Beddows, Nicola; Brooks, Rachel
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder impairing social skills and communication. Adolescents with ASD have sexual needs, but may not understand their physical and emotional development resulting in inappropriate sexual behaviour. The aim of this review is to describe the type of inappropriate behaviour that presents in these adolescents, explain why such behaviours occur, suggest what education is suitable and identify current gaps in research. The databases EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE and PSYCINFO were searched for relevant articles. In total, 5241 articles were found, with an additional 15 sources found via soft searches, of which 42 met inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Sexual behaviours that occur in these adolescents with ASD include hypermasturbation, public masturbation, inappropriate romantic gestures, inappropriate arousal and exhibitionism. Such behaviours are thought to be caused via a lack of understanding of normal puberty, the absence of appropriate sex education, the severity of their ASD and other associated problems. It is suggested that individualized, repetitive education should be started from an early age in an accessible form. Social skills development is also important before more technical aspects of sex education are taught. Despite being such a common problem for schools, institutions and families to manage, it is surprising how sparse literature is particularly regarding why inappropriate behaviour occurs and what education is effective. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
ter Mors, Bert Jan; van Heugten, Caroline M; van Harten, Peter N
Inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury is a severe complication. Evidence for effective treatment is not available. Electrical aversion therapy (EAT) is a behavioural therapeutic option used in persons with intellectual disabilities, which might be suitable for brain-injured individuals for whom other therapies are not effective. The effect of EAT in brain injury has not been investigated previously. A single case experimental design was used. In an ABBA (baseline-treatment-treatment-withdrawal) design the frequency of the target behaviour (ie, inappropriate sexual behaviour) in a 40-year-old man was measured daily. A total of 551 measurements were recorded. A significant reduction of the target behaviour was seen after the first treatment phase (baseline 12.18 (2.59) vs 3.15 (3.19) mean target behaviours daily); this reduction remained stable over time. We conclude that EAT was effective in this patient with inappropriate sexual behaviour due to severe brain injury. EAT can therefore be considered in therapy resistant inappropriate sexual behaviour in brain-injured patients. PMID:22922913
O'Sullivan, V; Weerakoon, P
Recent research recognizes the occurrence of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) by patients towards health professionals. The objective of this study was to explore in-depth the clinical context and effect of incidents of ISB towards practising physiotherapists. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of nine physiotherapists who were part of a larger survey on ISB. Quantitative analyses of the survey responses are reported elsewhere. Interview participants were asked to describe an incident of ISB by a patient that was either perceived to be the worst or was the most recent. They were asked questions on a variety of themes, such as their relationship with the patient prior to incident, the effects of the incident, the strategies used to deal with the incident, and changes in practice as a result of the incident. All interview participants reported encountering some level of ISB from patients. Although the overall frequency of these behaviours was relatively low, the range of behaviours was diverse. Regardless of the perceived severity of the incident, only four participants labelled their experience as 'sexual harassment'. Many reported negative effects on work performance. Participants mainly used physical measures to prevent further incidents, rather than confronting the perpetrator or reporting the incident. The findings are discussed in the context of theory pertaining to boundaries and issues of transference and counter-transference. This emphasized the need for effective communication skills training of both undergraduate and graduate physiotherapists in the prevention and management of ISB from patients.
Willner, P; Smith, M
This study examined the responses of care managers and direct care staff to vignettes of inappropriate sexual behaviour by a man with an intellectual disability. The aim was to test the theory that helping behaviour is determined by emotional responses (positive and negative emotional reactions, and optimism), which in turn are determined by causal attributions (respectively: controllability and stability of the incident depicted in the vignette). The vignettes varied in response topography and the age of the victim. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between causal attributions, emotional responses, and willingness to invest extra time and effort in the service user's care. No support was found for the pathway: low controllability --> increased sympathy and/or decreased negative emotions --> increased helping. However, strong support was found for the pathway: low stability --> high optimism --> increased helping, particularly in direct care staff. High levels of sympathy were also associated with increased helping, the effect again being mediated by feelings of optimism. The data provide support for one (but not the other) strand of attribution theory as applied to inappropriate sexual behaviour. The discussion considers the discrepancy between the present data and the far less encouraging literature on attribution theory as applied to challenging behaviour.
Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian
Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour.......Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...
Full Text Available Traditionally, there has been no place for sexuality in older age. However, research has shown that sexuality plays an important role in older people’s life, even in situations such as dementia. The goal of the article is to review the scientific literature regarding the inappropriate sexual behavior that these kind of patients might present. In order to do so, we will firstly address the definition of inappropriate sexual behavior or, more precisely, its multiple definitions. After that, we will deal with other issues such as its prevalence, factors that can cause its appearance, its consequences and some of the available therapeutic options. Finally, in the last section some recommendations for future research will be provided, such as the need to clarify the concept of inappropriate sexual behavior, to find more efficient ways to address this problem, and the desirability of considering sexuality as a human dimension with a high potential for adaptation in old age.
Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Boas, Erica Misako
This dissertation responds to the question: How is sexuality organized in elementary schools? I argue that despite the absence of overt discussions on sexuality in elementary schools, sexuality is "organized" through social processes that are recursively linked to ideology. Due to the widely held belief that "children" and…
Prakash, Ravi; Pathak, Amit; Munda, Sanjay; Bagati, Dhruv
Dementia of Lewy body disease is the second most common degenerative cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, among all the dementias. The core features are a progressive dementia, fluctuations in cognitive functions, visual hallucinations, and spontaneous parkinsonism. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, severe neuroleptic sensitivity, and low dopamine transporter uptake in basal ganglia are other suggestive features. Behavioral abnormalities are commonly present in the form of aggressive behavior, irritability, and uninhibited behaviors. These are mostly seen in the advanced stages of dementia. However, inappropriate sexual behavior is uncommonly seen in such cases. Three types of inappropriate sexual behaviors commonly found in cases of dementia are sex talks, sexual acts, and implied sexual acts. Such inappropriate sexual behaviors have not been described adequately in dementia of Lewy body disease. We report inappropriate sexual behaviors in a case of dementia of Lewy body disease, which improved rapidly after treatment with quetiapine.
Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually transmitted ... condom use among patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections (STI) ... having less than 8 years of school education; and being resident in villages.
Kumar, Sudhir; Agarwal, A.K.; Trivedi, J.K.
SUMMARY Relationship of neurosis and sexual behaviour has been a matter of dispute till date. In the present study sexual behaviour of 40 married neurotics and 22 matched healthy control males was studied. Sexual behaviour of neurotics was similar to control subjects before the commencement of neurotic illness. But after the onset of the neurotic illness subjects showed significant decrease in frequency of coitus, sexual satisfaction and sexual adequacy in comparison to their pre illness behaviour as well as from healthy controls. PMID:21847285
A significant relationship was found between participants' sexual behaviour and parental communication and parental monitoring (p<0.05). The study recommended increased parental involvement in communication and monitoring of adolescent sexual behaviour, bearing in mind the consequences of risky sexual ...
problems such as sexual behaviour in the adolescent. ... consequences of risky sexual behaviours on the adolescents' health and the ... the emotional support that parents provide for the adolescent during early ... the process of socialization and social learning builds self-control and reduces the inclination to indulge in.
Bezeau, Scott C; Bogod, Nicholas M; Mateer, Catherine A
Sexually intrusive behaviour, which may range from inappropriate commentary to rape, is often observed following a traumatic brain injury. It may represent novel behaviour patterns or an exacerbation of pre-injury personality traits, attitudes, and tendencies. Sexually intrusive behaviour poses a risk to staff and residents of residential facilities and to the community at large, and the development of a sound assessment and treatment plan for sexually intrusive behaviour is therefore very important. A comprehensive evaluation is best served by drawing on the fields of neuropsychology, forensic psychology, and cognitive rehabilitation. The paper discusses the types of brain damage that commonly lead to sexually intrusive behaviour, provides guidance for its assessment, and presents a three-stage treatment model. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach to both assessment and treatment is emphasized. Finally, a case example is provided to illustrate the problem and the possibilities for successful management.
Bailey, J V; Farquhar, C; Owen, C; Whittaker, D
To provide data about the sexual histories of a large sample of lesbians and bisexual women, to inform those who provide health care or carry out research with women who may be sexually active with other women. Cross sectional survey. 803 lesbians and bisexual women attending, as new patients, lesbian sexual health clinics, and 415 lesbians and bisexual women from a community sample. Self reported sexual history and sexual practice with both male and female partners. 98% of the whole sample gave a history of sexual activity with women, 83% within the past year, with a median of one female partner in that year. 85% of the sample reported sexual activity with men; for most (70%) this was 4 or more years ago. First sexual experience tended to be with a man (median 18 years old), with first sexual experience with a woman a few years later (median 21 years). Oral sex, vaginal penetration with fingers, and mutual masturbation were the most commonly reported sexual practices between women. Vaginal penetration with penis or fingers and mutual masturbation were the most commonly reported sexual activities with men. These data from the largest UK survey of sexual behaviour between women to date demonstrate that lesbians and bisexual women may have varied sexual histories with both male and female partners. A non-judgmental manner and careful sexual history taking without making assumptions should help clinicians to avoid misunderstandings, and to offer appropriate sexual health advice to lesbians and bisexual women.
Using the Falaye Adolescent' Sexual Behaviour Inventory (FASBI), adolescents' sexual behaviour was assessed using the proximate determinants of attitude towards pubertal changes and reproductive biology, adolescent source of sex information, adolescent sexual activities (intercourse and contraception) and attitude ...
More Gwari and Hausa respondents claimed that they did not use any family planning method during their first sexual relationship than Yoruba and Igbo respondents. There is need for reproductive health programmes to intensify efforts towards improving adolescents\\' attitudes to risky sexual behaviours and motivate them ...
05) and adolescents' sexual risky behaviour. The results further showed the significant position between Parents adolescent disclosure (X2 cal = 32.856) is the most potent factor followed Parental autonomy (X2 cal = 24.642); Parent adolescent relationship (X2 cal = 18.986); Positive adolescent behaviour (X2 cal = 11.626); ...
Boissonnault, Jill S; Cambier, Ziádee; Hetzel, Scott J; Plack, Margaret M
For health care providers in the United States, the risk for nonfatal violence in the workplace is 16 times greater than that for other workers. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior (IPSB) is directed at clinicians, staff, or other patients and may include leering, sexual remarks, deliberate touching, indecent exposure, and sexual assault. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior may adversely affect clinicians, the organization, or patients themselves. Few IPSB risk factors for physical therapists have been confirmed. The US prevalence was last assessed in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to determine career and 12-month exposure to IPSB among US physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, physical therapist students, and physical therapist assistant students and to identify IPSB risk factors. This was a retrospective and observational study. An electronic survey was developed; content validity and test-retest reliability were established. Participants were recruited through physical therapist and physical therapist assistant academic programs and sections of the American Physical Therapy Association. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior risk models were constructed individually for any, mild, moderate, and severe IPSB events reported over the past 12 months. Open-ended comments were analyzed using qualitative methods. Eight hundred ninety-two physical therapist professionals and students completed the survey. The career prevalence among respondents was 84%, and the 12-month prevalence was 47%. Statistical risk modeling for any IPSB over the past 12 months indicated the following risks: having fewer years of direct patient care, routinely working with patients with cognitive impairments, being a female practitioner, and treating male patients. Qualitative analysis of 187 open-ended comments revealed patient-related characteristics, provider-related characteristics, and abusive actions. Self-report, clinician memory, and convenience sampling are
Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines the adolescence as the period between 10 and 19 years old. It is a critical developmental period, in which major physical, psychological, emotional and social changes take place. In terms of sexual and reproductive health, adolescents are considered a vulnerable group. Several risks and negative consequences of unprotected sexual relations are worrisome nationwide. According to the Mexican National Survey carried in 2010, 15.6% of Mexico’s population are adolescents. Sexual education in Mexico is not uniform and lacks an integral vision. There is no culture of prevention with respect to sexual and reproductive rights, sexual health, nor gender equality focused on adolescents. The consequences of these gaps are evident in our health indicators. We consider there is an urgent need to address this issue in an updated, integrative and age-focused manner in order to develop effective programs and diminish consequences such as unwanted pregnancies.
Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.
Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…
Kastbom, Åsa A.
Background: Sexual behaviour among schoolchildren and adolescents is a sparsely researched area and there are delicate methodological obstacles and ethical concerns when conducting such research. Still it is a subject that engages both parents and professionals. A sexualized behaviour or an early sexual debut (younger than 14 years) can be a sign of sexual abuse. It is therefore of importance to describe what is common and what is uncommon sexual behaviour among children and what the conseque...
Conclusion: The gaps in reproductive health knowledge, negative attitudes, high prevalence of risky sexual activity and poor reproductive health care seeking behaviour call for mounting of educational intervention programmes and development of youth-friendly reproductive health services on campus. KEY WORDS: ...
Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ... sharing of personal effects, malnourishment and sexual harassment. ... Development of risk reduction and appropriate sexual health interventions targeted at prevention ...
... given in this review have the potential to increase sexual awareness in adolescents, encourage contraceptive use and improve adolescent reproductive and sexual health in the country. Keywords: Adolescent sexual behaviour, Adolescent health and development, secondary school students, adolescent pregnancy.
An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. ... questionnaires to evaluate key high – risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism.
Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van
The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour: background characteristics, personality characteristics, family environment, school environment, friends and deviant behaviour and sexuality and...
Parrish, Mark S.; Stanard, Rebecca P.; Cobia, Debra C.
Adolescent sexual acting out behaviors frequently occur in the context of comorbid issues, such as depression, trauma, behavioral disorders, and developmental deficits, thus rendering any single treatment modality less effective. Augmenting traditional treatment with an existential-humanistic (E-H) perspective enables counselors to more…
Sexual coercion affects the individual through multiple short- and long-term medical, emotional, psychological and social consequences, and adolescents are particularly at high risk. Sexual coercion is hypothesised to negatively affect adolescents' decision-making around their sexual behaviours and other risk behaviours.
Full Text Available This paper considers young people's sexual decision-making in the context of New Labour's policies on teenage pregnancy. In 1999, the newly formed Social Exclusion Unit sought to understand why the UK had the highest number of teenage conceptions in Europe (SEU 1999. One of the conclusions was that young people in the UK are engaging in "risky" rather than "safe" sex. Although New Labour has since developed policies designed to help young people avoid what is seen as risky sexual activity, there is a tension in sexual health policy between the overall aim of providing young people with the knowledge and confidence to practice "safe sex", and an underlying belief amongst many in the undesirability of "underage sex". This is partly a legacy of disagreements evident in the 1980s and 1990s when some organisations argued against sex education and contraceptive provision for young people on the grounds that it encouraged promiscuous and risky behaviour. The paper shows how alternative meanings of risk and responsibility are present in young mothers' own representations of their sexual decision-making. It does this through an analysis of two research projects on Young Women, Sex and Choices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601283
Nov 8, 2010 ... This work ... The objectives of this study were (1) to identify sexual risk behaviour, (2) to establish the prevalence of substance use before sexual intercourse, .... translated into Xitsonga and back into English to ensure that the.
The study also examined whether or not variables of gender and school type had significant influence on the sexual behaviours of undergraduates of tertiary ... the school counsellors and teachers should provide guidance to students on developmental challenges and help youths to abstain from risky sexual behaviours.
Perceptions of social capital and sexual behaviour among youth in South Africa. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... may act as protective factors that lessen the likelihood of negative consequences; while others have concluded that social capital may be a risk factor for risky sexual behaviour among youth.
Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...
Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles
Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…
Background: The awareness of HIV/AIDS can influence sexual behaviour which can in turn decrease the rate of transmission of HIV. This study was done at Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU), Awka, Anambra State, to determine the awareness of HIV/AIDS and its effect on sexual behaviour of undergraduate students.
Dahal, Govinda P.; Hennink, Monique; Hinde, Andrew
We use the Nepal Adolescents and Young Adults (NAYA) Survey of 2000 to analyse the prevalence of sexual activity and risky sexual behaviour among Nepalese males aged 14-22 years. Risky sexual behaviour is considered to be characterised by having multiple partners, or having one non-regular partner with whom a condom was not used, in the 12 months before the survey. About 9 per cent of the sexually active married men aged 14-22 years, and about 20 per cent of sexually active single men in the ...
Remien, R H; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Wagner, G
Several studies have demonstrated individual-level determinants of HIV sexual risk behaviour. Very little research has been conducted to identify couple-level factors associated with unsafe sexual behaviour. As part of a three-year study of more than 100 serodiscordant male couples, we conducted an in-depth qualitative study of 15 Latino and non-Latino male couples via focus groups and a follow-up telephone survey. We identified the sexual risk behaviour that occurs in these male couples, their perceptions of susceptibility for HIV transmission, and numerous couple-level and intrapsychic factors associated with their risk behaviour. We also describe the challenges confronted by these couples and barriers to emotional intimacy and couple satisfaction. Finally, we provide suggestions for ways of intervening to facilitate improved couple functioning, pleasure, satisfaction, and communication, and ways of reducing sexual risk behaviour without loss of emotional intimacy.
H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)
textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health
Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran
Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.
Gras, M. J.; Weide, J. F.; Langendam, M. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, A.
To study (1) HIV prevalence; (2) sexual risk behaviour; (3) sexual mixing patterns; (4) determinants of disassortative (between-group) mixing among migrant groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and to gain insight into the potential for heterosexual spread of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases.
Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...
4Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract. Objective: ... Keywords: Methamphetamine; Sexual behaviour; HIV; South Africa ... to high school students who had used drugs other than MA in their.
Dec 1, 2006 ... After ethics approval was sought from the Human Research and Ethics Committee of ... It is essential to assess the effects on sexual risk behaviour. Design and setting. .... infectious, which is the correct scientific response. One.
Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students. ... Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate ... positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 22% reported hazardous or ...
Dr Oboro VO
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. MAY 2009 ... A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was administered. Results: Out of 386 ... their sexual behaviours, perception of condom and its use in casual ...
Key words: Risky sexual behaviours, University students, Debre Tabor. Introduction .... Missionary/religious school. 2. 0.6. Others. 1 ..... Abebe A, Mitikie G. Perception of high school students towards voluntary HIV counseling and testing, using ...
Forster, A. S.
The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has caused some parents to report concern that their daughters may change their sexual behaviour following vaccination. This concern consistently relates to vaccination acceptance, but had not been investigated in detail. Accordingly, five studies addressed the thesis objective: to explore parents’ concern about adolescent sexual behaviour following HPV vaccination in the context of the UK immunisation programme and to ...
reproductive health knowledge, sexual activities and sexuality education needs. ... Sexuality education should be provided for in-school adolescents through .... Both parents live together .... share their reproductive health ... Religious leader ..... Health of Young People: A Challenge and a. Promise. 1993. 3. World health ...
The mean, modal and youngest ages of initiation into sexual activity were 15.08 + 0.2, 15+ 0.2, and 10+ 0.2 years respectively. About 49 (40.8%) have multiple sexual partners. Contraceptive awareness was 52.0%, while contraceptive uses at first and last sexual intercourse were 35 (29.2%) and 108 (75.0%) respectively.
It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...
de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits
The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants…
Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van
The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of
The rate of premarital sexual intercourse among adolescents in Nigeria is alarming, despite its prohibition by several religious groups. This contradiction prompted the question: what is the prevailing relationship between religion, religiosity, and adolescents' sexual behaviour in the country? This relationship was examined ...
Introduction: The sexual behaviour and development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been mostly overlooked in research and practice. This study aimed to determine the association between certain clinical and demographic factors found in a sample of children with ASDs, and their reported sexual ...
The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy ...
Nevertheless, they also reported on the acceptability of unprotected sex with sexual partners perceived to be HIV negative. Social status ascribed to blood donors, and mandatory HIV screening of donated blood, were protective against risky sexual behaviour. However, socio-economic and cultural factors may override this.
Descriptive and stepwise logistic regression model was carried out using SPSS version 21. ... (STI) were 16 times more likely to have early sexual contact compared to those students who ... Key words: Risky sexual behaviours, University students, Debre Tabor. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh
Background Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar Uni...
Jonsson, Linda S.
Online sexual behaviours refer to sexual activities where the Internet and/or mobile phone are used. The aims of this thesis were to investigate young people and their experiences of different online sexual behaviours with regard to characteristics, associations and consequences, by using data from a representative sample of 3,503 Swedish youth (m= 18.3 years). In addition 16 interviews were made with young women who had sold sex online before the age of 18. Focus in these interviews were in ...
The behaviour of meiotic chromosomes and the subsequent behaviour of the meiotic products were investigated in two Nigerian species of Aloe, namely Aloe keayi and Aloe macrocarpa var major with a view to uncovering the cause of their inability to reproduce sexually. The two plant materials used in this study were ...
though male circumcision coupled with preventive behaviour reduces this risk. Objective: To compare the factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among circumcised and uncircumcised men in Bo- tswana. Methods: Nationally representative data from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey III were used. A sample of 313 ...
... it was recommended that those in the helping professions should take cognizance of those variables that have been found to influence risky sexual behaviours and decisions among couples. The result also recommends intervention strategy to help couples achieve a better reproductive health behaviour, relationship and ...
To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university ... analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and ..... risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents.
netic and molecular studies helped to reveal the genetic basis of circadian time keeping and rhythmic behaviours. In ... methods of behavioural analysis from psychology and ethology. ... new properties of neurons, they help to dissect neuronal.
Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela
To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.
Voon, Valerie; Mole, Thomas B; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Morris, Laurel; Mitchell, Simon; Lapa, Tatyana R; Karr, Judy; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Irvine, Michael
Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.
In South Africa, new HIV infections are concentrated among persons aged 15–24 years. The university population falls within this age group and are prone to higher-risk behaviours that place them at risk of acquiring HIV. In a study to assess this risk among sexually active students, we classified higher-risk sexual ...
... of alcohol, with their implications for the spread of HIV and AIDS. The study underscores the need for adolescent sexual and reproductive health education and behaviour change communication among all segments of the population and inculcation of values less favourable for the spread of sexually transmitted infection.
Full Text Available Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI, but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms. Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]. Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05 included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008 and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001. Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI.
Since 2001, there has been a growing consensus that sexual exploitation and abuse of intended beneficiaries by humanitarian workers is a real and widespread problem that requires governance. Codes of conduct have been promoted as a key mechanism for governing the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers and, ultimately, preventing sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA). This article presents a systematic study of PSEA codes of conduct adopted by humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and how they govern the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers. It draws on Foucault's analytics of governance and speech act theory to examine the findings of a survey of references to codes of conduct made on the websites of 100 humanitarian NGOs, and to analyse some features of the organisation-specific PSEA codes identified. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Kroshus, Emily; Paskus, Tom; Bell, Lydia
The objective of the present study was to assess whether there is a positive association between expectations about off-field conduct set by the team coach and the likelihood that college football players intend to engage as prosocial bystanders in the prevention of what they consider to be inappropriate sexual behavior. In a sample of U.S. collegiate football players (N = 3,281), a path analysis model tested the association between coach expectations, perceived likelihood of discipline for off-field transgressions, and likelihood of intending to intervene to prevent inappropriate sexual behavior. Mediation of these relationships by the athlete's sense of exploitative entitlement and their attitudes about intervening were also assessed. Findings supported the hypothesized relationships, with expectations and discipline associated with bystander intentions both directly and indirectly through the mediating pathways of entitlement and attitudes about intervening. These findings provide evidence about the important role that sports team coaches can play in encouraging bystander intervention by clarifying expectations and consequences for conduct off the field of play. Athletic departments can provide a framework within which coaches are informed about the importance of setting and enforcing standards for off-field behavior, and are appropriately incentivized to do so. © The Author(s) 2015.
van Dijk Jitse P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.
Richman, Alice R.; Webb, Monica C.; Brinkley, Jason; Martin, Ryan J.
Many US college students are reported to engage in risky sexual behaviour. Smartphone applications are a popular way to provide users with information in real time. We explored the potential for mobile technology to be used in promoting the sexual health of college students. Using findings from an online survey among a random sample of 5000…
Cale, Jesse; Lussier, Patrick
Very little is understood about the developmental antecedents of sexual behaviour prior to adolescence. Our aim was to examine the impact of different forms of intimate partner violence on early childhood sexual development. We used data from an ongoing prospective longitudinal cohort study of Canadian families. Intimate partner violence of various kinds was measured using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Measures of child sexual development were based on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Both measures relied on parental report. Sexual coercion between parental figures, but not physical violence or emotional aggression, was significantly associated with intrusive sexual behaviours shown by 3- to 5-year-old children. It may seem unlikely that 3- to 5- year-old children can understand that their parents are in a sexually coercive relationship, but our findings suggest that they are sufficiently aware of such behaviours when they occur that they may start to model their own behaviour on them. Clinicians and social workers may need to be more aware of this possibility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age) attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms,...
M.se., M..HSC. (Present address: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of. Southern Africa) .... activity. Genera/ly, sexual experience followed shortly after ..... future HIV infection,1.10.11 and cervical cancer.1O,T2 This.
Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking dur...
Langhaug, Lisa F; Sherr, Lorraine; Cowan, Frances M
To systematically review comparative research from developing countries on the effects of questionnaire delivery mode. We searched Medline, EMbase and PsychINFO and ISSTDR conference proceedings. Randomized control trials and quasi-experimental studies were included if they compared two or more questionnaire delivery modes, were conducted in a developing country, reported on sexual behaviours and occurred after 1980. A total of 28 articles reporting on 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of reported trial outcomes between studies made it inappropriate to combine trial outcomes. Eighteen studies compared audio computer-assisted survey instruments (ACASI) or its derivatives [personal digital assistant (PDA) or computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)] against another self-administered questionnaires, face-to-face interviews or random response technique. Despite wide variation in geography and populations sampled, there was strong evidence that computer-assisted interviews lowered item-response rates and raised rates of reporting sensitive behaviours. ACASI also improved data entry quality. A wide range of sexual behaviours were reported including vaginal, oral, anal and/or forced sex, age of sexual debut, condom use at first and/or last sex. Validation of self-reports using biomarkers was rare. These data reaffirm that questionnaire delivery modes do affect self-reported sexual behaviours and that use of ACASI can significantly reduce reporting bias. Its acceptability and feasibility in developing country settings should encourage researchers to consider its use when conducting sexual health research. Triangulation of self-reported data using biomarkers is recommended. Standardizing sexual behaviour measures would allow for meta-analysis.
Social factors that included age, number of years of education, number of wives, number of intercourses in the last three months, number of partners apart from primary partners, and number of weeks spent outside home significantly jointly predicted sexual risk behaviour (R2 = .15, F(6, 147) = 4.39; p < .05) by accounting for ...
This paper contributes to conflicting evidence on the link between poverty and risky sexual behaviour by examining the effect of wealth status on age at first sex, condom use, and multiple partners using nationally representative adolescents\\' data from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. The results show that the ...
Apr 7, 2014 ... This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Terms & Conditions of ... Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young .... Communities are urged to give young people opportunities to play a role in poli-.
Backgound: HIV/AIDS pandemic is a great public health concern hence the need to identify interventions to prevent new infections among risk groups. Objective: To determine risky sexual behaviours among HIV sero-discordant individuals attending Defence Forces Memorial Hospital (DFMH). Design: A descriptive ...
Oct 2, 2017 ... journalCode=rsah20. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact ..... borative experiences between different role players can facilitate ..... between participants meaning that for some there was more of.
