorities with clinical insights. More research attention on understanding the subjective experiences of STI symptoms and links to healthcare-seeking behaviour is also needed. Secondly, a focus on non-attendance at healthcare services is required to address the patient-centric focus of STI research and to understand the reasons why individuals do not seek care. Finally, research using non-patient samples recruited from outside medical contexts is vital to accurately reflect the range of behaviours, beliefs and health issues within the population to ensure appropriate and effective service provision. We suggest piggy-backing other research on to existing studies as an effective way to recruit participants not defined by their patient status, and use a study recruiting a purposive non-patient sample from an existing dataset - Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) as an illustrative example. STIs are common but treatable, however a range of social and cultural factors prevent access to healthcare services and contribute to the burden of untreated infection. Different conceptual and empirical approaches are needed to better

  19. Risk perception of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards in a sample of Italian adolescents.

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    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services.

  20. Knowledge, risk perception of AIDS and reported sexual behaviour among students in secondary schools and colleges in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswanya, E S; Moji, K; Horiguchi, I; Nagata, K; Aoyagi, K; Honda, S; Takemoto, T

    1999-04-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1041 students in secondary schools and colleges in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania to evaluate the relationship between HIV-risky sexual behaviour and anti-condom bias, as well as with AIDS-related information, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes. Self-reportedly, 54% of students (75% of the boys and 40% of the girls) were sexually active, 39% had a regular sexual partner and 13% had multiple partners in the previous year. The condom use rate was higher than previous reports. However, 30% of sexually active respondents did not always use condoms (Risk-1 behaviour) and 35% of those with multiple partners in the previous year did not always use condoms (Risk-2 behaviour). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that 'sex partner hates condom' had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.58-3.85) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.10-5.48). 'Use of condom prevents HIV infection' also had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.19-3.67) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 3.73; 95% CI 1.28-11.03). Students engaging in risky behaviour were aware of the risk, even though they failed to change their behaviour. Reasons for the AIDS epidemic among Tanzanian students and the importance of more effective AIDS education are also discussed.

  1. [Sexual and reproductive behaviour of young female Internet users in Serbia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasević, Mirjana; Sedlecky, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of sexual and reproductive behaviour of youth in Serbia has not been performed by Internet, although it is their popular information and communication channel. Analysis of the Internet acceptability among adolescent females as a research method for sexual and reproductive behaviour, identification of the common girl from Serbia, which is informed via the Internet, as well as an overview of the most important problems in the field of sexual and reproductive health of our adolescents. The possibility of using the Internet is perceived on the basis of the number of girls aged 19-20 years who responded to certain questions asked on the website of the Association of Reproductive Health of Serbia, and reliability of the findings by monitoring the consistency of the obtained responses. Girl's profile is defined according to most commonly selected answer to a particular issue, and the most important problems by selecting answers to some questions chosen by a significant proportion of patients. Internet has proven to be the accepted research tool among young people, according to a large number of adolescent females who responded to the given questionnaire. The common girl lives in the city (78%), with parents (53%), in the functional family (78%) and belongs to a higher economic stratum (47%). She declares having many friends (44%), being a student, and financially completely relying on parents (67%). She had first sexual intercourse at the age of 17 (20%) and sexual experience with one partner (46%). Her main motive for sexual activity is being in love (64%), and is satisfied with her sexual life (64%). She prefers condom as a contraceptive method, has not been pregnant (90%), and has not been diagnosed with STI (85%). At the same time, serious problems, which may affect sexual and reproductive health, have been identified in a significant proportion of respondents. Internet has a great potential for defining the model of sexual and reproductive behavior of

  2. Sexual and reproductive behaviour of young female internet users in Serbia

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    Rašević Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of sexual and reproductive behaviour of youth in Serbia has not been performed by Internet, although it is their popular information and communication channel. Objective. Analysis of the Internet acceptability among adolescent females as a research method for sexual and reproductive behaviour, identification of the common girl from Serbia, which is informed via the Internet, as well as an overview of the most important problems in the field of sexual and reproductive health of our adolescents. Methods. The possibility of using the Internet is perceived on the basis of the number of girls aged 19­20 years who responded to certain questions asked on the website of the Association of Reproductive Health of Serbia, and reliability of the findings by monitoring the consistency of the obtained responses. Girl’s profile is defined according to most commonly selected answer to a particular issue, and the most important problems by selecting answers to some questions chosen by a significant proportion of patients. Results. Internet has proven to be the accepted research tool among young people, according to a large number of adolescent females who responded to the given questionnaire. The common girl lives in the city (78%, with parents (53%, in the functional family (78% and belongs to a higher economic stratum (47%. She declares having many friends (44%, being a student, and financially completely relying on parents (67%. She had first sexual intercourse at the age of 17 (20% and sexual experience with one partner (46%. Her main motive for sexual activity is being in love (64%, and is satisfied with her sexual life (64%. She prefers condom as a contraceptive method, has not been pregnant (90%, and has not been diagnosed with STI (85%. At the same time, serious problems, which may affect sexual and reproductive health, have been identified in a significant proportion of respondents. Conclusion. Internet has a great

  3. Sexual behaviour reported by a sample of Italian MSM before and after HIV diagnosis

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    Laura Camoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 we conducted a cross-sectional study involving hospital clinical centres in five Italian cities to compare the sexual behaviour of HIV-positive MSM (men who have sex with men before and after the diagnosis of HIV infection. Each centre was asked to enrol 30 HIV-positive persons aged > 18 years. The questionnaire was administered to 143 MSM on average 9 years after HIV diagnosis. After diagnosis there was a decrease in the number of sexual partners: the percentage of persons who reported having had more than 2 partners decreased from 95.8% before diagnosis to 76.2% after diagnosis. After diagnosis, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of persons who had never (or not always used a condom with their stable partner for anal sex from 69.2% before diagnosis to 26.6% after diagnosis and for oral-genital sex from 74.8% before diagnosis to 51.7% after diagnosis. Though at-risk behaviour seems to decrease after diagnosis, seropositive MSM continue to engage in at-risk practices: one fourth of them did not use a condom during sexually transmitted infections (STI episodes, 12.5% of the participants had had sex for money, and 8.4% had paid for sex. The study shows that our sample of Italian HIV-positive MSM, though aware of being infected, engage in sexual behaviours that could sustain transmission of HIV and other STIs. The results could constitute the first step in implementing national prevention programs for persons living with HIV.

  4. [High-risk sexual behaviour by partner type among men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with high risk sexual practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain. An online survey was conducted in 2010, which included, among others, questions on HIV/STI sexual behaviours and prevention needs. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status in the past year was defined as a high risk sexual behaviour. Of the 13,111 participants, 49.4% had had sex with steady partners (SP) and 73.4% with non-steady partners (NSP) in the last 12months; and the prevalence of high risk UAI was 25.4% and 29.4%, respectively. Factors associated with high risk UAI with SP were: living in a city of less than 500,000 inhabitants (OR=1.42 50 partners), having used drugs for sex (OR=1.33), and at parties (OR=1.19), having a medium (OR=1.82) or low (OR=1.33) level of HIV/STI knowledge, and being HIV-positive (OR=1.56). Among MSM, the prevalence of high risk sexual practices is high with both SP and NSP. Factors associated with high risk UAI vary by type of sexual partner (e.g., having HIV with an undetectable viral load). These must be taken into account when planning strategies for primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Low education levels are associated with early age of sexual debut, drug use and risky sexual behaviours among young Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Bryant, Joanne; Worth, Heather; Pitts, Marian; Kaldor, John M; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Ward, James

    2018-02-01

    Background Earlier age at sexual debut is associated with drug and alcohol use, risky sexual behaviours and sexually transmissible infections (STI). In the present study, 2320 young Indigenous Australians were surveyed. Most study participants had sex for the first time when they were 14 years or younger (79% and 67% for males and females respectively). More than 80% of participants were categorised as being in the high-risk category for the combined sexual risk factors (i.e. not using condoms, drunk or high at last sexual act, or three or more sexual partners in the past year). There was a linear decreasing trend between the proportion of males and females who had less than high school education and age at first sex (Ptrendsex education and STI prevention should start early when targeting Indigenous young people, with age-appropriate messages. Sex education should be comprehensive and address individual risk behaviours, sexual agency and societal vulnerability to not only delay sexual debut, but also to emphasise the importance of STI prevention through condom use, which clearly already works to a certain extent with this group.

  6. Effects of Cypermethrin on Sexual Behaviour and Plasma Concentrations of Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones

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    Jalal Solati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrethroids are commonly used as insecticides for both household and agriculturalapplications, and have recently been linked to endocrine disruption. Cypermethrin is a type Пpyrethroid which is used widely throughout the world. The present study was aimed to investigatethe effects of cypermethrin on the sexual behaviour and plasma level of pituitary-gonadal hormonesof adult male mice.Materials and Methods: Research methodology comprised injecting mice daily with cypermethrin(10, 15, 20 mg/kg i.p. or DMSO (0.2 ml for five weeks. Receptive female mice were used totest male sexual behaviors (sniffing, following, mounting, and coupling. Plasma concentrationsof testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulation hormone (FSH were measuredafter five weeks treatment using the ELISA method.Results: The results of the present study showed that cypermethrin-treated groups exhibited reducedsexual behavior when compared with the control group. Assay results demonstrate significantlyreduced serum testosterone levels (p<0.05 versus the control group, whereas FSH and LH valuesincreased significantly.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that cypermethrin reduces plasma testosterone concentrationsand thus is able to disrupt sexual behaviours.

  7. Risk behaviours of an interrelated syphilis-infected sexual network of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesterheft, Richie; Brady, John P; Shattell, Mona

    2016-12-01

    We examined the risk behaviours in an interrelated sexual network of 33 syphilis-infected men who have sex with men on the use of condoms, substances and websites to meet sexual partners. Our study used a descriptive exploratory design to investigate co-occurring high-risk behaviours in this interrelated sexual network to inform future health interventions and research directions. Although the risk behaviours for human immunodeficiency virus transmission in men who have sex with men have been studied, few have studied the high-risk population of men who already have syphilis, and even fewer have studied the risk behaviours in sexual networks of syphilis-infected men who have sex with men who were identified using contact tracing. The data were collected from semi-structured, individual interviews at a not-for-profit lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health centre in a large city in the Midwestern USA. Inconsistent condom use was substantial during both insertive (92%) and receptive (88%) anal intercourse. Most participants (97%) reported using one or more substances prior to or during anal intercourse, and Internet websites were the most common place to meet sexual partners (88%). High-risk behaviours were significant within this syphilis-infected sexual network of men who have sex with men. The majority of our 33 participants were non-Hispanic Whites (n = 27, 82%), possessed a baccalaureate degree or higher (n = 23, 70%), and actively sought out unprotected anal intercourse [21 participants (64%) used BareBackRT.com, a website to seek out unprotected anal intercourse]. Nurses should be more informed about the risk factors of a high-risk sexual network of syphilis-infected men who have sex with men. Interrelated sexual networks have high levels of similarity among participants' high-risk behaviours; contact tracing may be used to identify individual participants for relevant risk-reduction interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial correlates of high HIV risk sexual behaviour in war-affected Eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, E.; Weiss, H.A.; Mungherera, M.; Onyango-Mangen, P.; Ngabirano, E.; Kajungu, R.; Kagugube, J.; Muhwezi, W.; Muron, J.; Patel, V.

    2016-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors for high risk sexual behaviour in a war-affected population in Eastern Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four sub-counties in two districts in Eastern Uganda where 1560 randomly selected respondents (15 years and above) were interviewed. The primary outcome was a derived variable “high risk sexual behaviour” defined as reporting at least one of eight sexual practices that have been associated with HIV transmission in Uganda and which were hypothesised could arise as a consequence of psychiatric disorder or psychosocial problems. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with high risk sexual behaviour in this population. Males were more likely to have at least one “high risk sexual behaviour” than females (11.8% vs. 9.1% in the last year). Sex outside marriage was the most commonly reported high risk sexual behaviour. Among males, the factors independently associated with high risk sexual behaviour were: being married, belonging to non-Catholic/non-Protestant religions, poverty, being a victim of intimate partner violence and having a major depressive disorder (MDD). Among females, the factors that were independently associated with high risk sexual behaviour were: being in the reproductive age groups of 25–34 and 35–44 years, not seeing a close relative killed and having experienced war-related sexual torture. Holistic HIV/AIDS prevention programming in conflict and post-conflict settings should address the psychiatric and psychosocial well-being of these communities as a risk factor for HIV acquisition. PMID:22272693

  9. Sexual risk behaviour amongst young people in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo province, South Africa

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    Thelmah X. Maluleke

    2010-11-01

    Purposive sampling was used to select the four villages that participated in the study and simple,random sampling was used to select the respondents. A total of 400 respondents participated in the study, 227 of which were female and 173 were male. The following sexual risk behaviour indicators were identified (1 early sexual debut, (2 teenage pregnancy and (3 early marriage. It was found that young people expose themselves to sexual intercourse without condoms, and that they are likely to have sexual intercourse without a condom in return for reward, and to have sexual intercourse with a famous person. Approximately 20% of the sexually active respondents had used substances before sexual intercourse. Alcohol and marijuana (‘dagga’ were most commonly used amongst those respondents taking substances before sexual intercourse, and these were used predominantly in coerced and forced sexual intercourse. Opsomming Die studie was ’n kwantitatiewe, deursnee-opname wat onder jongmense in vier dorpies in die Vhembe-distrik van die Limpopo-provinsie uitgevoer is. Die doel van die navorsing was om vas te stel watter aanwysers van risikogedrag ten opsigte van seksuele gesondheid onder die jongmense voorkom wat moontlik tot die verspreiding van MIV en vigs in hierdie distrik bydra. Die doelstellings van hierdie studie was om (1 seksuele risikogedrag te identifiseer, (2 die voorkoms van middelgebruik voor seksuele omgang te bepaal, (3 die voorkoms van gedwonge seksuele omgang en (4 die voorkoms van geforseerde seksuele omgang onder jongmense in die Vhembedistrik te bepaal. Doelgerigte steekproefneming is gebruik om die vier dorpies wat aan die studie deelgeneem het, te selekteer en eenvoudige ewekansige steekproefneming is gebruik om die respondente te selekteer.’n Totaal van 400 respondente het aan die studie deelgeneem, waarvan 227 vroulik en 173 manlik was. Die volgende aanwysers van seksuele risikogedrag is geïdentifiseer (1 vroeë seksuele debuut,(2

  10. Effects on rat sexual behaviour of acute MDMA (ecstasy) alone or in combination with loud music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagiano, R; Bera, I; Sabatini, R; Flace, P; Vermesan, D; Vermesan, H; Dragulescu, S I; Bottalico, L; Santacroce, L

    2008-01-01

    The effects on sexual behaviour of acute low doses of methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg/i.p.), alone or in combination with exposure to loud music (1 h stimulation), were investigated in Wistar rats. Results indicate that acute MDMA, at dose of 3 mg/kg, notably impaired copulatory behavior of sexually experienced male rats. In particular, MDMA-exposed animals exhibited a significant increase in intromission and ejaculation latencies as well as a significant decrease in percentage of rats displaying copulatory activity (one intromission at least). Surprisingly, one hour exposure to loud music, which per se resulted ineffective, antagonized the suppressive effect of MDMA by increasing the percent of animals displaying sexual activity. However, combined treatment of MDMA and music stimulation did not fully restore normal sexual behavior as the animals reaching ejaculation still showed a marked reduction of copulatory efficiency. These findings demonstrate that the systemic administration of a single low dose of MDMA, alone or in combination with loud music, which is commonly present in certain environments such as rave parties, notably impairs copulatory activity of male rats.

  11. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections in sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees in the Netherlands, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coul, E L M Op; Warning, T D; Koedijk, F D H

    2014-01-01

    High annual figures of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diagnosed in the Netherlands despite significant efforts to control them. Herein, we analyse trends and determinants of STI diagnoses, co-infections, and sexual risks among visitors of 26 STI clinics between 2007 and 2011. We recorded increased positivity rates of STIs (chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea, and/or HIV) in women and heterosexual men up to 12.6% and 13.4%, respectively, in 2011, while rates in men having sex with men (MSM) were stable but high (18.8%) through the documented years. Younger age, origin from Surinam/Antilles, history of previous STI, multiple partners, or a previous notification are the identified risk factors for an STI in this population. Known HIV-infected men (MSM and heterosexuals) were at highest risk for co-infections (relative rate heterosexual men: 15.6; MSM: 11.6). STI positivity rates remained high (MSM) or increased over time (women and heterosexual men), a fact that highlights the importance of continuing STI prevention. Most importantly, the very high STI co-infection rates among HIV-positive men requires intensified STI reduction strategies to put an end to the vicious circle of re-infection and spread of HIV and other STIs.

  12. Sexual selection of human cooperative behaviour: an experimental study in rural Senegal.

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    Arnaud Tognetti

    Full Text Available Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men's cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women's cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection.

  13. Sexual intercourse, age of initiation and contraception among adolescents in Ireland: findings from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Ireland study

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Honor; Burke, Lorraine; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2018-01-01

    Background: The need to tackle sexual health problems and promote positive sexual health has been acknowledged in Irish health policy. Young people’s sexual behaviour however remains under-researched with limited national data available.\\ud Methods: This study presents the first nationally representative and internationally comparable data on young people’s sexual health behaviours in Ireland. Self-complete questionnaire data were collected from 4494 schoolchildren aged 15-18 as part of a bro...

  14. Poverty, food insufficiency and HIV infection and sexual behaviour among young rural Zimbabwean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie J S Pascoe

    Full Text Available Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty.Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18-22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007.To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways.Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV.2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7-8.7; HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9-12.4. Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2.This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should be developed and evaluated alongside behaviour

  15. Restricted reproductive rights and risky sexual behaviour: How political disenfranchisement relates to women's sense of control, well-being and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel; Jay, Sarah; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Kearns, Michelle; Kinsella, Elaine L; McMahon, Jennifer; Muldoon, Orla T; Naughton, Catherine; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have investigated the role of disenfranchisement and denial of agency in women's sexual health. To address this, a cross-sectional study of disenfranchisement, control (general and reproductive control) and health was conducted in Ireland, where abortion is severely restricted. Multiple mediation models ( N = 513 women) indicated that general but not reproductive control mediates the association between disenfranchisement and psychological well-being. Additionally, serial mediation shows disenfranchisement is associated with lower sense of control, which is linked to poorer well-being and risky sexual behaviour. Disenfranchisement arising from socio-political contexts may have important implications for women's sexual health.