Simitzis, Panagiotis E; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Bizelis, Joseph A
The objective of this study was to highlight the problems that arise during the reproduction between thin-tailed rams and fat-tailed ewes. At the same time, particular emphasis laid on the influence of sheep breed, sheep age, time after ram introduction and day of the ewe estrus cycle on ram and ewe sexual behaviour. Rams were subjected to sexual performance tests by being individually exposed to 12 ewes for 3 h daily, 19 consecutive days. The 16 rams of the experiment were separated according to their age (9 and 21 months old) and breed (Chios and Karagouniki), and the 96 ewes of Chios fat-tailed breed, were divided by age (9 and 21 months old). The main characteristics of courtship behaviour, like sniffing, nudging, flehmen response and following were recorded and studied in detail. Mature Chios rams, which were the only one with previous experience of Chios ewes, exhibited higher rates of sexual interest per ewe than the other rams (P nudged more young than mature ewes (P behaviour when they courted with Chios fat-tailed ewes in comparison with Chios rams (P behaviour components decreased (P < 0.001). Finally, the effect of the day of the experiment was only significant in the case of sniffing, which increased during the first 2 days and then declined and stabilized (P < 0.01). As it was demonstrated, ram age and ram breed played a fundamental role in the exhibition of sexual interest elements.
The study seeks to examine the prevalence of date fighting and its role in sexual risk behaviours among 1079 boys and 1211 girls in 22 public secondary schools in Ibadan Nigeria. About 60% (1367) reported to have ever experienced at least a form of date fighting. Risk factors for date fighting in boys include, non use of ...
This was a survey study designed to determine the sexual behaviour and contraceptive use among student Nurses, School of Nursing, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H.), Maiduguri, Borno State. The population of this study was the entire 136 student Nurses, School of Nursing, U.M.T.H.), Maiduguri.
Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of ... that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). ... The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health ...
Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat
The focus of most studies of sexual behaviour has been on younger adults and adolescents, because they are perceived as having higher levels of sexual activity than older persons, and a consequently higher risk of HIV infection. Much less attention has been paid to the sexual behaviour of men and women in their forties and fifties. Using a life course framework, the objective of the present study is to examine AIDS knowledge, HIV testing and sexual risk behaviours among Thai men and women aged 40-59 years. The study also examines the influence of initial sexual experiences on later sexual behaviour. Data for the study are from the 2006 Thai National Survey of Sexual Behaviour, a national probability sample of 6048 individuals. Older Thai men and women were well informed about methods of HIV transmission, but many were unaware of antiretroviral (ARV) medications. Older adults were also less accepting of HIV positive persons than were younger adults. Fewer than half of the older adults had undergone HIV testing, with testing associated with medical checkups or undertaken before operations. Reported condom use was very low with regular partners, moderate with casual partners, and high with sex workers. While the age at first sex has not changed markedly, the type of partner has changed over time. Fewer men have their first sex with a commercial partner. In general, first sex with someone with strong ties to the respondent was related to lower levels of risk behaviour in late adulthood. Areas of concern for AIDS prevention programs include condom use with casual partners and paid partners, knowledge of ARV, and attitudes towards persons living with AIDS.
Miller, Ann Neville; Kizito, Mary N; Mwithia, Jesica Kinya; Njoroge, Lucy; Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Davis, Kristin
The article presents an analysis of in-depth interviews with 18 leaders of Christian churches in Nairobi, Kenya, regarding the content and context of messages they disseminate to their congregations about sexual behaviour and HIV. The content of messages was nearly consistent across the different denominations. However, three sorts of tensions were identified within pastoral communication about these topics: the need to discuss sex and HIV versus societal taboos against speaking about those issues from the pulpit; traditional cultural norms versus current lifestyles; and the ideals of abstinence and fidelity versus the reality of congregants' sexual behaviour. Although some of the religious leaders accepted the idea of condom use, no denominational patterns were noted on that subject, except with respect to Catholic priests. Pentecostal leaders were notable for describing proactive strategies to address both the ideal/real dilemma and the tension between church norms and current media content about sexuality and HIV.
Martins-Fonteyn, Emilia; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Baltazar, Cynthia
determinants framework. RESULTS: The odds of reporting one sexual partner were roughly three times higher for miners working as perforators as opposed to other types of occupation. As well, the odds of condom use - always or sometimes - for miners in the 31-40 age group were three times higher than the odds...... of condom use in the 51+ age group. Miners with lower education levels were less likely to use condoms. The odds of being HIV positive when the miner reports use of alcohol or drugs (sometimes/always) is 0.32 times lower than the odds for those reporting never use of alcohol or drugs. And finally, the odds...... findings suggest there is a need to change thinking processes about how to influence safer sexual behaviour. This is viewed to be the result of a person's individual decision, due to of the complexity of social and contextual factors that may also influence sexual behaviours. This only stresses the need...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual behaviours have been recognized as a threat for sexual and reproductive health. AIM: This article shows the results of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk" in relation to determining how a large sample of university students in Italy cope with preconception health, especially in the domains of sexual transmitted infections (STIs, fertility and vaccination preventable disease. METHODS: Twentythree questions of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey about sexual behaviour and reproductive health were analysed. Besides, results were stratified for sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: 19.7% of students have had first sexual intercourse before age 15. 21.8% of female students used emergency contraception. 66.4% of the 74.0% sexual active students reported using contraceptives, but about 32% of them used methods ineffective against STIs. A general low coverage for rubella, measles and mumps vaccination was revealed. 63.7% of men and 30.9% of woman never had urologic or gynaecological examinations. DISCUSSION: Overall, young adults in Italy are not still enough sensitized on fertility and preconception care. High schools and universities should increase awareness towards preservation of male and female fertility and preconception care.
Full Text Available Introduction: The homosexual behaviour were become indicators of sexually transmitted diseases’s (STDs prevalencies. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual community was very high but until recently study it was conducted sporadically. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation of homosexual behaviour with prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency. Method: Analytic design with cross sectional methode was used in this study. The population were all visitors of Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency (353 people. Sample were 40 people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was homosexual behaviour and the dependent variable was prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data for homosexual behaviour were collected by using questionnaire and indhept interview with content analyze and data for prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were collected by using laboratorium test for STDs. Result: The research result was presented in the form diagram, table of cross tabulation and analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level ρ=0.005. The result showed that there was correlation of homosexual knowledge (ρ=0.001, attitude (ρ=0.000 and practice (ρ=0.000 with prevalence of STDs. Dsicussion: It can be concluded that the better knowledge, attitude and practice of homosexual could be decrease prevalence of STDs. Futher studies are recomended to analyze the correlation between homosexual behaviour and prevalence of STDs with Health Believe approach.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs. It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in relation to sexual behaviour. Discussion G. vaginalis carriage and BV occurs rarely with children, but has been observed among adolescent, even sexually non-experienced girls, contradicting that sexual transmission is a necessary prerequisite to disease acquisition. G. vaginalis carriage is enhanced by penetrative sexual contact but also by non-penetrative digito-genital contact and oral sex, again indicating that sex per se, but not necessarily coital transmission is involved. Several observations also point at female-to-male rather than at male-to-female transmission of G. vaginalis, presumably explaining the high concordance rates of G. vaginalis carriage among couples. Male antibiotic treatment has not been found to protect against BV, condom use is slightly protective, whereas male circumcision might protect against BV. BV is also common among women-who-have-sex-with-women and this relates at least in part to non-coital sexual behaviours. Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is little evidence that BV acts as an STD. Rather, we suggest BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease (SED, with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This may relate to two distinct pathogenetic mechanisms: (1 in case of unprotected intercourse alkalinisation of the vaginal niche enhances a shift from lactobacilli-dominated microflora to a BV-like type of microflora and (2 in case of unprotected and protected intercourse mechanical transfer of perineal enteric bacteria is enhanced by coitus. A similar
Full Text Available Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.
Hanlon, Roger T; Naud, Marié-Jose; Shaw, Paul W; Havenhand, Jon N
Sexual mimicry among animals is widespread, but does it impart a fertilization advantage in the widely accepted 'sneak-guard' model of sperm competition? Here we describe field results in which a dramatic facultative switch in sexual phenotype by sneaker-male cuttlefish leads to immediate fertilization success, even in the presence of the consort male. These results are surprising, given the high rate at which females reject copulation attempts by males, the strong mate-guarding behaviour of consort males, and the high level of sperm competition in this complex mating system.
de Sanjosé, S; Bosch, F X; Muñoz, N; Shah, K
In this chapter we first describe the variation of cervical cancer in relation to social class. Thereafter we examine the causes for the occurrence of socioeconomic differences in invasive cervical cancer, using data from two case-control studies carried out in Colombia and Spain. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing countries and the sixth most common in developed countries. In all areas, it is more frequent among women of low socioeconomic status, it is associated with multiple sexual partners and early age at first sexual intercourse, and both incidence and mortality are reduced by screening. According to population-based surveys in industrialized countries, men of low socioeconomic status report fewer sexual partners than men of high socioeconomic status but there is no clear indication that the same is true of women of low socioeconomic status. In the case-control studies in Spain and Colombia, the human papillomavirus and all other sexually transmitted diseases were more prevalent among women in low socioeconomic strata. Number of sexual partners and particularly contacts with prostitutes were higher among husbands of women of low socioeconomic status. Other potential risk factors for the disease, such as smoking and oral contraceptive use, and also cervical cancer screening (Pap smears), were more common in women of high social strata. Women with no schooling had a threefold higher risk in Spain and a fivefold higher risk in Colombia of having cervical cancer compared with women who had achieved a higher educational level. After adjustment for sexual behaviour, HPV DNA status, history of Pap smears and husband's contact with prostitutes, this association was considerably reduced. These results are indicative that socioeconomic differences in the incidence of cervical cancer can be partly explained by differences in the prevalence of HPV DNA. Men's sexual behaviour and particularly contacts with prostitutes might be a major contributor to
Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1 casual sex during illness episodes, (2 rape by non-partners, (3 exploitation by partners, (4 non-monogamous partners, and (5 sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between risky sexual behaviours and substance uses among Ghanaian youth were investigated. Methods An in-school cross-sectional representative survey was conducted among 12-18-year- old youth in Ghana in 2008 (N = 1195, response rate =90%. Logistic regression analyses were employed to investigate the association between substance use (tobacco use, drunkenness, marijuana use and other drug uses and risky sexual behaviours (sexual debut, condom use and number of sexual partners. Results Of all youth, 25% (28% boys and 23% girls were sexually experienced. The mean age for first sexual intercourse was 14.8 years (14.4 years for boys and 15.1 years for girls. Among the sexually experienced, 31% had multiple sexual partners. Older age (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4 and rural residency (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1 were independently associated with sexual debut while only older age (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4 was associated with condom use. Additionally, smoking (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.0-6.8, tawa use (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.3-4.7, tobacco use (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7-4.7 drunkenness (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.8 and marijuana use (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.6-7.0 were independently associated with sexual debut. Furthermore, all substance uses studied were associated with having one or multiple sexual partners. Conclusion Substance use seems to be a gateway for risky sexual behaviours among Ghanaian youth. Public health interventions should take into account the likelihood of substance use among sexually experienced youth.
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
Mir, Ali M; Wajid, Abdul; Pearson, Stephen; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan
In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16-45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8-7.7, p pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0-7.7, p pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5-7.2, p = 0.002). To prevent the spread of STI's in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated men offering them with appropriate counselling and skills to adopt "safe sex practices" through workplace orientation sessions; while for youth in schools, life skills education be included in the curriculum. Through public-private partnership stigmatised groups should be reached through established community networks and provided with information on accessing voluntary counseling and treatment centres.
AJRH Managing Editor
of high prevalence of transactional sex and spontaneous or unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol, with their implications for the spread of HIV and AIDS. The study underscores the need for adolescent sexual and reproductive health education and behaviour change communication among all segments of the ...
Buga, G A; Amoko, D H; Ncayiyana, D J
Teenagers make up a quarter of all mothers in Transkei, South Africa, and well over 75% of them are unmarried. Such a high rate of teenage pregnancy is indicative of a high level of unprotected adolescent sexual activity. We examined sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among adolescent school girls in Transkei, using a self-administered questionnaire, in order to establish the incidence of sexual activity, and associated risk factors. Of the 1072 respondents, 74.6% were already sexually experienced, and 21.0% were not. The majority of sexually experienced girls (SEGs) and sexually inexperienced girls (SIGs) were living with both their parents. There were no religious differences between the two groups of girls. The age of SEGs at first coitus correlated positively with the age of menarche, and the age at the first date, suggesting that sexual maturation and onset of dating were possible risk factors for initiation of sexual activity. Contraceptive use was low, and a third of SEGs had been pregnant at least once. The knowledge of reproductive biology among both groups of girls was generally poor, although SEGs were significantly more knowledgeable than SIGs. The majority of girls in both groups did not approve of premarital sex, and adolescent pregnancy. They also did not approve of the idea of introducing sex education in schools, or the provision of contraceptives by schools. Nearly a third of the respondents in both groups did not wish to get married in future. In conclusion, there is a high level of unprotected sexual activity among school girls in Transkei. The risk factors for this include early sexual maturation, early onset of dating, and poor knowledge of reproductive biology and contraceptives.
Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of
Norbu, Kunzang; Mukhia, Sontosh; Tshokey
The incidence of STI is high and increasing in Bhutan. Poor understanding of risky sexual behavior could be a cause. Comprehensive community surveys have not been previously done. This study was conducted to assess local knowledge on STIs and sexual risk behaviour in two rural districts of Bhutan: Gasa and Zhemgang. The study population included residents aged 15-49 years in the two districts. Health Assistants (HAs) visited all households to distribute questionnaires assessing understanding of knowledge on STIs and risk behaviour. Questionnaires were scored and analyzed. The average score was 61.6%. Respondents had highest knowledge about prevention and lowest about disease and complications. There was a positive correlation between level of education and knowledge on STI (P sexual behavior with 31.2% having sexual relationships with non-regular partners and 10.9% had extramarital sexual contacts. Regular use of condoms with non-regular partners was 49.1%. The most common reason for not using condom was unavailability during the sexual encounter. The study showed that despite increasing knowledge there was no reduction in risky sexual behaviour (p > 0.05). The study population had variable understanding of STIs and their complications. One in three persons practiced risky sexual behaviour, higher in men. Condom use was low. There was no reduction of risky sexual behaviour with increasing level of knowledge indicating that increasing level of knowledge does not necessarily reduce risky sexual behaviour.
Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly
Goldenberg, S; Shoveller, J; Ostry, A; Koehoorn, M
Northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is undergoing rapid in-migration of young, primarily male, workers in response to the "boom" in the oil/gas industries. Chlamydia rates in the region exceed the provincial average by 32% (294.6 cases per 100 000 persons compared with 213.3). Evidence indicates that sociocultural and structural determinants of young people's sexual health are key to consider in the design of interventions. To investigate how sociocultural and structural features related to the oil/gas boom are perceived to affect the sexual behaviour of youth in a Northeastern "boomtown". The study included ethnographic fieldwork (8 weeks) and in-depth interviews with 25 youth (ages 15-25 years) and 14 health/social service providers. Participants identified four main ways in which the sociocultural and structural conditions created by the boom affect sexual behaviours, fuelling the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): mobility of oil/gas workers; binge partying; high levels of disposable income and gendered power dynamics. The sociocultural and structural conditions that are fostered by a resource-extraction boom appear to exacerbate sexual health inequalities among youths who live and work in these rapidly urbanising, remote locales. To meet the needs of this population, we recommend STI prevention and testing service delivery models that incorporate STI testing outreach to oil/gas workers and condom distribution. Global, national and local STI control efforts should consider the realities and needs of similar subpopulations of young people.
Kamila B. Czajkowska
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the aging of the population, there is limited data available about sexual life and behaviours among of postmenopausal and late postmenopausal women. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, behaviours, and preferences in the Polish population in 2015. Material and methods: This observational survey study involved 538 women, of whom 220 were over 50 years old. The main focus was on the differences and changes between older age groups, mainly 50-59 years and over 60 years. Results : For 80.9% of the women above 50 years old, sex played at least a moderately important role in life. Sex was definitely important and very important for 40.45% of them. Most women over 50 years old (65.5% were sexually active. Regardless of age, the respondents were more likely to have sexual intercourse several times a month. Less than half of the women over 50 years old (42.7% realised their sexual fantasies. Women in the group of 50-59 years old statistically less often than younger women declared that the frequency of intercourse they had was too small. There was a statistical tendency showing that women up to 49 years old declared more sexual problems than older women. Women over 50 years old reported fewer problems in comparison to younger women, e.g. less often they claimed that sex is not pleasurable (p = 0.064. Conclusions : The prevalence of sexual activity declines with age, yet a substantial number of woman engage in vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation even past the seventh decade of life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS in Cameroon revealed a higher prevalence of HIV in richest and most educated people than their poorest and least educated compatriots. It is not certain whether the higher prevalence results partly or wholly from wealthier people adopting more unsafe sexual behaviours, surviving longer due to greater access to treatment and care, or being exposed to unsafe injections or other HIV risk factors. As unsafe sex is currently believed to be the main driver of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, we designed this study to examine the association between wealth and sexual behaviour in Cameroon. Methods We analysed data from 4409 sexually active men aged 15–59 years who participated in the Cameroon DHS using logistic regression models, and have reported odds ratios (OR with confidence intervals (CI. Results When we controlled for the potential confounding effects of marital status, place of residence, religion and age, men in the richest third of the population were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.32–0.56 and more likely to have had at least two concurrent sex partners in the last 12 months (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12–1.19 and more than five lifetime sex partners (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60–2.43. However, there was no difference between the richest and poorest men in the purchase of sexual services. Regarding education, men with secondary or higher education were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.16–0.38 and more likely to have started sexual activity at age 17 years or less (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.10–3.56 and had more than five lifetime sexual partners (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.02–3.31. There was no significant association between education and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships in the last 12 months or purchase of sexual services
Background This study examines gender differences (and similarities) in the context, meaning and effects of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools. Purpose First, the study's purpose is exploration of variables that discriminate between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual
Jun 12, 2014 ... with primary sources of information. ... Keywords: university students, HIV risk perceptions, sexual ... Psychosocial theories of behaviour change, such as the Health ..... multiple sexual partnerships among university students.
Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...
Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J
Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner...
Daisy J Mechelmans
Full Text Available Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance 'behavioural' addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB.
Greif, Meredith J; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo; Jayaraman, Anuja
The question of how urbanisation and poverty are linked in sub-Saharan Africa is an increasingly pressing one. The urban character of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa exacerbates concern about the urbanisation - poverty relationship. Recent empirical work has linked urban poverty, and particularly slum residence, to risky sexual behaviour in Kenya's capital city, Nairobi. This paper explores the generalisability of these assertions about the relationship between urban poverty and sexual behaviour using Demographic and Health Survey data from five African cities: Accra (Ghana), Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), Harare (Zimbabwe), Kampala (Uganda) and Nairobi (Kenya). The study affirms that, although risky behaviour varies across the five cities, slum residents demonstrate riskier sexual behaviour compared with non-slum residents. There is earlier sexual debut, lower condom usage and more multiple sexual partners among women residing in slum households regardless of setting, suggesting a relatively uniform effect of urban poverty on sexual risk behaviour.
Grappasonni, I; Paci, P; Mazzucchi, F; Amenta, F
Because the nature of their work seafarers spend long periods of time away from their families and therefore represent a group at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection. This paper reports the results of a survey to evaluate awareness and knowledge of the risk of HIV infection among seafarers. Risky behaviours for HIV transmission were also assessed. The survey was conducted using anonymous questionnaires on 197 workers of 9 vessels and 26 office employees of an Italian shipping company (FINAVAL S.p.A., Rome). The respondents considered HIV/AIDS as one of the diseases with a high risk of transmission. Most respondents had a good general knowledge of HIV/AIDS and on the ways of its transmission. However, there is still lack of knowledge on the basics of this disease. On the other hand, in spite of knowledge and awareness about the risks of the disease, only 56.35% of the interviewed crewmembers used protection in sexual intercourse with occasional partners. Compared to data available in literature, the percentage of self-protecting people is increasing, but the number of seafarers exposing themselves to risky behaviours is still high. As expected, condoms are used with regular partners with lower frequency compared to occasional intercourse. The results of this survey indicate that adequate prevention campaigns and major attention paid to seafarers health is useful for stimulating responsible conduct for the prevention of infectious diseases, including HIV infection. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to increase information about the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and how to reduce it.
Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J
Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent-child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style.
Anthony Idowu Ajayi
Full Text Available Background: Over a million people globally acquire sexually transmitted infections (STI every day mainly through unprotected sexual contact. While the consequences of risky sexual behaviour are well documented, the literature on young educated women's perceptions of, and narratives about risky sexual behaviour is limited, and thus, it is difficult to fathom from available sources why such behaviour persists. This study examined the prevalence of sexual risk-taking and assessed female University students' knowledge of the consequences of unprotected sex and reasons why such behaviour persists. Paradoxes between their narratives and risky sexual behaviour were discussed. Methods: The study adopted a mixed study design involving a survey of 420 students selected using cluster random sampling, 20 in-depth interviews and 5 focus group discussions. The analysis of the quantitative data involves the use of descriptive and inferential statistics, while thematic content analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. Results: High prevalence of unprotected sexual intercourse was reported and was not associated with age, year of study, place of residence and religion. The narratives of participants indicate that female university students were aware of the risks associated with unprotected sex. Participants generally condemned sexual risk-taking and asserted that freedom, peer influence, poverty, ignorance, lack of sex education, civilisation, promiscuity, and satisfying sexual urge were the reasons for the persistent risky sexual behaviour among female university students. Also, perceived reduced fun associated with condom use, nourishment of marital expectations, and equivalence of unprotected sex with trust are among the reasons for persistent sexual risk-taking among female university students. Conclusion: Our findings show that female students practice risky sexual behaviour despite having knowledge of its consequences. Change in sexual behaviour
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e.g. little time spent with their children which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building
Oct 26, 2017 ... practices. Keywords: sexual behaviour, older men, sub-Saharan Africa. Résumé ... due to lack of large population-based data that captures the sexual behaviour of persons aged .... face to face interviews. The questionnaire of ...
This paper employs data from the 1998 South African Demographic and Health Survey in exploring the nature of socio-economic inequalities in and determinants of risky sexual behaviour. Risky sexual behaviour was associated with poverty only in the case of multiple partnerships. Affluent women that have engaged in ...
Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun
This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.
Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa
African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…
Freak-Poli, Rosanne; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Jaspers, Loes; Pitts, Marian; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning
The relation between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and sexual behaviour is understudied in older adult groups. To examine the relation between PPWB (positive affect and life satisfaction) and sexual behaviour (sexual activity and physical tenderness) in older adults, and whether it is independent from depressive symptoms and uniform across older age groups. Cross-sectional. Community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Sexual behaviour, the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and partner status were assessed in 2,373 dementia-free older adults from the Rotterdam Study. For partnered participants, greater positive affect and life satisfaction was associated with more sexual activity and physical tenderness. Although CES-D was negatively associated with sexual behaviour within partnered older adults, there was no association between the negative affect sub-scale and sexual behaviour. The relations were independent of depressive symptoms, physical health and chronic disease status and were observed for both sexes at all older ages. For unpartnered participants, greater life satisfaction and was associated with more physical tenderness. There was low prevalence of sexual behaviour in unpartnered participants, limiting further stratification. Greater PPWB was associated with more sexual behaviour in partnered, community-dwelling older adults. We are the first to demonstrate that sexual behaviour is associated with PPWB, rather than lack of depressive symptoms; and that the association was present at all ages for partnered older adults. Limited conclusions can be drawn for unpartnered older adults as their sexual behaviour was infrequent. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS. Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of clients indicated possible dependence on alcohol or other drugs, and these clients were likely to cite their substance use as related to their attendance, and to accept the offer of help or advice. Conclusion The use of brief screening instruments as part of routine clinical practice is recommended. The STI clinic is well placed to identify substance use and to offer advice and/or onward referral to specialist services.
Madan Mohan Laddunuri
Introduction: A surge of sexual interest occurs around puberty and continues through adolescence. Heightened adolescent sexuality may be caused by a number of factors, including bodily changes, sexual hormones, social forces, and rehearsal for adult gender roles. The main objective of the present study is to understand the patterns and trends of adolescent students’ sexual behaviour in Tanzania.Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted and 550 secondary school students (1...
acethylcholine, noradrenalin, GABA, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, rat, human, male, female......acethylcholine, noradrenalin, GABA, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction, rat, human, male, female...
Dean, Judith; Mitchell, Marion; Stewart, Donald; Debattista, Joseph
Background Forced migration is associated with sexual vulnerability. However, little is known about the sexual health literacy and needs of refugee-background youth post resettlement. Conducted in partnership with the Queensland Sudanese community, this study used a cross-sectional survey to explore the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a convenience sample of 16- to 24-year-old Sudanese-background youth in Australia (n=229). Sexually transmissible infection (STI) and HIV knowledge scores were generally low, although they were found to significantly improve the longer participants had lived in Australia (Pbehaviour score suggests generally low levels of risk-taking behaviour. However, of the 140 sexually active participants, 3.1% reported a STI diagnosis, 9.0% reported sex leading to a pregnancy and 33.1% reported they had experienced unwanted sex. Participants also reported engaging in behaviours such as anal sex (33%) and sharing injecting drug equipment. Patterns of sexual behaviour among this predominately refugee-background group are not dissimilar to those of other young Australians. Nonetheless, the self-reported patterns of risk behaviour combined with the low and inaccurate levels of sexual health knowledge suggest this group of young people remain sexually vulnerable, particularly early within their resettlement experience. Culturally and contextually informed sexual health interventions are needed early within the resettlement experience.
Owoaje, E T; Adebiyi, A O; Adebayo, M A
Migration has been associated with a higher risk of STI/HIV but few studies have assessed the sexual risk behaviour of migrant farm workers in Nigeria. An exploratory survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual risk behaviours of migrant farmers in Saki West Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behaviours and history of STI symptoms. Overall 518 respondents were interviewed, slightly over half were aware of HIV/AIDS; awareness was significantly lower among the females, those aged 15-24 years and those with no formal education. Majority (80.7%) were sexually experienced, the mean age at sexual debut was 19.4 +/- 5.2 years and 18.4 +/- 4.2 years for males and females respectively. Sexual intercourse with multiple sexual partners in the past year was reported by 24.6% (males, 35.7%, versus females, 10.4%, p casual partner was reported by 9.1% (12.8% males versus 4.4% females). Only 18.2% used a condom during the last casual sexual contact. Level of awareness of HIV is unacceptably low and sexual risk behaviours are prevalent among these workers. Appropriate sexual health and HIV prevention interventions should be instituted.
Adeniyi, W. O.; Okewole, J. O.