  16. Reproductive coercion, sexual risk behaviours and mental health symptoms among young low-income behaviourally bisexual women: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila A; Volpe, Ellen M; Abboud, Sarah; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2016-12-01

    To describe prevalence of reproductive coercion, sexual risk behaviours and mental health symptoms among women reporting lifetime sexual experiences with men and women compared to peers reporting sex exclusively with men. Reproductive coercion, a global public health problem, is understudied among sexual minority women. Violence against women remains high among women who have sex with women and men. Rates of sexual and physical violence among this population are higher than women reporting exclusive sexual partnerships with either men or women. Nurses and other healthcare providers often do not conduct comprehensive sexual histories; assumptions related to a sex partner's gender may provide indications of broader health implications. Cross-sectional survey of low-income Black women ages 18-25 recruited from six community-based sites for a parent study focused on intimate partner violence and health. We analysed survey data from participants who reported lifetime sexual experiences with men and women (N = 42) and compared their outcomes to those of women reporting sexual experiences with men only (N = 107). A greater proportion of women who have sex with women and men reported experiencing reproductive coercion. Women who have sex with women and men also reported a greater number of lifetime intimate partner physical and sexual violence experiences, traded sex for resources, and had post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Findings provide vital information that can inform nursing clinical practice, specifically related to history-taking, screening protocols and counselling strategies for intimate partner violence and mental health among women who have sex with women and men. Strategies for addressing reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence as well as the health consequences among women who have sex with women and men in clinical and community-based settings should include a longitudinal understanding of sexual behaviour and gender of sex partners.

  17. [Features of physical and sexual development and reproductive behaviour in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheliia, G P; Chavchidze, A T

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of adolescent's reproductive behaviour, identification of the factors affecting this kind of behavior, represented the main goal of the study. Comprehensive examination (n=136) and interviewing (n=825) was made in female adolescents aged 14 to 19 years (randomly formed via continuous selection). Information of the state of their health, their attitude towards child - bearing and their risky habits have been evaluated. Under the present conditions, the development of the reproductive system in female adolescents is characterized by the high frequency of menstrual irregulates (24,7%), the delayed formation of the bone pelvis (25,2%) the trend for retarted development of secondary sexual characters (12,3%), the high prevalence of chronic extra genital diseases. Thus, the results of the given study proves that reproductive disorders develop under the influence of a complex of sociomedical factors and lifestyle; They predetermine reproductive abnormalities, inadequate reproductive behaviour, the low standard of knowledge of contraception.

  18. Does substance use moderate the effects of parents and peers on risky sexual behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Bryant, Fred B; King, Scott

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiveness were linked to risky sex but only for teens who reported using drugs/alcohol. Controlling for other predictors in the model, negative peer influence explained 21% and parental permissiveness explained 13% of the variance in risky sex among substance users, but less than half of 1% of the variance among non-substance users. The disinhibiting effects of substance use on decision-making and the need for effective parental monitoring to reduce opportunities for risk behaviour are discussed.

  19. Is sexual content in new media linked to sexual risk behaviour in young people? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucy Watchirs; Liu, Bette; Degenhardt, Louisa; Richters, Juliet; Patton, George; Wand, Handan; Cross, Donna; Hocking, Jane S; Skinner, S Rachel; Cooper, Spring; Lumby, Catharine; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Social networking and digital media increasingly have an impact on the lives of young people. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined the relationship between exposure to sexually explicit websites (SEWs) and 'sexting' (i.e. sending semi-nude or nude photos from a mobile phone) and the sexual attitudes and practices of young people. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched for papers that described the statistical association between viewing SEWs or sexting by young people (defined as 10-24 years) and their sexual attitudes and behaviours. Fourteen studies, all cross-sectional in design, met the inclusion criteria. Six studies (10352 participants) examined young people's exposure to SEWs and eight (10429 participants) examined sexting. There was substantial variation across studies in exposure and outcome definitions. Meta-analyses found that SEW exposure was correlated with condomless sexual intercourse (odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.38, two studies); sexting was correlated with ever having had sexual intercourse (OR 5.58, 95% CI: 4.46-6.71, five studies), recent sexual activity (OR 4.79, 95% CI: 3.55-6.04, two studies), alcohol and other drug use before sexual intercourse (OR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.99-3.32, two studies) and multiple recent sexual partners (OR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.95-3.63, two studies). Most studies had limited adjustment for important potential confounders. Cross-sectional studies show a strong association between self-reported exposure to sexual content in new media and sexual behaviours in young people. Longitudinal studies would provide a greater opportunity to adjust for confounding, and better insight into the causal pathways underlying the observed associations.

  20. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M. T.; Akanji, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D) of 15 each. Rats in group A (control) were administered with 1 mL of distilled water (the vehicle) while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose), day 3 (after three doses, once daily), and day 5 (after five doses, once daily) by pairing with a receptive female (1 : 1). The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis) by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting) by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (P male rats. The improved sexual appetitive behaviour in male rats at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of Massularia acuminata stem may be attributed, at least in part, to the alkaloids, saponins, and/or flavonoids since these phytochemicals has engorgement, androgen enhancing, and antioxidant properties. PMID:21253466

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Yakubu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D of 15 each. Rats in group A (control were administered with 1 mL of distilled water (the vehicle while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose, day 3 (after three doses, once daily, and day 5 (after five doses, once daily by pairing with a receptive female (1 : 1. The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (P<.05 increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly prolonged (P<.05. The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced significantly whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval of the animals. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract treated animals compared to the distilled water-administered control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P<.05 increased the serum testosterone content of the animals except in those administered with 250 mg/kg body

  2. Acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviours including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other unsafe sexual practices. Immigrants high in mainstream acculturation were more likely to have multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, STDs and unsafe sex (rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.16), but acculturation was not associated with condom use (r = 0.02). Gender moderated the relationships between acculturation and multiple partnerships, STDs and unsafe sex. The relationship between acculturation and unsafe sex also varied across ethnicity. These findings suggest that acculturation may serve as a risk factor towards immigrants' HIV-related sexual health. We offered a theoretical framework and suggested applying cross-cultural and longitudinal designs in future research on acculturation and health behaviours.

  3. The Impacts of Using Smartphone Dating Applications on Sexual Risk Behaviours in College Students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine Hin-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak

    2016-01-01

    Dating applications (apps) on smartphones have become increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of dating apps and risky sexual behaviours. Data were collected in four university campuses in Hong Kong. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire asking about the use of dating apps, sexual behaviours, and sociodemographics. Multiple linear and logistics regressions were used to explore factors associated with sexual risk behaviours. Six hundred sixty-six subjects were included in the data analysis. Factors associated with having unprotected sexual intercourse with more lifetime sexual partners included use of dating apps (β = 0.93, pincome at least HKD$5,000 (β = 1.34, p<0.01), being a current smoker (β = 1.52, p<0.01), and being a current drinker (β = 0.7, p<0.01). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis found that users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 0.52, p<0.05) and current drinkers (adjust odds ratio: 0.40, p<0.01) were less likely to have consistent condom use. Users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 1.93, p<0.05), bisexual/homosexual subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.57, p<0.01) and female subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.00, p<0.05) were more likely not to have used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse. The present study found a robust association between using dating apps and sexual risk behaviours, suggesting that app users had greater sexual risks. Interventions that can target app users so that they can stay safe when seeking sexual partners through dating apps should be developed.

  4. A multi-method study of health behaviours and perceived concerns of sexual minority females in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Rawat, Shruta; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Hensel, Devon; Herbenick, Debby; Anand, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    This multi-method study explores the perceived health status and health behaviours of sexual minority (i.e. self-identifying with a sexual identity label other than heterosexual) females (i.e. those assigned female at birth who may or may not identify as women) in Mumbai, India, a population whose health has been generally absent in scientific literature. Using community-based participatory research approaches, this study is a partnership with The Humsafar Trust (HST). HST is India's oldest and largest LGBT-advocacy organisation. An online survey targeted towards sexual minority females was conducted (n=49), with questions about sexual identity, perceived health and wellbeing, physical and mental healthcare access and experiences, and health behaviours (including substance use). Additionally, photo-elicitation interviews in which participants' photos prompt interview discussion were conducted with 18 sexual minority females. Sexual minority females face obstacles in health care, mostly related to acceptability and quality of care. Their use of preventative health screenings is low. Perceived mental health and experiences with care were less positive than that for physical health. Participants in photo-elicitation interviews described bodyweight issues and caretaking of family members in relation to physical health. Substance use functioned as both a protective and a risk factor for their health. Our findings point to a need for more resources for sexual minority females. Education on screening guidelines and screening access for sexual minority females would also assist these individuals in increasing their rates of preventative health.

  5. Sexually transmitted infection health-care seeking behaviour in the Netherlands: general practitioner attends to the majority of sexually transmitted infection consultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Schellevis, Francois G.; Sandfort, Theo G.; Coenen, Ton T.; Bindels, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Health-care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related symptoms is not well known in the Netherlands. Within the framework of a large representative study, the second National Survey of General Practice (NIVEL 2001), 9687 persons aged 18 years and older were interviewed about

  6. Sexually transmitted infection health-care seeking behaviour in the Netherlands: general practitioner attends to the majority of sexually transmitted infection consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, J.E.A.M. van; Kerssens, J.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Sandfort, T.G.; Coenen, T.T.; Bindels, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Health-care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related symptoms is not well known in the Netherlands. Within the framework of a large representative study, the second National Survey of General Practice (NIVEL 2001), 9687 persons aged 18 years and older were interviewed about

  7. Perceived gender inequality, sexual communication self-efficacy, and sexual behaviour among female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L; Beasley, R Palmer; Tran, Ly T H; Nguyen, Huong T H; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-09-01

    Worldwide, the literature on sexual behaviour has documented associations between gender-based relationship inequality and sexual communication ability and the actual use of condoms or other contraceptives among young women. This study aimed to examine these associations among undergraduate female students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey of 1181 female third-year students from two universities in the Mekong Delta was conducted. Latent variable modelling and logistic regression were employed to examine the hypothesised associations. Among the 72.4% of students who had ever had boyfriends, 44.8% indicated that their boyfriends had asked for sex, 13% had had penile-vaginal sex and 10.3% had had oral sex. For those who had had penile-vaginal sex, 33% did not use any contraceptive method, including condoms, during their first sexual intercourse. The greater a student's perception that women were subordinate to men, the lower her self-efficacy for sexual communication and the lower her actual frequency of discussing safer sex matters and asking her partner to use a condom. Sexual communication self-efficacy was associated with actual contraceptive use (P=0.039) but only marginally with condom use (P=0.092) at first sexual intercourse. Sexual health promotion strategies should address the influence of gender relations on young women's sexual communication self-efficacy and the subsequent impact on actual contraceptive and condom use.

  8. Perceived gender inequality, sexual communication self-efficacy, and sexual behaviour among female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M.; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Tran, Ly T. H.; Nguyen, Huong T. H.; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the literature on sexual behaviour has documented associations between gender-based relationship inequality and sexual communication ability and the actual use of condoms or other contraceptives among young women. This study aimed to examine these associations among undergraduate female students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1181 female third-year students from two universities in the Mekong Delta was conducted. Latent variable modelling and logistic regression were employed to examine the hypothesised associations. Results Among the 72.4% of students who had ever had boyfriends, 44.8% indicated that their boyfriends had asked for sex, 13% had had penile–vaginal sex and 10.3% had had oral sex. For those who had had penile–vaginal sex, 33% did not use any contraceptive method, including condoms, during their first sexual intercourse. The greater a student’s perception that women were subordinate to men, the lower her self-efficacy for sexual communication and the lower her actual frequency of discussing safer sex matters and asking her partner to use a condom. Sexual communication self-efficacy was associated with actual contraceptive use (P = 0.039) but only marginally with condom use (P = 0.092) at first sexual intercourse. Conclusion Sexual health promotion strategies should address the influence of gender relations on young women’s sexual communication self-efficacy and the subsequent impact on actual contraceptive and condom use. PMID:22877589

  9. Non-neural androgen receptors affect sexual differentiation of brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, D A; Swift-Gallant, A

    2018-02-01

    Although gonadal testosterone is the principal endocrine factor that promotes masculine traits in mammals, the development of a male phenotype requires local production of both androgenic and oestrogenic signals within target tissues. Much of our knowledge concerning androgenic components of testosterone signalling in sexual differentiation comes from studies of androgen receptor (Ar) loss of function mutants. Here, we review these studies of loss of Ar function and of AR overexpression either globally or selectively in the nervous system of mice. Global and neural mutations affect socio-sexual behaviour and the neuroanatomy of these mice in a sexually differentiated manner. Some masculine traits are affected by both global and neural mutation, indicative of neural mediation, whereas other masculine traits are affected only by global mutation, indicative of an obligatory non-neural androgen target. These results support a model in which multiple sites of androgen action coordinate to produce masculine phenotypes. Furthermore, AR overexpression does not always have a phenotype opposite to that of loss of Ar function mutants, indicative of a nonlinear relationship between androgen dose and masculine phenotype in some cases. Potential mechanisms of Ar gene function in non-neural targets in producing masculine phenotypes are discussed. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  10. FACTORS AND ATTITUDES AFFECTING SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND SEX PRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENUGU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate factors and attitudes affecting sexual behaviour and sex practices of secondary school students, and to suggest changes necessary for preventing and/or reducing HIV transmission among them. 1009 multi-staged sampled secondary school students aged 10-20 years completed the anonymous interviews. 973(96.4% were Christians and 711(70.5% day students. Premarital sex was approved of by185(18.3% of the respondents while 596(59.1% claimed they would continue to abstain till they get married; 252(25.0% will abstain for some years while 136(13.5% will abstain for months. 181(17.9% believed that abstaining from sex is an abnormal behavior, that HIV/AIDS was a hoax. 573(56.8% agreed that HIV/AIDs is a disease from which they could protect themselves while 387(38.4% thought otherwise. Only 581(57.6% of the respondents would seek advice if they found they were HIV positive. 797(79% of the respondents were afraid of HIV infection while 520(351.5% said that someone in their family might become infected. Attitudinal factors showed statistically significant variation with gender, age, school and class of the respondents. A good number also practice homosexuality and lesbianism. Appropriate information about sexuality education and the negative consequences of early sexual exposure, STIs/HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy should be provided in public schools.

  11. High-functioning autism and sexuality: a parental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Mark A; Kaur, Archana

    2005-07-01

    Few studies have compared sexual behaviours among adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typical populations, and indicated whether specialized education is required. We hypothesized that adolescents with HFA would (1) display poorer social behaviours; (2) engage in fewer behaviours related to privacy and have poorer knowledge regarding privacy issues; (3) have less sex education; and (4) display more inappropriate sexual behaviours; and that (5) parental concerns would be greater for the HFA sample. Parents of typical adolescents (n=50) and adolescents with HFA (n=23) were surveyed with a Sexual Behaviour Scale (SBS) developed by the authors, with domains corresponding to the hypotheses. The HFA and typical groups were found to be significantly different on all five domains. However, following covariation with age and level of social behaviour, it was found that only parental concerns about their child distinguished between typical adolescents and those with HFA. Specialized sex education programmes with a social interaction emphasis should be considered for this group.

  12. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexu...

  13. Sexual identity, same-sex partners and risk behaviour among a community-based sample of young people in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Anna L; Vella, Alyce M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S C

    2015-02-01

    Young people who are same-sex attracted report higher rates of substance use, sexual risk behaviour, and mental health problems. Numerous studies have shown that sexual identity, sexual behaviour and sexual attraction do not always correspond, particularly among young people. We describe sexual identity, sexual partners, and associations between sexual identity and risk in a community-based sample of young people. From 2011 to 2013, young people (16-29 years) were recruited at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia to self-complete a questionnaire. We describe sexual identity and gender of anal/vaginal sex partners in the past year. Secondly, we assess associations between risk behaviours, health outcomes and gay/lesbian/bisexual/queer/questioning (GLBQQ)-identity using multivariable logistic regression. Among 3793 (91%) participants with complete data, 115 (9%) males and 266 (11%) females were GLBQQ-identifying. Among GLBQQ-identifying males, 23% reported only same-sex partners, 34% reported both sex partners, 26% reported only opposite-sex partners, 5% reported no sex partners in the past year, and 12% had never had sex. Among GLBQQ-identifying females, 10% reported only same-sex partners, 22% reported both sex partners, 48% reported only opposite-sex partners, 3% reported no sex partners in the past year, and 17% had never had sex. Controlling for age and sex, significant (pbehaviours and are more at risk relative to their heterosexual-identifying peers. Targeted interventions to promote the health and wellbeing of this group should account for the complexities of identity and behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Work Hard, Party Harder: Drug Use and Sexual Behaviour in Young British Casual Workers in Ibiza, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Danielle; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background: Every summer, young people flock to nightlife-focused holiday resorts around the world to find casual work. Despite being exposed to hedonistic environments, often for several months, little is known about their substance use, sexual activity and health service needs over this extended amount of time abroad. Methods: A short anonymous questionnaire examining alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviour and use of health services was administered to young British casual workers aged 16–3...

  15. Mental Health and Associated Sexual Health Behaviours in a Sample of Young People Attending a Music Festival in Melbourne, Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Hellard, Margaret E; Lim, Megan S C

    2016-11-01

    Poor mental health has previously been associated with risky sexual health behaviours among young people internationally and in clinical samples, but little is known about this relationship in non-clinical settings. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of 1345 Australians aged 15-29. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sexual health behaviours independently associated with recent poor mental health including contraception use, STI testing, sexting and age at first sexual intercourse. Recent poor mental health was reported by 29.7 % of participants and independently associated with female gender (OR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.4-2.4), not identifying as heterosexual (OR 3.0; 95 % CI 2.1-4.4) and young age at first sexual intercourse among female participants (OR 1.4; 95 % CI 1.0-2.0). Results suggest mental health is largely driven by variables other than sexual health behaviours, although youth mental health services should consider inclusion of sexual health promotion within the scope of their services.

  16. Common Noctule Bats Are Sexually Dimorphic in Migratory Behaviour and Body Size but Not Wing Shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Teague O'Mara

    Full Text Available Within the large order of bats, sexual size dimorphism measured by forearm length and body mass is often female-biased. Several studies have explained this through the effects on load carrying during pregnancy, intrasexual competition, as well as the fecundity and thermoregulation advantages of increased female body size. We hypothesized that wing shape should differ along with size and be under variable selection pressure in a species where there are large differences in flight behaviour. We tested whether load carrying, sex differential migration, or reproductive advantages of large females affect size and wing shape dimorphism in the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula, in which females are typically larger than males and only females migrate long distances each year. We tested for univariate and multivariate size and shape dimorphism using data sets derived from wing photos and biometric data collected during pre-migratory spring captures in Switzerland. Females had forearms that are on average 1% longer than males and are 1% heavier than males after emerging from hibernation, but we found no sex differences in other size, shape, or other functional characters in any wing parameters during this pre-migratory period. Female-biased size dimorphism without wing shape differences indicates that reproductive advantages of big mothers are most likely responsible for sexual dimorphism in this species, not load compensation or shape differences favouring aerodynamic efficiency during pregnancy or migration. Despite large behavioural and ecological sex differences, morphology associated with a specialized feeding niche may limit potential dimorphism in narrow-winged bats such as common noctules and the dramatic differences in migratory behaviour may then be accomplished through plasticity in wing kinematics.

  17. Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, P

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Drug therapy is necessary to treat acute illness, maintain current health and prevent further decline. However, optimizing drug therapy for older patients is challenging and sometimes, drug therapy can do more harm than good. Drug utilization review tools can highlight instances of potentially inappropriate prescribing to those involved in elderly pharmacotherapy, i.e. doctors, nurses and pharmacists. We aim to provide a review of the literature on potentially inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and also to review the explicit criteria that have been designed to detect potentially inappropriate prescribing in the elderly. METHODS: We performed an electronic search of the PUBMED database for articles published between 1991 and 2006 and a manual search through major journals for articles referenced in those located through PUBMED. Search terms were elderly, inappropriate prescribing, prescriptions, prevalence, Beers criteria, health outcomes and Europe. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Prescription of potentially inappropriate medications to older people is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe, ranging from 12% in community-dwelling elderly to 40% in nursing home residents. Inappropriate prescribing is associated with adverse drug events. Limited data exists on health outcomes from use of inappropriate medications. There are no prospective randomized controlled studies that test the tangible clinical benefit to patients of using drug utilization review tools. Existing drug utilization review tools have been designed on the basis of North American and Canadian drug formularies and may not be appropriate for use in European countries because of the differences in national drug formularies and prescribing attitudes. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of inappropriate prescribing despite the widespread use of drug-utilization review tools, prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to identify useful interventions. Drug

  18. A population's higher-risk sexual behaviour is associated with its average sexual behaviour—An ecological analysis of subpopulations in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Kenyon

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that sexual behaviours vary coherently between different populations. As such, sexually transmitted infection control efforts would benefit from including both targeted campaigns focusing on the HRB and population-strategies that seek to address factors responsible for high mean risk behaviour.

  19. Sexual behaviours of homosexual and bisexual men in France: a generational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Méthy

    Full Text Available In high-income countries, the social and epidemiological contexts surrounding homosexuality and AIDS have changed profoundly in recent decades. This work sought to examine key indicators of the long-term sexual trajectories of successive generations of men who have sex with men (MSM in France.We performed a longitudinal analysis of the French Gay Press surveys, which were self-administered socio-behavioural questionnaires, repeated from 1985 to 2011 in the gay press, and on the internet in 2004 and 2011. An age-cohort analysis using graphical representations and multivariate logistic regressions was conducted among participants aged 18-59 (N = 38 821.First sexual intercourse occurred more often with a male partner in younger generations than in older ones: 76.0% in MSM who turned 18 in 1956-1959, 75.6% in 1980-1983, 83.7% in 2008-2011, p(overall = 0.0002. Every generation showed the same pattern of sexual trajectory between 1985 and 2011: globally, the frequency of masturbation increased from the 1985 survey to the early 1990s and then decreased from the late 1990s to the end of the study period. Inversely, the frequency of oral and anal sex decreased in the mid-1980s and increased from 1990 to 2011. The frequency of both oral sex and anal intercourse is currently quite high, regardless of generation (>95% and around 80%, respectively. Compared to their predecessors, recent generations of young MSM reported more frequent oral and anal sex, but fewer male partners in the previous 12 months.While the increased frequency of first intercourse with a man over successive generations since the 1970s may be related to reduced social pressure for heterosexuality, there is evidence that sexual norms among MSM are widespread, with practices spreading across age groups and generations. Although AIDS profoundly affected sexual practices in the 1980s, further AIDS-related events (discovery of HIV antiretroviral drugs and their use in prevention do not appear

  20. Mother's and father's monitoring is more important than parental social support regarding sexual risk behaviour among 15-year-old adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Background and objectives There is strong evidence that parental processes such as monitoring and social support play an important role with regard to sexual risk behaviour among adolescents. We wished to explore the influence of both parents 'monitoring and support on sexual risk behaviour among

  1. General hygiene, sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence in truck drivers from Andhra Pradesh, South India: implications for prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J A; Dude, A; Dinaker, M; Kumar, V; Laumann, E O; Holloway-Beth, A; Oruganti, G; Saluja, G S; Chundi, V; Yeldandi, V; Mayer, K H

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between hygiene, sexual behaviour and HIV infection are poorly understood. We examine these relationships in Indian truck drivers, a group at high risk for HIV infection. Truck drivers (n = 189) were recruited into an integrated HIV and hygiene Information Motivation (IM) programme. Sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and hygiene behaviour and HIV prevalence were determined. Multivariate logistic regression and linear generalized estimating equation models were utilized. At baseline, 2.1% of drivers were HIV infected and 34% who reported having contact with female sex workers (FSWs) had contact within the previous six months. Those who washed their hands postdefecation were less likely to report genital symptoms (OR 0.02; P = 0.01) and have sex with an FSW (OR [odds ratio] 0.21; P = 0.05). After an IM intervention, there were no changes in sexual risk-taking behaviour (coefficient -0.15 to -0.02; P = 0.13-0.75); however, hygiene behaviour improved from baseline (coefficient 0.09-0.31; P hygiene habits, like handwashing, seem to be a modifiable behaviour after a modest intervention, whereas HIV risk-taking behaviour was not. The association between hygiene and HIV risk-taking suggests the need for further evaluation of the relationship and that of other hygiene practices in high-risk men in India.

  2. Implementing international sexual counselling guidelines in hospital cardiac rehabilitation: development of the CHARMS intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Sharry, J; Murphy, P J; Byrne, M

    2016-10-10

    Decreased sexual activity and sexual problems are common among people with cardiovascular disease, negatively impacting relationship satisfaction and quality of life. International guidelines recommend routine delivery of sexual counselling to cardiac patients. The Cardiac Health and Relationship Management and Sexuality (CHARMS) baseline study in Ireland found, similar to international findings, limited implementation of sexual counselling guidelines in practice. The aim of the current study was to develop the CHARMS multi-level intervention to increase delivery of sexual counselling by healthcare professionals. We describe the methods used to develop the CHARMS intervention following the three phases of the Behaviour Change Wheel approach: understand the behaviour, identify intervention options, and identify content and implementation options. Survey (n = 60) and focus group (n = 14) data from two previous studies exploring why sexual counselling is not currently being delivered were coded by two members of the research team to understand staff's capability, opportunity, and motivation to engage in the behaviour. All potentially relevant intervention functions to change behaviour were identified and the APEASE (affordability, practicability, effectiveness, acceptability, side effects and equity) criteria were used to select the most appropriate. The APEASE criteria were then used to choose between all behaviour change techniques (BCTs) potentially relevant to the identified functions, and these BCTs were translated into intervention content. The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist was used to specify details of the intervention including the who, what, how and where of proposed intervention delivery. Providing sexual counselling group sessions by cardiac rehabilitation staff to patients during phase III cardiac rehabilitation was identified as the target behaviour. Education, enablement, modelling, persuasion and

  3. Is the sexual behaviour of young people in sub-Saharan Africa influenced by their peers? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Wiggins, Richard D; Pettifor, Audrey E; Hargreaves, James R

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are highly vulnerable to HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies. Evidence for the effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions in reducing incidence of HIV and other biological outcomes is limited, and the need to address the social conditions in which young people become sexually active is clear. Adolescents' peers are a key aspect of this social environment and could have important influences on sexual behaviour. There has not yet been a systematic review on the topic in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched 4 databases to find studies set in sub-Saharan Africa that included an adjusted analysis of the association between at least one peer exposure and a sexual behaviour outcome among a sample where at least 50% of the study participants were aged between 13 and 20 years. We classified peer exposures using a framework to distinguish different mechanisms by which influence might occur. We found 30 studies and retained 11 that met quality criteria. There were 3 cohort studies, 1 time to event and 7 cross-sectional. The 11 studies investigated 37 different peer exposure-outcome associations. No studies used a biological outcome and all asked about peers in general rather than about specific relationships. Studies were heterogeneous in their use of theoretical frameworks and means of operationalizing peer influence concepts. All studies found evidence for an association between peers and sexual behaviour for at least one peer exposure/outcome/sub-group association. Of all 37 outcome/exposure/sub-group associations tested, there was evidence for 19 (51%). There were no clear patterns by type of peer exposure, outcome or adolescent sub-group. There is a lack conclusive evidence about the role of peers in adolescent sexual behaviour in Sub-Saharan. We argue that longitudinal designs, use of biological outcomes and approaches from social network analysis are priorities for future studies

  4. Educators' Perceptions of Learners with Intellectual Disabilities' Sexual Knowledge and Behaviour in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Paul; Johns, Rebecca; Nene, Siphumelele; Hanass-Hancock, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Over the past two decades, comprehensive sexuality education has increasingly been recognised as a measure that positively impacts on the sexual behaviour of young people in Africa. Despite this, and a political call to scale-up the use of comprehensive sexuality education in schools in South Africa, learners with disabilities continue to be left…

  5. Behaviour change in generalised HIV epidemics: impact of reducing cross-generational sex and delaying age at sexual debut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, T B; Gregson, S; Lewis, J J C; Lopman, B A; Garnett, G P

    2007-08-01

    Sexual behavioural change is essential to prevent HIV infections in Africa and statistical analysis of risk factors at the individual-level may be used to design interventions. The importance of reducing cross-generational sex (young women having sex with older men) and delaying age at first sex on the spread of HIV at the population-level has been presumed but not scientifically investigated and quantified. A mathematical model of heterosexual spread of HIV was developed to predict the population-level impact of reducing cross-generational sex and delaying sexual debut. The impact of behaviour change on the spread of HIV is sensitive to the structure and reaction of the sexual network. Reducing cross-generational sex could have little impact on the risk of infection unless it is accompanied by a reduction in the number of risky sexual contacts. Even peer-to-peer sexual mixing can support high endemic levels of HIV. The benefit of delaying sexual debut is comparatively small and is reduced if males continue to prefer young partners or if young women spend more time unmarried. In Manicaland, Zimbabwe, if older men were to use condoms as frequently as young men, the reduction in risk of infection could exceed that generated by a two-year delay in first sex. At the individual-level avoiding sex with older partners and delaying sexual debut can decrease the risk of infection but at the population-level these interventions may do little to limit the spread of HIV without wider-ranging behavioural changes throughout the sexual network.

  6. Parents, peers and pornography: the influence of formative sexual scripts on adult HIV sexual risk behaviour among Black men in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Sophia A; Bowleg, Lisa; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Malebranche, David J

    2012-01-01

    Black men in the USA experience disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, particularly in the Southeastern part of the country. We conducted 90 qualitative in-depth interviews with Black men living in the state of Georgia and analysed the transcripts using Sexual Script Theory to: (1) characterise the sources and content of sexual scripts that Black men were exposed to during their childhood and adolescence and (2) describe the potential influence of formative scripts on adult HIV sexual risk behaviour. Our analyses highlighted salient sources of cultural scenarios (parents, peers, pornography, sexual education and television), interpersonal scripts (early sex- play, older female partners, experiences of child abuse) and intrapsychic scripts that participants described. Stratification of participant responses based on sexual-risk behaviour revealed that lower- and higher-risk men described exposure to similar scripts during their formative years; however, lower-risk men reported an ability to cognitively process and challenge the validity of risk-promoting scripts that they encountered. Implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Influence of timing of sexual debut and first marriage on sexual behaviour in later life: findings from four survey rounds in the Kisesa cohort in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, B; Isingo, R; Wringe, A; Marston, M; Slaymaker, E; Urassa, M

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate quality of sexual debut and first marriage data, measure trends and study the association of risky sexual behaviour in youth with adult risk behaviour. Reports on age at first sex (AFS) and age at first marriage (AFM) from the Kisesa cohort study, 1994-2004, were evaluated for consistency and used to describe trends in median age-at-event and time spent single but sexually active in different birth cohorts. The association of these variables with marital stability and numbers of partners at later ages was explored using statistical regression techniques. AFS and AFM were inconsistently reported by 32% and 33% of respondents, respectively, but there was no general tendency to report lower or higher ages at a later report date. In 10-year birth cohorts born between 1950-9 and 1980-9, male median AFS declined from 18.1 to 17.0 years and female median AFM rose from 16.2 to 16.6 years. Young people of both sexes currently spend longer sexually active but unmarried than previously. Early marriage is statistically associated with remarriage and polygamy; longer time between sexual debut and marriage is associated with higher numbers of partners at later stages of life. Inconsistent reporting of age-at-event introduces noise but does not bias estimates of population level indicators. Lengthening time spent single and sexually active suggests that men and women entering first marriage will have been exposed to increased numbers of non-marital partners. Successful youth interventions may also influence adult behaviour.

  8. Evaluation of multisystemic therapy pilot services in Services for Teens Engaging in Problem Sexual Behaviour (STEPS-B): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fonagy, Peter; Butler, Stephen; Baruch, Geoffrey; Byford, Sarah; Seto, Michael C.; Wason, James; Wells, Charles; Greisbach, Jessie; Ellison, Rachel; Simes, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinically effective and cost-effective methods for managing problematic sexual behaviour in adolescents are urgently needed. Adolescents who show problematic sexual behaviour have a range of negative psychosocial outcomes, and they and their parents can experience stigma, hostility and rejection from their community. Multisystemic therapy (MST) shows some evidence for helping to reduce adolescent sexual reoffending and is one of the few promising interventions available to young p...

  9. Qualitative inquiry into premarital sexual behaviours and contraceptive use among multiethnic young women: implications for education and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2012-01-01

    This study was a qualitative investigation into sexual attitudes and behaviours, and contraceptive use among Malaysian youth, based on constructs from the health belief model, theory of reasoned action, and problem behaviour theory. A total of 34 focus group discussions with 185 participants were conducted among the Malay (35%), Chinese (34%), and Indian (31%) young females between November, 2010 and April, 2011. The participants were secondary school students and university undergraduates from Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. The study found a lack of knowledge about sexual issues and contraception among the participants. Many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse and relied on periodic abstinence, natural methods, and traditional folk pregnancy preventive practices. The findings also revealed numerous categories of factors influencing sexual attitudes and behaviours: ethnic group and religion, level of religiosity, peer pressure and norms, and parental monitoring. With regard to condom use, factors such as embarrassment about condom acquisition, low perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and perceived efficacy of traditional and folk methods of contraception, were uncovered from the discussions. This study underscores the importance of development of culturally specific interventions that address the identified promoting factors of premarital sex. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use should increase awareness about condom effectiveness against not only unwanted pregnancies but also STIs.

  10. Qualitative Inquiry into Premarital Sexual Behaviours and Contraceptive Use among Multiethnic Young Women: Implications for Education and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was a qualitative investigation into sexual attitudes and behaviours, and contraceptive use among Malaysian youth, based on constructs from the health belief model, theory of reasoned action, and problem behaviour theory. Methods A total of 34 focus group discussions with 185 participants were conducted among the Malay (35%), Chinese (34%), and Indian (31%) young females between November, 2010 and April, 2011. The participants were secondary school students and university undergraduates from Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. Results The study found a lack of knowledge about sexual issues and contraception among the participants. Many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse and relied on periodic abstinence, natural methods, and traditional folk pregnancy preventive practices. The findings also revealed numerous categories of factors influencing sexual attitudes and behaviours: ethnic group and religion, level of religiosity, peer pressure and norms, and parental monitoring. With regard to condom use, factors such as embarrassment about condom acquisition, low perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and perceived efficacy of traditional and folk methods of contraception, were uncovered from the discussions. Conclusion This study underscores the importance of development of culturally specific interventions that address the identified promoting factors of premarital sex. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use should increase awareness about condom effectiveness against not only unwanted pregnancies but also STIs. PMID:23272156

  11. Qualitative inquiry into premarital sexual behaviours and contraceptive use among multiethnic young women: implications for education and future research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was a qualitative investigation into sexual attitudes and behaviours, and contraceptive use among Malaysian youth, based on constructs from the health belief model, theory of reasoned action, and problem behaviour theory. METHODS: A total of 34 focus group discussions with 185 participants were conducted among the Malay (35%, Chinese (34%, and Indian (31% young females between November, 2010 and April, 2011. The participants were secondary school students and university undergraduates from Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. RESULTS: The study found a lack of knowledge about sexual issues and contraception among the participants. Many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse and relied on periodic abstinence, natural methods, and traditional folk pregnancy preventive practices. The findings also revealed numerous categories of factors influencing sexual attitudes and behaviours: ethnic group and religion, level of religiosity, peer pressure and norms, and parental monitoring. With regard to condom use, factors such as embarrassment about condom acquisition, low perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and perceived efficacy of traditional and folk methods of contraception, were uncovered from the discussions. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the importance of development of culturally specific interventions that address the identified promoting factors of premarital sex. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use should increase awareness about condom effectiveness against not only unwanted pregnancies but also STIs.

  12. Survival Outside Home: Sexual Behaviour of Homeless and Runaway Young Adults in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wilberforce Amoah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although homeless young adults are often seen on the streets of Ghana, little research had examined the nature of sexual behaviour among these homeless and runaway young adults. Due to the culturally sensitive nature of such studies in the Ghanaian setting, only fifty (50 respondents agreed to participate in the study. A thirty–five (35 item questionnaire, comprising of twenty-eight (28 closed-ended and seven (7 open-ended questions was used for data collection. The findings indicated poverty, inability of parents to cater for the young adult’s needs, peer pressure and lack of parental acceptance as the main causes of homelessness. Consequently, the findings also showed a trend of school dropout, teenage pregnancy and use of illicit drugs as effects of homelessness. These findings have implications for future studies, policy reform and care for homeless young adult.

  13. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince on Sexual Behaviour of Wistar Rats

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    Muhammad Aslam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P<0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.