The study examined the influence of knowledge and awareness of sexually transmitted diseases on change in sexual behaviour of fresh undergraduates with a view to providing useful suggestions for positive sexual behaviour of adolescents. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. A sample of 600 fresh undergraduates was selected from the…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are a major reproductive and public health concern, especially in the era of HIV/AIDS. This study examined the relationship between sexual empowerment and STI status of women in union (married or cohabiting in Uganda, controlling for sexual behaviour, partner factors, and women’s background characteristics. Methods The study, based on data from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS, analysed 1307 weighted cases of women age 15–49 in union and selected for the domestic violence module. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the predicators of STI status. The main explanatory variables included sexual empowerment, involvement in decision making on own health, experience of any sexual violence, condom use during last sex with most recent partner, number of lifetime partners and partner control behaviours. Sexual empowerment was measured with three indicators: a woman’s reported ability to refuse sex, ability to ask her partner to use a condom, and opinion regarding whether a woman is justified to refuse sex with her husband if he is unfaithful. Results Results show that 28 % of women in union reported STIs in the last 12 months. Sexual violence and number of lifetime partners were the strongest predictors of reporting STIs. Women’s sexual empowerment was a significant predictor of their STI status, but, surprisingly, the odds of reporting STIs were greater among women who were sexually empowered. Reporting of STIs was negatively associated with a woman’s participation in decision-making with respect to her own health, and was positively associated with experience of sexual violence, partner’s controlling behaviour, and having more than one life partner. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, with respect to STIs, sexual empowerment as measured in the study does not protect women who have sexually violent and controlling
Odimegwu, Clifford; Somefun, Oluwaseyi Dolapo
While studies in demography and public health have acknowledged the role of ethnic differences, the influence of ethnicity on youth sexual behaviour in Nigeria has received little or no attention. It is important to know how cultural norms and gender roles, which vary by ethnicity, may promote or prevent risky behaviour. Such information could provide insights into previously undetected sexual behaviour in multi-ethnic situations. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for 2003, 2008 and 2013 were pooled to examine the relationship between ethnicity and youth sexual reproductive health, proxied by age at sexual debut, multiple sexual partners (MSP) and condom use at last sexual activity, among the 6304 females and 1549 males who reported being sexually active in the four weeks preceding the survey. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine the risk factors for early sexual activity among young people (15-24). Logistic regression was used to predict condom use at last sexual activity and MSP. The median age at first sexual activity was 16 for females and 17 for males. 43% of male youths used condoms in their last sexual activity, compared to only 16% among females and a higher number of males (81%) had multiple sexual partners compared to females (35%). For females, elevated risks of first sex was higher among Hausa/Fulanis aged 15-19 and elevated risk of first sex was higher among Yoruba males. This study provides further evidence that in order to promote protective sexual behaviours among youth in Nigeria, social, cultural and gender-specific tactics should be put in place for the prevention of HIV and other STIs.
AJRH Managing Editor
people's practicing risky sexual behaviour in the era of HIV/AIDS. Data used in ... pregnancies, unsafe induced abortion and HIV .... additional selection criteria. ...... India. International. Family. Planning. Perspectives 1999; 25(3): 139-146. 18.
Mairs, Katie; Bullock, Sandra L
Rates of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and sexual-risk behaviour for those aged 50 and over in the United States are highest and increasing in Florida, where many Canadian "snowbirds" winter. This pilot study examined the sexual-risk behaviour and predictors of HIV testing in a convenience sample of Canadian snowbirds who winter in Florida (n = 265). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds of testing were increased for the unmarried, those aged 50-64, those who had talked to a doctor about sexual-risk behaviour since age 50, and those who agreed that sex was important in their lives. Dating males were more likely to test than non-dating males. Dating females were not more likely to test than non-dating females; and males who dated were 13.6 times more likely to test than females who dated. Further research will improve understanding of Canadian snowbirds' sexual interactions and HIV-testing behaviour.
Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang
Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.
Leichliter, Jami S; Chesson, Harrell W; Sternberg, Maya; Aral, Sevgi O
To examine the frequency of three sexual behaviours from the most active to the least active members of the population in various subpopulations using measures of inequality. Data from a US national probability sample of the population aged 15-44 years (National Survey of Family Growth) were used. Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves were calculated in order to examine the concentration of three sexual behaviours: vaginal sex acts (past 4 weeks) and number of opposite-sex partners (past 12 months; lifetime). Analyses were conducted separately for men and women and subpopulations of interest (by age, race/ethnicity, educational level and poverty level). The sexual behaviours examined were concentrated within the most active members of the population. This concentration was most pronounced for vaginal sex acts in the past 4 weeks and lifetime opposite-sex partners, with the top 5% of each population accounting for more of the sexual behaviour than the bottom 50% of the population. Sexual behaviours were most concentrated among adolescents, the least educated and the most impoverished. Some subpopulations had similar mean or median numbers of sex acts (or sex partners), but had different degrees of concentration of these behaviours. Finally, the most impoverished men and women had the highest concentration levels for two of the three sexual behaviours (vaginal sex acts, opposite-sex partners in past 12 months). Given that sexual behaviours tended to be highly concentrated in subpopulations that are often at the highest risk of sexually transmitted infections, targeted interventions may be the most efficient method to reduce risk in these groups while minimising potential unintended consequences.
Jennie L Connor
Full Text Available Research on alcohol and sexual behaviour has focused on young adults or high-risk groups, showing alcohol use contributing to riskier sexual choices. Adults now in their late thirties have been exposed to heavier drinking norms than previously, raising questions about effects on sexual wellbeing. We examined self-reported use and consequences of alcohol in sexual contexts, and its association with usual drinking pattern at age 38, and also associations of heavy drinking occasion (HDO frequency with number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and terminations of pregnancy (TOPs, from 26-32 and 32-38 years of age.Members of the Dunedin Study birth cohort answered computer-presented questions about sexual behaviour and outcomes, and interviewer-administered alcohol consumption questions, at age 26, 32 and 38 years.Response level was >90% at each assessment. At 38, drinking before or during sex in the previous year was common (8.2% of men; 14.6% of women reported "usually/always", and unwanted consequences were reported by 13.5% of men and 11.9% of women, including regretted sex or failure to use contraception or condoms. Frequent heavy drinkers were more likely to "use alcohol to make it easier to have sex" and regret partner choice, particularly women. Heavy drinking frequency was strongly associated with partner numbers for men and women at 32, but only for women at 38. Significantly higher odds of STIs amongst the heaviest drinking men, and TOPs amongst the heaviest drinking women were seen at 32-38.Alcohol involvement in sex continues beyond young adulthood where it has been well documented, and is common at 38. Women appear to be more affected than men, and heavy drinking is associated with poorer outcomes for both. Improving sexual health and wellbeing throughout the life course needs to take account of the role of alcohol in sexual behaviour.
The nine factors that appear to be driving the infection are: transactional sex, age of sexual debut and lack of parental care, misconceptions about HIV and AIDS, sexual partnership beyond spouses and primary partners, mismatched sexual desire, fatalism, syndrome of denial, condom use, and alcohol. The outcomes of the ...
Langille, Donald B; Hughes, Jean; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Rigby, Janet A
Little is known about associations of adolescents' socio-economic status (SES) and their sexual activity and risk behaviours. This study examined these associations in Nova Scotia adolescents aged 15-19. Students at four high schools in northern Nova Scotia completed surveys examining relationships of family SES factors and: 1) sexual activity (having had vaginal or anal intercourse, intercourse before age 15 (early intercourse)); and 2) risk behaviours (use of contraception/condoms, number of partners and unplanned intercourse after substance use). Of students present when the survey was administered, 2,135 (91%) responded. Almost half (49%) had had vaginal intercourse, and 7% anal intercourse. In univariate analysis for young women, non-intact family structure and lower parental education were associated with having vaginal, anal and early intercourse. Female risk behaviours showed no significant univariate associations with SES. Young men had univariate associations of family structure, lower maternal education and paternal unemployment with early intercourse, and lower paternal education with anal intercourse. Condom use was higher for young men with employed fathers; those living with both parents less often had >1 sexual partner. In multivariate analysis, most SES associations with females' sexual activities held, while most for males did not, and few associations of SES and risk behaviours were seen for females. Indicators of lower SES are associated with sexual activity in young women. Sexual risk behaviours are not often associated with SES in females, though they are more so in males. These findings have implications for sexual health promotion and health services.
This study examined the role of hunger and food insecurity in the sexual behaviour of female commercial sex workers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria within the context of HIV/AIDS. In addition, the study investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and induced abortion among the respondents.
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…
A cross-sectional study design was used to assess sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices among students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia, in 2009. Among 1 220 students eligible for the study, approximately 29% reported experience of sex (36.3% of the males and 9.3% of the females). Of the total sexually ...
Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul
In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.
Ushakov, I.B.; Rogacheva, I.V.; Stroganova, E.A.
A pronounced and stable decrease in sexual motivation of male rats immediately after γ-irradiation of the head with a dose of 2.58 C/kg is shown. Exposure of the body to 1.29-2.58 C/kg radiation also inhibited sexual behaviour but only by the 45th-55th minute following irradiation: with higher doses some increase in sexual activity was observed immediately after irradiation
Madan Mohan Laddunuri
Full Text Available Introduction: A surge of sexual interest occurs around puberty and continues through adolescence. Heightened adolescent sexuality may be caused by a number of factors, including bodily changes, sexual hormones, social forces, and rehearsal for adult gender roles. The main objective of the present study is to understand the patterns and trends of adolescent students’ sexual behaviour in Tanzania.Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted and 550 secondary school students (13 to 19 years old were recruited by using a multistage random sampling technique from Tanzania’s secondary schools. The data collection tool was a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed by using SPSS software package version 16.Results: More than one third (40.2% of the participant students had experienced intercourse with mean age 17.2±1.8 years and one sixth (17.6% of the participants had multiple sexual partners. The mean age for hugging, kissing and breast fondling was significantly younger when compared to the sexual intercourse. Most (78.5% of the students had used contraceptives but the frequency of contraception was less than half (48.6% “always”. The main reasons beyond sexual debut were “just for fun” (37% and “peer pressure” (27.6%. A male student was 1.46 times more likely to have had intercourse than a female. Parental education was the most significant association with sexual debut of adolescents and the odds ratio indicates that sexual intercourse among students is decreasing with the increasing of parental education.Conclusion: A relatively high sexual intercourse has been recorded and risky sexual behaviour also existed among the respondents. Hence, there is a need to promote specific intervention programmes built upon those factors which are associated with an increased likelihood for early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviour.
Jan Henk Dubbink
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual behaviour is a core determinant of the HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI epidemics in women living in rural South Africa. Knowledge of sexual behaviour in these areas is limited, but constitutes essential information for a combination prevention approach of behavioural change and biomedical interventions. Methods This descriptive study was conducted in rural Mopani District, South Africa, as part of a larger study on STI. Women of reproductive age (18–49 years who reported sexual activity were included regardless of the reason for visiting the facility. Questionnaires were administered to 570 women. We report sexual behaviour by age group, ethnic group and self-reported HIV status. Results Young women (34 years; there was no difference for condom use during last sex act (36 % overall. Sotho women were more likely to report concurrent sexual partners whereas Shangaan women reported more frequent intravaginal cleansing and vaginal scarring practice in our analysis. HIV-infected women were older, had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners, reported more frequent condom use during the last sex act and were more likely to have a known HIV-infected partner than women without HIV infection; hormonal contraceptive use, fellatio, and a circumcised partner were less often reported. Conclusions This study provides insight into women’s sexual behaviour in a rural South African region. There are important differences in sexual behaviour by age group and ethnicity and HIV status; these should be taken into account when designing tailor-made prevention packages.
Flynn, Taylor-Jane; Gow, Alan J
while sexual behaviours are potentially important for quality of life in older adults, they are under-researched. The current study examined associations between frequency and importance of sexual behaviours and quality of life in older adults. one hundred and thirty-three participants (mean 74 years, SD = 7.1) provided information about the frequency with which they participated in six sexual behaviours and the perceived importance of these: touching/holding hands, embracing/hugging, kissing, mutual stroking, masturbating and intercourse. Participants also completed the WHO Quality of Life scale, providing an overall quality of life score, in addition to the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environment. Participants provided information on their marital status, living arrangements and self-reported health. both the frequency and importance of sexual behaviours were moderately positively correlated with quality of life (r = 0.52 and 0.47, respectively, both P sexual behaviours was a significant predictor of quality of life in the social relationships domain (β = 0.225, P sexual behaviours was associated with the psychological domain (β = 0.151, P ageing trends, a broader understanding of the factors that influence quality of life in older adults is increasingly important. The current findings suggest that aspects of sexual behaviour and quality of life were positively associated. Researchers are encouraged to consider aspects of sex and sexuality when exploring determinants of well-being in later life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Bellis Mark A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young holidaymakers report increased sexual risk-taking abroad, yet little is currently known about the sexual behaviour of those who extend time abroad through casual work. Methods Information on sexual behaviour was collected via an anonymous questionnaire administered to British bar and nightclub workers in Ibiza (cases, n = 92 and British people visiting Ibiza for holiday purposes only (controls, n = 868. Results Four in five (80.5% cases who arrived in Ibiza without a partner had sex during their stay and of these two thirds (65.5% had unprotected sex. Cases were more likely to report sexual risk-taking in Ibiza than controls and reported greater numbers of sexual partners prior to their visit. However, they had fewer sexual partners per week of stay. Conclusion Casual workers in bars and nightclubs abroad are a key risk group for sexual health and a potential conduit for the international spread of sexually transmitted infections. While they are an important target group for sexual health promotion, appropriately trained they are also ideally placed to deliver sexual health interventions to other young travellers.
Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…
Bernsen Roos MD
Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors determining human sexual behaviour are not completely understood, but are important in the context of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and prevention. Being obese is commonly associated with a reduced physical attractiveness but the associations between body mass index, sexual behaviour and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections has never been studied. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES files of 1999–2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI. Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2 antibodies to BMI and other variables. Results Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93 and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03 individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men:2.00, women: 1.15 in the last year (p Conclusion Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV-2 antibodies provide information not contained in self-reported number of partners and may better estimate sexual risk than self-reported behaviour.
Letamo, Gobopamang; Keetile, Mpho; Navaneetham, Kannan
The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of ART perception on risky sexual behaviours in Botswana. Using binary logistic regression analysis controlling for individual characteristics, the results tend to support the hypothesis that ART misconceptions do not necessarily increase risky sexual behaviours. In particular, the study findings suggest the belief that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and that people on ARVs should not always use condoms do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, particularly among women. Gender differentials exist in the perceived sexual risk resulting from the use of ART. Risky sexual behaviours increase for women who, wrongly, believed that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and people on ARVs should not always use condoms. Although there is evidence to suggest ART perceptions do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, HIV and AIDS prevention programmes are needed to strengthen their information, education and communication intervention component that can address misconceptions about ART treatment and provide correct information that is gender-appropriate.
Odimegwu, Clifford; De Wet, Nicole; Somefun, Oluwaseyi Dolapo
With about one quarter of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occuring in young people, there is an on-going debate regarding the role of social capital on youth sexual behaviour. Some studies have suggested that high levels of family and community social capital may act as protective factors that lessen the likelihood of negative consequences; while others have concluded that social capital may be a risk factor for risky sexual behaviour among youth. Using data from the Third National Communications Survey (2012) conducted in South Africa, we examined the relationship between perceptions of social capital and youth sexual behaviour measured by age at first sex and condom use among 3 399 males and females (aged between 16 and 24 years). We assessed community perceptions of social capital with questions that measured trust, social participation, and support. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to predict the risk for early sexual debut. Logistic regression was used to predict the odds of condom use. There was no association between perceptions of social capital and youth sexual behaviour. This work reveals that youth sexual behaviour in South Africa may be influenced by socio-economic characteristics, especially at the individual level.
Choon, S E; Sapiah, W; Ismail, Z; Balan, V
A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.
Onja Holisoa Rahamefy, Michèle Rivard, Madeleine Ravaoarinoro, Lala Ranaivoharisoa, Andriamiliharison Jean Rasamindrakotroka, Richard Morisset
Mar 26, 2008 ... intercourse (Directorate of Demography and Social Statistics,. 2000). ..... partner refusal, immediate unavailability of condoms, intention ... of sexual acts, embarrassment when purchasing condoms, ..... Available online at.
Buseh, Aaron G
Among the many sub-Saharan African countries hardest hit by HIV/AIDS is the Kingdom of Swaziland. In an effort to reduce the spread of HIV, young people are an important group to reach with prevention messages. However, before developing such programmes, it is essential to understand young people's sexual risk behaviours. Students (n=941) from four coeducational secondary schools in Swaziland participated in a cross-sectional survey of sexual behaviours. Results indicate that considerable proportions of young people in this study were sexually experienced, irrespective of gender. Findings also suggest unacceptable high levels of sexual coercion, irrespective of age or gender. While boys may be less likely than girls to experience sexual coercion, being a male in this setting was not a protective factor. No significant differences were found on these variables in relation to location of the schools (rural vs. urban). Implications for developing and implementing HIV prevention programmes are suggested.
Gravningen, Kirsten; Aicken, Catherine Rh; Schirmer, Henrik; Mercer, Catherine H
Evidence is mixed as to whether meeting sexual partners online ('internet-partners') is associated with risky sexual behaviour and/or sexually transmitted infection transmission. Accordingly, we sought to estimate the prevalence of reporting various online romantic and sexual activities among Norwegian adolescents, including internet-partners, and the reason for meeting them and to examine differences in sexual behaviour, partnership characteristics and chlamydia infection prevalence among those reporting internet-partners versus those reporting only offline partners. Population-based cross-sectional survey among sexually experienced girls and boys, 15-20 years, using electronic questionnaires and collecting urine samples for Chlamydia trachomatis PCR testing (79% provided both, n=1023). We used logistic regression to examine associations, adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Overall, 30% of both genders reported internet-partners (ever). Boys (but not girls) with internet-partners had higher chlamydia prevalence than those reporting meeting sexual partners only offline (8.1%, 95% CI 4.3% to 13.7% vs 1.6%, 0.5% to 3.7%). Two-thirds of girls and 37% of boys reported meeting their most recent internet-partner to start a romantic relationship, while the remainder did so with the specific intention of having sex. Among both genders, reporting sexual (vs romantic) reasons for meeting their most recent internet-partners was associated with reporting several risky sexual behaviours, including multiple recent sex partners (adjusted OR girls: 3.27, boys: 2.48) and three-fold higher chlamydia prevalence. This population-based study suggests that internet-partners are common among adolescents in Norway, and the reason for meeting them was more strongly associated with additionally reporting sexual risk behaviours and prevalent chlamydia infection than the internet itself as a meeting venue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use
Willoughby, Brian J; Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, Larry J; Padilla-Walker, Laura M
Pornography use among emerging adults in the USA has increased in recent decades, as has the acceptance of such consumption. While previous research has linked pornography use to both positive and negative outcomes in emerging adult populations, few studies have investigated how attitudes toward pornography may alter these associations, or how examining pornography use together with other sexual behaviours may offer unique insights into the outcomes associated with pornography use. Using a sample of 792 emerging adults, the present study explored how the combined examination of pornography use, acceptance, and sexual behaviour within a relationship might offer insight into emerging adults' development. Results suggested clear gender differences in both pornography use and acceptance patterns. High male pornography use tended to be associated with high engagement in sex within a relationship and was associated with elevated risk-taking behaviours. High female pornography use was not associated with engagement in sexual behaviours within a relationship and was general associated with negative mental health outcomes.
Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine Hin-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak
Dating applications (apps) on smartphones have become increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of dating apps and risky sexual behaviours. Data were collected in four university campuses in Hong Kong. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire asking about the use of dating apps, sexual behaviours, and sociodemographics. Multiple linear and logistics regressions were used to explore factors associated with sexual risk behaviours. Six hundred sixty-six subjects were included in the data analysis. Factors associated with having unprotected sexual intercourse with more lifetime sexual partners included use of dating apps (β = 0.93, pdating apps (adjust odds ratio: 0.52, pdating apps (adjust odds ratio: 1.93, pdating apps and sexual risk behaviours, suggesting that app users had greater sexual risks. Interventions that can target app users so that they can stay safe when seeking sexual partners through dating apps should be developed.
Magnani, Robert; Riono, Pandu; Nurhayati; Saputro, Eko; Mustikawati, Dyah; Anartati, Atiek; Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Majid, Nurholis; Morineau, Guy
To assess the HIV/AIDS epidemic situation among female sex workers (FSW) in Indonesia using data from the 2007 Integrated Biological-Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS). Behavioural data were collected from time-location samples of 5947 FSW in 10 cities in late 2007. HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia test results were obtained for 4396, 4324, 3291 and 3316 FSW, respectively. Trends in HIV prevalence were assessed via linkage with sentinel surveillance data. Factors associated with HIV, gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. HIV prevalence averaged 10.5% among direct and 4.9% among indirect FSW, and had increased steadily among direct FSW from 2002 to 2007. Prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and active syphilis averaged 35.6%, 31.8% and 7.3%, respectively, among direct FSW, and 28.7%, 14.3% and 3.5% among indirect FSW. Being a direct FSW, younger age and having current infection with syphilis and gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia were associated with a higher likelihood of HIV infection. Number of clients in the past week and consumption of alcohol before having sex were associated with a higher likelihood of gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia infection, while having received a STI clinic check-up in the previous 3 months and/or periodic presumptive treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past 6 months were associated with reduced likelihood of infection. The HIV/AIDS epidemic among FSW in Indonesia appears to be expanding, albeit unevenly across provinces and types of FSW. High STI prevalence is conducive to further expansion, but recent efforts to strengthen STI control appear promising.
Alcohol and marijuana ('dagga') were most commonly used amongst those respondents taking substances before sexual intercourse, and these were used predominantly in coerced and forced sexual intercourse. Opsomming. Die studie was 'n kwantitatiewe, deursnee-opname wat onder jongmense in vier dorpies in die ...
There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.
While we found a clear association between the number of years of sexual activity and HIV status among both men and women, we found that past participation in a concurrent sexual partnership increased the odds of HIV infection for men but not women. Women, but not men, who made the transition from school to tertiary ...
Bivariate analysis showed significant gender differences in sexual activity, condom use, and family communication about HIV/AIDS. Logistic regression analysis showed that student-family communication about HIV/AIDS was not associated with sexual activity. However, communication about HIV/AIDS between students ...
Mackinlay, L.; Langdon, Peter E.
Background Staff working within secure services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are likely to work with sexual offenders, but very little attention has been paid to how they think about this sexual offending behaviour.\\ud \\ud \\ud Method Forty-eight staff working within secure services for people with ID were recruited and completed the Attribution Style Questionnaire in relation to the sexual offending behaviour and challenging behaviour of men with mild ID. Attributions toward...
Kopacz, Marek S
Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send warrant attention. The aim of this study is to perform a content analysis of sexual development and behavior information presented in Polish teenage magazines. Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical basis for this analysis. The media chosen for this study were general-themed publications targeting an adolescent female audience: Bravo Girl!, Filipinka and Dziewczyna. Each entry was analyzed using a structured key. The specific categories of behavior and development used for this study are: biological information, pedagogic instruction, topics of moral-ethical concern, results of sexual activity, and interpersonal relationships. Each category was then subdivided into separate units. The findings indicate that Polish teenage magazines predominantly focus on relationships, contraception and sex education. Relationships were most often of a romantic nature and discussed sexual activity or the potential of sexual activity. Non-prescription contraceptive methods were most often discussed, with attention given to pregnancy prevention. Sex education offered detailed information on sexual practices and behaviors with much discussion on losing one's virginity. The general approach of the analyzed magazines is that adolescents currently are, or soon will be, sexually active. As a result, certain sexual behavior and development issues are discussed in great detail, while other topics are somewhat neglected. Accepting information-seeking during adolescence as commonplace, these findings suggest that teenage magazines hold the potential for influencing adolescent
Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh
Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar University students from December to February 2013. Multistage sampling and self administered questionnaires were employed. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and mean were used to describe the study participants in relation to relevant variables. Multivariate analysis was carried for those variables that had a p-value of ≤ 0.2 in the bivariate analysis to identify the predictor variables. Of the 817 study participants, 297 (36.4%) students had ever had sex. The mean age at first sexual practice was 18.6 years. Unprotected sex, having multiple sex partners, sex with commercial sex workers and sex for the exchange of money was practiced by 184 (62%), 126 (42.7%), 22 (7.4%) and 12 (4%) of sexually active students, respectively. The proportion of attending night clubs and watching porn videos was 130 (15.8%) and 534 (65.4%), respectively. Male respondents had significant positive association with watching porn videos (AOR = 4.8, CI = 3.49 - 6.54) and attending night clubs (AOR = 3.9, CI = 2.3 - 6.7). Watching porn videos, attending night clubs, khat chewing and taking alcohol frequently were significantly associated for ever had sex and having multiple sexual partners. Khat chewing practice (AOR = 8.5, CI =1.31 - 55.5) and attending night clubs (AOR = 4.6, CI = 1.8 - 11.77) had statistical significant association with the purpose of sexual intercourse for the sake of money and for having sex with commercial sex workers, respectively. Significant number of students had different risky sexual
Basten, Maartje; Heijne, Janneke Cornelia Maria; Geskus, Ronald; Daas, Chantal Den; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Matser, Amy
Sexual risk behaviour changes during a person's life course. Insights in sexual risk behaviour trajectories of MSM may provide starting points for the timing of HIV prevention methods. We aimed to study longitudinal trajectories of sexual risk behaviour predictive of HIV acquisition from sexual
YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.
Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in ‘stalls’ or ‘domestic service’ tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499
Orgilés, Mireia; Carratalá, Elena; Espada, José P
Parental divorce has been linked to some risky sexual behaviour in previous studies. Here we examine whether the sexual behaviour of adolescents is related more to the perceived quality of the interparental relationship or to the parents' divorce in a sample from Spain, the country that has experienced the greatest recent increase in marital break-ups in the European Union. Participants were 801 adolescents aged between 14 and 17, who completed questionnaires anonymously. Adolescents who perceive high conflict in their parents' marriages have more sexual activity and engage in more risk practices in some sexual behaviours compared to adolescents with divorced parents and low interparental conflict. When adolescents perceive low conflict, those with divorced parents are more sexually active than adolescents with married parents, but they do not engage in more risk practices. The perceived quality of the parental relationship has a greater negative impact on adolescents than does the type of family structure. The study highlights the need to address the parents' marital relationship in the implementation of prevention programmes of sexual risk behaviours in Spanish adolescents.
Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R
Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors.
Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.
Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna
Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for
Mar 1, 2009 ... exist between adolescents RSBs and age at first sexual experience or adolescent perception of parental ... of unwanted pregnancy, abortion or contracting and ... in India and ... mixed), from where the random selection.
Purpose: Several studies have documented the high sexual activities ... Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was done among 521 ... sex workers before, 33 (6.3%) had been raped previously while 25 ... transmission of the HIV virus.
psychoactive drugs, alcohol, cigarette and unsafe sexual behaviors. ... active is important in eradicating HIV. According to Kaiser ... Knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS and the practice or ..... Banjo T, Nwaze E, Aja GND. Perceptions.
Jan 26, 2018 ... However, an HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to ... four partners were 4–12 times more likely to become infected with HIV and women reporting ..... with sexual violence, understanding psychological barriers.
Azwihangwisi Helen Mavhandu-Mudzusi
Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, Preller Street, Muckleneuk Ridge, Pretoria, .... been successful in increasing knowledge, attitude and .... oral and/or anal sex. ..... sexual initiation due to increased freedom from parental.
Hald, Gert Martin; Mulya, Teguh Wijaya
Using a sample of Indonesian university students and a cross sectional design, this study investigated prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption in Indonesia, a religious, sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws. Further, the association...... between pornography consumption and common non-marital sexual behaviours was explored. The study found that in this sample, pornography is as widely and readily consumed as in comparable international studies predominantly utilising Western background samples from more sexually liberal and less religious...... countries with very few laws on pornography. Gender differences in patterns of pornography consumption were pronounced and comparable with findings in international counterpart studies. For men only, pornography consumption was found to significantly predict common sexual behaviours in non-marital relations...