  14. Using the Good Way Model to Work Positively with Adults and Youth with Intellectual Difficulties and Sexually Abusive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bill

    2007-01-01

    The Good Way model is being used increasingly in New Zealand and Australia in both community-based and residential programmes for the treatment of adolescents and adults with intellectual difficulties who have sexually abusive behaviour. It is also being used with children and, in adapted forms, with mainstream adolescents and people of indigenous…

  15. Interprofessional and Interagency Training for Working with Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: An Evaluation of Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Simon; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Szilassy, Eszter

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency training courses provided by six Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England. The aim was to develop practical skills in recognising and responding to the needs of children with harmful sexual behaviour in an interagency context. The courses all employed interactive learning and teaching…

  16. A Hangover and a One-Night Stand: Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behaviour among Female Students at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…

  17. Perceptions of Parents on How Religion Influences Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviours in Two Ghanaian Communities: Implications for HIV and AIDS Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement

    2013-01-01

    To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adolescents’ sexual behaviours as on one hand it played a protective role by restraining adolescents from risky sexual behaviours; on the other hand it disparaged the existing traditional measures that regulated adolescents’ sexual behaviour. However, parents from the other community found a collaborative interface between the existing social control measures—communal socialization and proscriptive morality with religious ethics. Religious socialization, social capital theory and the concept of social suffering are used to explain some of the findings of this study. Implications for HIV and AIDS education and prevention are also discussed. PMID:23440475

  18. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and high-risk sexual behaviour among drinking adults in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Scott D; Katamba, Achilles; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Sethi, Ajay K

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a risk factor for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered high in Uganda. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol explain the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviours in a population-based sample of adults in Kampala. Associations between alcohol use (current and higher risk drinking) and high-risk sexual behaviours (multiple regular partners and casual sex) were tested. In age-sex-adjusted models, having multiple regular partners was associated with current drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.76, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 1.15, 6.63) and higher risk drinking (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.28, 8.71). Associations were similar but not statistically significant for having a causal sex partner. Sex-related alcohol outcome expectancy was associated with both alcohol use and high-risk sexual behaviour and attenuated relationships between multiple regular partners and both current drinking (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 0.57, 6.73) and higher risk drinking (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 0.68, 8.80). In this setting sexual behaviours related with alcohol consumption were explained, in part, by sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol. These expectations could be an important component to target in HIV education campaigns.

  19. A mixed methods and triangulation model for increasing the accuracy of adherence and sexual behaviour data: the Microbicides Development Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, R.; Montgomery, C.M.; Morar, N.S.; Mweemba, O.; Ssali, A.; Gafos, M.; Lees, S.; Stadler, J.; Crook, A.; Nunn, A.; Hayes, R.; McCormack, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The collection of accurate data on adherence and sexual behaviour is crucial in microbicide (and other HIV-related) research. In the absence of a "gold standard" the collection of such data relies largely on participant self-reporting. After reviewing available methods, this paper

  20. Why Embarrassment Inhibits the Acquisition and Use of Condoms: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jo

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key…

  1. Hepatitis B vaccination and changes in sexual risk behaviour among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xridou, M.; Wallinga, J.; Dukers-Muijers, N.; Coutinho, R.

    The impact of hepatitis B vaccination in men having sex with men in Amsterdam has been marginal until now, possibly because of increases in sexual risk behaviour counterbalancing the effect of vaccination. A mathematical model is used to describe the hepatitis B epidemic. The model shows that, with

  2. An Exploration of Therapists' Reactions to Working with Children Displaying Sexually Problematic Behaviour: A Thematic Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, Devayani; Norris, Emma; Swann, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Nine therapists were interviewed regarding their reactions to children displaying sexually problematic behaviour and how they managed these reactions. The framework of countertransference was used to understand therapists' reactions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The participants reported a wide range of powerful and…

  3. Clinically significant depressive symptoms and sexual behaviour among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltz, Ada R; Rodger, Alison J; Sewell, Janey; Speakman, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew N; Sherr, Lorraine; Gilson, Richard J; Asboe, David; Nwokolo, Nneka C; Clarke, Amanda; Gompels, Mark M; Allan, Sris; Collins, Simon; Lampe, Fiona C

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between depression and sexual behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM) is poorly understood. To investigate prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10) and the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behaviour among MSM reporting recent sex. The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) is a cross-sectional study of UK genitourinary medicine clinic attendees without diagnosed HIV (2013-2014). Among 1340 MSM, depressive symptoms (12.4%) were strongly associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and lower supportive network. Adjusted for key sociodemographic factors, depressive symptoms were associated with measures of condomless sex partners in the past 3 months (≥2 (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.42, 95% CI 1.17-1.74; P =0.001), unknown or HIV-positive status (PR 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.71; P payments for presentations made at meetings sponsored by Gilead in spring 2015. N.C.N. has received support for attendance at conferences, speaker fees and payments for attendance at advisory boards from Gilead Sciences, Viiv Healthcare, Janssen Pharmaceuticals and Bristol-Myers Squibb and a research grant from Gilead Sciences. D.A. served on the advisory board for Gilead in January 2016. M.M.G. has had sponsorship to attend conferences by Bristol-Myers Squibb, been on the BioCryst advisory board and run trials for Merck, Gilead, SSAT, BioCryst and Novartis. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  4. Young Australians' use of pornography and associations with sexual risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Agius, Paul A; Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Hellard, Margaret E

    2017-08-01

    Amid public health concern that rising pornography use may have a negative impact on young people's health and wellbeing, we report prevalence of pornography viewing and explore factors associated with viewing frequency and age at first viewing. Cross-sectional online survey in a convenience sample of Victorians aged 15 to 29 years recruited via social media. Ever viewing pornography was reported by 815 of 941 (87%) participants. The median age at first pornography viewing was 13 years for men and 16 years for women. More frequent pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, ever having anal intercourse and recent mental health problems. Younger age at first pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger current age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, younger age at first sexual contact and recent mental health problems. Pornography use is common and associated with some health and behavioural outcomes. Longitudinal research is needed to determine the causal impact of pornography on these factors. Implications for public health: Viewing pornography is common and frequent among young people from a young age and this needs to be considered in sexuality education. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Young adult sexual health: current and prior sexual behaviours among non-Hispanic white US college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jenny A; Trussell, James; Moore, Nelwyn B; Davidson, J Kenneth

    2010-03-01

    Less is known about the sexual health of young adults than about adolescents, despite 20 to 24-year-olds' greater risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmissible infections. This paper provides information on college students' prior and current sexual practices including oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse and masturbation. We analysed data from a cross-sectional sexuality survey of students from two university campuses in the USA, one Mid-western and one South-western (n = 1504). The sample consisted of non-Hispanic white, never-married students who identified as heterosexual. Of 16 possible combinations of four sexual activities (solitary masturbation, oral sex, vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse), only four contained more than 5% of respondents: masturbation, oral sex and vaginal intercourse (37%); oral sex and vaginal intercourse only (20%); all four (14%); and none (8%). Twenty percent had ever engaged in anal intercourse. Women were significantly less likely than men to have ever masturbated (48 v. 92%). Analyses exhibited several sexual health challenges, including lack of verbal sexual consent, alcohol use proximal to sex and lack of contraceptive use. Although few young adults are substituting it for vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse is increasingly common and safer sex efforts should encourage condom use during both sexual activities. Masturbation should be encouraged as an alternative to higher risk sexual practices and an essential aspect of sexual well being. Finally, practitioners should continue to address specific threats to college students' sexual health, including alcohol use and non-verbal consent.

  6. The relationship between future time perspective, self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour in the Black youth of central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousselam, Nikki; Naudé, Luzelle; Lens, Willy; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2016-01-01

    An interest exists in understanding why adolescents partake in risky sexual behaviours, as well as the risk and protective practices associated with risky sexual behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the moderator effect of future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. A random cluster consisting of 467 learners from English medium high schools of central South Africa participated in this study. The participants' risky sexual behaviour, self-efficacy and future time perspective were measured with the Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risk Survey, Generalised Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, respectively. Product term regression analysis was performed. It was found that both self-efficacy and future time perspective were negatively related to risky sexual behaviour. No moderating effect was found for future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. Self-efficacy and future time perspective were identified as qualities that protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. This finding can be useful in developing prevention programmes. Intervention programmes aimed at the youth should foster a sense of hope and possibility about the future and the development of goals and aspirations to prevent risky behaviour.

  7. First evidences of sexual divergences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gustin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first description of recorded sexual differences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni. Lesser kestrel is a migratory, colonial, small falcon breeding mainly in holes and crevices in large historic buildings within towns and villages, or in abandoned farm houses across the countryside. Using accurate GPS data-loggers, we gathered data on the activities of lesser kestrels in the two of main colonies of lesser kestrels in Italy, i.e. Gravina in Puglia and Altamura (Apulia, Southern Italy and the surrounding rural areas in a 20-days monitoring during the reproductive period. We tested for sex differences in space use (home range's circularity ratio and flight attributes (5-minute flight length, instantaneous speed, distance from nest, flight altitude above ground level of 9 monitored individuals (4 males and 5 females. We found significant sexual differences for all the observed traits. Our results demonstrate that female lesser kestrels during the monitoring period employed a lower amount of energy in local movements as measured by four flight attributes that resulted significantly different (and lower than for males. Compact home ranges for females could represent a maximization of the benefit-cost ratio between prospected surface and distance from nest, i.e. the optimal trade-off between foraging requirements (explored surface and costs in terms of time and energy (distance from nest. On the contrary, males showed a significantly different space use with very elongated home ranges and mean distance from nest almost three times as elevated as females' one. We argue that the detected sexual divergence was the product of their respective ways to optimize the relationship between resource acquisition and reproductive activity.

  8. Sexual behaviour and knowledge of adolescent males in the Molopo region of Bophuthatswana

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    M. Kau

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is one of the many public health problems facing the community in Bophuthatswana and neighbouring areas: Health professionals have attempted to address the problem yet little has been done to determine the role of the adolescent male in the prevention of this community problem. This study addresses the male adolescent’s sexual behaviour, his attitude towards contraception, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy. The study revealed that most of the respondents commenced sexual practices at about 12years of age. These young men believed that girls should prove their fertility before marriage, although they viewed contraception as a joint responsibility between the two partners. The respondents were found to have a positive attitude towards contraception and contraceptive use, yet when they were asked what method of contraception they used since they were sexually active, only 24,5% reported use of a condom. Ignorance about reproduction and the effects of contraceptives Was confirmed When 48% of the respondents indicated that they were unaware of the fact that pregnancy could result from first coitus, and they also believed that oral contraceptives had dangerous side effects. The study further revealed that parents did not discuss teenage pregnancy and contraception with their children, instead this subject was discussed among friends at school. Respondents expressed fear when asked why the subject was never discussed with parents, some actually stated that their parents would ‘flog’ them if they initiated the subject on sex and related matters. The urgent need for formalised sex education in Bophuthatswana was expressed by 77% of the respondents.

  9. The influence of social constructs of hegemonic masculinity and sexual behaviour on acceptability of vaginal microbicides in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweemba, Oliver; Dixey, Rachael; Bond, Virginia; White, Alan

    2017-06-12

    Vaginal microbicides are heralded as a woman's HIV prevention method. This study, conducted in a microbicide clinical trial setting in Zambia, explored how the social construction of masculinity and sexual behaviour influenced the acceptability of vaginal microbicides. The data were generated from 18 In-depth Interviews and 8 Focus Group Discussions. The data were analysed thematically. The study found that hegemonic masculinity influenced the use of vaginal microbicides positively and negatively, in multiple ways including: decision to initiate gel use, autonomous use of the gel, and consistent use of the gel. Men were seen as heads of households and decision-makers who approved their partners' intentions to initiate gel use. Autonomous gel use by women was not supported because it challenged men's dominant position in sexual matters and at a family level. The socially accepted notion that men engaged in multiple sexual relationships also influenced women's decision to use the gel. Sustained gel use depended on the perceived effect of the gel on men's sexual desires, sexual performance, fertility, and sexual behaviour. This study suggests that acceptability of microbicides partially lies within the realm of men, with use constrained and dictated by cultural constructs and practice of masculinity and gender.

  10. The Impacts of Using Smartphone Dating Applications on Sexual Risk Behaviours in College Students in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Pui-Hang Choi

    Full Text Available Dating applications (apps on smartphones have become increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of dating apps and risky sexual behaviours. Data were collected in four university campuses in Hong Kong. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire asking about the use of dating apps, sexual behaviours, and sociodemographics. Multiple linear and logistics regressions were used to explore factors associated with sexual risk behaviours. Six hundred sixty-six subjects were included in the data analysis. Factors associated with having unprotected sexual intercourse with more lifetime sexual partners included use of dating apps (β = 0.93, p<0.01, having one's first sexual intercourse before 16 years of age (β = 1.74, p<0.01, being older (β = 0.4, p<0.01, currently being in a relationship (= 0.69, p<0.05, having a monthly income at least HKD$5,000 (β = 1.34, p<0.01, being a current smoker (β = 1.52, p<0.01, and being a current drinker (β = 0.7, p<0.01. The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis found that users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 0.52, p<0.05 and current drinkers (adjust odds ratio: 0.40, p<0.01 were less likely to have consistent condom use. Users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 1.93, p<0.05, bisexual/homosexual subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.57, p<0.01 and female subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.00, p<0.05 were more likely not to have used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse. The present study found a robust association between using dating apps and sexual risk behaviours, suggesting that app users had greater sexual risks. Interventions that can target app users so that they can stay safe when seeking sexual partners through dating apps should be developed.

  11. Contemporary girlhood: maternal reports on sexualized behaviour and appearance concern in 4-10 year-old girls.

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    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-09-01

    It is widely accepted that the sexualization of girls has increased markedly over time. The overall aim of the present study was to offer a description of the behaviours of young girls, with a particular focus on potentially sexualized behaviours and appearance concern. A sample of 815 mothers of 4-10 year-old girls completed a questionnaire about a range of behaviours exhibited by their daughters, in addition to measures of their own self-objectification and material concern. It was found that many girls engaged with teen culture and used a variety of beauty products, but few exhibited more overtly sexualized behaviours. Involvement with teen culture, using beauty products, attention to clothes, and personal grooming were all associated with the measure of appearance concern, as were maternal self-objectification and material concern. It was concluded that young girls do engage in 'grown up' behaviours and that such engagement is not benign for their development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of internet exposure on sexual behaviour of young persons in an urban district of Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulogun, Oyedunni Sola; Ogbu, Ifeyinwa Arinze; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of young people exposed to pornographic materials through the internet in Nigeria is increasing. However, the influence of the exposure on their sexual behaviour has not been fully explored. This study therefore explored the effects of internet exposure on the sexual behaviour of young persons in Ibadan North Local Government Area of southwest Nigeria. A survey of 413 young persons was done using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions on internet exposure and its influence on behaviour. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Mean age of males was 21.7 ± 3.4 years while that of females was 20.9 ± 3.2 years. Forty-nine percent of the respondents used the internet for the first time between the ages of 15-19 years. Main source of information about the internet was friends (63.3%) and 99.3% accessed the internet from cybercafé. Seventy-two percent had ever stumbled on pornographic sites. Reactions included glancing through before closing (45.2%), closure of the sites (38.5%), and minimizing page to view later (12.5%). Post-exposure influence on behaviour included engagement in oral sex (48.3%), body tattoo (18.3%), having multiple sexual partners (11.6%) and homosexuality (5.0%). More males (95% CI OR =1.245-6.465) and frequent users (95% CI OR =1.168-3.497) were likely to report a change in sexual behaviour. Internet use was common among the young persons. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure to sexual content on internet targeting young persons especially the males and cybercafé operators are advocated.

  13. HPV Unvaccinated Status and HPV Sexual Risk Behaviour are Common among Canadian Young Adult Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Melanie; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, William A

    2017-12-21

    The current research focuses on sexual risk behaviour among young adult Canadians who have not been vaccinated against HPV. Six hundred and forty-six Canadian university undergraduates completed a self-administered survey assessing HPV vaccination status and sexual risk behaviour. Five hundred and thirty-seven participants (154 men and 383 women aged 17-23) who met eligibility criteria were analyzed. 48.5% (n = 185) of female and 89.6% (n = 138) of male participants had not been vaccinated against HPV. In the unvaccinated cohort, 51.4% (n = 95) of women were coitally experienced, 49.2% (n = 91) reported experience with oral sex, and 6.5% (n = 12) reported experience with receptive anal intercourse. 55.1% (n = 76) of men were coitally experienced, 22.5% (n = 31) of men reported receptive oral sex, and 2.9% (n = 4) of men reported receptive anal intercourse. Using validated sexual risk behaviour cut-offs, we determined that in the female unvaccinated population, the proportion at significantly increased risk for genital warts, cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer was 11.0%, 30.0%, 6.5%, and 49.2% respectively. In the male unvaccinated population, the proportion at significantly elevated risk for genital warts and anal cancer was 27.2% and 2.9% respectively. Unvaccinated young Canadian women and men commonly engaged in sexual risk behaviours for HPV infection, engaged in sexual risk behaviours at a similar level as their vaccinated counterparts, and a substantial number were at elevated risk of HPV related morbidities at a young age. Findings contribute to an evidence-based case for redoubling efforts to encourage HPV vaccination among unvaccinated young Canadians who are at risk of HPV infection. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Mokgobi, Maboe

    2018-01-01

    South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL) were searched for combinations of keywords including 'healthcare workers', 'risky sexual behaviour' and 'HIV and AIDS'. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  15. Awareness of HIV Transmission Risks and Determinants of Sexual Behaviour: Descriptive and Multivariate Analyses among German Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Carolin; Lindeman, Katharina von; Klewer, Jörg; Kugler, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Nursing students play a crucial role in sexual health education. Evidence suggests, however, that nursing students had several gaps in their knowledge of HIV transmission. This study investigates how nursing students in Germany assess the potential risks of spreading HIV in defined situations and which factors influence the self-expressed sexual behaviour patterns of these students. A standardized anonymous questionnaire was administered to a sample (N=617) of nursing students in 2008 and 2013. The survey was conducted during lessons, resulting in a response rate of 100%. For 17.4% of the students, assistance with personal hygiene was associated with higher HIV transmission risk. Also, changing dirty linen (17.6%) and physical examination (14.1%) were also noted similarly risky. The average age of first sexual intercourse was 15.5 years and the number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.3. The higher the average number of lifetime sexual partners, the higher the likelihood to use condoms only sometimes or never (OR 1.11). Forty students reported an unintended pregnancy. The likelihood to be unintentionally pregnant was six times higher among students aged 25 years or older (OR 6.16). The results clearly show that students overestimated HIV transmission risks in most of the situations encountered during health services provided by nurses, but overall sexual health behaviour indicated rather less risky behaviour. Nonetheless, the relatively high rate of unintended pregnancies is quite concerning. The findings underline the need for stronger integration of HIV and sexual education in the curricula of nursing schools in Germany.

  16. DIGITAL DANGERS AND CYBER-VICTIMISATION: A STUDY OF EUROPEAN ADOLESCENT ONLINE RISKY BEHAVIOUR FOR SEXUAL EXPLOITATION

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    Jeffrey Nicholas DeMarco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The engagement and use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs has increased exponentially across societies worldwide with implications for social and psychological development in young people. In this context, the risk of negative sexual experience and victimisation online is known to have real world consequences for young people. This article seeks to: explore the nature of adolescent risk taking online behaviour from a group of young adults in different European countries; develop types of online risk profiles; explore the impact of help-seeking and to consider the potential real world harmful consequences. Method: A survey was administered across the United Kingdom, Ireland and Italy of 18 to 25 year olds in higher education, asking them about their online experiences between the ages of 12 and 16. Risky behaviour on and off-line, types of victimisation (on and offline and sexual solicitation requests online were analysed together with help-seeking behaviour. Results: Four profiles concerning adolescent risky behaviours were identified through cluster analysis. Each were distinguishable by a pattern of latent constructs linked to risk offline and online. Two were considered normative (adapted adolescents and inquisitive online and two high risk (risk-taking aggressive and sexually inquisitive online. Additionally, regression analysis demonstrated significant factors linked to predicting both likelihood of meeting an adult for sexual purposes, and help-seeking behaviour. Conclusions: The profiles developed are a useful tool for educators, police and health and social care practitioners in identifying adolescents at risk in order to undertake preventative work. Common help-seeking behaviour from peers could be used to effect interventions.

  17. Expanding the test of counterfeit deviance: are sexual knowledge, experience and needs a factor in the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lockhart, Karen

    2010-01-01

    It is posited within the literature that the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability may be influenced by low levels of sexual knowledge, lack of sexual experience and unmet sexual needs. In this study, individuals with sexualised challenging behaviour were identified and matched for gender, age and ability level with individuals recruited to the non-sexualised and no challenging behaviour groups. All (n=24) were interviewed using the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Tool - Revised (SSKAAT-R) and the Sexual Knowledge, Experience and Needs Scale for Intellectual Disability (Sex-Ken-ID) to assess their sexual knowledge, experience and needs. Adaptive behaviour was measured as a covariate. In the current study, contrary to expectations in the wider literature, the sexualised challenging behaviour group showed significantly higher levels of sexual knowledge in several areas when adaptive behaviour was controlled. Their needs in relation to Dating and Intimacy were also significantly higher but no differences were found between groups in relation to sexual experience. The implications of these findings for service provision are outlined along with the considerations of directions for future research.

  18. Sexual activity and adolescent health risk behaviours amongst high school students in three ethnic Chinese urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason; Wong, William; Lee, Albert; Holroyd, Eleanor; Huang, Song Yuen

    2013-12-01

    To compare sexually active Chinese high school students in three major Asian cities with their non-sexually active counterparts in order to determine prevalence and associations with selected health outcomes. There have been limited studies to date on the association between sexual activity and substance use in Chinese high schools. While the role of the school nurse in the development of sexual health and harm reduction education in secondary schools has been well documented in international studies, this has received little attention in Asia. Cross-sectional survey. This study was administered in 2003/2004 to 13,895 Grades 6 to 12 high school students in Hong Kong (3498), Macau (6286) and Taipei (4111). Descriptive analysis was conducted followed by univariate analysis comparing sexual behaviour with (1) substance use including alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs; (2) feeling depressed for greater than or equal to two weeks in last 12 months; contemplating suicide during the last 12 months; and (3) perception of poor health/academic performance. The students (8%) reported being sexually active had marked differences in selected health outcomes when compared with the nonsexually experienced students. More than 90% of the sexually active students had tried alcohol, with more than 50% being regular drinkers, more than 30% testifying to binge drinking and nearly 50% reported depression in the past 12 months. Substance use, poorer perception of health and academic performance were also significantly higher in the sexually experienced students relative to their nonexperienced counterparts. Sexually experienced Chinese high school students surveyed were at higher risk of substance abuse, poorer psychological health and academic performance. Community and public health nursing needs to address Asian adolescent sexual health education needs, in particular provide culturally targeted interventions for associated substance abuse and psychological health within the context of

  19. Sexual behaviour, drugs and alcohol use of international students at a British university: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, R; Abubakar, I; Hunter, P R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether international students have greater risk-taking behaviours that could lead to importing novel and resistant strains of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of university students' sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and self-reported diagnosis of STIs and compared these between British and international students. In all, 827 students completed the survey, of whom 123 (15%) were international students. International students were less likely to have ever drunk alcohol (95.4% versus 87.8%, P = 0.002) and used drugs (56.4% versus 41.5%, P = 0.002). International students were on average almost two years older at first intercourse (18.7 versus 17 years; P < 0.001). There were no differences in the number of sexual partners between national and international students. On a discriminant analysis model, international students were characterized by being older and from a non-white background, less likely to use cocaine, they drank alcohol less frequently and were more likely to have had unprotected intercourse with two or more partners in the previous year. In conclusion, international students tend to drink more moderately and use fewer recreational drugs than British students. However, they exhibit higher sexual risk behaviours that could lead to importing novel and resistant strains of STIs.

  20. Sexual behaviours of clients of sex workers reported within phone calls at HIV/AIDS/STIs Italian Helpline

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    Ilaria Mulieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clients of sex workers represent a relevant target for interventions aimed at the prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Within prevention strategies, the AIDS and sexually transmitted infections helpline (Telefono Verde AIDS/ IST, TVA-IST of National Institute of Health in Italy has provided, since 1987, specific information and counselling interventions. AIM: The present study reports data on anagraphical characteristics and behaviours of clients of sex workers, anonymously reported at TVA-IST in the period 1987-2010. DISCUSSION: Among 95 149 phone calls (14% of the total considered 99.5% came from males, over 80% aged under 37 years and prevalently from Northern Italy. Among sexual behaviours, unprotected sexual intercourses were reported in the 26% of the calls. Subjects under 27 years reported a higher frequency of unprotected anal intercourse, while they used protection with oral and vaginal intercourses in a greater extent than older ones. Due to differential behaviours within clients of sex workers, specific informative strategies for this targeted population should adequately consider age-related differences.

  1. Illicit drug use and its association with key sexual risk behaviours and outcomes: Findings from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Fiona; Prah, Philip; Shahmanesh, Maryam; Field, Nigel; Macdowall, Wendy; Gravningen, Kirsten; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We explore the hypothesis that using illicit drugs other than, or in addition to, cannabis is associated with sexual risk behaviour and sexual health outcomes in the British population. Methods We analysed data, separately by gender, reported by sexually-active participants (those reporting > = 1 partners/past year) aged 16–44 years (3,395 men, 4,980 women) in Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a probability survey undertaken 2010–12 involving computer-assisted personal-interview and computer-assisted self-interview. Analyses accounted for the stratification, clustering and weighting of the data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Results Use of illicit drugs other than, or in addition to, cannabis in the past year was reported by 11.5% (95%CI:10.4%-12.8%) of men and 5.5% (4.8%-6.3%) of women. Use of these types of drugs was more common among those health behaviours, e.g. binge drinking > = weekly (age-adjusted ORs, aAORs, 10.91 (6.27–18.97) men; 9.95 (6.11–16.19) women); having > = 2 condomless partners in the past year (aAOR:5.50 (3.61–8.39) men; 5.24 (3.07–8.94) women). Participants reporting illicit drug use were more likely (than those who did not) to report sexual health clinic attendance (ORs after adjusting for age, sexual identity and partner numbers: 1.79 (1.28–2.51) men; 1.99 (1.34–2.95) women), chlamydia testing (1.42 (1.06–1.92) men; 1.94 (1.40–2.70) women), unplanned pregnancy (2.93 (1.39–6.17) women), and among men only, sexually transmitted infection diagnoses (3.10 (1.63–5.89)). Conclusions In Britain, those reporting recent illicit drug use were more likely to report other markers of poor general and sexual health. They were also more likely to attend sexual health clinics so these should be considered appropriate settings to implement holistic interventions to maximise health gain. PMID:28542366

  2. Can testosterone and corticosterone predict the rate of display of male sexual behaviour, development of secondary sexual characters and fertility potential in primary broiler breeders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGary Brougher, S; Estevez, I; Ottinger, M A

    2005-10-01

    1. Genetic selection for growth to enhance production may be associated with stress and with modified physiological and behavioural phenotypes which depress male primary broiler breeder fertility. 2. We hypothesised that male serum testosterone (T) and corticosterone (C) concentrations might correlate with fertility, sexual behaviour, and testicular, comb and wattle size. 3. Cockerels from two genetic strains (A and B) of primary broiler breeder were penned individually with an average of 10 females across 5 age periods (30 to 51 weeks) to evaluate male fertility, behaviour, serum T and C, and comb, wattle and testicular dimensions. 4. Strain A males had higher T at age periods 2, 4 and 5 than Strain B. Both strains had basal concentrations of C, apart from an elevated concentration for Strain B in period 5. 5. Strain B had a weak but significant, positive correlation between sexual behaviour and T and C, while Strain A males with higher C had larger combs and wattles. 6. Neither T nor C correlated with fertility. We conclude that evaluation of these endocrine factors (quantifiable measurements with the potential to correlate with fertility) alone seems insufficient to predict male fertility potential in these strains of primary broiler breeder.

  3. Psychosocial determinants of risky sexual behaviour amongst South African male prison inmates in KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifunda, Sibusiso; Reddy, Priscilla; Braithwaite, Ronald L; Stephens, Torrance; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart

    2012-01-01

    To inform future intervention programmes, the purpose of this paper is to explore the psychosocial and contextual determinants of intention to reduce risky sexual behaviour amongst inmates in South African prisons. A cross sectional study using interviewer administered questionnaires was conducted with 357 inmates across four prison facilities in South Africa that were involved in a pre-release health education intervention for parolees in two provinces. About 65 per cent of participants were first time offenders. Almost 50 per cent were unemployed prior to arrest and 66 per cent were married at time of incarceration. Self-efficacy, general life skills efficacy and sexual communication were the strongest predictors of intention to reduce risky behaviour upon release. High intenders were significantly different from low intenders in their self-efficacy, sexual communication, attitudes towards condom use and the perceived norm of sex being a non-utilitarian transaction. One of the key limitations is the low literacy levels amongst prison inmates. Data also relied heavily on self reports of behaviours that may have occurred prior to the participants being incarcerated. It is concluded that the exploration of subpopulation specific behavioural determinants is a critical step in the development of effective, contextually-relevant, health education interventions.

  4. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  5. Developmental investigation of age at sexual debut and subsequent sexual risk behaviours: a study of high-risk young black males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Geter, Angelica; Ricks, JaNelle; Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F

    2015-10-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify unmediated associations of early sexual debut (ESD) on the current safer sex practices of young Black men (YBM). A cross-sectional study of YBM (n=697) attending clinics treating sexually transmissible diseases (STIs) in three cities was conducted. ESD was dichotomised at the age of 13 years and under. A series of regression models were used to test the moderating effects of ESD and perceived parental monitoring (PPM). A regression model also tested the effect of years of sexual experience (YSE) on sexual risk behaviours, while controlling for ESD. Mean age of debut was 13.95 years. ESD results varied with significance for pregnancy (P<0.001), sexual partners (P<0.001), and ever having chlamydia (assessed by self report), but this final association was only found for older males (P=0.03). PPM held no moderating effect on any of the sexual risk outcomes. YSE was correlated with an increase in recent unprotected vaginal sex (AOR=1.19, 95%CI=1.10-1.27) and having a pregnant partner at the time of enrolment (AOR=1.30, 95%CI=1.17-1.43). The findings provide mixed evidence for unmediated associations of ESD among young Black males. The study strongly posits that ESD may actually be a mediating variable rather than a causal explanation for sexual risk. The findings also suggest that advancing YSE foster diminishing vigilance in safer sex practices. These outcomes should be utilised to inform intervention development.

  6. Indiscriminate males: mating behaviour of a marine snail compromised by a sexual conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N; Jonsson, Per R

    2010-08-09

    In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings.

  7. Indiscriminate males: mating behaviour of a marine snail compromised by a sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Johannesson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted.Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females, but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail.We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings.

  8. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Objectives: Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. Methods: This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL were searched for combinations of keywords including ‘healthcare workers’, ‘risky sexual behaviour’ and ‘HIV and AIDS’. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. Conclusion: More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  10. Selflessness is sexy: reported helping behaviour increases desirability of men and women as long-term sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David; Wigby, Stuart; English, Sinead; Wong, Sonny; Székely, Tamás; Harrison, Freya

    2013-09-03

    Despite its short-term costs, behaviour that appears altruistic can increase an individual's inclusive fitness by earning direct (selfish) and/or indirect (kin-selected) benefits. An evolved preference for other-regarding or helping behaviour in potential mates has been proposed as an additional mechanism by which these behaviours can yield direct fitness benefits in humans. We asked 32 heterosexual women and 35 heterosexual men to rate the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex in the presence and the absence of information about helping behaviours. Reports of helping behaviour were associated with a significant increase in the attractiveness of both men and women as potential long-term sexual partners. Altruism also increased the attractiveness of men as potential partners for short-term flings, but to a lesser extent than when the same men were being considered for long-term relationships. Altruism did not affect the attractiveness of women as partners for short-term flings. Our results unite two important areas of evolutionary theory - social evolution and sexual selection - and extend the list of means by which helping behaviours, which appear at first glance to be costly to the actor, can in fact earn direct fitness benefits. Helping behaviours may be attractive because they signal 'good genes' and/or because they are perceived as a signal of likely provision of non-genetic benefits (e.g. parental care). Exactly why helping behaviours in a non-mating context might be attractive to potential mates, and whether they are honest signals of mate quality, remains to be elucidated.

  11. HIV sexual transmission risks in the context of clinical care: a prospective study of behavioural correlates of HIV suppression in a community sample, Atlanta, GA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar; Merely, Cindy; Welles, Brandi; Pellowski, Jennifer; Kegler, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the health of people living with HIV and has the potential to reduce HIV infectiousness, thereby preventing HIV transmission. However, the success of ART for HIV prevention hinges on sustained ART adherence and avoiding sexually transmitted infections (STI). To determine the sexual behaviours and HIV transmission risks of individuals with suppressed and unsuppressed HIV replication (i.e., viral load). Assessed HIV sexual transmission risks among individuals with clinically determined suppressed and unsuppressed HIV. Participants were 760 men and 280 women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, USA, who completed behavioural assessments, 28-daily prospective sexual behaviour diaries, one-month prospective unannounced pill counts for ART adherence, urine screening for illicit drug use and medical record chart abstraction for HIV viral load. Individuals with unsuppressed HIV demonstrated a constellation of behavioural risks for transmitting HIV to uninfected sex partners that included symptoms of STI and substance use. In addition, 15% of participants with suppressed HIV had recent STI symptoms/diagnoses, indicating significant risks for sexual infectiousness despite their HIV suppression in blood plasma. Overall, 38% of participants were at risk for elevated sexual infectiousness and just as many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse with non-HIV-infected partners. Implementation strategies for using HIV treatments as HIV prevention requires enhanced behavioural interventions that extend beyond ART to address substance use and sexual health that will otherwise undermine the potential preventive impact of early ART.

  12. Sexual harassment in care work - Dilemmas and consequences: A qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Kjær, Susie; Aldrich, Per T; Madsen, Ida E H; Friborg, Maria K; Rugulies, Reiner; Folker, Anna P

    2017-05-01

    Care workers are often exposed to sexual harassment from patients. Research shows that such exposure may have detrimental effects on mental health of the care workers. Inappropriate sexual behaviour from patients is a particular challenge for formal and informal care workers alike. There is a scarceness of studies investigating the experience and the handling of sexual harassment from patients. To investigate the experience and handling of sexual harassment from patients in care work. The study follows an explorative qualitative approach based on group interviews (n=19) with 39 care workers. Ten workplaces participated in the study, including hospitals, nursing homes, community health centres, rehabilitations care centres, and psychiatric residential facilities. We conducted group interviews with care workers (employees), managers, shop stewards and/or safety representatives. The majority of the interviewees were trained nurses. The interviews revealed that sexual harassment is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. The care workers often separated between intentional and unintentional behaviours initiated by cognitively impaired patients. Thus, they often refrain from using the term harassment, because it implies that the actions were intentional. However, the interviews revealed that, in practice, this separation was very difficult, and that sexual harassment often creates a range of dilemmas in the daily work. At the same time, sexual harassment is a taboo. The managers, shop stewards and safety representatives in this study were often not aware of the frequency and the impact of the episodes had on the care workers. The workplaces participating in this study, rarely had guidelines or policies for managing and/or preventing sexual harassment or inappropriate sexual behaviours, but often responded to episodes in an ad hoc and case-by-case manner. The term sexual harassment might not be appropriate in the context of care work, because many patients who display

  13. Trauma as common denominator of sexual violence and victimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Nataša I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches on biological, psychological and sociological characteristics of sexual offenders show etiological and phenomenological differences, while, on the other side, treatment programs show tendency toward unification. Unification that works contains behavioural learning victim empathy work and work on one’s own trauma. In this paper the author looks for an answer to the question who is the sexual offender and how he became that. In theory rapists and paedophiles are similar as much as their victims are, and they are often victims of some traumatic experience which seeks for satisfaction in inappropriate but well-known way. Sexual violence can be stopped by breaking the circle of its beginning and development by helping sexual perpetrator to find the way out from sexual violence circle and healthier behavioural patterns.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of health care workers towards clients of sexual health services in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Paraniala Silas; Sarangapany, Jeganathan; Begley, Kim; Musson, Rachel; Ram, Sharan; Kishore, Kamal

    2012-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify the attitudes and behaviours of health care workers (HCWs) in health care settings (HCS) in Fiji involving 369 participants. Self-rated knowledge of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) varied depending on whether the HCS was divisional or sub-divisional, and varied between the various national divisions. HCWs with experience in HIV, reproductive health and antenatal clinics had higher self-rated HIV knowledge. A high proportion had a fear of catching HIV from HIV-positive clients. This study found high levels of negative attitudes towards clients from vulnerable groups with regards to the transmission and spread of HIV. Study participants also reported observing differential treatment by their colleagues if a client was known to have or was suspected of having HIV. There is a need for further HIV education of HCWs, with training focussed on occupational risk, and on reducing stigma and discrimination of those living with or vulnerable to HIV in Fiji.

  15. DIGITAL DANGERS AND CYBER-VICTIMISATION: A STUDY OF EUROPEAN ADOLESCENT ONLINE RISKY BEHAVIOUR FOR SEXUAL EXPLOITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Nicholas DeMarco; Antonia Bifulco; Adriano Schimmenti; Vincenzo Caretti; Mary Aiken; Ugo Pace; Stefan Bogaerts; Julia Davidson; Carly Cheevers

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The engagement and use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) has increased exponentially across societies worldwide with implications for social and psychological development in young people. In this context, the risk of negative sexual experience and victimisation online is known to have real world consequences for young people. This article seeks to: explore the nature of adolescent risk taking online behaviour from a group of young adults in different European co...

  16. Perceptions of Parents on How Religion Influences Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviours in Two Ghanaian Communities: Implications for HIV and AIDS Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Osafo, Joseph; Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement

    2014-01-01

    To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adol...

  17. Attitudes and values in sexual behaviour and sex education: A cross-cultural study among University students in Greece and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakavoulis, Alexandros; Forrest, Joan

    1999-03-01

    This article describes a survey comparing university students in Greece and Scotland with regard to their attitudes to sexual development and sex education. A questionnaire was constructed in Greek and English and was completed by 436 university students in Greece and an equivalent number in Scotland. Comparative results show a tendency for students' attitudes to converge with regard to gender identity, inter-sexual relations, appropriate forms of sexual behaviour and the factors that shape it. Differences exist regarding the aims of sex education, the concept of a sexually mature person, and the moral principles that should govern inter-sexual relations.