Fernández-Feito, Ana; Antón-Fernández, Raquel; Paz-Zulueta, María
To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). Cross-sectional study. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). Female university students. Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP. Furthermore, proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Approximately two-thirds (67.7%) of the sample was vaccinated against HPV, and 216 women (65.3%) were sexually active. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by 67.6% during their current intimate relationships, being less frequent in non-vaccinated women (54.9% vs. 75.4% in vaccinated female students) (P=.002). The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.29 (95%CI: 1.29-4.07). In addition, the probability of having a PAP test within the CCSP was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.18 (95%CI: 1.07-4.47). The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods. The vaccination against HPV could affect sexual behaviours and the participation in the CCSP. Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul
Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-a...
YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.
Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment esta...
Hald, Gert Martin; Mulya, Teguh Wijaya
Using a sample of Indonesian university students and a cross sectional design, this study investigated prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption in Indonesia, a religious, sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws. Further, the association between pornography consumption and common non-marital sexual behaviours was explored. The study found that in this sample, pornography is as widely and readily consumed as in comparable international studies predominantly utilising Western background samples from more sexually liberal and less religious countries with very few laws on pornography. Gender differences in patterns of pornography consumption were pronounced and comparable with findings in international counterpart studies. For men only, pornography consumption was found to significantly predict common sexual behaviours in non-marital relations. The study is the first to provide insights into prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption and its association with common non-marital sexual behaviours in a sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws.
Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo
The aim of this study was to investigate the link between violence, crime, and sexual behavior among patients with substance-related disorder admitted to a specialized inpatient care unit. This was a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, drug of choice (DOC), questions about sexual behavior, and instruments to evaluate the severity of dependence (SADD, DAST, FTND), level of impulsivity (BIS-11), and a screening sex addiction scale. The sample consisted of 587 adult subjects, of which 82.3% were men, 66.4% had used cocaine (sniffed and smoked) as their DOC, 24.4% had a history with the criminal justice system, 26.8% had committed crimes, 19.3% had engaged in violent behavior, and 12.2% had been involved in drug trafficking. In this sample, crime was strongly associated with various sexual behaviors and the severity of substance dependence.
This article discusses how to work with a child who uses inappropriate language. The words inappropriately used by young children are grouped into five categories: (1) names of body parts considered as private, and their nicknames; (2) bathroom words and body products; (3) religion-related words; (4) sexually charged words overheard when adults…
Wearmouth, Victoria J; Sims, David W
Sexual segregation occurs when members of a species separate such that the sexes live apart, either singly or in single-sex groups. It can be broadly categorised into two types: habitat segregation and social segregation. Sexual segregation is a behavioural phenomenon that is widespread in the animal kingdom yet the underlying causes remain poorly understood. Sexual segregation has been widely studied among terrestrial mammals such as ungulates, but it has been less well documented in the marine environment. This chapter clarifies terms and concepts which have emerged from the investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ecology and examines how a similar methodological approach may be complicated by differences of marine species. Here we discuss the behavioural patterns of sexual segregation among marine fish, reptile, bird and mammal species. Five hypotheses have been forwarded to account for sexual segregation, largely emerging from investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ungulates: the predation risk, forage selection, activity budget, thermal niche-fecundity and social factors hypotheses. These mechanisms are reviewed following careful assessment of their applicability to marine vertebrate species and case studies of marine vertebrates which support each mechanism recounted. Rigorous testing of all hypotheses is lacking from both the terrestrial and marine vertebrate literature and those analyses which have been attempted are often confounded by factors such as sexual body-size dimorphism. In this context, we indicate the value of studying model species which are monomorphic with respect to body size and discuss possible underlying causes for sexual segregation in this species. We also discuss why it is important to understand sexual segregation, for example, by illustrating how differential exploitation of the sexes by humans can lead to population decline.
Full Text Available Background: In order the aim to evaluate the risk-taking behaviour, a representative study on sexual behaviour of secondary-school students in Slovenia was performed.Methods: In the spring of 2004, 2380 1st and 3rd grade students from 48 randomly selected secondary schools in Slovenia anonymously completed a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.Results: The average students’ age was 15.4 years (1st grade and 17.4 years (3rd grade. Sexual intercourse had ever had 24 % of boys and 21 % of girls from the 1st grade, and 52 % of boys and 54 % of girls from the 3rd grade. At first sexual intercourse condom was used by 74 % of sexually active 1st grade and by 75 % of 3rd grade students; 6 % of 1st grade and 7 % of 3rd grade students used contraceptive pill. At last sexual intercourse condom was used by 65 % of sexually active 1st grade and by 50 % of 3rd grade students; 11 % of 1st grade and 32 % of 3rd grade students used the pill. Contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted infections are not sufficiently known to the students. Most students (34 % prefer professionals to be the source of information on sexuality. Two percent of boys and 10 % of girls had ever had at least one sexual contact with the same sex.Conclusions: The percentage of sexually active secondary-school students in Slovenia is high. The use of contraceptive pill is favourable, but the condom use needs to be further promoted.
While many studies confirm the association between HIV, alcohol and injecting drug use by female sex workers (FSWs), ... To better understand this association, data were analysed from a cross-sectional, behavioural survey of 297 FSWs in ...
Ng'weshemi, J. Z.; Boerma, J. T.; Pool, R.; Barongo, L.; Senkoro, K.; Maswe, M.; Isingo, R.; Schapink, D.; Nnko, S.; Borgdorff, M. W.
To examine changes in sexual behaviour among men in urban Tanzania. An observational cohort study among factory workers during 1991-1994. Data from five follow-up visits with structured questionnaire-guided interviews and biomedical data were analysed to examine trends in sexual behaviour and
Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Paul, Roddia J
Literature indicates that unlicensed driving (UD) offenders report substance use risk behaviours, yet data related to sexual risk behaviours is unknown. This study examined sexual and other risk behaviours among young adults in Miami, Florida, comparing UD and non-UD offenders (n=498). Compared with others, UD offenders were more likely to report group sex history, being high for sex half the time or more, purchasing sex and sexually transmissible infection history. Results suggest that locating sexual risk reduction interventions inside of the justice system would benefit UD offenders.
Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been known to be responsible for several negative forms, of behavior, actions, attitudes and social ills. The link between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior has also been established. As the scorge of HIV ravages the population, the ...
A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings ...
There should be awareness campaign for parents who are not aware that adolescents engage in sexual relationships. Parents should be encouraged to communicate with their adolescent children on sex-related matters. Government should carry on with the dialogue on introducing sex education in schools curriculum.
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.
Pelé, Marie; Bonnefoy, Alexandre; Shimada, Masaki; Sueur, Cédric
Interspecies sexual behaviour or 'reproductive interference' has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal. This is the first article to report mating behaviour between a male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) and female sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Although Japanese macaques are known to ride deer, this individual showed clearly sexual behaviour towards several female deer, some of which tried to escape whilst others accepted the mount. This male seems to belong to a group of peripheral males. Although this phenomenon may be explained as copulation learning, this is highly unlikely. The most realistic hypothesis would be that of mate deprivation, which states that males with limited access to females are more likely to display this behaviour. Whatever the cause for this event may be, the observation of highly unusual animal behaviour may be a key to understanding the evolution of heterospecific mating behaviour in the animal kingdom.
Hansen, Bo T; Kjær, Susanne K; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Liaw, Kai-Li; Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Munk, Christian; Nygård, Mari
To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age at response. A random selection of women aged 18-46 years living in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2011-2012, eligible for opportunistic or organized catch-up HPV vaccination. A total of 3805 women reported to have received the HPV vaccine and 40,247 reported not to have received it. Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut versus women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccination did not result in younger age at first intercourse. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not have more sexual partners than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not subsequently engage more in sexual risk taking behaviour than women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.
One hypothesis for the explanation of the so-called ``loop-swimming'' behaviour in fish when being subjected to reduced gravity assumes that the activities of the differently weighted otoliths of the two labyrinths are well compensated on ground but that a functional asymmetry is induced in weightlessness, resulting in a tonus asymmetry of the body and by this generating the ``loop-swimming'' behaviour. The basis of this abnormal behaviour has to be searched for in the central nervous system (cns), where the signal-transduction from the inner ear- related signal internalisation to the signal response takes place. Circuits within the CNS of fish, that could possibly generate the ``loop-swimming'', might be as follows: An asymmetric activation of vestibulospinal circuits would directly result in a tonus asymmetry of the body. An asymmetric activation of the oculomotor nucleus would generate an asymmetrical rotation of the eyes. This would cause in its turn asymmetric images on the two retinas, which were forwarded to the diencephalic accessory optic system (AOS). It is the task of the AOS to stabilize retinal images, thereby involving the cerebellum, which is the main integration center for sensory and motor modalities. With this, the cerebellar output would generate a tonus asymmetry of the body in order to make the body of the fish follow its eyes. Such movements (especially when assuming an open loop control) would end up in the aforementioned ``loop-swimming'' behaviour.
Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...
Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Wellings, K; Weiss, H A; Hayes, R
Objectives: To describe sexual and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviours in Slovenia. Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the general population aged 18–49 years in 1999–2001 was conducted. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews and anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Statistical methods for complex survey data were used. Results: 849 men and 903 women were interviewed. In the past 5 years, both men and women reported a median of one heterosexual partner (means 3.2, 1.5, respectively), concurrent heterosexual partnerships were reported by 24.4% of men and 8.2% of women, heterosexual sex with non-Slovenian partners by 12.6% of men and 12.2% of women, forced sex by 4.8% of women, paid heterosexual sex by 2.6% of men, sex with another man by 0.6% of men and heterosexual sex with an injecting drug user by 1.2% of men and 1.3% of women. In the past year, 22.7% of men and 9.5% of women reported forming at least one new heterosexual partnership. The mean numbers of episodes of heterosexual sex in the previous 4 weeks were 6.1 for men and 6.0 for women. Consistent and inconsistent condom use was reported more frequently among men reporting multiple female partners and those not married or cohabiting. Conclusions: Recent patterns of reported sexual behaviour are consistent with a low risk of HIV and STI transmission in Slovenia. The results will inform Slovenian sexual health policies including HIV/STI prevention, and are particularly valuable because population-based data on HIV/STI risk behaviour have not previously been available in low HIV prevalence countries of central Europe. PMID:19060036
Coles, Victoria A H; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M
Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n = 58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine. © The Author(s) 2015.
Popoola, Bayode Isaiah
This study investigated the association between sex stereotypes and the sexual behaviour of Nigerian school-going adolescents. It also ascertained the effects of age and sex on adolescents' beliefs about sex stereotypes. The study sample consisted of 658 (male = 287, female = 371) adolescents from nine randomly selected secondary schools in three…
Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ren, Yi; Swank, Paul; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario
Retrospective pre-immigration data on sexual risk and alcohol use behaviours was collected from 527 recent Latino immigrants to the USA, aged 18-34. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on post-immigration behaviours. Using a mixed model growth curve analysis, a six-level sexual risk change variable was constructed combining measures of sexual partners and condom use. The mixed model growth curve was also used to examine associations between changes in sexual risk behaviour and changes in alcohol use and for testing interaction effects of gender and documentation status. Results suggest that individuals with high sexual risk behaviour at pre-immigration converge to low/moderate risk post-immigration, and that those who were sexually inactive or had low sexual risk at pre-immigration increased their risk post-immigration. Individuals with moderately higher initial but decreasing sexual risk behaviour showed the steepest decline in alcohol use, but their drinking at Time 3 was still higher than individuals reporting low sexual risk at Time 1. On average, men drank more than women, except women in one of the highest sexual risk categories at Time 1 - who seemed to drink as much, if not more, than men. Undocumented men reported more frequent drinking than documented men. In contrast, undocumented women reported lower alcohol use than documented women.
N Dri, Kouamé Mathias; Yaya, Issifou; Saka, Bayaki; Aboubakari, Abdoul Samadou; Kouassi, Damus Paquin; Ekou, Kokora Franck
The objective of this study was to document the influence of pornography on the sexual behaviour of school children in the Cocody district of Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted from October to November 2013 with pupils from four schools in Cocody, Abidjan. A total of 398 pupils (224 boys and 174 girls) were interviewed: 14.3% of them had access to pornography on internet or television. 52.8% (210) of the 398 pupils interviewed were sexually active at the time of the survey, 41.9% (88/210) of whom had at least two sexual partners. On bivariate analysis,access to pornography was statistically associated with being sexually active (OR= 2.61; 95%CI [1.41; 4.83]), early onset of sexual intercourse (OR= 2.38; 95%CI = [1.19; 4.76]) and multiples exual partners (OR== 6.09; 95%CI= [2.79; 13.3])Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that access to pornography had a negative influence on the sexual behaviour of school children in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire].
McNulty, A M; Egan, C; Wand, H; Donovan, B
To study the demographics, risk behaviours and morbidity of young long-term international travellers (backpackers) attending a sexual health service in Sydney, Australia. Data on new patients were extracted from the Sydney Sexual Health Centre database for the period 1998 to 2006. The sexual risk behaviours and morbidity of the backpackers were compared with other patients of a similar age. The 5698 backpackers who attended the centre reported higher numbers of sexual partners (three or more partners in the past 3 months, 18% vs 12%, p<0.001) and a greater proportion drank alcohol at hazardous levels (22%) than the comparison group (9%, p<0.001). Rates of consistent (100%) condom use in the past 3 months were low in both backpackers (22%) and the comparison population (19%). Backpackers had higher rates of genital chlamydia infection (7% vs 5%, p<0.001) and reported higher rates of previous sexually transmitted infections (15% vs 10%, p<0.001). Backpackers should be a priority population for sexual health promotion and access to services.
Full Text Available This study examines the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards risky sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control among students in Botswana. Data were collected from 445 students randomly selected from the University of Botswana and Boitekanelo College. Hundred and seventy three males and 272 females participated in the study. The study established that although more than 90% of students correctly identified routes of HIV transmission, misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS still exist. This includes the belief that people can be infected with HIV because of witchcraft and that only people who have sex with gay or homosexual partners can be infected with HIV. Majority of students were aware of various sexual risks. However, the percentage of students who indicated that “it is difficult to ask my partner to use a condom” was still relatively high (13.5% based on the assumption that students are supposed to know the consequences of sexual risky behaviour. It was also found that male students were 3.48 times more likely to negotiate sex than their female counterparts (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.09 − 11.13 and students who were 18 years and below were more likely to negotiate sex than students above 18 years of age (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42 − 18.32. Christians are four times less likely to negotiate sex compared to non-Christians (OR = 0.219, 95% CI: 0.095 − 0.506. More than 80% of students were comfortable discussing HIV or sex and sexuality with their friends, boyfriends/girlfriends or partners but uncomfortable discussing the same issues with their parents.
de Munnik, Sonja; den Daas, C; Ammerlaan, H S M; Kok, G; Raethke, M S; Vervoort, S C J M
BACKGROUND: Despite prevention efforts, the incidence of sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men remains high, which is indicative of unchanged sexual risk behaviour. Discussing sexual risk behaviour has been shown to help prevent sexually transmitted infections
Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein
This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…
Background: Commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria are predominantly young males with high risk behaviour for HIV/AIDS. They may have become a reservoir for the continued transmission of HIV but they are often neglected in efforts to control the disease. It is important to pay special attention to this group. Aim: To assess ...
Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James
Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14–15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms. PMID:24215959
Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana
Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bermúdez, M Paz; Ramiro, M Teresa; Teva, Inmaculada; Ramiro-Sánchez, Tamara; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
To analyse sexual behaviour, HIV testing, HIV testing intentions and reasons for not testing for HIV in university students from Cuzco (Peru). The sample comprised 1,377 university students from several institutions from Cuzco (Peru). The size of the sample was set according to a maximum 3% error estimation and a 97% confidence interval. Ages ranged from 16 to 30 years old. The data were collected through a self-administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire regarding sexual behaviour and HIV testing. The data were collected in classrooms during teaching hours. A higher percentage of males than females reported having had vaginal, anal and oral sex, a higher number of sexual partners and an earlier age at first vaginal and oral sex. A higher percentage of females than males did not use condoms when they first had anal sex and had a higher anal sex-risk index. Most of the participants had never been HIV tested. The main reason was that they were sure that they were not HIV infected. It seems that there was a low HIV risk perception in these participants despite the fact that they had been involved in sexual risk behaviours. Prevention campaigns focused on the general population as well as the at-risk populations and young people are needed. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that HIV prevalence amongst young Zambians has declined recently, especially in higher-education groups. We studied trends in key sexual behaviour indicators among 15–24 year-olds from 1995 to 2003, including the associations between sexual behaviour change and education. Methods The data stem from a series of three population-based surveys conducted in 1995 (n = 1720, 1999 (n = 1946 and 2003 (n = 2637. Logistic regression and Extended Mantel Haenszel Chi Square for linear trends were used to compare the three surveys. Results Men and lower-education groups reported more than one sexual partner in the year immediately prior to the survey more frequently than did women and higher-education groups (p Conclusion High risk behaviours clearly decreased, especially in higher-educated and urban groups, and there is a probable association here with the decline in HIV prevalence in the study population. Fewer sexual partners and condom use were among the core factors involved for both sexes; and for women a further factor was delayed child-bearing.
Western discourses about young people and sexuality centre around the concept of risk. Anxieties have been fuelled by the increasing popularity of social media and practices such as 'sexting' and watching 'sexually explicit' materials online. Research has shown however that such risk discourses mainly serve to moralise about, pathologise and police particular behaviours and children. In order to counter such paternalism, researchers advocated a reconceptualisation of youth not as passive victims, but as active agents who actively negotiate sexual experiences and discourses. In this paper, which is based on ethnographic fieldwork among young people in The Netherlands, I argue that we need a reconceptualisation not only of youth, but also of their sexual practices, especially their online sexual practices. Mobilising an interdisciplinary interaction between critical socio-cultural studies of risk, feminist theory and adventure studies, I propose to reconceptualise these practices as 'adventures' rather than 'risky behaviour'. This opens up possibilities for a more reasoned analysis that acknowledges: (1) the distinction between risks and outcomes of an activity; (2) the constructive potential of risk; and (3) the subjective, dynamic character of risk and pleasure.
Doyle, Aoife M; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Plummer, Mary L; Ross, David A
To describe the sexual and reproductive behaviour of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly 15- to 19-year-olds. Using DHS/AIS data (2000-2010), nine indicators of adolescent behaviour and one of adult attitudes towards condom education for adolescents were described for 24 countries. Indicators were disaggregated by gender, urban/rural residency and educational status, and time trends were described. Up to 25% of 15- to 19-year-olds reported sex before age 15; this proportion shrank over time in many countries. In most countries, ≥5% of females reported marriage before age 15, and >20% had commenced childbearing. Early sexual debut and childbearing were more common among the least educated and/or rural females. Reporting of multiple sexual partnerships was more common among males than among females, but decreases over time were more common among males. Urban males and females, and females with higher education, were more likely to report multiple partnerships. Urban youth and those with higher education also reported more condom use. Adult support for condom education for 12- to 14-year-olds has increased over time to 60-65%. Many 15- to 19-year-olds are at risk of HIV/STIs and unplanned pregnancies because of multiple partnerships and insufficient condom and other contraceptive use. In many countries, trends are moving in a favourable direction. To better inform prevention programmes in this important area, we recommend routine collection of sexual and reproductive behaviour data for adolescents aged sexual behaviour within partnerships, and disaggregating data according to sociodemographic variables. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Judith R Glynn
Full Text Available Sexual behaviour surveys are widely used, but under-reporting of particular risk behaviours is common, especially by women. Surveys in whole populations provide an unusual opportunity to understand the extent and nature of such under-reporting.All consenting individuals aged between 15 and 59 within a demographic surveillance site in northern Malawi were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Validity of responses was assessed by analysis of probing questions; by comparison of results with in-depth interviews and with Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 seropositivity; by comparing reports to same sex and opposite sex interviewers; and by quantifying the partnerships within the local community reported by men and by women, adjusted for response rates.6,796 women and 5,253 men (83% and 72% of those eligible consented and took part in sexual behaviour interviews. Probing questions and HSV-2 antibody tests in those who denied sexual activity identified under-reporting for both men and women. Reports varied little by sex or age of the interviewer. The number of marital partnerships reported was comparable for men and women, but men reported about 4 times as many non-marital partnerships. The discrepancy in reporting of non-marital partnerships was most marked for married women (men reported about 7 times as many non-marital partnerships with married women as were reported by married women themselves, but was only apparent in younger married women.We have shown that the under-reporting of non-marital partnerships by women was strongly age-dependent. The extent of under-reporting of sexual activity by young men was surprisingly high. The results emphasise the importance of triangulation, including biomarkers, and the advantages of considering a whole population.
Fernandes, Lucrecia Cabral; Gillberg, Carina I.; Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva
The literature concerning sexuality in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited regarding inappropriate sexual behaviours and paraphilias and its relation to age, verbal ability, symptom severity, intellectual ability, or adaptive functioning. A cohort of 184 adolescents and young adults (ages 15-39 years) with ASD diagnosed in childhood,…
Background Up-to-date, genuine sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes have been possible in Romania only since communism collapsed in 1990. Since 2006, Romania has had no national strategy in this field. Under current global circumstances (high labour mobility, internationally mixed marriages), issues previously considered solely national have become worldwide concerns. Methods In 2011–2012, 1215 respondents homogeneously distributed on background, gender, educational level and age group (18–74) were sampled. This article uses a 96-item questionnaire about family and SRH, presenting results on nine items: first intercourse (FI), virginity, knowing first sexual partner, safe sex, number of sexual partners and sexual education. The data were analysed using Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Results Some participants (7.2%) engaged in FI at age 15 or earlier. The average age at FI was lower for men (18.08), for individuals with a lower education level (18.07) and for those in rural areas (18.27), compared with that for women, those with more education and those in urban areas, respectively. The average age at FI was over 2.5 years lower for people aged 18–24 (16.99) than for those aged 60–74 (p education and those aged 18–35 (p sexual partners were found among men (6.56, compared with 2.37 among women), in urban areas (5.07, compared with 3.75 in rural areas) and among those with higher levels of education (p sexual activity and poor SRH education from schools, experts and parents require a multidisciplinary approach within prevention programmes, especially among the populations at risk: rural residents, those with low levels of education and youth. PMID:24957900
Up-to-date, genuine sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes have been possible in Romania only since communism collapsed in 1990. Since 2006, Romania has had no national strategy in this field. Under current global circumstances (high labour mobility, internationally mixed marriages), issues previously considered solely national have become worldwide concerns. In 2011-2012, 1215 respondents homogeneously distributed on background, gender, educational level and age group (18-74) were sampled. This article uses a 96-item questionnaire about family and SRH, presenting results on nine items: first intercourse (FI), virginity, knowing first sexual partner, safe sex, number of sexual partners and sexual education. The data were analysed using Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Some participants (7.2%) engaged in FI at age 15 or earlier. The average age at FI was lower for men (18.08), for individuals with a lower education level (18.07) and for those in rural areas (18.27), compared with that for women, those with more education and those in urban areas, respectively. The average age at FI was over 2.5 years lower for people aged 18-24 (16.99) than for those aged 60-74 (p education and those aged 18-35 (p sexual partners were found among men (6.56, compared with 2.37 among women), in urban areas (5.07, compared with 3.75 in rural areas) and among those with higher levels of education (p sexual activity and poor SRH education from schools, experts and parents require a multidisciplinary approach within prevention programmes, especially among the populations at risk: rural residents, those with low levels of education and youth.
Shannon, Graeme; Page, Bruce R; Duffy, Kevin J; Slotow, Rob
Elephants (Loxodonta africana) exhibit pronounced sexual dimorphism, and in this study we test the prediction that the differences in body size and sociality are significant enough to drive divergent foraging strategies and ultimately sexual segregation. Body size influences the foraging behaviour of herbivores through the differential scaling coefficients of metabolism and gut size, with larger bodied individuals being able to tolerate greater quantities of low-quality, fibrous vegetation, whilst having lower mass-specific energy requirements. We test two distinct theories: the scramble competition hypothesis (SCH) and the forage selection hypothesis (FSH). Comprehensive behavioural data were collected from the Pongola Game Reserve and the Phinda Private Game Reserve in South Africa over a 2.5-year period. The data were analysed using sex as the independent variable. Adult females targeted a wider range of species, adopted a more selective foraging approach and exhibited greater bite rates as predicted by the body size hypothesis and the increased demands of reproductive investment (lactation and pregnancy). Males had longer feeding bouts, displayed significantly more destructive behaviour (31% of observations, 11% for females) and ingested greater quantities of forage during each feeding bout. The independent ranging behaviour of adult males enables them to have longer foraging bouts as they experience fewer social constraints than females. The SCH was rejected as a cause of sexual segregation due to the relative abundance of low quality forage, and the fact that feeding heights were similar for both males and females. However, we conclude that the differences in the foraging strategies of the sexes are sufficient to cause spatial segregation as postulated by the FSH. Sexual dimorphism and the associated behavioural differences have important implications for the management and conservation of elephant and other dimorphic species, with the sexes effectively
Simkhada, Padam P; Sharma, Aditi; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Beanland, Rachel L
Increased travel abroad has a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Previous reviews have focused on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of tourists and acquisition of STIs. Less is known about the impact on tourism operators in countries visited by tourists. The aim of this review is to ascertain factors influencing sexual behaviour between workers in the tourism industry and tourists; exploring the prevalence of sexual behaviour between the two populations, their perceptions of sexual risk while engaging in sexual activities and the knowledge of tourism operators regarding STIs. A systematic review was conducted. Database searches were performed in Medline/Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane library and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and March 2016. Grey literature searches were completed in the NHS database and Google Scholar between 2000 and December 2013. Papers were independently selected by two researchers. Data were extracted and critically appraised using a pre-designed extraction form and adapted CASP checklist. The search identified 1,602 studies and 16 were included after review of the full text. Studies were conducted in nine countries. Findings suggest that STI knowledge, attitude and practice were fairly good among tourists and tourism workers, but there is a need for pre-travel advice for travellers, especially those travelling to low and middle-income countries. Greater importance was given to tourists than to tourism operators and locals interacting with tourists. Studies suggest that as a group both tourist and tourist workers were likely to engage in sexual activities. Overall, both condom use and STI screening were low, among tourists as well as tourism operators. Furthermore, studies reported links between drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviour and risk taking. Although less research appeared to have been conducted among tourism workers than tourists, it does demonstrate the need for
Sharma, Aditi; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Beanland, Rachel L
Background: Increased travel abroad has a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Previous reviews have focused on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of tourists and acquisition of STIs. Less is known about the impact on tourism operators in countries visited by tourists. The aim of this review is to ascertain factors influencing sexual behaviour between workers in the tourism industry and tourists; exploring the prevalence of sexual behaviour between the two populations, their perceptions of sexual risk while engaging in sexual activities and the knowledge of tourism operators regarding STIs. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. Database searches were performed in Medline/Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane library and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and March 2016. Grey literature searches were completed in the NHS database and Google Scholar between 2000 and December 2013. Papers were independently selected by two researchers. Data were extracted and critically appraised using a pre-designed extraction form and adapted CASP checklist. Results: The search identified 1,602 studies and 16 were included after review of the full text. Studies were conducted in nine countries. Findings suggest that STI knowledge, attitude and practice were fairly good among tourists and tourism workers, but there is a need for pre-travel advice for travellers, especially those travelling to low and middle-income countries. Greater importance was given to tourists than to tourism operators and locals interacting with tourists. Studies suggest that as a group both tourist and tourist workers were likely to engage in sexual activities. Overall, both condom use and STI screening were low, among tourists as well as tourism operators. Furthermore, studies reported links between drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviour and risk taking. Conclusion: Although less research appeared to have been conducted among tourism workers than
Background Ethnographic evidence suggests that transactional sex is sometimes motivated by youth’s interest in the consumption of modern goods as much as it is in basic survival. There are very few quantitative studies that examine the association between young people’s interests in the consumption of modern goods and their sexual behaviour. We examined this association in two regions and four residence zones of Madagascar: urban, peri-urban and rural Antananarivo, and urban Antsiranana. We expected risky sexual behaviour would be associated with interests in consuming modern goods or lifestyles; urban residence; and socio-cultural characteristics. Methods We administered a population-based survey to 2, 255 youth ages 15–24 in all four residence zones. Focus group discussions guided the survey instrument which assessed socio-demographic and economic characteristics, consumption of modern goods, preferred activities and sexual behaviour. Our outcomes measures included: multiple sexual partners in the last year (for men and women); and ever practicing transactional sex (for women). Results Overall, 7.3% of women and 30.7% of men reported having had multiple partners in the last year; and 5.9% of women reported ever practicing transactional sex. Bivariate results suggested that for both men and women having multiple partners was associated with perceptions concerning the importance of fashion and a series of activities associated with modern lifestyles. A subset of lifestyle characteristics remained significant in multivariate models. For transactional sex bivariate results suggested perceptions around fashion, nightclub attendance, and getting to know a foreigner were key determinants; and all remained significant in multivariate analysis. We found peri-urban residence more associated with transactional sex than urban residence; and ethnic origin was the strongest predictor of both outcomes for women. Conclusions While we found indication of an association
Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora
Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.
Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.
Timmerman, M. C.
Objective: To explore the impact of the school climate on adolescents' reporting of sexual harassment. Design: A quantitative survey among students in their 4th year of secondary education. Setting: Questionnaires were completed in a class setting. Method: An a-select sampling strategy was used to select 2808 students in 22 schools. Results:…
Esere, Mary Ogechi
Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education programmes that are geared towards enlightenment and appropriate education about sex and sexuality. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents. Pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. A randomly selected co-educational school in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. 24 school-going adolescents aged 13-19 years. Sex Education Programme (treatment group) versus Control programme (placebo). Self-reported exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non use of condom. When the treatment (intervention) group was compared with the control group in an intention to treat analysis, there were significant differences in at-risk sexual behaviours of the two groups. Those in the intervention group reported less at-risk sexual behaviours than their counterparts in the control group. The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health improved. Lack of behavioural effect on the control group could be linked to differential quality of delivery of intervention. Compared with the control group, this specially designed intervention sex education programme reduced at-risk sexual behaviour in adolescents. Based on this finding, it was recommended that sex education be introduced into the curriculum of secondary school education in Nigeria.
Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B
A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n=1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards 'safer' sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (Pcorrect knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (Pcondom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention.
Baskerville, Tracey A; Douglas, Alison J
Dopamine and oxytocin are two key neuromodulators involved in reproductive behaviours, such as mating and maternal care. Much evidence underlies their separate roles in such behaviours, but particularly in sexual behaviour. It is generally believed that central dopaminergic and oxytocinergic systems work together to regulate the expression of penile erection, but relatively little is known regarding how they interact. Thus, this review aims to discuss neuroanatomical proof, neuromodulator secretory profiles in the hypothalamus and behavioural pharmacological evidence which support a dopamine-oxytocin link in three hypothalamic nuclei that have been implicated in sexual behaviour, namely the medial preoptic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We also aim to provide an overview of potential dopamine-mediated transduction pathways that occur within these nuclei and are correlated with the exhibition of penile erection. The PVN provides the most convincing evidence for a dopamine-oxytocin link and it is becoming increasingly apparent that parvocellular oxytocinergic neurons in the PVN, in part, mediate the effects of dopamine to elicit penile erection. However, while we show that oxytocin neurons express dopamine receptors, other evidence on whether dopaminergic activation of PVN oxytocin cells involves a direct and/or indirect mechanism is inconclusive and further evidence is required to establish whether the two systems interact synergistically or sequentially in the regulation of penile erection.
Odimegwu, Clifford O; De Wet, Nicole; Banda, Pamela C
The link between economic empowerment and high risky sexual behaviour has been debated by different scholars in various settings. However, no consistently clear connection between poverty and lack of education has been found regarding engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Also, not much research has been done to examine the strength of these relationships for adolescents and women. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between female economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour in Africa. Using the latest Demographic and Health Surveys Data (DHS 2011-2014) from Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Zambia, univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done on women aged 15 to 49 to examine the patterns of and differences in the association between women's economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour. The findings both at community and individual level indicate that empowered women (higher education and wealth household) and adolescents aged 15 to 19 are highly significantly associated with engagement in high risky behaviour. The result of this study stresses the need to look further than individual factors in the quest to resolve risky sexual behaviour in Africa. The interrelations between female economic empowerment and engagement in risky sexual behaviour are more complicated and less straightforward than usually presumed.
Summary Background: Androgens are key regulators of male sexual differentiation during the in utero and early postnatal development. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that counteract androgen action at some stage in these periods can permanently demasculinise male foetuses and lead......? Is sexually dimorphic behaviour in rats affected at lower dose levels of anti-androgens and thereby a more sensitive endpoint than morphological effects on the male external reproductive organs? The thesis is based on the results of in vivo studies where mated female Wistar rats were exposed to anti......-androgens either alone or in mixtures during pregnancy and lactation. The endpoints examined for anti-androgenic effects in the offspring were: Anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention (NR), and external (morphological) malformations in pups and sexually mature male rats. Furthermore, the effects of the anti...
Ojo, Olumuyiwa; Verbeek, Jos H; Rasanen, Kimmo; Heikkinen, Jarmo; Isotalo, Leena K; Mngoma, Nomusa; Ruotsalainen, Eija
The workplace provides an important avenue to prevent HIV. To evaluate the effect of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV on high risk sexual behavior when delivered in an occupational setting. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up until March 2011 and CINAHL, LILACS, DARE, OSH Update, and EPPI database up until October 2010. Randomised control trials (RCTs) in occupational settings or among workers at high risk for HIV that measured HIV, sexual transmitted diseases (STD), Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), or risky sexual behaviour. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We pooled studies that were similar. We found 8 RCTs with 11,164 participants but one study did not provide enough data. Studies compared VCT to no VCT and education to no intervention and to alternative education.VCT uptake increased to 51% when provided at the workplace compared to a voucher for VCT (RR=14.0 (95% CI 11.8 to16.7)). After VCT, self-reported STD decreased (RR = 0.10 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.73)) but HIV incidence (RR=1.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.7)) and unprotected sex (RR=0.71 (0.48 to 1.06)) did not decrease significantly. .Education reduced STDs (RR = 0.68 (95%CI 0.48 to 0.96)), unprotected sex (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD)= -0.17 (95% CI -0.29 to -0.05), sex with a commercial sex worker (RR = 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96) but not multiple sexual partners (Mean Difference (MD) = -0.22 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.08) nor use of alcohol before sex (MD = -0.01 (95% CI of -0.11 to 0.08). Workplace interventions to prevent HIV are feasible. There is moderate quality evidence that VCT offered at the work site increases the uptake of testing. Even though this did no lower HIV-incidence, there was a decrease in self-reported sexual transmitted diseases and a decrease in risky sexual behaviour. There is low quality evidence that educational interventions decrease sexually
DONENBERG, GERI R.; EMERSON, ERIN; BRYANT, FRED B.; KING, SCOTT
We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiven...
Full Text Available Background. Little attention has been paid to the role of poor mental health among young people with regard to HIV risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. Objective. To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in South Africa. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students who were recruited conveniently from public campus venues at the University of Limpopo Medical University of Southern Africa (Medunsa campus. The sample included 722 university students (57.6% men and 42.4% women with a mean age of 21.7 years (standard deviation ±8.8. Results. Of the 722 students, 39.5% reported depression, 23.4% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, 22% reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 33% reported ≥2 sexual partners in the past 12 months, 50% reported inconsistent condom use, 46% reported unknown HIV status of a sexual partner and 20% reported alcohol use in the context of sex in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and among women, being in the 4th or more year of study and current cannabis use. Conclusion. Poor mental health, including substance use, was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Co-ordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services that meet the needs of university students would be desirable.
Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P
The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services.
Lavielle-Sotomayor, Pilar; Jiménez-Valdez, Fanianel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Arturo; Aguirre-García, María del Carmen; Castillo-Trejo, Martha; Vega-Mendoza, Santa
To assess risk sexual behaviour in adolescents and its relationship with family characteristics. In a representative and random sample of 909 teenagers, their sex life, structure, satisfaction and family dynamics were evaluated. It was used chi-squared test, in order to compare the frequency of family negative characteristics between the groups of adolescents with and without risky sexual behaviors. The early onset of sexual life was more frequent in adolescents with dysfunctional expression of affection in their families, and single-parent or nuclear family structure. The lack of condom use was associated with a lack of affection, and a poor comunication within the family. Having more than three partners was related to the expression of affection and the degree of satisfaction of the teenager with his family. Unplanned pregnancies and sex transmission diseases were most frequent in adolescents belonging to extended families with a poor expression of affection. The level of communication, the monitoring of conduct, the warmth and proximity play a very important role as protectors of sexual risk behaviour in teens.
Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G
To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Sanna, Fabrizio; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Corda, Maria Giuseppa; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Giorgi, Osvaldo; Argiolas, Antonio
Outbred Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rats are selected for respectively rapid vs. poor acquisition of the active avoidance response and display different copulatory patterns when exposed to a sexually receptive female, with RHA rats showing more robust sexual motivation and better performance than RLA rats also after repeated sexual activity. Here we show that the distinct patterns of sexual behaviour of the Roman lines are correlated with differences in the activity of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, which plays a key role in sexual motivation and copulatory performance. Thus, differential increases in the concentrations of dopamine and its main metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, occurred in dialysates obtained from the nucleus accumbens shell of naïve and sexually experienced Roman rats during the anticipatory and consummatory phases of sexual activity. These differences were particularly evident between sexually naïve RHA and RLA rats and tended to diminish but still persisted between sexually experienced rats, as did the differences in sexual behaviour. Analysis of the biochemical and behavioural findings showed that, while in RHA rats sexual experience caused a shift in the changes in both the dopaminergic activity and copulation towards the first period of the sexual test, in RLA rats sexual experience increased dopaminergic activity and copulation throughout the entire test. Therefore, this study adds experimental support to the view that the different sexual patterns of the Roman lines are due, at least in part, to a more robust functional tone of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of RHA rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sahlu, T.; Kassa, E.; Agonafer, T.; Tsegaye, A.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Gebremariam, H.; Doorly, R.; Spijkerman, I.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.; Fontanet, A. L.
OBJECTIVES: To describe sexual behaviours, perception of risk of HIV infection, and factors associated with attending HIV post-test counselling (PTC) among Ethiopian adults. METHODS: Data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of HIV infection, sexual history, medical examination, and HIV
Wu, Z Helen; Tennen, Howard; Hosain, G M Monawar; Coman, Emil; Cullum, Jerry; Berenson, Abbey B
This study examined the role of stress as a mediator of the relationship between prior drug addiction and current high-risk sexual behaviour. Eight hundred twenty women aged 18 to 30 years, who received care at community-based family planning clinics, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. They also completed the brief version of the Self-Control Scale as a measure of problem-solving strategies and measures of recent stressful events, daily hassles and ongoing chronic stress. Regardless of addiction history, stress exposure during the previous 12 months was associated with risky sexual behaviour during the previous 12 months. Structural equation modelling revealed that 12-month stress levels mediated the relationship between past drug addiction and 12-month high-risk sexual behaviours, as well as the negative relationship between problem-solving strategies and high-risk sexual behaviours. Problem-solving strategies did not moderate the relationship between drug addiction and high-risk sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that stress management training may help reduce risky behaviour among young, low-income women. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Maswanya, E S; Moji, K; Horiguchi, I; Nagata, K; Aoyagi, K; Honda, S; Takemoto, T
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1041 students in secondary schools and colleges in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania to evaluate the relationship between HIV-risky sexual behaviour and anti-condom bias, as well as with AIDS-related information, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes. Self-reportedly, 54% of students (75% of the boys and 40% of the girls) were sexually active, 39% had a regular sexual partner and 13% had multiple partners in the previous year. The condom use rate was higher than previous reports. However, 30% of sexually active respondents did not always use condoms (Risk-1 behaviour) and 35% of those with multiple partners in the previous year did not always use condoms (Risk-2 behaviour). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that 'sex partner hates condom' had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.58-3.85) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.10-5.48). 'Use of condom prevents HIV infection' also had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.19-3.67) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 3.73; 95% CI 1.28-11.03). Students engaging in risky behaviour were aware of the risk, even though they failed to change their behaviour. Reasons for the AIDS epidemic among Tanzanian students and the importance of more effective AIDS education are also discussed.
Mesa Gallardo, M I; Barella Balboa, J L; Cobeña Manzorro, M
To identify sexual behaviour in adolescents. Transversal, descriptive study, by means of an anonymous structured questionnaire. Urban secondary school. Simple random sample of 84 students (4th year of ESO--c. 15/16 years old). Personal details, sexual practices, use of condoms. 61.9% were girls. Average age was 16.4 (95% CI, 16.2-16.6). They had a girl/boy-friend or casual partner (33.7%) and stable partner (60.7%). 82.2% had total or sufficient trust. Boys' first masturbation was between 14 and 16 (46.8%). 100% had done so by the age of 16. 72.3% of girls had never masturbated at this age (Pmasturbated. 22.2% had had 2 sexual partners, 8.9% had had 3, and 40.0% had had 4 or more. Condoms were used in 83.3% of relationships with penetration. This is a sexually active population, susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and unwanted pregnancies, as it does not use condoms in every relationship involving penetration. Health education activities need to be encouraged.
Sexually active adolescents in Ghana are increasingly at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. As a primary agent of socialization, the family can exert a strong influence on adolescent sexual behaviour. Therefore, to aid in the design and implementation of effective prevention programmes, it is important to understand the role of the family in influencing sexual behaviour among school-going adolescents. To evaluate the relationship between family communications about HIV/AIDS and sexual activity and condom use among school-going adolescents in Accra, Ghana. A sample of 894 students (56.9% girls, 43.1% boys; mean age = 17.4 years, SD = 1.40) at two senior secondary schools in Accra completed a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire, a self-administered instrument developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Analytical techniques utilized included logistic regression and chi-square. Twenty-five percent of the participants reported being sexually experienced, and 73.6% had talked about HIV/AIDS with parents or other family members. Of the sexually experienced students, 64.7% initiated first sexual intercourse by age 16; and 55.7% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. Bivariate analysis showed significant gender differences in sexual activity, condom use, and family communication about HIV/AIDS. Logistic regression analysis showed that student-family communication about HIV/AIDS was not associated with sexual activity. However, communication about HIV/AIDS between students and parents or other family members increased the odds of using a condom at last sexual intercourse. The findings of this study suggest that prevention programmes that seek to educate Ghanaian school-going adolescents about sexual risk behaviour must strongly encourage communication about HIV/AIDS between students and family members.
Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi
To identify factors associated with high risk sexual practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain. An online survey was conducted in 2010, which included, among others, questions on HIV/STI sexual behaviours and prevention needs. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status in the past year was defined as a high risk sexual behaviour. Of the 13,111 participants, 49.4% had had sex with steady partners (SP) and 73.4% with non-steady partners (NSP) in the last 12months; and the prevalence of high risk UAI was 25.4% and 29.4%, respectively. Factors associated with high risk UAI with SP were: living in a city of less than 500,000 inhabitants (OR=1.42 50 partners), having used drugs for sex (OR=1.33), and at parties (OR=1.19), having a medium (OR=1.82) or low (OR=1.33) level of HIV/STI knowledge, and being HIV-positive (OR=1.56). Among MSM, the prevalence of high risk sexual practices is high with both SP and NSP. Factors associated with high risk UAI vary by type of sexual partner (e.g., having HIV with an undetectable viral load). These must be taken into account when planning strategies for primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Folch, C; Munoz, R; Zaragoza, K; Casabona, J
To evaluate the prevalence of sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Catalonia and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners a convenience sample of 850 MSM was recruited in 2006. An anonymous questionnaire was used to explore risk behaviours during the previous 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to examine the variables associated with UAI. Mean age was 41 years and 20.4% were immigrants. Among those with casual partners (91.7% of all respondents), 31.4% had UAI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the likelihood of UAI was higher in men who were HIV-positive (OR: 1.77), used more than four drugs before sex (OR: 4.90 for +6), were not from Spain (OR: 2.10 for Latin American; OR: 1.86 for other immigrants), had more than 20 sexual partners (OR: 1.56), met casual sex partners on the Internet (OR:1.45) and presented a high level of internalised homophobia (OR: 2.40). HIV/STI prevention programmes for MSM in Catalonia should incorporate activities that strengthen self-esteem, take into account the impact of internalised homophobia, and adapt to the sociocultural reality of immigrants. Furthermore, these programmes should also address substance abuse and alert HIV-positive men about the risk of HIV re-infection and transmission of other STI.
Calugi, Simona; Franchini, Cecilia; Pivari, Silvia; Conti, Maddalena; El Ghoch, Marwan; Dalle Grave, Riccardo
Sexual abuse has been widely studied as a risk factor in anorexia nervosa, but data on its influence on treatment outcomes are scarce. Hence, we compared short- and long-term outcomes of inpatient enhanced cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT-E) in patients with anorexia nervosa who had and had not suffered sexual abuse. Eighty-one patients were recruited, and body mass index (BMI), Eating Disorder Examination, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale scores were recorded before and after treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Twenty patients (24.7%) reported experiencing childhood sexual abuse before anorexia nervosa onset, while 61 (75.3%) reported none. Both groups displayed similar characteristics before treatment, and similarly large increases in BMI, eating-disorder, general psychopathology, and work and social functioning from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Based on these findings, childhood sexual abuse does not appear to compromise outcomes in patients with anorexia nervosa treated via intensive CBT-E. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Msetfi, Rachel; Jay, Sarah; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Kearns, Michelle; Kinsella, Elaine L; McMahon, Jennifer; Muldoon, Orla T; Naughton, Catherine; Creaven, Ann-Marie
Few studies have investigated the role of disenfranchisement and denial of agency in women's sexual health. To address this, a cross-sectional study of disenfranchisement, control (general and reproductive control) and health was conducted in Ireland, where abortion is severely restricted. Multiple mediation models ( N = 513 women) indicated that general but not reproductive control mediates the association between disenfranchisement and psychological well-being. Additionally, serial mediation shows disenfranchisement is associated with lower sense of control, which is linked to poorer well-being and risky sexual behaviour. Disenfranchisement arising from socio-political contexts may have important implications for women's sexual health.
Full Text Available Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men's cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women's cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection.
Smith, Lucy Watchirs; Liu, Bette; Degenhardt, Louisa; Richters, Juliet; Patton, George; Wand, Handan; Cross, Donna; Hocking, Jane S; Skinner, S Rachel; Cooper, Spring; Lumby, Catharine; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca
Social networking and digital media increasingly have an impact on the lives of young people. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined the relationship between exposure to sexually explicit websites (SEWs) and 'sexting' (i.e. sending semi-nude or nude photos from a mobile phone) and the sexual attitudes and practices of young people. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched for papers that described the statistical association between viewing SEWs or sexting by young people (defined as 10-24 years) and their sexual attitudes and behaviours. Fourteen studies, all cross-sectional in design, met the inclusion criteria. Six studies (10352 participants) examined young people's exposure to SEWs and eight (10429 participants) examined sexting. There was substantial variation across studies in exposure and outcome definitions. Meta-analyses found that SEW exposure was correlated with condomless sexual intercourse (odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.38, two studies); sexting was correlated with ever having had sexual intercourse (OR 5.58, 95% CI: 4.46-6.71, five studies), recent sexual activity (OR 4.79, 95% CI: 3.55-6.04, two studies), alcohol and other drug use before sexual intercourse (OR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.99-3.32, two studies) and multiple recent sexual partners (OR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.95-3.63, two studies). Most studies had limited adjustment for important potential confounders. Cross-sectional studies show a strong association between self-reported exposure to sexual content in new media and sexual behaviours in young people. Longitudinal studies would provide a greater opportunity to adjust for confounding, and better insight into the causal pathways underlying the observed associations.
Nattrass, Nicoli; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Seekings, Jeremy; Whiteside, Alan
This article contributes methodologically and substantively to the debate over the importance of poverty, sexual behaviour and circumcision in relation to HIV infection, using panel data on young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Methodological challenges included problems of endogeneity and blunt indicator variables, especially for the measurement of sexual behaviour. Noting these difficulties, we found that the importance of socioeconomic and sexual-behavioural factors differed between men and women. While we found a clear association between the number of years of sexual activity and HIV status among both men and women, we found that past participation in a concurrent sexual partnership increased the odds of HIV infection for men but not women. Women, but not men, who made the transition from school to tertiary education (our key indicator of socioeconomic status) were less likely to be HIV-positive than those who made the transition from school to unemployment. Both poverty and sexual behaviour matter to individuals' HIV risk, but in gendered ways.
Wayal, Sonali; Hughes, Gwenda; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mohammed, Hamish; Copas, Andrew J; Gerressu, Makeda; Tanton, Clare; Furegato, Martina; Mercer, Catherine H
Sexual health entails the absence of disease and the ability to lead a pleasurable and safe sex life. In Britain, ethnic inequalities in diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections (STI) persist; however, the reasons for these inequalities, and ethnic variations in other markers of sexual health, remain poorly understood. We investigated ethnic differences in hypothesised explanatory factors such as socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and sexual behaviours, and whether they explained ethnic variations in sexual health markers (reported STI diagnoses, attendance at sexual health clinics, use of emergency contraception, and sexual function). We analysed probability survey data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3; n=15 162, conducted in 2010-12). Reflecting Britain's current ethnic composition, we included in our analysis participants who identified in 2011 as belonging to one of the following seven largest ethnic groups: white British, black Caribbean, black African, Indian, Pakistani, white other, and mixed ethnicity. We calculated age-standardised estimates and age-adjusted odds ratios for all explanatory factors and sexual health markers for all these ethnic groups with white British as the reference category. We used multivariable regression to examine the extent to which adjusting for explanatory factors explained ethnic variations in sexual health markers. We included 14 563 (96·0%) of the 15 162 participants surveyed in Natsal-3. Greater proportions of black Caribbean, black African, and Pakistani people lived in deprived areas than those of other ethnic groups (36·9-55·3% vs 16·4-29·4%). Recreational drug use was highest among white other and mixed ethnicity groups (25·6-27·7% in men and 10·3-12·9% in women in the white other and mixed ethnicity groups vs 4·1-15·6% in men and 1·0-11·2% in women of other ethnicities). Compared with white British men, the proportions of black
Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Bryant, Fred B; King, Scott
We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiveness were linked to risky sex but only for teens who reported using drugs/alcohol. Controlling for other predictors in the model, negative peer influence explained 21% and parental permissiveness explained 13% of the variance in risky sex among substance users, but less than half of 1% of the variance among non-substance users. The disinhibiting effects of substance use on decision-making and the need for effective parental monitoring to reduce opportunities for risk behaviour are discussed.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming
This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviours including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other unsafe sexual practices. Immigrants high in mainstream acculturation were more likely to have multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, STDs and unsafe sex (rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.16), but acculturation was not associated with condom use (r = 0.02). Gender moderated the relationships between acculturation and multiple partnerships, STDs and unsafe sex. The relationship between acculturation and unsafe sex also varied across ethnicity. These findings suggest that acculturation may serve as a risk factor towards immigrants' HIV-related sexual health. We offered a theoretical framework and suggested applying cross-cultural and longitudinal designs in future research on acculturation and health behaviours.
Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M.; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Tran, Ly T. H.; Nguyen, Huong T. H.; Le, Thach Ngoc
Background Worldwide, the literature on sexual behaviour has documented associations between gender-based relationship inequality and sexual communication ability and the actual use of condoms or other contraceptives among young women. This study aimed to examine these associations among undergraduate female students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1181 female third-year students from two universities in the Mekong Delta was conducted. Latent variable modelling and logistic regression were employed to examine the hypothesised associations. Results Among the 72.4% of students who had ever had boyfriends, 44.8% indicated that their boyfriends had asked for sex, 13% had had penile–vaginal sex and 10.3% had had oral sex. For those who had had penile–vaginal sex, 33% did not use any contraceptive method, including condoms, during their first sexual intercourse. The greater a student’s perception that women were subordinate to men, the lower her self-efficacy for sexual communication and the lower her actual frequency of discussing safer sex matters and asking her partner to use a condom. Sexual communication self-efficacy was associated with actual contraceptive use (P = 0.039) but only marginally with condom use (P = 0.092) at first sexual intercourse. Conclusion Sexual health promotion strategies should address the influence of gender relations on young women’s sexual communication self-efficacy and the subsequent impact on actual contraceptive and condom use. PMID:22877589
Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Rawat, Shruta; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Hensel, Devon; Herbenick, Debby; Anand, Vivek
This multi-method study explores the perceived health status and health behaviours of sexual minority (i.e. self-identifying with a sexual identity label other than heterosexual) females (i.e. those assigned female at birth who may or may not identify as women) in Mumbai, India, a population whose health has been generally absent in scientific literature. Using community-based participatory research approaches, this study is a partnership with The Humsafar Trust (HST). HST is India's oldest and largest LGBT-advocacy organisation. An online survey targeted towards sexual minority females was conducted (n=49), with questions about sexual identity, perceived health and wellbeing, physical and mental healthcare access and experiences, and health behaviours (including substance use). Additionally, photo-elicitation interviews in which participants' photos prompt interview discussion were conducted with 18 sexual minority females. Sexual minority females face obstacles in health care, mostly related to acceptability and quality of care. Their use of preventative health screenings is low. Perceived mental health and experiences with care were less positive than that for physical health. Participants in photo-elicitation interviews described bodyweight issues and caretaking of family members in relation to physical health. Substance use functioned as both a protective and a risk factor for their health. Our findings point to a need for more resources for sexual minority females. Education on screening guidelines and screening access for sexual minority females would also assist these individuals in increasing their rates of preventative health.
Deiss, Robert G; Lozada, Remedios M; Burgos, Jose Luis; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Gallardo, Manuel; Cuevas, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S
Prior studies estimate HIV prevalence of 4% among injection drug users (IDUs), compared with 0.8% in the general population of Tijuana, Mexico. However, data on HIV prevalence and correlates among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) are sparse. Individuals were recruited through street outreach for HIV testing and behavioural risk assessment interviews to estimate HIV prevalence and identify associated sexual risk behaviours among NIDUs in Tijuana. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise 'low-risk' NIDUs (drug users who were not commercial sex workers or men who have sex with men). Results showed that HIV prevalence was 3.7% among low-risk NIDUs. During the prior six months, 52% of NIDUs reported having >1 casual partner; 35% reported always using condoms with a casual partner; and 13% and 15%, respectively, reported giving or receiving something in exchange for sex. Women were significantly more likely than men to have unprotected sex with an IDU (pTijuana. Broad interventions including HIV testing, condom promotion and sexual risk reduction should be offered to all drug users in Tijuana.
Monks, D A; Swift-Gallant, A
Although gonadal testosterone is the principal endocrine factor that promotes masculine traits in mammals, the development of a male phenotype requires local production of both androgenic and oestrogenic signals within target tissues. Much of our knowledge concerning androgenic components of testosterone signalling in sexual differentiation comes from studies of androgen receptor (Ar) loss of function mutants. Here, we review these studies of loss of Ar function and of AR overexpression either globally or selectively in the nervous system of mice. Global and neural mutations affect socio-sexual behaviour and the neuroanatomy of these mice in a sexually differentiated manner. Some masculine traits are affected by both global and neural mutation, indicative of neural mediation, whereas other masculine traits are affected only by global mutation, indicative of an obligatory non-neural androgen target. These results support a model in which multiple sites of androgen action coordinate to produce masculine phenotypes. Furthermore, AR overexpression does not always have a phenotype opposite to that of loss of Ar function mutants, indicative of a nonlinear relationship between androgen dose and masculine phenotype in some cases. Potential mechanisms of Ar gene function in non-neural targets in producing masculine phenotypes are discussed. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.
Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate factors and attitudes affecting sexual behaviour and sex practices of secondary school students, and to suggest changes necessary for preventing and/or reducing HIV transmission among them. 1009 multi-staged sampled secondary school students aged 10-20 years completed the anonymous interviews. 973(96.4% were Christians and 711(70.5% day students. Premarital sex was approved of by185(18.3% of the respondents while 596(59.1% claimed they would continue to abstain till they get married; 252(25.0% will abstain for some years while 136(13.5% will abstain for months. 181(17.9% believed that abstaining from sex is an abnormal behavior, that HIV/AIDS was a hoax. 573(56.8% agreed that HIV/AIDs is a disease from which they could protect themselves while 387(38.4% thought otherwise. Only 581(57.6% of the respondents would seek advice if they found they were HIV positive. 797(79% of the respondents were afraid of HIV infection while 520(351.5% said that someone in their family might become infected. Attitudinal factors showed statistically significant variation with gender, age, school and class of the respondents. A good number also practice homosexuality and lesbianism. Appropriate information about sexuality education and the negative consequences of early sexual exposure, STIs/HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy should be provided in public schools.
Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko
Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexu...
Malacad, Brea L; Hess, Gretchen C
The survey method is often used to identify trends in sexual behaviour and attitudes. In order for research conclusions to be valid, however, data gathered from surveys must be unambiguous. For the current paper we reviewed survey research of sexual behaviour published in recent years. Our objective was to identify common methodological issues and provide recommendations for how to address them. We examined 62 articles, published in four prominent sexual health journals over the past six years. We evaluated each article based on how adequately its authors addressed four recurring methodological issues: ambiguous terminology, heterosexual bias, procedures that compromise honesty in responses, and survey language/literacy considerations. The review revealed some recurring issues: 47% of the studies failed to address the question of sexual orientation, sexual behaviour terminology was explicitly defined in only 32% of questionnaires, fewer than 5% of surveys clarified whether the sexual encounters in question were consensual, and 21% of the articles contained no mention of anonymity or confidentiality for participants. These results reveal common issues with survey data that compromise the validity of findings. In order to have confidence in research conclusions and recommendations, it is important that these issues be addressed.
M Teague O'Mara
Full Text Available Within the large order of bats, sexual size dimorphism measured by forearm length and body mass is often female-biased. Several studies have explained this through the effects on load carrying during pregnancy, intrasexual competition, as well as the fecundity and thermoregulation advantages of increased female body size. We hypothesized that wing shape should differ along with size and be under variable selection pressure in a species where there are large differences in flight behaviour. We tested whether load carrying, sex differential migration, or reproductive advantages of large females affect size and wing shape dimorphism in the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula, in which females are typically larger than males and only females migrate long distances each year. We tested for univariate and multivariate size and shape dimorphism using data sets derived from wing photos and biometric data collected during pre-migratory spring captures in Switzerland. Females had forearms that are on average 1% longer than males and are 1% heavier than males after emerging from hibernation, but we found no sex differences in other size, shape, or other functional characters in any wing parameters during this pre-migratory period. Female-biased size dimorphism without wing shape differences indicates that reproductive advantages of big mothers are most likely responsible for sexual dimorphism in this species, not load compensation or shape differences favouring aerodynamic efficiency during pregnancy or migration. Despite large behavioural and ecological sex differences, morphology associated with a specialized feeding niche may limit potential dimorphism in narrow-winged bats such as common noctules and the dramatic differences in migratory behaviour may then be accomplished through plasticity in wing kinematics.
Martín-Sánchez, Ana; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L; Ayala, Guillermo; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-Garcia, Fernando
This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". This paper reviews the role of chemosignals in the socio-sexual interactions of female mice, and reports two experiments testing the role of pup-derived chemosignals and the male sexual pheromone darcin in inducing and promoting maternal aggression. Female mice are attracted to urine-borne male pheromones. Volatile and non-volatile urine fractions have been proposed to contain olfactory and vomeronasal pheromones. In particular, the male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) MUP20, darcin, has been shown to be rewarding and attractive to females. Non-urinary male chemosignals, such as the lacrimal protein ESP1, promote lordosis in female mice, but its attractive properties are still to be tested. There is evidence indicating that ESP1 and MUPs are detected by vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2R). When a female mouse becomes pregnant, she undergoes dramatic changes in her physiology and behaviour. She builds a nest for her pups and takes care of them. Dams also defend the nest against conspecific intruders, attacking especially gonadally intact males. Maternal behaviour is dependent on a functional olfactory system, thus suggesting a role of chemosignals in the development of maternal behaviour. Our first experiment demonstrates, however, that pup chemosignals are not sufficient to induce maternal aggression in virgin females. In addition, it is known that vomeronasal stimuli are needed for maternal aggression. Since MUPs (and other molecules) are able to promote intermale aggression, in our second experiment we test if the attractive MUP darcin also promotes attacks on castrated male intruders by lactating dams. Our findings demonstrate that the same chemosignal, darcin, promotes attraction or aggression according to female reproductive state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chris R. Kenyon
Conclusions: Our results suggest that sexual behaviours vary coherently between different populations. As such, sexually transmitted infection control efforts would benefit from including both targeted campaigns focusing on the HRB and population-strategies that seek to address factors responsible for high mean risk behaviour.
Full Text Available In high-income countries, the social and epidemiological contexts surrounding homosexuality and AIDS have changed profoundly in recent decades. This work sought to examine key indicators of the long-term sexual trajectories of successive generations of men who have sex with men (MSM in France.We performed a longitudinal analysis of the French Gay Press surveys, which were self-administered socio-behavioural questionnaires, repeated from 1985 to 2011 in the gay press, and on the internet in 2004 and 2011. An age-cohort analysis using graphical representations and multivariate logistic regressions was conducted among participants aged 18-59 (N = 38 821.First sexual intercourse occurred more often with a male partner in younger generations than in older ones: 76.0% in MSM who turned 18 in 1956-1959, 75.6% in 1980-1983, 83.7% in 2008-2011, p(overall = 0.0002. Every generation showed the same pattern of sexual trajectory between 1985 and 2011: globally, the frequency of masturbation increased from the 1985 survey to the early 1990s and then decreased from the late 1990s to the end of the study period. Inversely, the frequency of oral and anal sex decreased in the mid-1980s and increased from 1990 to 2011. The frequency of both oral sex and anal intercourse is currently quite high, regardless of generation (>95% and around 80%, respectively. Compared to their predecessors, recent generations of young MSM reported more frequent oral and anal sex, but fewer male partners in the previous 12 months.While the increased frequency of first intercourse with a man over successive generations since the 1970s may be related to reduced social pressure for heterosexuality, there is evidence that sexual norms among MSM are widespread, with practices spreading across age groups and generations. Although AIDS profoundly affected sexual practices in the 1980s, further AIDS-related events (discovery of HIV antiretroviral drugs and their use in prevention do not appear
Méthy, Nicolas; Velter, Annie; Semaille, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie
In high-income countries, the social and epidemiological contexts surrounding homosexuality and AIDS have changed profoundly in recent decades. This work sought to examine key indicators of the long-term sexual trajectories of successive generations of men who have sex with men (MSM) in France. We performed a longitudinal analysis of the French Gay Press surveys, which were self-administered socio-behavioural questionnaires, repeated from 1985 to 2011 in the gay press, and on the internet in 2004 and 2011. An age-cohort analysis using graphical representations and multivariate logistic regressions was conducted among participants aged 18-59 (N = 38 821). First sexual intercourse occurred more often with a male partner in younger generations than in older ones: 76.0% in MSM who turned 18 in 1956-1959, 75.6% in 1980-1983, 83.7% in 2008-2011, p(overall) = 0.0002). Every generation showed the same pattern of sexual trajectory between 1985 and 2011: globally, the frequency of masturbation increased from the 1985 survey to the early 1990s and then decreased from the late 1990s to the end of the study period. Inversely, the frequency of oral and anal sex decreased in the mid-1980s and increased from 1990 to 2011. The frequency of both oral sex and anal intercourse is currently quite high, regardless of generation (>95% and around 80%, respectively). Compared to their predecessors, recent generations of young MSM reported more frequent oral and anal sex, but fewer male partners in the previous 12 months. While the increased frequency of first intercourse with a man over successive generations since the 1970s may be related to reduced social pressure for heterosexuality, there is evidence that sexual norms among MSM are widespread, with practices spreading across age groups and generations. Although AIDS profoundly affected sexual practices in the 1980s, further AIDS-related events (discovery of HIV antiretroviral drugs and their use in prevention) do not appear to have
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Drug therapy is necessary to treat acute illness, maintain current health and prevent further decline. However, optimizing drug therapy for older patients is challenging and sometimes, drug therapy can do more harm than good. Drug utilization review tools can highlight instances of potentially inappropriate prescribing to those involved in elderly pharmacotherapy, i.e. doctors, nurses and pharmacists. We aim to provide a review of the literature on potentially inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and also to review the explicit criteria that have been designed to detect potentially inappropriate prescribing in the elderly. METHODS: We performed an electronic search of the PUBMED database for articles published between 1991 and 2006 and a manual search through major journals for articles referenced in those located through PUBMED. Search terms were elderly, inappropriate prescribing, prescriptions, prevalence, Beers criteria, health outcomes and Europe. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Prescription of potentially inappropriate medications to older people is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe, ranging from 12% in community-dwelling elderly to 40% in nursing home residents. Inappropriate prescribing is associated with adverse drug events. Limited data exists on health outcomes from use of inappropriate medications. There are no prospective randomized controlled studies that test the tangible clinical benefit to patients of using drug utilization review tools. Existing drug utilization review tools have been designed on the basis of North American and Canadian drug formularies and may not be appropriate for use in European countries because of the differences in national drug formularies and prescribing attitudes. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of inappropriate prescribing despite the widespread use of drug-utilization review tools, prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to identify useful interventions. Drug
Mladenovic, B; Donev, D; Spasovski, M
(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The aim of the study was to assess the gender influence on the main determinants of sexual behaviour of senior high-school students in Skopje, R. Macedonia (prevalence and age of onset of sexual activity, duration of the relationship before and the contraceptive method used during the first sexual intercourse, and number of lifetime sexual partners). After ensuring privacy and confidentiality, a cross-sectional study was carried out in Skopje by enrolling 310 high-school students (49.7% males, 49% females, 1.3% unknown) from 5 randomly selected high-schools, from the 4th grade, using a 32-item paper-and-pencil self administered questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual activity was higher among boys than girls (when reaching grade 4 of the study 62.7% of the boys and 26.7% of the girls are sexually active) (p boys and 17 years for girls; concerning the duration of the relationship before the first sexual intercourse 33% of the boys and 2.5% of the girls had experienced one-night stand relationship (p boys and 5% of the girls (p boys and 15.5% of the girls did not start with sexual activity because they did not have a chance (p boys and 79.1% of the girls felt unprepared (p Boys and girls are vulnerable at different times in their development and hence need to be reached with different public health interventions for improving their sexual and reproductive health, adapted to local cultural and gender norms. Key words: Macedonia, high-school students, sexual behaviour, gender.
Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David
Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour.
Mc Sharry, J; Murphy, P J; Byrne, M
Decreased sexual activity and sexual problems are common among people with cardiovascular disease, negatively impacting relationship satisfaction and quality of life. International guidelines recommend routine delivery of sexual counselling to cardiac patients. The Cardiac Health and Relationship Management and Sexuality (CHARMS) baseline study in Ireland found, similar to international findings, limited implementation of sexual counselling guidelines in practice. The aim of the current study was to develop the CHARMS multi-level intervention to increase delivery of sexual counselling by healthcare professionals. We describe the methods used to develop the CHARMS intervention following the three phases of the Behaviour Change Wheel approach: understand the behaviour, identify intervention options, and identify content and implementation options. Survey (n = 60) and focus group (n = 14) data from two previous studies exploring why sexual counselling is not currently being delivered were coded by two members of the research team to understand staff's capability, opportunity, and motivation to engage in the behaviour. All potentially relevant intervention functions to change behaviour were identified and the APEASE (affordability, practicability, effectiveness, acceptability, side effects and equity) criteria were used to select the most appropriate. The APEASE criteria were then used to choose between all behaviour change techniques (BCTs) potentially relevant to the identified functions, and these BCTs were translated into intervention content. The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist was used to specify details of the intervention including the who, what, how and where of proposed intervention delivery. Providing sexual counselling group sessions by cardiac rehabilitation staff to patients during phase III cardiac rehabilitation was identified as the target behaviour. Education, enablement, modelling, persuasion and
Wessels, Jocelyn M; Lajoie, Julie; Vitali, Danielle; Omollo, Kenneth; Kimani, Joshua; Oyugi, Julius; Cheruiyot, Juliana; Kimani, Makubo; Mungai, John N; Akolo, Maureen; Stearns, Jennifer C; Surette, Michael G; Fowke, Keith R; Kaushic, Charu
To compare the vaginal microbiota of women engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour (sex work) with women who are not engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour. Diverse vaginal microbiota, low in Lactobacillus species, like those in bacterial vaginosis (BV), are associated with increased prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Although high-risk sexual behaviour increases risk for STIs, the vaginal microbiota of sex workers is understudied. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted comparing vaginal microbiota of women who are not engaged in sex work (non-sex worker controls, NSW, N = 19) and women engaged in sex work (female sex workers, FSW, N = 48), using Illumina sequencing (16S rRNA, V3 region). Bacterial richness and diversity were significantly less in controls, than FSW. Controls were more likely to have Lactobacillus as the most abundant genus (58% vs. 17%; P = 0.002) and composition of their vaginal microbiota differed from FSW (PERMANOVA, P = 0.001). Six microbiota clusters were detected, including a high diversity cluster with three sub-clusters, and 55% of women with low Nugent Scores fell within this cluster. High diversity was observed by 16S sequencing in FSW, regardless of Nugent Scores, suggesting that Nugent Score may not be capable of capturing the diversity present in the FSW vaginal microbiota. High-risk sexual behaviour is associated with diversity of the vaginal microbiota and lack of Lactobacillus. These factors could contribute to increased risk of STIs and HIV in women engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour.
Jocelyn M Wessels
Full Text Available To compare the vaginal microbiota of women engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour (sex work with women who are not engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour. Diverse vaginal microbiota, low in Lactobacillus species, like those in bacterial vaginosis (BV, are associated with increased prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquisition. Although high-risk sexual behaviour increases risk for STIs, the vaginal microbiota of sex workers is understudied.A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted comparing vaginal microbiota of women who are not engaged in sex work (non-sex worker controls, NSW, N = 19 and women engaged in sex work (female sex workers, FSW, N = 48, using Illumina sequencing (16S rRNA, V3 region.Bacterial richness and diversity were significantly less in controls, than FSW. Controls were more likely to have Lactobacillus as the most abundant genus (58% vs. 17%; P = 0.002 and composition of their vaginal microbiota differed from FSW (PERMANOVA, P = 0.001. Six microbiota clusters were detected, including a high diversity cluster with three sub-clusters, and 55% of women with low Nugent Scores fell within this cluster. High diversity was observed by 16S sequencing in FSW, regardless of Nugent Scores, suggesting that Nugent Score may not be capable of capturing the diversity present in the FSW vaginal microbiota.High-risk sexual behaviour is associated with diversity of the vaginal microbiota and lack of Lactobacillus. These factors could contribute to increased risk of STIs and HIV in women engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour.
Wessels, Jocelyn M.; Lajoie, Julie; Vitali, Danielle; Omollo, Kenneth; Kimani, Joshua; Oyugi, Julius; Cheruiyot, Juliana; Kimani, Makubo; Mungai, John N.; Akolo, Maureen; Stearns, Jennifer C.; Surette, Michael G.; Fowke, Keith R.
Objective To compare the vaginal microbiota of women engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour (sex work) with women who are not engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour. Diverse vaginal microbiota, low in Lactobacillus species, like those in bacterial vaginosis (BV), are associated with increased prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Although high-risk sexual behaviour increases risk for STIs, the vaginal microbiota of sex workers is understudied. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted comparing vaginal microbiota of women who are not engaged in sex work (non-sex worker controls, NSW, N = 19) and women engaged in sex work (female sex workers, FSW, N = 48), using Illumina sequencing (16S rRNA, V3 region). Results Bacterial richness and diversity were significantly less in controls, than FSW. Controls were more likely to have Lactobacillus as the most abundant genus (58% vs. 17%; P = 0.002) and composition of their vaginal microbiota differed from FSW (PERMANOVA, P = 0.001). Six microbiota clusters were detected, including a high diversity cluster with three sub-clusters, and 55% of women with low Nugent Scores fell within this cluster. High diversity was observed by 16S sequencing in FSW, regardless of Nugent Scores, suggesting that Nugent Score may not be capable of capturing the diversity present in the FSW vaginal microbiota. Conclusions High-risk sexual behaviour is associated with diversity of the vaginal microbiota and lack of Lactobacillus. These factors could contribute to increased risk of STIs and HIV in women engaged in high-risk sexual behaviour. PMID:29095928
Fearon, Elizabeth; Wiggins, Richard D; Pettifor, Audrey E; Hargreaves, James R
Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are highly vulnerable to HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies. Evidence for the effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions in reducing incidence of HIV and other biological outcomes is limited, and the need to address the social conditions in which young people become sexually active is clear. Adolescents' peers are a key aspect of this social environment and could have important influences on sexual behaviour. There has not yet been a systematic review on the topic in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched 4 databases to find studies set in sub-Saharan Africa that included an adjusted analysis of the association between at least one peer exposure and a sexual behaviour outcome among a sample where at least 50% of the study participants were aged between 13 and 20 years. We classified peer exposures using a framework to distinguish different mechanisms by which influence might occur. We found 30 studies and retained 11 that met quality criteria. There were 3 cohort studies, 1 time to event and 7 cross-sectional. The 11 studies investigated 37 different peer exposure-outcome associations. No studies used a biological outcome and all asked about peers in general rather than about specific relationships. Studies were heterogeneous in their use of theoretical frameworks and means of operationalizing peer influence concepts. All studies found evidence for an association between peers and sexual behaviour for at least one peer exposure/outcome/sub-group association. Of all 37 outcome/exposure/sub-group associations tested, there was evidence for 19 (51%). There were no clear patterns by type of peer exposure, outcome or adolescent sub-group. There is a lack conclusive evidence about the role of peers in adolescent sexual behaviour in Sub-Saharan. We argue that longitudinal designs, use of biological outcomes and approaches from social network analysis are priorities for future studies
Stolte, Ineke G.; de Wit, John B. F.; van Eeden, Arne; Coutinho, Roel A.; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.
BACKGROUND: Increases in sexual risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected homosexual men after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) confirm the need for innovative prevention activities. The present study focused on time trends in sexual risk
Chappell, Paul; Johns, Rebecca; Nene, Siphumelele; Hanass-Hancock, Jill
Over the past two decades, comprehensive sexuality education has increasingly been recognised as a measure that positively impacts on the sexual behaviour of young people in Africa. Despite this, and a political call to scale-up the use of comprehensive sexuality education in schools in South Africa, learners with disabilities continue to be left…
Higgins, Jenny A; Trussell, James; Moore, Nelwyn B; Davidson, J Kenneth
Less is known about the sexual health of young adults than about adolescents, despite 20 to 24-year-olds' greater risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmissible infections. This paper provides information on college students' prior and current sexual practices including oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse and masturbation. We analysed data from a cross-sectional sexuality survey of students from two university campuses in the USA, one Mid-western and one South-western (n = 1504). The sample consisted of non-Hispanic white, never-married students who identified as heterosexual. Of 16 possible combinations of four sexual activities (solitary masturbation, oral sex, vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse), only four contained more than 5% of respondents: masturbation, oral sex and vaginal intercourse (37%); oral sex and vaginal intercourse only (20%); all four (14%); and none (8%). Twenty percent had ever engaged in anal intercourse. Women were significantly less likely than men to have ever masturbated (48 v. 92%). Analyses exhibited several sexual health challenges, including lack of verbal sexual consent, alcohol use proximal to sex and lack of contraceptive use. Although few young adults are substituting it for vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse is increasingly common and safer sex efforts should encourage condom use during both sexual activities. Masturbation should be encouraged as an alternative to higher risk sexual practices and an essential aspect of sexual well being. Finally, practitioners should continue to address specific threats to college students' sexual health, including alcohol use and non-verbal consent.
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
Wong, Li Ping
Background This study was a qualitative investigation into sexual attitudes and behaviours, and contraceptive use among Malaysian youth, based on constructs from the health belief model, theory of reasoned action, and problem behaviour theory. Methods A total of 34 focus group discussions with 185 participants were conducted among the Malay (35%), Chinese (34%), and Indian (31%) young females between November, 2010 and April, 2011. The participants were secondary school students and university undergraduates from Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. Results The study found a lack of knowledge about sexual issues and contraception among the participants. Many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse and relied on periodic abstinence, natural methods, and traditional folk pregnancy preventive practices. The findings also revealed numerous categories of factors influencing sexual attitudes and behaviours: ethnic group and religion, level of religiosity, peer pressure and norms, and parental monitoring. With regard to condom use, factors such as embarrassment about condom acquisition, low perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and perceived efficacy of traditional and folk methods of contraception, were uncovered from the discussions. Conclusion This study underscores the importance of development of culturally specific interventions that address the identified promoting factors of premarital sex. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use should increase awareness about condom effectiveness against not only unwanted pregnancies but also STIs. PMID:23272156
Li Ping Wong
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was a qualitative investigation into sexual attitudes and behaviours, and contraceptive use among Malaysian youth, based on constructs from the health belief model, theory of reasoned action, and problem behaviour theory. METHODS: A total of 34 focus group discussions with 185 participants were conducted among the Malay (35%, Chinese (34%, and Indian (31% young females between November, 2010 and April, 2011. The participants were secondary school students and university undergraduates from Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. RESULTS: The study found a lack of knowledge about sexual issues and contraception among the participants. Many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse and relied on periodic abstinence, natural methods, and traditional folk pregnancy preventive practices. The findings also revealed numerous categories of factors influencing sexual attitudes and behaviours: ethnic group and religion, level of religiosity, peer pressure and norms, and parental monitoring. With regard to condom use, factors such as embarrassment about condom acquisition, low perceived susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and perceived efficacy of traditional and folk methods of contraception, were uncovered from the discussions. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the importance of development of culturally specific interventions that address the identified promoting factors of premarital sex. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use should increase awareness about condom effectiveness against not only unwanted pregnancies but also STIs.
William Wilberforce Amoah
Full Text Available Although homeless young adults are often seen on the streets of Ghana, little research had examined the nature of sexual behaviour among these homeless and runaway young adults. Due to the culturally sensitive nature of such studies in the Ghanaian setting, only fifty (50 respondents agreed to participate in the study. A thirty–five (35 item questionnaire, comprising of twenty-eight (28 closed-ended and seven (7 open-ended questions was used for data collection. The findings indicated poverty, inability of parents to cater for the young adult’s needs, peer pressure and lack of parental acceptance as the main causes of homelessness. Consequently, the findings also showed a trend of school dropout, teenage pregnancy and use of illicit drugs as effects of homelessness. These findings have implications for future studies, policy reform and care for homeless young adult.
Full Text Available Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince is regarded as a potent libido invigorator in Tib-e-Nabvi and Unani System of Medicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the aphrodisiac activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Cydonia oblonga Miller (quince in Wistar rats. The extract was administered orally by gavage in the dose of 500 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight per day as a single dose for 28 days. The observed parameters were mounting frequency, assessment of mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self. The results showed that after administration of the extract mounting frequency and the mating performance of the rats increased highly significantly P<0.01. The extract also influenced the behaviour of treated animals in comparison to nontreated rats in a remarkable manner, making them more attracted to females. These effects were observed in sexually active male Wistar rats.
Olaleye, Adeniyi O.; Anoemuah, Olayinka A.; Ladipo, Oladapo A.; Delano, Grace E.; Idowu, Grace F.
Purpose: The paper seeks to explore sexual behaviours and reproductive health knowledge among in-school young people with disabilities (PWD) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: In the paper a structured questionnaire was administered to 103 randomly selected PWD, aged ten to 25, from four integrated secondary schools in Ibadan. The…
Xridou, M.; Wallinga, J.; Dukers-Muijers, N.; Coutinho, R.
The impact of hepatitis B vaccination in men having sex with men in Amsterdam has been marginal until now, possibly because of increases in sexual risk behaviour counterbalancing the effect of vaccination. A mathematical model is used to describe the hepatitis B epidemic. The model shows that, with
Xridou, M.; Wallinga, J.; Dukers-Muijers, N.; Coutinho, R.
The impact of hepatitis B vaccination in men having sex with men in Amsterdam has been marginal until now, possibly because of increases in sexual risk behaviour counterbalancing the effect of vaccination. A mathematical model is used to describe the hepatitis B epidemic. The model shows that, with
This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key…
Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra
Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…
Rich, Antonia; Mullan, Barbara A; Sainsbury, Kirby; Kuczmierczyk, Andrzej R
To examine how the prediction of condom-related cognitions, intentions, and behaviour amongst adolescents may differ according to gender and sexual experience within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework. Adolescents (N = 306) completed questionnaires about sexual experience, condom use, TPB variables, perceived risk, and safe sex knowledge. Significant differences in TPB variables, perceived risk, and knowledge were found; males and sexually experienced participants were generally less positive about condom use. Twenty percent of the variance in attitudes was accounted for by four variables; specifically, female gender, no previous sexual experience, better safe sex knowledge, and greater risk perceptions were associated with more positive attitudes. The prediction of intentions separately amongst sexually experienced (R(2) = 0.468) and inexperienced (R(2) = 0.436) participants revealed that, for the former group, attitudes and subjective norms were the most important considerations. In contrast, among the inexperienced participants, attitudes and the gender-by-perceived risk interaction term represented significant influences. The results suggest that interventions designed to improve adolescents' intentions to use condoms and rates of actual condom use should consider differences in gender and sexual experience.