  18. A comparison of sexual behaviour and attitudes of healthy adolescents in a Danish high school in 1982, 1996, and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGarrigle Christine A

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To assess changes in sexual behaviour among students at a high school in Denmark from 1982 to 2001. Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to compare data from three identical cross-sectional surveys performed in 1982, 1996, and 2001. Results Girls: More girls reported their first sexual intercourse before their 16th birthday in 2001 (42% than in 1996 (29% In 1982 it was also 42% (Chi-square for trend: p = 0.003. Fewer girls with no regular partner used condoms for their personal protection in 2001 (2% than in 1996 (9% and 1982 (0% (Chi-square for trend p = 0.016. The proportion of girls with no regular partner who considered protection from sexually transmitted disease important for their choice of contraception was 39% in 2001 compared with 71% in 1996 and only 10% in 1982 (Chi-square for trend: p Boys: More boys reported sexual debut before their 16th birthday in 2001 (40% than in 1996 (37% and 1982 (24% (Chi-square for trend: p = 0.023. For boys with no regular partner, condom was preferred for personal protection by 85% in 2001, 91% in 1996 and 61% in 1982 (Chi-square for trend p = 0.007. Protection against sexually transmitted infection declined, especially among boys with no regular partner, from 51% in 2001 to 72% in 1996 and 21% in 1982 Chi-square for trend: p The tendency towards earlier sexual debut and less use of safe sex practices to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI was accompanied by a rise in the number of detected STIs during this period. Conclusions The period from 1982 to 1996 during which sexual attitudes were directed toward safer sex seems to have given way to a reverse trend in the period from 1996 to 2001. These findings may have significant implications for health care authorities organising preventive strategies for healthy adolescents.

  19. Illicit drug use and its association with key sexual risk behaviours and outcomes: Findings from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Paquette

    Full Text Available We explore the hypothesis that using illicit drugs other than, or in addition to, cannabis is associated with sexual risk behaviour and sexual health outcomes in the British population.We analysed data, separately by gender, reported by sexually-active participants (those reporting > = 1 partners/past year aged 16-44 years (3,395 men, 4,980 women in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, a probability survey undertaken 2010-12 involving computer-assisted personal-interview and computer-assisted self-interview. Analyses accounted for the stratification, clustering and weighting of the data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios.Use of illicit drugs other than, or in addition to, cannabis in the past year was reported by 11.5% (95%CI:10.4%-12.8% of men and 5.5% (4.8%-6.3% of women. Use of these types of drugs was more common among those = weekly (age-adjusted ORs, aAORs, 10.91 (6.27-18.97 men; 9.95 (6.11-16.19 women; having > = 2 condomless partners in the past year (aAOR:5.50 (3.61-8.39 men; 5.24 (3.07-8.94 women. Participants reporting illicit drug use were more likely (than those who did not to report sexual health clinic attendance (ORs after adjusting for age, sexual identity and partner numbers: 1.79 (1.28-2.51 men; 1.99 (1.34-2.95 women, chlamydia testing (1.42 (1.06-1.92 men; 1.94 (1.40-2.70 women, unplanned pregnancy (2.93 (1.39-6.17 women, and among men only, sexually transmitted infection diagnoses (3.10 (1.63-5.89.In Britain, those reporting recent illicit drug use were more likely to report other markers of poor general and sexual health. They were also more likely to attend sexual health clinics so these should be considered appropriate settings to implement holistic interventions to maximise health gain.

  20. A link between altruism and sexual selection: genetic influence on altruistic behaviour and mate preference towards it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tim; Ferguson, Eamonn; Rijsdijk, Fruhling

    2010-11-01

    Altruistic behaviour raises major questions for psychology and biology. One hypothesis proposes that human altruistic behaviour evolved as a result of sexual selection. Mechanisms that seek to explain how sexual selection works suggest genetic influence acting on both the mate preference for the trait and the preferred trait itself. We used a twin study to estimate whether genetic effects influenced responses to psychometric scales measuring mate preference towards altruistic traits (MPAT) and the preferred trait (i.e., 'altruistic personality'). As predicted, we found significant genetic effects influencing variation in both. We also predicted that individuals expressing stronger MPAT and 'altruistic personality' would have mated at a greater frequency in ancestral populations. We found evidence for this in that 67% of the covariance in the phenotypic correlation between the two scales was associated with significant genetic effects. Both sets of findings are thus consistent with the hypothesized link between sexual selection and human altruism towards non-kin. We discuss how this study contributes to our understanding of altruistic behaviour and how further work might extend this understanding.

  1. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Arnold Hagens, Salazar; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents' sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14-18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour. This could have important implications for future

  2. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jaruseviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to

  3. Gender and Health Analysis of Sexual Behaviour in South-Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of marriage partner is influenced by the kin, which encourages early marriage and multiple sexual relationships through polygyny. Yoruba men do not like contraceptives and the women suffer more of the consequences of sexual relationships than men. Sexual decision-making in Yoruba culture is characterised by ...

  4. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Li Ping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practi...

  5. Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F

    2014-01-06

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.

  6. Sexual behaviour of heterosexual men and women receiving antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M

    2013-12-01

    Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour. We undertook a longitudinal analysis of data from the Partners PrEP Study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-uninfected partners of heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples (n=3163, ≥18 years of age). Efficacy for HIV prevention was publicly reported in July 2011, and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex-unprotected by a condom-during the 12 months after compared with the 12 months before July 2011, to assess whether knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy for HIV prevention caused increased sexual risk behaviour. We analysed 56 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected individuals (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months before unmasking versus 53 after unmasking; we recorded no immediate change (p=0·66) or change over time (p=0·25) after July, 2011. We identified a significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners after July, 2011, but the effect was small (average of 6·8 unprotected sex acts per year vs 6·2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had patients remained masked, p=0·04). Compared with before July, 2011, we noted no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July, 2011. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, might not result in substantial changes in risk

  7. A multilevel analysis of the determinants of high-risk sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchudi, Joseph; Magadi, Monica; Mostazir, Mohammod

    2012-05-01

    A number of authors have identified multiple concurrent sexual partnerships by both men and women to lie at the root of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applies multilevel models to Demographic and Health Survey data collected during 2003-2008 in 20 sub-Saharan African countries to examine the influence of social and cultural context on involvement with multiple sexual partnerships in the region, above and beyond the effects of individual characteristics. The findings provide support for the ecological argument that health behaviours are shaped and determined by societal conditions, in addition to the effects of individual and household characteristics. Involvement with multiple sex partners is most prevalent in societies in which sexual norms are widely permissive and where polygyny is common. Individual autonomy is substantial and attitudes towards sexuality are more liberal among men and women who live in communities in which sexual norms are widely permissive. Men and women who are most likely to have multiple sex partners in the sub-Saharan region are those who initiated sexual activity earlier and those who have the individual attributes (e.g. young age, urban residence, education, media exposure and working for cash and away from home) that bring to them more rights and/or decision-making autonomy, but not necessarily more financial resources and economic security (mostly among women). On the other hand, involvement with multiple partners is determined by cultural norms (i.e. permissive sexual norms) and social change (i.e. mass education, expansion of cash employment). The findings suggest a number of opportunities for more effective policy and programmatic responses to curb the prevalence of multiple partnerships in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Sexual intercourse, age of initiation and contraception among adolescents in Ireland: findings from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Ireland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Honor; Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2018-03-16

    The need to tackle sexual health problems and promote positive sexual health has been acknowledged in Irish health policy. Young people's sexual behaviour however remains under-researched with limited national data available. This study presents the first nationally representative and internationally comparable data on young people's sexual health behaviours in Ireland. Self-complete questionnaire data were collected from 4494 schoolchildren aged 15-18 years as part of a broader examination of health behaviour and their context. The prevalence of sexual initiation, very early sexual initiation (behaviours. Overall, 25.7% of boys and 21.2% of girls were sexually initiated. Older age was consistently predictive of initiation for both boys and girls, as were alcohol, tobacco and cannabis involvement, living in poorer neighbourhoods and having good communication with friends. Involvement in music and drama was protective. Very early sexual initiation (Traveller community, whereas taking medication for physical symptoms and attending regular health checks was protective. Condom use was reported by 80% of sexually initiated students at last intercourse. Boys' condom use was associated with older age, higher family affluence, bullying others, more frequent physical activity and health protective behaviours. For girls, condom use was predicted by belonging to a non-Traveller community, healthy food consumption, higher quality of life and being bullied, whereas taking medication for physical and psychological symptoms was associated with non-condom use. These nationally representative research findings highlight the importance of focusing on young people as a distinct population subgroup with unique influences on their sexual health requiring targeted interventions and policy.

  9. Work Hard, Party Harder: Drug Use and Sexual Behaviour in Young British Casual Workers in Ibiza, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Kelly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every summer, young people flock to nightlife-focused holiday resorts around the world to find casual work. Despite being exposed to hedonistic environments, often for several months, little is known about their substance use, sexual activity and health service needs over this extended amount of time abroad. Methods: A short anonymous questionnaire examining alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviour and use of health services was administered to young British casual workers aged 16–35 in San Antonio, Ibiza (n = 171. Results: 97.7% of casual workers used alcohol in Ibiza, and the majority (85.3% used drugs. Almost half (43.5% of all participants used a drug in Ibiza that they had never used in the UK. Most casual workers arrived in Ibiza without a partner or spouse (86.5%. Of these, 86.9% had sex during their stay and 50.0% had unprotected sex; often while under the influence of alcohol. Only 14.3% of those having unprotected sex with a new partner sought a sexual health check-up in Ibiza, although 84.1% intended to do this on their return to the UK. Conclusion: Substance use and sexual risk taking is widespread among young British casual workers in Ibiza. Such international nightlife resorts represent key settings for substance-related health and social problems, and for the international spread of sexually transmitted infections. Addressing the health needs of casual workers and the environments that permit and promote their excessive behaviour requires collaboration between authorities in home and destination countries and the tourism industry.

  10. Work hard, party harder: drug use and sexual behaviour in young British casual workers in Ibiza, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Danielle; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2014-09-26

    Every summer, young people flock to nightlife-focused holiday resorts around the world to find casual work. Despite being exposed to hedonistic environments, often for several months, little is known about their substance use, sexual activity and health service needs over this extended amount of time abroad. A short anonymous questionnaire examining alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviour and use of health services was administered to young British casual workers aged 16-35 in San Antonio, Ibiza (n = 171). 97.7% of casual workers used alcohol in Ibiza, and the majority (85.3%) used drugs. Almost half (43.5%) of all participants used a drug in Ibiza that they had never used in the UK. Most casual workers arrived in Ibiza without a partner or spouse (86.5%). Of these, 86.9% had sex during their stay and 50.0% had unprotected sex; often while under the influence of alcohol. Only 14.3% of those having unprotected sex with a new partner sought a sexual health check-up in Ibiza, although 84.1% intended to do this on their return to the UK. Substance use and sexual risk taking is widespread among young British casual workers in Ibiza. Such international nightlife resorts represent key settings for substance-related health and social problems, and for the international spread of sexually transmitted infections. Addressing the health needs of casual workers and the environments that permit and promote their excessive behaviour requires collaboration between authorities in home and destination countries and the tourism industry.

  11. Evaluation of multisystemic therapy pilot services in Services for Teens Engaging in Problem Sexual Behaviour (STEPS-B): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Butler, Stephen; Baruch, Geoffrey; Byford, Sarah; Seto, Michael C; Wason, James; Wells, Charles; Greisbach, Jessie; Ellison, Rachel; Simes, Elizabeth

    2015-11-02

    Clinically effective and cost-effective methods for managing problematic sexual behaviour in adolescents are urgently needed. Adolescents who show problematic sexual behaviour have a range of negative psychosocial outcomes, and they and their parents can experience stigma, hostility and rejection from their community. Multisystemic therapy (MST) shows some evidence for helping to reduce adolescent sexual reoffending and is one of the few promising interventions available to young people who show problematic sexual behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for Services for Teens Engaging in Problem Sexual Behaviour (STEPS-B), a feasibility trial of MST for problem sexual behaviour (MST-PSB) in antisocial adolescents at high risk of out-of-home placement due to problematic sexual behaviour. Eighty participants and their families recruited from five London boroughs will be randomized to MST-PSB or management as usual with follow-up to 20 months post-randomization. The primary outcome is out-of-home placement at 20 months. Secondary outcomes include sexual and non-sexual offending rates and antisocial behaviours, participant well-being, educational outcomes and total service and criminal justice sector costs. Feasibility outcomes include mapping the clinical service pathways needed to recruit adolescents displaying problematic sexual behaviour, acceptability of a randomized controlled trial to the key systems involved in managing these adolescents, and acceptability of the research protocol to young people and their families. Data will be gathered from police computer records, the National Pupil Database and interviews and self-report measures administered to adolescents and parents and will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The STEPS-B feasibility trial aims to inform policymakers, commissioners of services and professionals about the potential for implementing MST-PSB as an intervention for adolescents showing problem sexual behaviour. Should MST

  12. Higher risk sexual behaviour is associated with unawareness of HIV-positivity and lack of viral suppression - implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Helena; Venables, Emilie; Ben-Farhat, Jihane; van Cutsem, Gilles; Ellman, Tom; Kenyon, Chris

    2017-11-23

    Efficacy of Treatment as Prevention Strategy depends on a variety of factors including individuals' likelihood to test and initiate treatment, viral load and sexual behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that people with higher risk sexual behaviour are less likely to know their HIV-positive status and be virologically suppressed. A cross-sectional population-based survey of individuals aged 15-59 years old was conducted in 2013 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A two-stage cluster probability sampling was used. After adjustment for age and sex, lack of awareness of HIV-positivity was strongly associated with having more than one sexual partner in the preceding year (aOR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.5-3.1). Inconsistent condom use was more common in individuals with more than one sexual partner (aOR: 16.6, 95%CI: 7.6-36.7) and those unaware (aOR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.6-5.4). Among people aware of their HIV-positivity, higher risk sexual behaviour was associated with lack of viral suppression (aOR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.5). Risky sexual behaviour seems associated with factors linked to poor health-seeking behaviour which may have negative implications for HIV testing and Treatment as Prevention. Innovative strategies, driven by improved epidemiological and anthropological understanding, are needed to enable comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention.

  13. Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour among men and women in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braimoh Bello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is a key factor underlying the remarkable vulnerability to HIV infection among men and women in sub-Saharan Africa, especially within urban settings. Its effects, however, vary by type of drinking, population group and are modified by socio-cultural co-factors. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 1465 men living in single-sex hostels and 1008 women in adjacent informal settlements in inner-city, Johannesburg, South Africa. Being drunk in the past week was used as an indicator of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of drinking and number of alcohol units/week used as measures of volume. Associations between dimensions of alcohol use (current drinking, volume of alcohol consumed and heavy episodic drinking patterns and sexual behaviours were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Most participants were internal migrants from KwaZulu Natal province. About half of men were current drinkers, as were 13% of women. Of current male drinkers, 18% drank daily and 23% were drunk in the past week (women: 14% and 29% respectively. Among men, associations between heavy episodic drinking and sexual behaviour were especially pronounced. Compared with non-drinkers, episodic ones were 2.6 fold more likely to have transactional sex (95%CI = 1.7–4.1 and 2.2 fold more likely to have a concurrent partner (95%CI = 1.5–3.2. Alcohol use in men, regardless of measure, was strongly associated with having used physical force to have sex. Overall effects of alcohol on sexual behaviour were larger in women than men, and associations were detected between all alcohol measures in women, and concurrency, transactional sex and having been forced to have sex. Conclusions Alcohol use and sexual behaviours are strongly linked among male and female migrant populations in inner-city Johannesburg. More rigorous interventions at both local and macro level are needed to alleviate alcohol harms and mitigate the alcohol

  14. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: an international methodological pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Honor; Költő, András; Reis, Marta; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Moreau, Nathalie; Burke, Lorraine; Cosma, Alina; Windlin, Béat; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-05

    This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania) with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95). The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ 2  = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117). Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data), understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures) and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data

  15. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC Study: an international methodological pilot investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Young

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people’s sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. Methods An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95. Results The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117. Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. Conclusions These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data, understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the

  16. Trends in condom use and risk behaviours after sexual exposure to HIV: a seven-year observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Casalino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the trends in numbers and percentages of sexually exposed persons to HIV (SE consulting an ED for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, as well as predictors of condom use. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective-observational study. METHODS: We included all SE attendances in our Emergency Department (ED during a seven-year study-period (2006-2012. Trends were analyzed using time-series analysis. Logistic Regression was used to define indicators of condom use. RESULTS: We enrolled 1851 SE: 45.7% reported intercourse without condom-use and 12.2% with an HIV-infected partner. Significant (p0.05, in MSM +228% (p<0.001 and +49% (p<0.001, in Heterosexuals +68% (p<0.001 and +10% (p = 0.08. Among MSM, significant rising trends were found in those reporting high-risk behaviours: anal receptive (+450% and +76% and anal insertive (+l33% and +70% intercourses. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, heterosexuals, vaginal intercourse, visit during the night-shift and short time delay between SE and ED visit, were significantly associated with condom-use. CONCLUSION: We report an increasing trend in the number of SE, mainly among MSM, and rising trends in high-risk behaviours and unprotected sexual intercourses among MSM. Our results indicate that SE should be considered as a high-risk population for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases.

  17. Sexual transmission-risk behaviour among HIV-positive persons: a multisite study using social action theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen M; Dawson Rose, Carol; Phillips, J Craig; Holzemer, William L; Webel, Allison R; Nicholas, Patrice; Corless, Inge B; Kirksey, Kenn; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Voss, Joachim; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Portillo, Carmen; Johnson, Mallory O; Brion, John; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Nokes, Kathleen; Reid, Paula; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Chen, Wei-Ti

    2017-01-01

    Sexual risk behaviour was explored and described using Social Action Theory. The sexual transmission of HIV is complex and multi-factorial. Social Action Theory provides a framework for viewing self-regulation of modifiable behaviour such as condom use. Condom use is viewed within the context of social interaction and interdependence. Cross-sectional survey. Self-report questionnaire administered to adults living with HIV/AIDS, recruited from clinics, service organizations and by active outreach, between 2010 - 2011. Having multiple sex partners with inconsistent condom use during a 3-month recall period was associated with being male, younger age, having more years of education,substance use frequency and men having sex with men being a mode of acquiring HIV. In addition, lower self-efficacy for condom use scores were associated with having multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use. Social Action Theory provided a framework for organizing data from an international sample of seropositive persons. Interventions for sexually active, younger, HIV positive men who have sex with men, that strengthen perceived efficacy for condom use, and reduce the frequency of substance use, may contribute to reducing HIV-transmission risk. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morhason-Bello, I O; Oladokun, A; Enakpene, C A; Fabamwo, A O; Obisesan, K A; Ojengbede, O A

    2008-08-01

    This study was a crossectional survey conducted among 716 senior secondary school adolescents in Ibadan from March to August 2005. The result of 695 that was analyzed revealed that the mean age of 15 +/- 2.6years. 28.3% of the respondents had previous sexual exposure with higher proportions being male (p = 0.00043). Majorities' first sexual exposure was unplanned. Family settings and educational level do not have significant influence on the previous sexual exposure. The methods of sexual activity were mainly through vagina route while some had also practiced oral and anal sex. Most of those that are sexually exposed had more than one partner. About half of the respondents learn about sex from their friends while others through their parents and media. We conclude that in-school adolescents practiced unsafe sexual activity and they are therefore predisposed to STI/HIV and other reproductive health risks.