Mweemba, Oliver; Dixey, Rachael; Bond, Virginia; White, Alan
Vaginal microbicides are heralded as a woman's HIV prevention method. This study, conducted in a microbicide clinical trial setting in Zambia, explored how the social construction of masculinity and sexual behaviour influenced the acceptability of vaginal microbicides. The data were generated from 18 In-depth Interviews and 8 Focus Group Discussions. The data were analysed thematically. The study found that hegemonic masculinity influenced the use of vaginal microbicides positively and negatively, in multiple ways including: decision to initiate gel use, autonomous use of the gel, and consistent use of the gel. Men were seen as heads of households and decision-makers who approved their partners' intentions to initiate gel use. Autonomous gel use by women was not supported because it challenged men's dominant position in sexual matters and at a family level. The socially accepted notion that men engaged in multiple sexual relationships also influenced women's decision to use the gel. Sustained gel use depended on the perceived effect of the gel on men's sexual desires, sexual performance, fertility, and sexual behaviour. This study suggests that acceptability of microbicides partially lies within the realm of men, with use constrained and dictated by cultural constructs and practice of masculinity and gender.
Lim, Megan S C; Agius, Paul A; Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Hellard, Margaret E
Amid public health concern that rising pornography use may have a negative impact on young people's health and wellbeing, we report prevalence of pornography viewing and explore factors associated with viewing frequency and age at first viewing. Cross-sectional online survey in a convenience sample of Victorians aged 15 to 29 years recruited via social media. Ever viewing pornography was reported by 815 of 941 (87%) participants. The median age at first pornography viewing was 13 years for men and 16 years for women. More frequent pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, ever having anal intercourse and recent mental health problems. Younger age at first pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger current age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, younger age at first sexual contact and recent mental health problems. Pornography use is common and associated with some health and behavioural outcomes. Longitudinal research is needed to determine the causal impact of pornography on these factors. Implications for public health: Viewing pornography is common and frequent among young people from a young age and this needs to be considered in sexuality education. © 2017 The Authors.
Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is one of the many public health problems facing the community in Bophuthatswana and neighbouring areas: Health professionals have attempted to address the problem yet little has been done to determine the role of the adolescent male in the prevention of this community problem. This study addresses the male adolescent’s sexual behaviour, his attitude towards contraception, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy. The study revealed that most of the respondents commenced sexual practices at about 12years of age. These young men believed that girls should prove their fertility before marriage, although they viewed contraception as a joint responsibility between the two partners. The respondents were found to have a positive attitude towards contraception and contraceptive use, yet when they were asked what method of contraception they used since they were sexually active, only 24,5% reported use of a condom. Ignorance about reproduction and the effects of contraceptives Was confirmed When 48% of the respondents indicated that they were unaware of the fact that pregnancy could result from first coitus, and they also believed that oral contraceptives had dangerous side effects. The study further revealed that parents did not discuss teenage pregnancy and contraception with their children, instead this subject was discussed among friends at school. Respondents expressed fear when asked why the subject was never discussed with parents, some actually stated that their parents would ‘flog’ them if they initiated the subject on sex and related matters. The urgent need for formalised sex education in Bophuthatswana was expressed by 77% of the respondents.
Edmond Pui-Hang Choi
Full Text Available Dating applications (apps on smartphones have become increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of dating apps and risky sexual behaviours. Data were collected in four university campuses in Hong Kong. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire asking about the use of dating apps, sexual behaviours, and sociodemographics. Multiple linear and logistics regressions were used to explore factors associated with sexual risk behaviours. Six hundred sixty-six subjects were included in the data analysis. Factors associated with having unprotected sexual intercourse with more lifetime sexual partners included use of dating apps (β = 0.93, p<0.01, having one's first sexual intercourse before 16 years of age (β = 1.74, p<0.01, being older (β = 0.4, p<0.01, currently being in a relationship (= 0.69, p<0.05, having a monthly income at least HKD$5,000 (β = 1.34, p<0.01, being a current smoker (β = 1.52, p<0.01, and being a current drinker (β = 0.7, p<0.01. The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis found that users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 0.52, p<0.05 and current drinkers (adjust odds ratio: 0.40, p<0.01 were less likely to have consistent condom use. Users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 1.93, p<0.05, bisexual/homosexual subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.57, p<0.01 and female subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.00, p<0.05 were more likely not to have used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse. The present study found a robust association between using dating apps and sexual risk behaviours, suggesting that app users had greater sexual risks. Interventions that can target app users so that they can stay safe when seeking sexual partners through dating apps should be developed.
Abousselam, Nikki; Naudé, Luzelle; Lens, Willy; Esterhuyse, Karel
An interest exists in understanding why adolescents partake in risky sexual behaviours, as well as the risk and protective practices associated with risky sexual behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the moderator effect of future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. A random cluster consisting of 467 learners from English medium high schools of central South Africa participated in this study. The participants' risky sexual behaviour, self-efficacy and future time perspective were measured with the Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risk Survey, Generalised Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, respectively. Product term regression analysis was performed. It was found that both self-efficacy and future time perspective were negatively related to risky sexual behaviour. No moderating effect was found for future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. Self-efficacy and future time perspective were identified as qualities that protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. This finding can be useful in developing prevention programmes. Intervention programmes aimed at the youth should foster a sense of hope and possibility about the future and the development of goals and aspirations to prevent risky behaviour.
Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy
It is widely accepted that the sexualization of girls has increased markedly over time. The overall aim of the present study was to offer a description of the behaviours of young girls, with a particular focus on potentially sexualized behaviours and appearance concern. A sample of 815 mothers of 4-10 year-old girls completed a questionnaire about a range of behaviours exhibited by their daughters, in addition to measures of their own self-objectification and material concern. It was found that many girls engaged with teen culture and used a variety of beauty products, but few exhibited more overtly sexualized behaviours. Involvement with teen culture, using beauty products, attention to clothes, and personal grooming were all associated with the measure of appearance concern, as were maternal self-objectification and material concern. It was concluded that young girls do engage in 'grown up' behaviours and that such engagement is not benign for their development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ujah, G A; Nna, V U; Agah, M I; Omue, L O; Leku, C B; Osim, E E
Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) has been reported to cause reproductive toxicity in male rats, mainly through oxidative stress. This study examined its effect on sexual behaviour, as one of the mechanisms of reproductive dysfunction, as well as the possible ameliorative effect of quercetin (QE) on same. Thirty male Wistar rats (10 weeks old), weighing 270-300 g, were used for this study. They were either orally administered 2% DMSO, CdCl 2 (5 mg/kg b.w.), QE (20 mg/kg b.w.) or CdCl 2 +QE, once daily for 4 weeks, before sexual behavioural studies. The 5th group received CdCl 2 for 4 weeks and allowed 4-week recovery period, before sexual behavioural test. Rats were sacrificed after sexual behavioural studies. The blood, testis and penis were collected for biochemical assays. Cadmium increased mount, intromission and ejaculatory latencies, but reduced their frequencies, compared to control. Serum nitric oxide increased, while penile cyclic guanosine monophosphate reduced in the CdCl 2 -exposed rats, compared to control. CdCl 2 increased testicular cholesterol, but reduced 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD activities, and testosterone concentration. QE better attenuated these negative changes compared to withdrawal of CdCl 2 treatment. In conclusion, CdCl 2 suppressed steroidogenesis, penile erection and sexual behaviour, with poor reversal following withdrawal, while QE attenuated these effects. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Arulogun, Oyedunni Sola; Ogbu, Ifeyinwa Arinze; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi
The proportion of young people exposed to pornographic materials through the internet in Nigeria is increasing. However, the influence of the exposure on their sexual behaviour has not been fully explored. This study therefore explored the effects of internet exposure on the sexual behaviour of young persons in Ibadan North Local Government Area of southwest Nigeria. A survey of 413 young persons was done using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions on internet exposure and its influence on behaviour. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Mean age of males was 21.7 ± 3.4 years while that of females was 20.9 ± 3.2 years. Forty-nine percent of the respondents used the internet for the first time between the ages of 15-19 years. Main source of information about the internet was friends (63.3%) and 99.3% accessed the internet from cybercafé. Seventy-two percent had ever stumbled on pornographic sites. Reactions included glancing through before closing (45.2%), closure of the sites (38.5%), and minimizing page to view later (12.5%). Post-exposure influence on behaviour included engagement in oral sex (48.3%), body tattoo (18.3%), having multiple sexual partners (11.6%) and homosexuality (5.0%). More males (95% CI OR =1.245-6.465) and frequent users (95% CI OR =1.168-3.497) were likely to report a change in sexual behaviour. Internet use was common among the young persons. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure to sexual content on internet targeting young persons especially the males and cybercafé operators are advocated.
Khamisa, Natasha; Mokgobi, Maboe
South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL) were searched for combinations of keywords including 'healthcare workers', 'risky sexual behaviour' and 'HIV and AIDS'. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.
Evans, Alison Ruth; Wiggins, Richard Donovan; Bolding, Graham; Elford, Jonathan
An invitation to take part in a web survey of sexual behaviour appeared on two popular websites for gay men in the UK in May and June 2003. As soon as men began the survey, their responses were recorded. If they quit before the end, the point at which they stopped was identified. Men clicked into the survey a total of 4,271 times and 2,752 (64%) respondents completed it. The median last question reached by respondents who dropped out was question number 20 out of 158. Multivariate analysis indicated that drop out was related to ethnic group, openness about sexual orientation and age. The results suggest that MSM who use the Internet to seek sexual partners may be younger, more likely to be from an ethnic minority and less open about their sexuality than web surveys indicate. This has implications for the development of online HIV and STI interventions.
Jeffrey Nicholas DeMarco
Full Text Available Objective: The engagement and use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs has increased exponentially across societies worldwide with implications for social and psychological development in young people. In this context, the risk of negative sexual experience and victimisation online is known to have real world consequences for young people. This article seeks to: explore the nature of adolescent risk taking online behaviour from a group of young adults in different European countries; develop types of online risk profiles; explore the impact of help-seeking and to consider the potential real world harmful consequences. Method: A survey was administered across the United Kingdom, Ireland and Italy of 18 to 25 year olds in higher education, asking them about their online experiences between the ages of 12 and 16. Risky behaviour on and off-line, types of victimisation (on and offline and sexual solicitation requests online were analysed together with help-seeking behaviour. Results: Four profiles concerning adolescent risky behaviours were identified through cluster analysis. Each were distinguishable by a pattern of latent constructs linked to risk offline and online. Two were considered normative (adapted adolescents and inquisitive online and two high risk (risk-taking aggressive and sexually inquisitive online. Additionally, regression analysis demonstrated significant factors linked to predicting both likelihood of meeting an adult for sexual purposes, and help-seeking behaviour. Conclusions: The profiles developed are a useful tool for educators, police and health and social care practitioners in identifying adolescents at risk in order to undertake preventative work. Common help-seeking behaviour from peers could be used to effect interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Delaying sexual initiation has been promoted as one of the methods of decreasing risks of HIV among young people. In traditional countries, such as Ethiopia, retaining virginity until marriage is the norm. However, no one has examined the impact of this traditional norm on sexual behaviour and risk of HIV in marriage. This study examined the effect of virginity norm on having sex before marriage and sexual behaviour after marriage among rural Ethiopian youth. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey in 9 rural and 1 urban area using a probabilistic sample of 3,743 youth, 15–24 years of age. Univariate analysis was used to assess associations between virginity norm and gender stratified by area, and between sexual behaviour and marital status. We applied Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to estimate age at sexual debut and assessed the predictors of premarital sex among the never-married using SPSS. Results We found that maintaining virginity is still a way of securing marriage for girls, especially in rural areas; the odds of belief and intention to marry a virgin among boys was 3–4 times higher among rural young males. As age increased, the likelihood of remaining a virgin decreased. There was no significant difference between married and unmarried young people in terms of number of partners and visiting commercial sex workers. Married men were twice more likely to have multiple sexual partners than their female counterparts. A Cox regression show that those who did not believe in traditional values of preserving virginity (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 2.91 [1.92–4.40], alcohol drinkers (AHR = 2.91 [1.97–4.29], Khat chewers (AHR = 2.36 [1.45–3.85], literates (AHR = 18.01 [4.34–74.42], and the older age group (AHR = 1.85 [1.19–2.91] were more likely to have premarital sex than their counterparts. Conclusion Although virginity norms help delay age at sexual debut among rural Ethiopian youth, and thus
It is posited within the literature that the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability may be influenced by low levels of sexual knowledge, lack of sexual experience and unmet sexual needs. In this study, individuals with sexualised challenging behaviour were identified and matched for gender, age and ability level with individuals recruited to the non-sexualised and no challenging behaviour groups. All (n=24) were interviewed using the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Tool - Revised (SSKAAT-R) and the Sexual Knowledge, Experience and Needs Scale for Intellectual Disability (Sex-Ken-ID) to assess their sexual knowledge, experience and needs. Adaptive behaviour was measured as a covariate. In the current study, contrary to expectations in the wider literature, the sexualised challenging behaviour group showed significantly higher levels of sexual knowledge in several areas when adaptive behaviour was controlled. Their needs in relation to Dating and Intimacy were also significantly higher but no differences were found between groups in relation to sexual experience. The implications of these findings for service provision are outlined along with the considerations of directions for future research.
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clients of sex workers represent a relevant target for interventions aimed at the prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Within prevention strategies, the AIDS and sexually transmitted infections helpline (Telefono Verde AIDS/ IST, TVA-IST of National Institute of Health in Italy has provided, since 1987, specific information and counselling interventions. AIM: The present study reports data on anagraphical characteristics and behaviours of clients of sex workers, anonymously reported at TVA-IST in the period 1987-2010. DISCUSSION: Among 95 149 phone calls (14% of the total considered 99.5% came from males, over 80% aged under 37 years and prevalently from Northern Italy. Among sexual behaviours, unprotected sexual intercourses were reported in the 26% of the calls. Subjects under 27 years reported a higher frequency of unprotected anal intercourse, while they used protection with oral and vaginal intercourses in a greater extent than older ones. Due to differential behaviours within clients of sex workers, specific informative strategies for this targeted population should adequately consider age-related differences.
BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were
Full Text Available Background: South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Objectives: Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. Methods: This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL were searched for combinations of keywords including ‘healthcare workers’, ‘risky sexual behaviour’ and ‘HIV and AIDS’. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. Conclusion: More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche. To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value Results Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%. Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms were identified as target areas for health promotion strategies
Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Kjær, Susie; Aldrich, Per T; Madsen, Ida E H; Friborg, Maria K; Rugulies, Reiner; Folker, Anna P
Care workers are often exposed to sexual harassment from patients. Research shows that such exposure may have detrimental effects on mental health of the care workers. Inappropriate sexual behaviour from patients is a particular challenge for formal and informal care workers alike. There is a scarceness of studies investigating the experience and the handling of sexual harassment from patients. To investigate the experience and handling of sexual harassment from patients in care work. The study follows an explorative qualitative approach based on group interviews (n=19) with 39 care workers. Ten workplaces participated in the study, including hospitals, nursing homes, community health centres, rehabilitations care centres, and psychiatric residential facilities. We conducted group interviews with care workers (employees), managers, shop stewards and/or safety representatives. The majority of the interviewees were trained nurses. The interviews revealed that sexual harassment is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. The care workers often separated between intentional and unintentional behaviours initiated by cognitively impaired patients. Thus, they often refrain from using the term harassment, because it implies that the actions were intentional. However, the interviews revealed that, in practice, this separation was very difficult, and that sexual harassment often creates a range of dilemmas in the daily work. At the same time, sexual harassment is a taboo. The managers, shop stewards and safety representatives in this study were often not aware of the frequency and the impact of the episodes had on the care workers. The workplaces participating in this study, rarely had guidelines or policies for managing and/or preventing sexual harassment or inappropriate sexual behaviours, but often responded to episodes in an ad hoc and case-by-case manner. The term sexual harassment might not be appropriate in the context of care work, because many patients who display
Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar; Merely, Cindy; Welles, Brandi; Pellowski, Jennifer; Kegler, Christopher
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the health of people living with HIV and has the potential to reduce HIV infectiousness, thereby preventing HIV transmission. However, the success of ART for HIV prevention hinges on sustained ART adherence and avoiding sexually transmitted infections (STI). To determine the sexual behaviours and HIV transmission risks of individuals with suppressed and unsuppressed HIV replication (i.e., viral load). Assessed HIV sexual transmission risks among individuals with clinically determined suppressed and unsuppressed HIV. Participants were 760 men and 280 women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, USA, who completed behavioural assessments, 28-daily prospective sexual behaviour diaries, one-month prospective unannounced pill counts for ART adherence, urine screening for illicit drug use and medical record chart abstraction for HIV viral load. Individuals with unsuppressed HIV demonstrated a constellation of behavioural risks for transmitting HIV to uninfected sex partners that included symptoms of STI and substance use. In addition, 15% of participants with suppressed HIV had recent STI symptoms/diagnoses, indicating significant risks for sexual infectiousness despite their HIV suppression in blood plasma. Overall, 38% of participants were at risk for elevated sexual infectiousness and just as many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse with non-HIV-infected partners. Implementation strategies for using HIV treatments as HIV prevention requires enhanced behavioural interventions that extend beyond ART to address substance use and sexual health that will otherwise undermine the potential preventive impact of early ART.
Veselinović Nataša I.
Full Text Available Results of researches on biological, psychological and sociological characteristics of sexual offenders show etiological and phenomenological differences, while, on the other side, treatment programs show tendency toward unification. Unification that works contains behavioural learning victim empathy work and work on one’s own trauma. In this paper the author looks for an answer to the question who is the sexual offender and how he became that. In theory rapists and paedophiles are similar as much as their victims are, and they are often victims of some traumatic experience which seeks for satisfaction in inappropriate but well-known way. Sexual violence can be stopped by breaking the circle of its beginning and development by helping sexual perpetrator to find the way out from sexual violence circle and healthier behavioural patterns.
Moore, David; Wigby, Stuart; English, Sinead; Wong, Sonny; Székely, Tamás; Harrison, Freya
Despite its short-term costs, behaviour that appears altruistic can increase an individual's inclusive fitness by earning direct (selfish) and/or indirect (kin-selected) benefits. An evolved preference for other-regarding or helping behaviour in potential mates has been proposed as an additional mechanism by which these behaviours can yield direct fitness benefits in humans. We asked 32 heterosexual women and 35 heterosexual men to rate the attractiveness of members of the opposite sex in the presence and the absence of information about helping behaviours. Reports of helping behaviour were associated with a significant increase in the attractiveness of both men and women as potential long-term sexual partners. Altruism also increased the attractiveness of men as potential partners for short-term flings, but to a lesser extent than when the same men were being considered for long-term relationships. Altruism did not affect the attractiveness of women as partners for short-term flings. Our results unite two important areas of evolutionary theory - social evolution and sexual selection - and extend the list of means by which helping behaviours, which appear at first glance to be costly to the actor, can in fact earn direct fitness benefits. Helping behaviours may be attractive because they signal 'good genes' and/or because they are perceived as a signal of likely provision of non-genetic benefits (e.g. parental care). Exactly why helping behaviours in a non-mating context might be attractive to potential mates, and whether they are honest signals of mate quality, remains to be elucidated.
Evin Kirmizitoprak; Zeynep Simsek
Aim: To determine the effect of peer education on the knowledge and attitudes of the young about safe sexual life and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Method: In this intervention type epidemiologic study, 1100 youngs were reached at 95% level of significance by probability sampling method. These young people were given education by peer trainers; level of knowledge and attitudes of the young were evaluated before and after education. ‘Young’s Health Information Form’ p...
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effect of peer education on the knowledge and attitudes of the young about safe sexual life and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Method: In this intervention type epidemiologic study, 1100 youngs were reached at 95% level of significance by probability sampling method. These young people were given education by peer trainers; level of knowledge and attitudes of the young were evaluated before and after education. ‘Young’s Health Information Form’ prepared by the investigators and including questions about safe sexual life, family planning and STDs along with socio-demographic informations was used for data collection. In statistical analysis, ‘t test’ was used for comparison of two averages, one-way anova for three groups in independent groups, ‘coupled t test’ was used in dependent groups, ‘qui-square test’ was used for comparison of percents in independent groups, ‘McNemar qui-square test’ was used in dependent groups. Results: A total of 977 young people (females 45.1%, males 54.9% aged between 15-24 years were included in the study (response ratio 88.8%. It was determined that 15.6% of unmarried young had a relationship resulted in sexual intercourse. Boys constitute the majority of the young experienced sexual intercourse and mean age of sexual intercourse was determined as 17.6. Of the young, 43.1% had a sexual intercourse with a prostitute, 43.3% with a close friend and a girlfriend, 8.3% with a maquette or an animal. Total knowledge score increased to 32.6 from 14.6 following peer education intervention carried out based on health attitude theories (p<0.05. Significant improvements were detected in each of ‘avoidance of sexual intercourse’, ‘being monogamous’ and ‘condom use’ in the context of safe sexual life (p<0.05. While ratio of modern method use increased to 80.8% from 53.8%, using no methods decraesed to 11.8% from 28%. Conclusion: Peer education model is suggested to be
Rosana Nogueira de Morais
Full Text Available Testicular measurements and sexual behaviour at semen collection of six donkeys of the “Pega” breed, ranging from 3 to 9 year of age were studied. The average testicular lenght, widht and height were, respectively, 10.12 x 7.38 x 7.68 cm for the left testicle and 10.35 x 6.73 x 7.12 cm for the right one. No statistical difference was found between left testicular volume (x = 201.36 cm3 and right testicular volume (x = 182.34 cm3 of the same sire. The reaction time (measured from the first visual contact with the female to ejaculation ranged from 2 to 45 minutes and the overall mean was 10.98 ± 6.48 min (n=68. During the teasing period some reactions, considered characteristic of donkeys by others investigators, was observed. These included mounting without penis erection or with partial penis erection, flehmen and mastigatory movements of the type described as an oestrous symptom in jennets.
Osafo, Joseph; Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement
To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adol...
Jeffrey Nicholas DeMarco; Antonia Bifulco; Adriano Schimmenti; Vincenzo Caretti; Mary Aiken; Ugo Pace; Stefan Bogaerts; Julia Davidson; Carly Cheevers
Objective: The engagement and use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) has increased exponentially across societies worldwide with implications for social and psychological development in young people. In this context, the risk of negative sexual experience and victimisation online is known to have real world consequences for young people. This article seeks to: explore the nature of adolescent risk taking online behaviour from a group of young adults in different European co...
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to
Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Arnold Hagens, Salazar; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V
Adolescents' health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents' sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14-18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour. This could have important implications for future
Of the total sexually active respondents, 67.1% had begun sexual activity while still in secondary school. For the previous 12-month period, 42.1% said they did not use condoms during the last sexual encounter, 46.1% of the males claimed having had sex with 'bar ladies,' and 39% said they had an active symptom of a ...
Wong, Li Ping
Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practi...
Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M
Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour. We undertook a longitudinal analysis of data from the Partners PrEP Study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-uninfected partners of heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples (n=3163, ≥18 years of age). Efficacy for HIV prevention was publicly reported in July 2011, and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex-unprotected by a condom-during the 12 months after compared with the 12 months before July 2011, to assess whether knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy for HIV prevention caused increased sexual risk behaviour. We analysed 56 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected individuals (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months before unmasking versus 53 after unmasking; we recorded no immediate change (p=0·66) or change over time (p=0·25) after July, 2011. We identified a significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners after July, 2011, but the effect was small (average of 6·8 unprotected sex acts per year vs 6·2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had patients remained masked, p=0·04). Compared with before July, 2011, we noted no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July, 2011. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, might not result in substantial changes in risk
de Munnik, S; den Daas, C; Ammerlaan, H S M; Kok, G; Raethke, M S; Vervoort, S C J M
Despite prevention efforts, the incidence of sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men remains high, which is indicative of unchanged sexual risk behaviour. Discussing sexual risk behaviour has been shown to help prevent sexually transmitted infections among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence whether - and how - specialised HIV nurses discuss sexual risk behaviour with HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Identifying these factors could indicate how best to improve the frequency and quality of discussions about sexual risk behaviour, thereby reducing sexual risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infections. Qualitative study, focus groups among HIV nurses. Dutch HIV treatment centres. A purposive sample was taken of 25 out of 87 HIV nurses working in one of the 26 specialised HIV treatment centres in the Netherlands. Of the 25 HIV nurses we approached, 22 participate in our study. Three semi-structured focus group interviews were held with 22 HIV nurses from 17 hospitals. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. HIV nurses agreed that discussing sexual risk behaviour is important, but barriers were experienced in relation to doing so. In accordance with the theory of planned behaviour, attitudes, perceived norms and perceived behavioural control were all found to be relevant variables. Barriers to discussing sexual risk behaviour were identified as: dealing with embarrassment, the changing professional role of an HIV nurse, time constraints, and the structure of the consultation. To improve the frequency and quality of discussions about sexual risk behaviour with HIV-positive men who have sex with men, our data suggests it would be beneficial to support HIV nurses by developing tools and guidelines addressing what to discuss and how. Using a related topic as a conversational 'bridge' may help nurses to broach this subject with
Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F
Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.
Uchudi, Joseph; Magadi, Monica; Mostazir, Mohammod
A number of authors have identified multiple concurrent sexual partnerships by both men and women to lie at the root of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applies multilevel models to Demographic and Health Survey data collected during 2003-2008 in 20 sub-Saharan African countries to examine the influence of social and cultural context on involvement with multiple sexual partnerships in the region, above and beyond the effects of individual characteristics. The findings provide support for the ecological argument that health behaviours are shaped and determined by societal conditions, in addition to the effects of individual and household characteristics. Involvement with multiple sex partners is most prevalent in societies in which sexual norms are widely permissive and where polygyny is common. Individual autonomy is substantial and attitudes towards sexuality are more liberal among men and women who live in communities in which sexual norms are widely permissive. Men and women who are most likely to have multiple sex partners in the sub-Saharan region are those who initiated sexual activity earlier and those who have the individual attributes (e.g. young age, urban residence, education, media exposure and working for cash and away from home) that bring to them more rights and/or decision-making autonomy, but not necessarily more financial resources and economic security (mostly among women). On the other hand, involvement with multiple partners is determined by cultural norms (i.e. permissive sexual norms) and social change (i.e. mass education, expansion of cash employment). The findings suggest a number of opportunities for more effective policy and programmatic responses to curb the prevalence of multiple partnerships in sub-Saharan Africa.
Nwauche, C A; Akani, C I
A cross--sectional behavioural survey undertaken amongst migrant oil-workers of an oil exploration outfit operating in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria with the aim of assessing the interplay of migrancy, high-risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission. A total of 300 randomly selected migrant oil workers were assessed using structured questionnaires to evaluate key high - risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism. Sampling period was two months with a control cohort of 200. The prevalence of high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) amongst the migrant oil workers was found to be 7.7% while low-risk sexual behaviour (LRSB) was 92.3%. There was no record of HRSB in the control group. We did not also encounter any lesbian sexual orientation in this study. The distribution of HRSB amongst the migrant oil workers showed that the commonest variety was bisexuality (closet homosexuality) with 10(43.5%) followed by high-risk sexual behaviour 7(30.4%), while the least common was multiplicity of sexual partners with 6 (26.1%). Furthermore, majority of these individuals 19 (82.6%) were above the age of 35 years. The index of condom-use and acceptance was high. Here 14 (60.9%) found condom-use convenient while 13 (56.5%) regularly used the condom. This study confirms the existence of HRSB among migrant oil workers in the Niger delta. It is therefore advisable to focus interventionist and prevention programmes on this group which appear to be pivotal in the transmission and spread of HIV/AIDS in this environment.