  19. Does sex education influence sexual and reproductive behaviour of women? Evidence from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Ortiz Arévalo

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of sex education on sexual and reproductive behavior in Mexican women. Exposure to in-school sex education is identified and duration-hazard models are estimated to assess its effects on initiation of sexual activity and use of contraception methods, and timing of first and second pregnancies. Results consistently reveal that women exposed to sex education begin using contraception methods earlier. Most evidence indicates that exposed women initiate sexual ...

  20. Inappropriate prescribing in geriatric patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Patrick J

    2012-02-03

    Inappropriate prescribing in older people is a common condition associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. Medication use increases with age, and this, in conjunction with an increasing disease burden, is associated with adverse drug reactions. This review outlines why older people are more likely to develop adverse drug reactions and how common the problem is. The use of different tools to identify and measure the problem is reviewed. Common syndromes seen in older adults (eg, falling, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance) are considered, and recent evidence in relation to medication use for these conditions is reviewed. Finally, we present a brief summary of significant developments in the recent literature for those caring for older people.

  1. Age-related variation in sexual behaviours among heterosexual men residing in Brazil, Mexico and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Euna M; Daley, Ellen; Kromrey, Jeffrey; Baldwin, Julie; Romero-Daza, Nancy; Salmeron, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Bryant, Carol A; Giuliano, Anna R

    2014-10-01

    To compare the prevalence of demographic characteristics and sexual behaviours across age groups and to estimate their significance in predicting sexual risk factors by age cohort. This cohort study examined sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among heterosexual men in Brazil, Mexico and the USA (N=3047). Participants completed a sexual risk factor questionnaire and were tested for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and genital herpes. We examined sexual risk in the study population through a composite measure of STI positivity by age cohort (young: 18-30 years; middle-aged: 31-44 years; older: 45-70 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to generate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that STI positivity varied significantly by age group among heterosexual men by a number of covariates. In younger men, having more advanced education had a protective effect (16 years: AOR=0.37, 95% CI 0.15- 0.92), whereas higher numbers of sexual partners elevated the risk for STIs (20-49 partners: AOR=2.06, 95% CI 1.04-4.06; ≥ 50 partners: AOR=4.33, 95% CI 1.74-10.76). Middle-aged men who were black (AOR=1.64, 95% CI 1.10-2.42) and divorced/separated/widowed (AOR=1.91, 95% CI 1.21-3.02) had an increased risk for a positive STI test. Among older men, a younger age at first vaginal sexual encounter (AOR=3.75, 95% CI 1.45-9.74) and a history of exchanging sex for money or drugs heightened STI risk (AOR=2.30, 95% CI 1.0-5.04). These findings demonstrate that age-related life experiences among heterosexual men influence sexual risk and STI transmission. This topic warrants further investigation to support the development and implementation of targeted interventions that may potentially reduce adverse sexual health outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Sexual-risk behaviour, self-perceived risk and knowledge of sexually transmissible infections among young Australians attending a music festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Hellard, Margaret E; Aitken, Campbell K; Hocking, Jane S

    2007-03-01

    Prevalences of sexually transmissible infections (STI), unsafe sex and abortions are increasing in Australia and people aged 16 to 29 are particularly at risk. We conducted a survey of behaviour, knowledge and perceptions of STI risk among young people attending a longstanding annual music festival called the Big Day Out. A structured questionnaire was administered to a cross-sectional sample of people aged 16 to 29 years attending a music festival (Big Day Out). Completed questionnaires were collected from 939 participants (507 females, 432 males) whose median age was 20 years. Of the participants, 751 (80%) had ever had vaginal or anal sex. In the previous year, 48% had multiple partners and in the past 3 months 66% had a new partner. Of these, 224 (39%; 30% of those who had ever had sex) did not use condoms all or most of the time and were classified as being at risk of STI; however, only 24% of those so classified perceived that they were at risk of an STI. In total, 43% of all sexually experienced participants had not used a condom because they reported being drunk or high at the time. STI knowledge was poor overall and male participants, those living in non-metropolitan regions, those under the age of 20 and those with less schooling scored relatively poorly. Our data suggest that young men and women who attend the Big Day Out are sexually active young adults with limited knowledge of STI and blood-borne viruses who regularly engage in behaviours that put them at risk of infection.

  3. Determinants of Youth Sexual Behaviour and Its Implications to Reproductive and Sexual Health Policies and Services in Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    Shaluhiyah, Zahroh; Ford, Nicholas J; Suryoputro, Antono

    2006-01-01

    Background : Indonesian young people have been facing significant challenges to their health and well-being. This situation has causing an increased vulnerability to health hazards of various kinds, specially related to reproductive and sexual health, including the growing threat of HIV/AIDS. These adolescent health issues, most of which are preventable, can lead to significant morbidity and mortality.Method : This paper reports on findings from a recent study, which seeks to identify predict...

  4. Mass media and sexual health behaviour of college students in Nigeria: a study of Lagos State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onipede, Wusu

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of mass media on the sexual health behaviour of single college students in Nigeria. Simple random sampling procedure was adopted. A total of 300 pre-coded questionnaires were administered in study population. Data analysis reveals that the respondents are more frequently exposed to the internet (75%), TV (77%) and radio (75%). More frequent exposure to print, home video and internet media are significantly related to rising level of sexual activities among female respondents. Frequent exposure to radio (over 3 times) and internet (4 times) are more likely to influence condom use positively among male respondents. Among their female counterparts, more frequent internet utilization (almost twice) is more likely to raise the level of condom use. Thus, an international accord on the content of the mass media, especially on their moral implications for the younger generation is imperative.

  5. Young people\\'s sexual risk behaviour and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of them (82.2%) were aware of sexually transmitted infections, and 77.9% were aware that condoms prevent transmission of HIV. Seventy-one percent of the young persons were sexually experienced (i.e. previously had sex), 12.9% admitted they had previously had sex in exchange for money, and 63.4% reported ...

  6. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate knowledge and safe sexual behavior among young people is key to the eventual elimination of the disease. The aim of this study was to identify adolescents' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and their sexual behavior, as they form a significant at-risk group. This was a descriptive study of in-school adolescents carried out ...

  7. Strong propensity for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men in Vietnam: behavioural data and sexual network modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Liljeros, Fredrik; Thanh, Hoang Huy; Thorson, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Survey data from men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asian cities indicate ongoing and drastic increases in HIV prevalence. It is unknown which behavioural factors are most important in driving these epidemics. We aimed to analyse detailed sexual behaviour data among MSM in Vietnam and to model HIV transmission using improved assumptions on sexual network structure. Setting Vietnam. Participants Internet-using men who had ever had sex (any type) with a man, aged ≥18 years and living in Vietnam. The study was cross-sectional, population-based and performed in 2012, using online respondent-driven sampling. The Internet-based survey instrument was completed by 982 participants, of which 857 were eligible. Questions included sociodemography and retrospective sexual behaviour, including number of unprotected anal sex (UAS) acts per partner. Primary and secondary outcome measures Estimated basic reproductive number over 3 months as a function of transmission risk per UAS act; frequency distributions of number of UAS partners and UAS acts during last 3 months. Results 36% (CI 32% to 42%) reported UAS at least once during the last 3 months. 36% (CI 32% to 41%) had ever taken an HIV test and received the result. UAS partner numbers and number of UAS acts were both highly skewed and positively correlated. Using a weighted configuration model, taking into account partner numbers, frequency of UAS and their correlations, we estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) over 3 months. The results indicated rapid transmission over a wide range of values of per-act transmissibility. Conclusions Men with multiple partners had unexpectedly high UAS frequency per partner, paired with low HIV testing rates. The study highlights the importance of collecting data on frequency of UAS acts and indicates the need to rapidly scale-up HIV prevention services and testing opportunities for MSM in Vietnam. PMID:24435887

  8. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.

  9. Comparison of age-specific patterns of sexual behaviour and anal HPV prevalence in homosexual men with patterns in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynten, Isobel Mary; Machalek, Dorothy; Templeton, David; Jin, Fengyi; Hillman, Richard; Zablotzska, Iryna; Prestage, Garrett; Holt, Martin; Grulich, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly prevalent in men who have sex with men (MSM) of all ages, whereas cervical HPV declines with age. We explore the hypothesis that different sexual behavioural patterns are the basis of this difference in age distribution. Published data on age-specific HPV prevalence for women (cervical HPV) were extracted from a large meta-analysis and for MSM (anal HPV) from the EXPLORE study of HIV-negative MSM. Age-specific data on recent sexual activity were extracted from two behavioural surveys: the second Australian Study of Health and Relationships survey and the 2013 Gay Community Periodic Survey. At least 50% of MSM at all ages reported more than one sexual partner in the past 6 months. In comparison, 33% of women aged 16-19 years reported more than one partner over the past year. This decreased to 19% and 6% in women aged 20-29 and 30-39 years, respectively, and to fewer than 5% of women in older age groups. Prevalent anal HPV was detected in over 50% of MSM in each age group. Prevalence did not decline with age. In contrast, there was a steady decrease in cervical HPV prevalence with age. Cervical HPV prevalence fell from 23% among North American women aged heterosexual women, the high prevalence and lack of decline in prevalent anal HPV among older MSM are likely to be related to continuing high rates of newly acquired HPV infection from ongoing sexual exposure through new partners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6) once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders. PMID:15530165

  11. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AS A RISK FACTOR IN THE TRANSMISSION OF HIV INFECTION AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG MALES IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    VIRK, RS; BHALWAR, RAJVIR

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the beliefs and behaviour related to sexual perception and activity of young male adults a multi-centric study was conducted using a structured proforma for a face to face interview. A total of 9845 subjects in the age group 18–25 years were interviewed. 73.78% of the respondents believed that sex with a commercial sex worker (CSW) is an acceptable way of satisfying sex. Sex with an Amateur was considered acceptable by 57.21% of the subjects. Knowledge about condom use ...

  12. Redes sociais e comportamento sexual: para uma visão relacional da sexualidade, do risco e da prevenção Social networks and sexual behaviour: towards a relational approach to sexuality, risk-taking behaviour and prevention practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Aboim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com base num inquérito representativo da população portuguesa entre 18 e 65 anos, realizado em 2007, este estudo investiga o impacto de fatores de rede social sobre os comportamentos sexuais dos indivíduos. Através da percepção normativa dos inquiridos sobre a moral sexual dos seus amigos e familiares e de indicadores relativos à caracterização da rede de confidência sexual, tais como o número, a identidade, o gênero, a idade e o comportamento dos confidentes em matéria de sexualidade e prevenção face ao risco de infecção por DSTs, obtivemos um retrato multidimensional das redes sociais dos indivíduos. A realização de análises de regressão linear e logística permitiu avaliar o impacto preditivo da rede sobre o número de parceiros sexuais, as relações sexuais ocasionais e o uso do preservativo. Os dados mostram que os fatores de rede são importantes para explicar o comportamento sexual dos indivíduos. Redes constituídas por amigos e mais liberais em termos de moral sexual tendem a influenciar o comportamento sexual, levando a um maior experimentalismo, sobretudo no caso das mulheres. Por outro lado, a homologia entre o comportamento sexual dos confidentes e o dos inquiridos é relevante para explicar o recurso ao preservativo nas relações sexuais ocasionais, especialmente no caso dos homens. Tanto numa perspectiva relacional da sexualidade como numa óptica epidemiológica, a análise das redes sociais dos indivíduos constitui um aspecto importante para a compreensão e explicação da variedade de experiências sexuais, mais restritas ou mais plurais, e para os riscos de infecção que daí podem advir.Based on a representative survey of the Portuguese population aged between 18 and 65, carried out in 2007, this study investigates the impact of social networks on the sexual behaviour of individuals. Through the normative perceptions respondents have of the sexual morals of their family members and friends, as

  13. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Sexual identity, attraction and behaviour in Britain: The implications of using different dimensions of sexual orientation to estimate the size of sexual minority populations and inform public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Rebecca S; Tanton, Clare; Erens, Bob; Clifton, Soazig; Prah, Philip; Wellings, Kaye; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Datta, Jessica; Gravningen, Kirsten; Fuller, Elizabeth; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H

    2018-01-01

    Sexual orientation encompasses three dimensions: sexual identity, attraction and behaviour. There is increasing demand for data on sexual orientation to meet equality legislation, monitor potential inequalities and address public health needs. We present estimates of all three dimensions and their overlap in British men and women, and consider the implications for health services, research and the development and evaluation of public health interventions. Analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years) undertaken in 2010-2012. A lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) identity was reported by 2·5% of men and 2·4% of women, whilst 6·5% of men and 11·5% of women reported any same-sex attraction and 5·5% of men and 6·1% of women reported ever experience of same-sex sex. This equates to approximately 547,000 men and 546,000 women aged 16-74 in Britain self-identifying as LGB and 1,204,000 men and 1,389,000 women ever having experience of same-sex sex. Of those reporting same-sex sex in the past 5 years, 28% of men and 45% of women identified as heterosexual. There is large variation in the size of sexual minority populations depending on the dimension applied, with implications for the design of epidemiological studies, targeting and monitoring of public health interventions and estimating population-based denominators. There is also substantial diversity on an individual level between identity, behaviour and attraction, adding to the complexity of delivering appropriate services and interventions.

  15. Substance use and sexual behaviours of Japanese men who have sex with men: A nationwide internet survey conducted in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Hirokazu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese men who have sex with men (MSM, especially those living in large metropolitan areas such as Tokyo and Osaka, are facing a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Although the Internet is used as a new venue for meeting sex partners, it can also serve as a useful research tool for investigating the risk behaviours of Japanese MSM. This Internet survey explored the extent of substance use and its association with sexual risk behaviours among Japanese MSM. Methods Between 28 February 2003 and 16 May 2003 MSM were recruited through 57 Japanese gay-oriented Web sites, gay magazines, and Internet mailing lists. Participants completed a structured questionnaire anonymously through the Internet. Results In total, 2,062 Japanese MSM completed the questionnaire. The average age of participants was 29.0 years and 70.5% identified as gay, 20.8% as bisexual, and 8.7% as other. Overall, 34.5% reported never using a substance, 45% reported ever using one type of substance (lifetime reported single substance users, and 19.6% had used more than 1 type of substance (lifetime reported multiple substance users in their lifetimes. The substances most commonly used were amyl nitrite (63.2%, 5-methoxy-N, N-diisopropyltryptamine (5MEO-DIPT (9.3%, and marijuana (5.7%. In the multivariate analysis, unprotected anal intercourse, having had 6 or more sexual partners, visiting a sex club/gay venue in the previous 6 months, a lower education level, and being 30 to 39 years of age were associated with both lifetime single and lifetime multiple substance use. Lifetime reported multiple substance use was also correlated with having a casual sex partner, having symptoms of depression, being diagnosed as HIV-positive, and greater HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Conclusion This is the first Internet-based research focused on the sexual and substance use behaviours of MSM in Asia. Our findings suggest a compelling need for prevention interventions to reduce HIV risk

  16. Inappropriate treatments for patients with cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F

    2014-01-01

    Some treatments are inappropriate for patients with cognitive decline. We analyse their use in 500 patients and present a literature review. Benzodiazepines produce dependence, and reduce attention, memory, and motor ability. They can cause disinhibition or aggressive behaviour, facilitate the appearance of delirium, and increase accident and mortality rates in people older than 60. In subjects over 65, low systolic blood pressure is associated with cognitive decline. Maintaining this figure between 130 and 140 mm Hg (145 in patients older than 80) is recommended. Hypocholesterolaemia < 160 mg/dl is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, aggressiveness, and suicide; HDL-cholesterol<40 mg/dl is associated with memory loss and increased vascular and mortality risks. Old age is a predisposing factor for developing cognitive disorders or delirium when taking opioids. The risks of prescribing anticholinesterases and memantine to patients with non-Alzheimer dementia that is not associated with Parkinson disease, mild cognitive impairment, or psychiatric disorders probably outweigh the benefits. Anticholinergic drugs acting preferentially on the peripheral system can also induce cognitive side effects. Practitioners should be aware of steroid-induced dementia and steroid-induced psychosis, and know that risk of delirium increases with polypharmacy. Of 500 patients with cognitive impairment, 70.4% were on multiple medications and 42% were taking benzodiazepines. Both conditions were present in 74.3% of all suspected iatrogenic cases. Polypharmacy should be avoided, if it is not essential, especially in elderly patients and those with cognitive impairment. Benzodiazepines, opioids and anticholinergics often elicit cognitive and behavioural disorders. Moreover, systolic blood pressure must be kept above 130 mm Hg, total cholesterol levels over 160 mg/dl, and HDL-cholesterol over 40 mg/dl in this population. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurolog

  17. Safe-sex belief and sexual risk behaviours among adolescents from three developing countries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin

    2015-04-27

    This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13-18. One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Effect of Curculigo orchioides rhizomes on sexual behaviour of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, N S; Rao, Ch V; Dixit, V K

    2007-12-01

    The rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides have been traditionally used as aphrodisiac. In the present study ethanolic extract of rhizomes was evaluated for its effect on sexual behavior in rats. Administration of 100 mg/kg of extract change significantly the sexual behavior as assessed by determining parameters such as penile erection, mating performance, mount frequency and mount latency. Moreover a pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect was evidenced by weight gains of reproductive organs. The treatment also markedly affected sexual behavior of animals as reflected in reduction of mount latency, an increase in mount frequency and enhanced attractability towards female. Penile erection index was also incremented in treated group.

  19. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A

    2010-11-01

    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.

  20. Gender differences in self-reported drinking-induced disinhibition of sexual behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Sex and drinking go hand-in-hand in Western societies. Men also tend to report more sexual disinhibition under the influence of alcohol and drugs than women. At a vacation resort,we conducted a survey of young men and women regarding self-reported alcohol-related sexual disinhibition (ARSD), and we...... administered the Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale (DIDS). We made several comparisons of behavioral patterns using the ARSD scale of the DIDS for each gender: kissing or having sex vs. no sexual contact, or having sex versus kissing or no contact. In general, men reported more ARSD than women. Men who...... reported either kissing or having sex the night before reported significantly more ARSD than men not reporting either kissing or having sex. Women who had had sex the night before reported more ARSD than women who had either kissed or not reported any sexual contact on the night before, but women who had...

  1. Perceptions of risk to HIV infection among adolescents in Uganda: are they related to sexual behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibombo, Richard; Neema, Stella; Ahmed, Fatima H

    2007-12-01

    Uganda has been hailed as a success story in the fight against HIV that has seen a reversal in prevalence from a peak of 15% in 1991 to about 6.5% currently Since 1992, the largest and most consistent declines in HIV have occurred among the 15-19-year-olds. While many studies have examined how key behavior changes (Abstinence, Be faithful and Condom use) have contributed to the decline in HIV prevalence, few have studied the relationship between sexual behaviors and risk perception. Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents, multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to examine the strength of the association between risky sexual behavior and perceived risk among 12-19-year-old adolescents in Uganda. After controlling for other correlates of sexual behavior such as age, education, residence, region and marital status, the findings indicate highly significant positive association between perceived risk and risky sexual behavior among males but not females. The findings reveal that, regardless of their current sexual behavior, most female adolescents in Uganda feel at great risk of HIV infection. The findings also show that adolescents with broken marriages are much more vulnerable to high risk sexual behaviors than other categories of adolescents. These results further emphasize the need for a holistic approach in addressing the social, economic and contextual factors that continue to put many adolescents at risk of HIV infection.

  2. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H.; Watkins, Daphne C.; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM’s sexual behavior. PMID:27570578

  3. Double trouble: modelling the impact of low risk perception and high-risk sexual behaviour on chlamydia transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wees, Daphne A; den Daas, Chantal; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2018-04-01

    Risk perception plays an important role in testing behaviour for sexually transmitted infections, but is rarely included in mathematical models exploring the impact of testing. We explored the impact of incorporating sexual behaviour (SB), risk perception (RP) and differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups on prevalence, using chlamydia as an example. We developed a pair model with a susceptible-infected-susceptible structure representing heterosexuals aged 16-26 years. The effect of testing on chlamydia prevalence was compared between a model with only SB (SB model) and a model with SB and RP (SB-RP model). In the SB-RP model, a scenario without differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups was compared to scenarios with differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups. Introducing testing into the SB-RP model resulted in a slightly smaller reduction in chlamydia prevalence (-38.0%) as compared to the SB model (-40.4%). In the SB-RP model, the scenario without differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups overestimated the reduction in chlamydia prevalence (with 4.8%), especially in the group with high SB and low RP (19.8%). We conclude that mathematical models incorporating RP and differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups improve the impact assessment of testing and treatment on chlamydia prevalence. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. IT’S ALL IN THE MIX: BLEND-SPECIFIC BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE TO A SEXUAL PHEROMONE IN A BUTTERFLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena eLarsdotter-Mellström

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among insects, sexual pheromones are typically mixtures of two to several components, all of which are generally required to elicit a behavioural response. Here we show for the first time that a complete blend of sexual pheromone components is needed to elicit a response also in a butterfly. Males of the Green-veined White, Pieris napi, emit an aphrodisiac pheromone, citral, from wing glands. This pheromone is requisite for females to accept mating with a courting male. Citral is a mixture of the two geometric isomers geranial (E-isomer and neral (Z-isomer in an approximate 1:1 ratio. We found that both these compounds are required to elicit acceptance behaviour, which indicates synergistic interaction between processing of the isomers. Using functional Ca2+ imaging we found that geranial and neral evoke significantly different but overlapping glomerular activity patterns in the antennal lobe, which suggests receptors with different affinity for the two isomers. However, these glomeruli were intermingled with glomeruli responding to ,for example, plant-related compounds, i.e. no distinct subpopulation of pheromone-responding glomeruli as in moths and other insects. In addition, these glomeruli showed lower specificity than pheromone-activated glomeruli in moths. We could, however, not detect any mixture interactions among four identified glomeruli, indicating that the synergistic effect may be generated at a higher processing level. Furthermore, correlations between glomerular activity patterns evoked by the single isomers and the blend did not change over time.

  5. Sexual harassment in care work - Dilemmas and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Kjær, Susie; Aldrich, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    , sexual harassment is a taboo. The managers, shop stewards and safety representatives in this study were often not aware of the frequency and the impact of the episodes had on the care workers. The workplaces participating in this study, rarely had guidelines or policies for managing and/or preventing......Background: Care workers are often exposed to sexual harassment from patients. Research shows that such exposure may have detrimental effects on mental health of the care workers. Inappropriate sexual behaviour from patients is a particular challenge for formal and informal care workers alike....... There is a scarceness of studies investigating the experience and the handling of sexual harassment from patients. Objectives: To investigate the experience and handling of sexual harassment from patients in care work. Design: The study follows an explorative qualitative approach based on group interviews (n = 19...

  6. Sexual risk behaviour among people living with HIV according to the biomedical risk of transmission: results from the ANRS-VESPA2 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzan-Monti, Marie; Lorente, Nicolas; Demoulin, Baptiste; Marcellin, Fabienne; Préau, Marie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with sustained undetectable viral load (sUVL) and no history of sexually transmitted infections for at least six months, are considered to have a low risk of HIV transmission (LRT). We aimed to characterize, in a representative sample of French PLHIV, the sexual behaviour of LRT PLHIV compared with non-LRT PLHIV. The cross-sectional ANRS-VESPA2 survey was conducted on adult PLHIV attending French hospitals in 2011. The LRT PLHIV group included participants with sUVL and no sexually transmitted infection for at least 12 months. Socio-behavioural and medical data were collected. Chi-square tests helped compare sexual risk indicators between LRT and non-LRT PLHIV. The survey's retrospective nature allowed us to perform complementary category-based analyses of LRT PLHIV according to whether they had sUVL for at least 18, 24 or 36 months in three socio-epidemiological groups: men who have sex with men (MSM), other men and women. Analysis included 2638 PLHIV diagnosed > 12 months with available viral load data. The proportion of LRT PLHIV varied from 58% (≥ 12 months sUVL) to 38% (≥ 36 months sUVL). Irrespective of sUVL duration, we found the following: 1) LRT men (MSM and other men) were more likely to report having no sexual partner than their non-LRT counterparts. Among men having sexual partners in the previous 12 months, no significant difference was seen between LRT and non-LRT men in the number of sexual partners. LRT women were less likely to report having more than one sexual partner than non-LRT women; 2) LRT MSM were more likely to report being in sexually inactive couples than their non-LRT counterparts; 3) among sexually active participants, no difference was observed between LRT and non-LRT PLHIV concerning condom use with their serodiscordant steady partner or with their most recent casual sexual partners. LRT PLHIV with sUVL ≥ 12 months did not report more sexual risk behaviours than

  7. Understanding internet sex-seeking behaviour and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men: evidences from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie

    2014-12-01

    Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (psex-seeking were more likely to engage in casual sex (psex-seeking is operationalised in research is differentially associated with sexual risk. Against this backdrop, the utility of these operational definitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia???a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Peters...

  9. Factors associated with inappropriate utilisation of emergency department services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selasawati, H G; Naing, L; Wan Aasim, W A; Winn, T; Rusli, B N

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the associated factors and the reasons for inappropriate utilisation of Emergency Department (ED) services at Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital. A case-control study was conducted with 170 cases from ED and 170 controls from the Outpatient Department (OPD). A self-administered questionnaire was designed and used to obtain sociodemographic data, knowledge on the functions of ED and OPD, health seeking attitude and behaviour, and reasons for seeking treatment at ED. The study found that gender, marital status, family size, shift work, perceived illness, and knowledge on the role and functions of ED and OPD were significant associated factors. The three most common reasons for inappropriate utilisation of ED were as follows: "due to severity of illness" (85%), "can't go to OPD during office hours" (42%), and "ED near my house" (27%).

  10. The associations among personality, alcohol-related Protective Behavioural Strategies (PBS, alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse in Irish, female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Moylett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study presented one of the first examinations of the associations among personality, alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies (PBS, alcohol consumption, sexual intercourse and sex-related alcohol negative consequences in Irish, female college students (n=522. Methods: A cross-sectional observational design was employed and participants completed the study online. Participants completed measures of personality, alcohol-related PBS, alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse. Hierarchical multiple regression was utilised to access the associations between such measures. Results: From the analyses, it was found that age, frequency of sexual intercourse, frequency of alcohol consumption, level of alcohol consumption and openness were all significantly related to the use of alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies, and in turn, sex-related negative consequences. However, inconsistent findings with other personality dimensions to those of previous research were noted. Conclusions: The findings of this study posited that the use of PBS has a key role to play in the levels of sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption, age and openness, and the associated negative sexual consequences in Irish, female college students. Keywords: Protective behavioural strategies, Personality, Women, Alcohol consumption, Sexual intercourse

  11. THE “JŪDŌ SUKEBEI” PHENOMENON: WHEN CROSSING THE LINE MERITS MORE THAN SHIDŌ [MINOR INFRINGEMENT] ― SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR IN JŪDŌ COACHES AND INSTRUCTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl De Crée

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sport of jūdō was intended as an activity “for all”. Since in 1996 a major sex abuse scandal broke out that involved a Dutch top jūdō coach and several female elite athletes, international media have identified many more abuses. To date no scholarly studies exist that have examined the nature, extent, and consequences of these anomalies. We intend in this paper to review and analyze sexual abuses in jūdō. To do so we offer a descriptive jurisprudence overview of relevant court and disciplinary cases, followed by a qualitative-analytical approach looking at the potential factors that prompt jūdō-related bullying and sexual harassment. Sex offenders may be attracted to jūdō because of: 1. the extensive bodily contact during grappling, 2. the easy access to voyeuristic opportunities during contest weigh-ins and showering, 3. Jūdō’s authoritarian and hierarchical structure as basis for ‘grooming’, 4. lack of integration of jūdō’s core moral component in contemporary jūdō coach and instructor education, and 5. its increasing eroticization by elite jūdō athletes posing for nude calendars and media and by specialized pornographic jūdō manga and movies. Cultural conceptions and jurisprudence are factors that affect how people perceive the seriousness and how these offences are dealt with. A survey of 19 cases of abuse in jūdō worldwide shows that cultural conceptions and jurisprudence cause that such cases are handled in a very heterogeneous way by the law and by the jūdō governing bodies. Jūdō clubs and organizations overall suffer from a lack of expertise, intellectual insight, ethical objectivity, and solid procedures of fairness for both victim and accused, in this way often failing in both sufficiently protecting the weak from sex offenders, and in educating and reintegrating past offenders through jūdō activities that do not involve their victim target groups. Jūdō’s moral philosophy implicitly

  12. [Behaviour and attitudes towards the sexuality of the pregnant woman during the last trimester. Phenomenological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea Pizarro, Isabel; Domínguez Martin, Ana Teresa; Barragán Prieto, Vanessa; Martos Sánchez, Almudena; López Espuela, Fidel

    2018-04-13

    To explore the life experiences on sexual relationships in the third trimester of pregnancy in primiparous women. Phenomenological qualitative study, SITE: Cáceres (Extremadura). Primiparous women in the third trimester of their pregnancy. We use theoretical sampling, was conducted on pregnant primiparous. The study included 15 participants. The data was collected using in-depth interviews, that were voiced recorded and later transcribed. The analysis was made using Giorgi's proposal. The results show three main points. Fear of doing damage, mediated by the obstetric history and the desire to have the long-awaited child. Exploring new routes: forms of sexual expression are modified by the physical changes, the fears, and the mobility. Highlighting the importance of other displays of affection and love (kisses and caresses). The Sex Taboo: lack of information against sexuality during pregnancy is still common. Women in the third trimester of their pregnancy put aside their sexual appetite and that of their partners, and concentrate in the wellbeing of their new born baby. It highlights the role of the mother before the couple. The more desired and difficult the pregnancy has been, the more the sexual life is reduced. The Health Professionals must advise and inform the couples with an open-minded attitude. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study on the Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use and Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents in Urban Areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Padma; Swain, Subhashisa; Sanah, Noore; Sharma, Vikram; Ghosh, Deboporna

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15-19 years old) studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collection. Participants' alcohol consumption, smoking habits and sexual behaviour patterns were explored. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was done. The prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual activity was found to occur in 5.7%, 7.2% and 5.5% of participants, respectively. The mean age of the participants' first sexual activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco use was reported to be approximately 16.8 years. Multivariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. Other factors, such as religion and tobacco use among family members, were found to be influential. The potential coexistence of multiple risk behaviours in a student demands an integrated approach. Emphasis should be placed on health education in schools and an increased awareness among parents in order to prevent adolescents' behaviours from becoming a risk to their health.

  14. A Study on the Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use and Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents in Urban Areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Mohanan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collection. Participants’ alcohol consumption, smoking habits and sexual behaviour patterns were explored. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was done. Results: The prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual activity was found to occur in 5.7%, 7.2% and 5.5% of participants, respectively. The mean age of the participants’ first sexual activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco use was reported to be approximately 16.8 years. Multivariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. Other factors, such as religion and tobacco use among family members, were found to be influential. Conclusion: The potential coexistence of multiple risk behaviours in a student demands an integrated approach. Emphasis should be placed on health education in schools and an increased awareness among parents in order to prevent adolescents’ behaviours from becoming a risk to their health.

  15. Conducta sexual de los adultos mayores en el área de salud Tamarindo, 2010 Sexual behaviour of older adults in the Health Area of Tamarindo, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Perdomo Victoria

    2013-03-01

    . Objective: to identify the sexual behaviour in a population over 60 years of age in the health area of Tamarindo, Florencia Municipality, Ciego de Avila, 2010. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was performed which sample was composed of 980 older adults. Of these adults, a sample of 200 people was randomly selected. Some of the variables under study were: age, sex, marital status and interest of getting information about the topic. Results: "young adults" predominated what constituted a 72, 5 % of the sample studied; the married and engaged people represented a 67, 5 % of the sample; the male sex was the most represented one and the 95 % showed interest in getting information about sexuality . Conclusions: in general, older adults expressed that sexual activity is beneficial and showed their interest in having adequate information about sexuality.

  16. Sexual behaviour, perceptions of infertility and family planning in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'reilly, K R

    1986-10-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a particular problem in the developing world. Sexual behavior and rapid societal changes appear to be contributing to the high prevalence. Infertility, a consequence of STD, is seen as one of the most devastating things that could happen to an African woman. Behavioral risk factors for STD include age at 1st intercourse, number of sexual partners and use of contraception. The 1st two indicate length of exposure and amount of exposure respectively. Along with the prevalence of STD in the community, these factors allow an estimate of the population at risk for STD. Demographic risk factors from developed countries may not be applicable to developing countries. Data on sexual behavior in Africa is poor. Great intercultural variation exists. Age at 1st intercourse is earlier in Africa than America, with over 1/3 of African women reporting sexual activity by age 14, and 90% by age 17. Premarital sexual activity is high. Prostitution is widespread in African cities, and has been related to lack of expectations for marital fidelity, premarital celibacy and the infrequency of romantic love. Prostitutes play an important role in STD transmission. Current population growth in Africa has skewed the population towards the young, there has been rural to urban migration, and there are skewed sex ratios with many more men in cities: all of these factors predispose to STD. The high prevalence of untreated STD, resulting in increased infertility acts paradoxically to increase rather than decrease the fertility in Africa. Infertility is devastating for an African woman, resulting in divorce and diminished social status that often leads to prostitution. The fear of infertilty results in refusal of contraception and early childbearing to demonstrate fertiltiy.

  17. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY IN SOUTH SOUTH NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Each year an estimated 333 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs occur worldwide with the highest rates among young people. Risk behavior and subsequent STIs, unwanted pregnancies and subsequent criminal abortions are fuelling the already excessive maternal mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries. Yet only a minority of young people have access to any acceptable and affordable adolescent health services. A total of 300 pre-tested semi structured questionnaires were administered to female JSS2 to SSS2 students selected by multistage sampling in August 2014. It contained questions on the socio demographic characteristics of respondents and their knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs and contraceptives and their patterns of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Majority (80.2% of respondents had heard about contraception, their commonest source of information being radio (57.4% and television (43.4%. The commonest contraceptive known was the condom (88.1% and the contraceptive prevalence rate was 24.67%.Most respondents were sexually exposed (42.6% with 84.3% of these previous 6 months. Mean age at first sexual debut was 12.0 and plusmn; 2.8 years. The prevalence of condom use at first and most recent sexual encounters were 31.3% and 57.8% respectively (p and lt;0.005.The commonest reasons for not using contraceptives in both first and most recent encounters were ignorance (67.5% and the partners dislike for it (17.5%. The inclusion of sex education into the school health programme for secondary school students as well as provision of guidance and counseling services by trained and retrained personnel and motivation of home based information and guidance for adolescents is recommended.

  18. A Study on the Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use and Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents in Urban Areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanan, Padma; Swain, Subhashisa; Sanah, Noore; Sharma, Vikram; Ghosh, Deboporna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old) studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collecti...

  19. THE LIFE EXPERIENCES OF ADOLESCENT SEXUAL OFFENDERS: FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO OFFENDING BEHAVIOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on the case studies of 25 adolescent sex offenders, was designed to understand those factors that contribute to adolescent sexual offending. Although the focus is primarily on the micro level, we acknowledge the impacts of mezzo- and macro-level factors on family and individual functioning. External structural factors such as poverty, inequality, unemployment, societal values regarding sexuality, lack of support systems and violence penetrate the lives of individuals and families to manifest in a range of problems that human service professionals such as psychiatrists, social workers and psychologists deal with on a daily basis

  20. 'Clinics aren't meant for men': sexual health care access and seeking behaviours among men in Gauteng province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Friedman, Allison L; Habel, Melissa A; Vezi, Alex; Sello, Martha; Farirai, Thato; Lewis, David A

    2011-01-01

    Men may be key players in the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and it is important that STI/HIV health services reach men. The objective of this study was to explore sexual health care access and seeking behaviours in men. This study used focus groups to examine sexual health care access and seeking behaviours in men 5 years after implementation of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the South African public sector. Six focus groups (N=58) were conducted with men ≫18 years in an urban area of Gauteng province. Men were recruited from various locations throughout the community. Men reported several barriers and facilitators to the use of public and private clinics for sexual health services including HIV testing, and many men reported seeking care from traditional healers. Men often viewed public clinics as a place for women and reported experiences with some female nurses who were rude or judgmental of the men. Additionally, some men reported that they sought sexual health care services at public clinics; however, they were not given physical examinations by health care providers to diagnose their STI syndrome. Most men lacked knowledge about ART and avoided HIV testing because of fear of death or being abandoned by their families or friends. Study findings suggest that men still require better access to high-quality, non-judgmental sexual health care services. Future research is needed to determine the most effective method to increase men's access to sexual health care services.