Kelly, Danielle; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A
Every summer, young people flock to nightlife-focused holiday resorts around the world to find casual work. Despite being exposed to hedonistic environments, often for several months, little is known about their substance use, sexual activity and health service needs over this extended amount of time abroad. A short anonymous questionnaire examining alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviour and use of health services was administered to young British casual workers aged 16-35 in San Antonio, Ibiza (n = 171). 97.7% of casual workers used alcohol in Ibiza, and the majority (85.3%) used drugs. Almost half (43.5%) of all participants used a drug in Ibiza that they had never used in the UK. Most casual workers arrived in Ibiza without a partner or spouse (86.5%). Of these, 86.9% had sex during their stay and 50.0% had unprotected sex; often while under the influence of alcohol. Only 14.3% of those having unprotected sex with a new partner sought a sexual health check-up in Ibiza, although 84.1% intended to do this on their return to the UK. Substance use and sexual risk taking is widespread among young British casual workers in Ibiza. Such international nightlife resorts represent key settings for substance-related health and social problems, and for the international spread of sexually transmitted infections. Addressing the health needs of casual workers and the environments that permit and promote their excessive behaviour requires collaboration between authorities in home and destination countries and the tourism industry.
Full Text Available Background: Every summer, young people flock to nightlife-focused holiday resorts around the world to find casual work. Despite being exposed to hedonistic environments, often for several months, little is known about their substance use, sexual activity and health service needs over this extended amount of time abroad. Methods: A short anonymous questionnaire examining alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviour and use of health services was administered to young British casual workers aged 16–35 in San Antonio, Ibiza (n = 171. Results: 97.7% of casual workers used alcohol in Ibiza, and the majority (85.3% used drugs. Almost half (43.5% of all participants used a drug in Ibiza that they had never used in the UK. Most casual workers arrived in Ibiza without a partner or spouse (86.5%. Of these, 86.9% had sex during their stay and 50.0% had unprotected sex; often while under the influence of alcohol. Only 14.3% of those having unprotected sex with a new partner sought a sexual health check-up in Ibiza, although 84.1% intended to do this on their return to the UK. Conclusion: Substance use and sexual risk taking is widespread among young British casual workers in Ibiza. Such international nightlife resorts represent key settings for substance-related health and social problems, and for the international spread of sexually transmitted infections. Addressing the health needs of casual workers and the environments that permit and promote their excessive behaviour requires collaboration between authorities in home and destination countries and the tourism industry.
Huerga, Helena; Venables, Emilie; Ben-Farhat, Jihane; van Cutsem, Gilles; Ellman, Tom; Kenyon, Chris
Efficacy of Treatment as Prevention Strategy depends on a variety of factors including individuals' likelihood to test and initiate treatment, viral load and sexual behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that people with higher risk sexual behaviour are less likely to know their HIV-positive status and be virologically suppressed. A cross-sectional population-based survey of individuals aged 15-59 years old was conducted in 2013 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A two-stage cluster probability sampling was used. After adjustment for age and sex, lack of awareness of HIV-positivity was strongly associated with having more than one sexual partner in the preceding year (aOR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.5-3.1). Inconsistent condom use was more common in individuals with more than one sexual partner (aOR: 16.6, 95%CI: 7.6-36.7) and those unaware (aOR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.6-5.4). Among people aware of their HIV-positivity, higher risk sexual behaviour was associated with lack of viral suppression (aOR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.5). Risky sexual behaviour seems associated with factors linked to poor health-seeking behaviour which may have negative implications for HIV testing and Treatment as Prevention. Innovative strategies, driven by improved epidemiological and anthropological understanding, are needed to enable comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is a key factor underlying the remarkable vulnerability to HIV infection among men and women in sub-Saharan Africa, especially within urban settings. Its effects, however, vary by type of drinking, population group and are modified by socio-cultural co-factors. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 1465 men living in single-sex hostels and 1008 women in adjacent informal settlements in inner-city, Johannesburg, South Africa. Being drunk in the past week was used as an indicator of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of drinking and number of alcohol units/week used as measures of volume. Associations between dimensions of alcohol use (current drinking, volume of alcohol consumed and heavy episodic drinking patterns and sexual behaviours were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Most participants were internal migrants from KwaZulu Natal province. About half of men were current drinkers, as were 13% of women. Of current male drinkers, 18% drank daily and 23% were drunk in the past week (women: 14% and 29% respectively. Among men, associations between heavy episodic drinking and sexual behaviour were especially pronounced. Compared with non-drinkers, episodic ones were 2.6 fold more likely to have transactional sex (95%CI = 1.7–4.1 and 2.2 fold more likely to have a concurrent partner (95%CI = 1.5–3.2. Alcohol use in men, regardless of measure, was strongly associated with having used physical force to have sex. Overall effects of alcohol on sexual behaviour were larger in women than men, and associations were detected between all alcohol measures in women, and concurrency, transactional sex and having been forced to have sex. Conclusions Alcohol use and sexual behaviours are strongly linked among male and female migrant populations in inner-city Johannesburg. More rigorous interventions at both local and macro level are needed to alleviate alcohol harms and mitigate the alcohol
Sullivan, Kathleen M; Dawson Rose, Carol; Phillips, J Craig; Holzemer, William L; Webel, Allison R; Nicholas, Patrice; Corless, Inge B; Kirksey, Kenn; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Voss, Joachim; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Portillo, Carmen; Johnson, Mallory O; Brion, John; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Nokes, Kathleen; Reid, Paula; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Chen, Wei-Ti
Sexual risk behaviour was explored and described using Social Action Theory. The sexual transmission of HIV is complex and multi-factorial. Social Action Theory provides a framework for viewing self-regulation of modifiable behaviour such as condom use. Condom use is viewed within the context of social interaction and interdependence. Cross-sectional survey. Self-report questionnaire administered to adults living with HIV/AIDS, recruited from clinics, service organizations and by active outreach, between 2010 - 2011. Having multiple sex partners with inconsistent condom use during a 3-month recall period was associated with being male, younger age, having more years of education,substance use frequency and men having sex with men being a mode of acquiring HIV. In addition, lower self-efficacy for condom use scores were associated with having multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use. Social Action Theory provided a framework for organizing data from an international sample of seropositive persons. Interventions for sexually active, younger, HIV positive men who have sex with men, that strengthen perceived efficacy for condom use, and reduce the frequency of substance use, may contribute to reducing HIV-transmission risk. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Witkowska, Eva; Menckel, Ewa
Sexual harassment in schools is recognized as a public-health problem detrimental to girls' psychosomatic health. This study examines the magnitude of sexual harassment and types of behaviours related to sexual harassment that female students are exposed to in a school environment, and their perceptions of them as problems in school. A random sample of 540 female high school students, from all over Sweden, responded to an anonymous self-report mail questionnaire consisting of items related to personal experiences of different behaviours related to sexual harassment during the previous school year. Sexual harassment was identified by 49% of the female students as a problem present in their schools. The most common types were verbal behaviours, such as: sexualized conversations, attractiveness rating, demeaning comments about gender, name-calling, and sexual personal comments. The most common non-verbal displays were: sexualized contact seeking and sexual looks. Behaviours in the sexual assault and teacher-to-student categories were less prevalent. In all four categories, the respondents who reported exposure to a particular behaviour were significantly more likely to identify that behaviour as a problem in their school. However, many non-exposed respondents also perceived such behaviours as problems in their school. Female high-school students in Sweden are exposed to a variety of inappropriate and/or unacceptable behaviours of a sexual nature, or based on sex, that may infringe their right to a supportive, respectful and safe learning environment or their dignity. Greater efforts are needed to analyse and prevent sexual harassment in schools.
This study investigates contextual factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour and higher-risk sexual conduct of men symptomatic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Botswana. Data were drawn from a randomly selected, nationally representative sample of 8 222 men, aged 15-64 years, who had reported having symptoms suggestive of an STI during the previous twelve months. Higher-risk behaviour continues to sustain the HIV epidemic in Botswana. At the heart of Botswana's epidemic lies men's reluctance to seek medical treatment, engaging in unprotected sex, and having sex with multiple partners while symptomatic of an STI. The odds of engaging in unprotected sex while symptomatic of an STI were significantly higher among teenage males and males in urban households. For every year's increase in the age difference between partners there was a 28% increase in the odds of the male having had unprotected sex. Being married and having had more than one sexual partner in the last year multiplied the odds of having unprotected sex while symptomatic of an STI by three times. The longer an infected man remained with symptoms before seeking help, the more likely it was to have unprotected sex while infected and the more likely to seek treatment from a traditional healer. Notably, having sought medical treatment from hospitals, clinics and health workers, as opposed to consulting traditional healers, significantly reduced the odds of having had unprotected sex while infected with an STI by 48%. The results indicate the need to encourage men to utilise public healthcare services. The public health sector in Botswana needs to provide healthcare services that are user-friendly for men. Increasing the number of treatment sites may also contribute to preventing onward transmission of STIs. Special attention needs to be paid to boys' socialisation towards gender norms, and men are to be encouraged to play a responsible role in HIV prevention.
Barry, Patrick J
Inappropriate prescribing in older people is a common condition associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial costs. Medication use increases with age, and this, in conjunction with an increasing disease burden, is associated with adverse drug reactions. This review outlines why older people are more likely to develop adverse drug reactions and how common the problem is. The use of different tools to identify and measure the problem is reviewed. Common syndromes seen in older adults (eg, falling, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance) are considered, and recent evidence in relation to medication use for these conditions is reviewed. Finally, we present a brief summary of significant developments in the recent literature for those caring for older people.
Nicolosi, Alfredo; Glasser, Dale B; Kim, Sae C; Marumo, Ken; Laumann, Edward O
To study sexual activity, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and related help-seeking behaviour among middle-aged and elderly people in Asia. A random population survey was carried out in 2001-2002 among urban residents aged 40-80 years in China, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and The Philippines, with interviews based on a standardized questionnaire covering demographic details, health, relationships, and sexual behaviours, attitudes and beliefs. An intercept method of sampling was used in all countries except Japan, where questionnaires were mailed to a sample drawn from telephone directories. Sexual dysfunction was defined as persistent sexual problems. The questionnaire was completed by 6700 people (3350 men and 3350 women), giving a response rate of 27%. Across all countries, 82% of men and 64% of women had engaged in sexual intercourse during the year preceding the interview. Most of the respondents considered satisfactory sex an essential means of maintaining a relationship. More than 20% of men and 30% of women complained of having at least one sexual dysfunction, although there were marked variations among the countries. The sexual dysfunctions most frequently reported were early ejaculation (20%; 95% confidence interval, CI, 18-21) and erectile dysfunction (15%, 14-17) among men; and a lack of sexual interest (27%, 25-29), lubrication difficulties (24%, 22-25), and an inability to reach orgasm (23%, 22-25) among women. Of the 948 men and 992 women who were sexually active and reported sexual dysfunctions, 45% did sought no help or advice and only 21% sought medical care. Men and women in Asian countries continue to show sexual interest and activity into middle age and beyond. Although sexual dysfunction is prevalent in this age group, several sociocultural and economic factors appear to be preventing individuals from seeking medical help for these problems.
Adequate knowledge and safe sexual behavior among young people is key to the eventual elimination of the disease. The aim of this study was to identify adolescents' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and their sexual behavior, as they form a significant at-risk group. This was a descriptive study of in-school adolescents carried out ...
A study was undertaken among 395 intra-city commercial bus drivers, conductors and motor park attendants in a sub-urban community in Lagos, Nigeria. It was aimed at ascertaining the level of knowledge of the participants on sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS, their sexual practices and perceived vulnerability ...
auprès de leurs parents et dans la média. Nous concluons ... studies in Nigeria have also reported high rate of parental ... used to validate all entries. ..... adolescent children's sexuality: A study of ... Oladepo O, Brieger W.R: Sexual Attitudes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.
Redes sociais e comportamento sexual: para uma visão relacional da sexualidade, do risco e da prevenção Social networks and sexual behaviour: towards a relational approach to sexuality, risk-taking behaviour and prevention practices
Full Text Available Com base num inquérito representativo da população portuguesa entre 18 e 65 anos, realizado em 2007, este estudo investiga o impacto de fatores de rede social sobre os comportamentos sexuais dos indivíduos. Através da percepção normativa dos inquiridos sobre a moral sexual dos seus amigos e familiares e de indicadores relativos à caracterização da rede de confidência sexual, tais como o número, a identidade, o gênero, a idade e o comportamento dos confidentes em matéria de sexualidade e prevenção face ao risco de infecção por DSTs, obtivemos um retrato multidimensional das redes sociais dos indivíduos. A realização de análises de regressão linear e logística permitiu avaliar o impacto preditivo da rede sobre o número de parceiros sexuais, as relações sexuais ocasionais e o uso do preservativo. Os dados mostram que os fatores de rede são importantes para explicar o comportamento sexual dos indivíduos. Redes constituídas por amigos e mais liberais em termos de moral sexual tendem a influenciar o comportamento sexual, levando a um maior experimentalismo, sobretudo no caso das mulheres. Por outro lado, a homologia entre o comportamento sexual dos confidentes e o dos inquiridos é relevante para explicar o recurso ao preservativo nas relações sexuais ocasionais, especialmente no caso dos homens. Tanto numa perspectiva relacional da sexualidade como numa óptica epidemiológica, a análise das redes sociais dos indivíduos constitui um aspecto importante para a compreensão e explicação da variedade de experiências sexuais, mais restritas ou mais plurais, e para os riscos de infecção que daí podem advir.Based on a representative survey of the Portuguese population aged between 18 and 65, carried out in 2007, this study investigates the impact of social networks on the sexual behaviour of individuals. Through the normative perceptions respondents have of the sexual morals of their family members and friends, as
Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Liljeros, Fredrik; Thanh, Hoang Huy; Thorson, Anna
Survey data from men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asian cities indicate ongoing and drastic increases in HIV prevalence. It is unknown which behavioural factors are most important in driving these epidemics. We aimed to analyse detailed sexual behaviour data among MSM in Vietnam and to model HIV transmission using improved assumptions on sexual network structure. Vietnam. Internet-using men who had ever had sex (any type) with a man, aged ≥18 years and living in Vietnam. The study was cross-sectional, population-based and performed in 2012, using online respondent-driven sampling. The Internet-based survey instrument was completed by 982 participants, of which 857 were eligible. Questions included sociodemography and retrospective sexual behaviour, including number of unprotected anal sex (UAS) acts per partner. Estimated basic reproductive number over 3 months as a function of transmission risk per UAS act; frequency distributions of number of UAS partners and UAS acts during last 3 months. 36% (CI 32% to 42%) reported UAS at least once during the last 3 months. 36% (CI 32% to 41%) had ever taken an HIV test and received the result. UAS partner numbers and number of UAS acts were both highly skewed and positively correlated. Using a weighted configuration model, taking into account partner numbers, frequency of UAS and their correlations, we estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) over 3 months. The results indicated rapid transmission over a wide range of values of per-act transmissibility. Men with multiple partners had unexpectedly high UAS frequency per partner, paired with low HIV testing rates. The study highlights the importance of collecting data on frequency of UAS acts and indicates the need to rapidly scale-up HIV prevention services and testing opportunities for MSM in Vietnam.
Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Musa, Babashani; Aliyu, Muktar H
The process of becoming aware of one's serostatus, immediate and delayed responses of the individual, family and community have profound implications on health seeking behaviour of PLWHAs especially in developing countries. We investigated post-diagnosis reactions, disclosure, perceived stigmatization and sexual behaviour of PLWHAs in northern Nigeria. A triangulation of methods consisting of structured interviewer questionnaire administered on 205 respondents and two Focus Group Discussions with PLWHAs receiving care at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital was used. HIV serodiagnosis, immediate and delayed reaction to serostatus and responses of family, friends and community members were elicited in addition to perceived stigma and sexual behaviour. Overall, 111 (54.1%) of the 205 patients were counseled before being tested for HIV infection. Majority of women 59 (51.8%) were tested and informed during antenatal care or 46 (40.4%) following diagnostic workup for symptoms related to AIDS. Most men 69 (75.8%) came to know during diagnostic workup or as part of screening for blood transfusion 5 (5.5%). Up to 37.2% of the respondents had kept their serostatus secret. Disclosures were more likely to mothers (51.9%), sisters (31.0%), brothers (11.0%) and spouses (6.1%). Of all respondents, 149 (72.6%) said they were shocked, afraid, angry and sad while 29 (14.1%) reported being indifferent. A higher proportion of females 68 (59.7%) were shocked, sad and angry than males 36 (39.6%) (Pworkplace and the remaining 17 (37.8%) among friends. Of 85 (41.5%) that were sexually active, 78 (91.8%) reported protecting their partners through use of condoms. The sub-optimal counseling resulted in strong emotional reactions that threatened the strong social support system of PLWHAs. Supportive counseling could improve VCT uptake and well being of PLWHAs in northern Nigeria.
Sexual identity, attraction and behaviour in Britain: The implications of using different dimensions of sexual orientation to estimate the size of sexual minority populations and inform public health interventions.
Geary, Rebecca S; Tanton, Clare; Erens, Bob; Clifton, Soazig; Prah, Philip; Wellings, Kaye; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Datta, Jessica; Gravningen, Kirsten; Fuller, Elizabeth; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H
Sexual orientation encompasses three dimensions: sexual identity, attraction and behaviour. There is increasing demand for data on sexual orientation to meet equality legislation, monitor potential inequalities and address public health needs. We present estimates of all three dimensions and their overlap in British men and women, and consider the implications for health services, research and the development and evaluation of public health interventions. Analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years) undertaken in 2010-2012. A lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) identity was reported by 2·5% of men and 2·4% of women, whilst 6·5% of men and 11·5% of women reported any same-sex attraction and 5·5% of men and 6·1% of women reported ever experience of same-sex sex. This equates to approximately 547,000 men and 546,000 women aged 16-74 in Britain self-identifying as LGB and 1,204,000 men and 1,389,000 women ever having experience of same-sex sex. Of those reporting same-sex sex in the past 5 years, 28% of men and 45% of women identified as heterosexual. There is large variation in the size of sexual minority populations depending on the dimension applied, with implications for the design of epidemiological studies, targeting and monitoring of public health interventions and estimating population-based denominators. There is also substantial diversity on an individual level between identity, behaviour and attraction, adding to the complexity of delivering appropriate services and interventions.
Sexual identity, attraction and behaviour in Britain: The implications of using different dimensions of sexual orientation to estimate the size of sexual minority populations and inform public health interventions.
Rebecca S Geary
Full Text Available Sexual orientation encompasses three dimensions: sexual identity, attraction and behaviour. There is increasing demand for data on sexual orientation to meet equality legislation, monitor potential inequalities and address public health needs. We present estimates of all three dimensions and their overlap in British men and women, and consider the implications for health services, research and the development and evaluation of public health interventions.Analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years undertaken in 2010-2012.A lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB identity was reported by 2·5% of men and 2·4% of women, whilst 6·5% of men and 11·5% of women reported any same-sex attraction and 5·5% of men and 6·1% of women reported ever experience of same-sex sex. This equates to approximately 547,000 men and 546,000 women aged 16-74 in Britain self-identifying as LGB and 1,204,000 men and 1,389,000 women ever having experience of same-sex sex. Of those reporting same-sex sex in the past 5 years, 28% of men and 45% of women identified as heterosexual.There is large variation in the size of sexual minority populations depending on the dimension applied, with implications for the design of epidemiological studies, targeting and monitoring of public health interventions and estimating population-based denominators. There is also substantial diversity on an individual level between identity, behaviour and attraction, adding to the complexity of delivering appropriate services and interventions.
Sexual identity, attraction and behaviour in Britain: The implications of using different dimensions of sexual orientation to estimate the size of sexual minority populations and inform public health interventions
Erens, Bob; Clifton, Soazig; Prah, Philip; Wellings, Kaye; Mitchell, Kirstin R.; Datta, Jessica; Gravningen, Kirsten; Fuller, Elizabeth; Johnson, Anne M.; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H.
Background Sexual orientation encompasses three dimensions: sexual identity, attraction and behaviour. There is increasing demand for data on sexual orientation to meet equality legislation, monitor potential inequalities and address public health needs. We present estimates of all three dimensions and their overlap in British men and women, and consider the implications for health services, research and the development and evaluation of public health interventions. Methods Analyses of data from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16–74 years) undertaken in 2010–2012. Findings A lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) identity was reported by 2·5% of men and 2·4% of women, whilst 6·5% of men and 11·5% of women reported any same-sex attraction and 5·5% of men and 6·1% of women reported ever experience of same-sex sex. This equates to approximately 547,000 men and 546,000 women aged 16–74 in Britain self-identifying as LGB and 1,204,000 men and 1,389,000 women ever having experience of same-sex sex. Of those reporting same-sex sex in the past 5 years, 28% of men and 45% of women identified as heterosexual. Interpretation There is large variation in the size of sexual minority populations depending on the dimension applied, with implications for the design of epidemiological studies, targeting and monitoring of public health interventions and estimating population-based denominators. There is also substantial diversity on an individual level between identity, behaviour and attraction, adding to the complexity of delivering appropriate services and interventions. PMID:29293516
Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P
This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Jegede, A S; Odumosu, O
This paper reports the main results of a series of interviews conducted among the Yoruba of south-western Nigeria. Fifty men and fifty women differing in socio-demographic backgrounds were studied. The study revealed that during their first sexual experience, Yoruba girls are at risk of contacting sexually transmitted diseases and of having unplanned pregnancies because of the traditional control measures and lack of adequate sex education even among those from non-traditional backgrounds. Choice of marriage partner is influenced by the kin, which encourages early marriage and multiple sexual relationships through polygyny. Yoruba men do not like contraceptives and the women suffer more of the consequences of sexual relationships than men. Sexual decision-making in Yoruba culture is characterised by certain specific problems of structural and cultural origins such as separate lifestyle of men and women, seeing the discussion of sexuality as a taboo, male dominance, and the perceived side effects of contraceptives. There is need for expanded sexual and reproductive health education strategies targeted at both males and females in this community especially among the adolescent group.
Xiridou, M; Wallinga, J; Dukers-Muijers, N; Coutinho, R
The impact of hepatitis B vaccination in men having sex with men in Amsterdam has been marginal until now, possibly because of increases in sexual risk behaviour counterbalancing the effect of vaccination. A mathematical model is used to describe the hepatitis B epidemic. The model shows that, with the current vaccination coverage, the decrease in incidence is small in the beginning. However, the number of infections prevented per vaccine administered rises over time. Nevertheless, increased risk behaviour reduces the benefit of vaccination. Targeting high-risk men is more successful in reducing and containing the epidemic than targeting low-risk men. In conclusion, the vaccination campaign is effective and should be intensified. High-risk men should be targeted for vaccination and for risk reduction.
Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. Methods A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16–29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Results Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 % identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females. At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Conclusion Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other
Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin
This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13-18. One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese men who have sex with men (MSM, especially those living in large metropolitan areas such as Tokyo and Osaka, are facing a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Although the Internet is used as a new venue for meeting sex partners, it can also serve as a useful research tool for investigating the risk behaviours of Japanese MSM. This Internet survey explored the extent of substance use and its association with sexual risk behaviours among Japanese MSM. Methods Between 28 February 2003 and 16 May 2003 MSM were recruited through 57 Japanese gay-oriented Web sites, gay magazines, and Internet mailing lists. Participants completed a structured questionnaire anonymously through the Internet. Results In total, 2,062 Japanese MSM completed the questionnaire. The average age of participants was 29.0 years and 70.5% identified as gay, 20.8% as bisexual, and 8.7% as other. Overall, 34.5% reported never using a substance, 45% reported ever using one type of substance (lifetime reported single substance users, and 19.6% had used more than 1 type of substance (lifetime reported multiple substance users in their lifetimes. The substances most commonly used were amyl nitrite (63.2%, 5-methoxy-N, N-diisopropyltryptamine (5MEO-DIPT (9.3%, and marijuana (5.7%. In the multivariate analysis, unprotected anal intercourse, having had 6 or more sexual partners, visiting a sex club/gay venue in the previous 6 months, a lower education level, and being 30 to 39 years of age were associated with both lifetime single and lifetime multiple substance use. Lifetime reported multiple substance use was also correlated with having a casual sex partner, having symptoms of depression, being diagnosed as HIV-positive, and greater HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Conclusion This is the first Internet-based research focused on the sexual and substance use behaviours of MSM in Asia. Our findings suggest a compelling need for prevention interventions to reduce HIV risk
Isaksson, J; Stickley, A; Koposov, R; Ruchkin, V
Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents. The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students' self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model. Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bregnhøj, Lisbeth; Thirstrup, Steffen; Kristensen, Mogens Brandt
to the patients. Topical, dermatological medications and medications not used regularly were excluded. RESULTS: 212 patients were prescribed 1621 medications by their GPs at baseline. In all, 640 (39.5%) of the medications had one or more inappropriate ratings in the 10 criteria making up the MAI. The main part...... is good. However, the majority of patients used one or more medications with inappropriate ratings. The inappropriate prescribing relates to specific therapeutic groups and criteria, which should be targeted in future interventions....
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine male outpatient attenders' sexual behaviours, expectations and experience of talking about their sexuality and sexual health needs with a doctor. Methods A survey was conducted among all male patients aged 18-70, recruited from the two main medical outpatient clinics in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 2005-2006. The anonymous self-administered questionnaire included questions on sexual behaviour, HIV/STI information needs, expectations and experiences regarding discussion of sexual matters with a doctor. Results The response rate was 53.0% (N = 1452. The mean age was 37.7 years. Overall, 13.4% of patients were defined as at STI risk - i.e. having not consistently used condoms with casual partners in the last 6 months, or with a paid partner during the last intercourse - regarding their sexual behaviour in the last year. 90.9% would have liked their physician to ask them questions concerning their sexual life; only 61.4% had ever had such a discussion. The multivariate analysis showed that patients at risk tended to have the following characteristics: recruited from the HIV testing clinic, lived alone, declared no religion, had a low level of education, felt uninformed about HIV/AIDS, were younger, had had concurrent sexual partners in the last 12 months. However they were not more likely to have discussed sexual matters with their doctor than patients not at risk. Conclusion Recording the sexual history and advice on the prevention of the risks of STI should become routine practice for primary health care doctors.
We conclude that in-school adolescents practiced unsafe sexual activity and they are therefore predisposed ... auprès de leurs parents et dans la média. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol. ..... mental organisations, community based.
Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien
administered the Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale (DIDS). We made several comparisons of behavioral patterns using the ARSD scale of the DIDS for each gender: kissing or having sex vs. no sexual contact, or having sex versus kissing or no contact. In general, men reported more ARSD than women. Men who......Sex and drinking go hand-in-hand in Western societies. Men also tend to report more sexual disinhibition under the influence of alcohol and drugs than women. At a vacation resort,we conducted a survey of young men and women regarding self-reported alcohol-related sexual disinhibition (ARSD), and we...... reported either kissing or having sex the night before reported significantly more ARSD than men not reporting either kissing or having sex. Women who had had sex the night before reported more ARSD than women who had either kissed or not reported any sexual contact on the night before, but women who had...
Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Brouwer, Tom F; Barr, Craig
shocks have been reported. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence, predictors and management of inappropriate shocks in the EFFORTLESS S-ICD Registry, which collects S-ICD implantation information and follow-up data from clinical centers in Europe and New Zealand. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 21 ± 13...... xyphoid to V6) reduced the risk. Reprogramming or optimization of SVT treatment after the first clinical event of inappropriate shock was successful in preventing further inappropriate shocks for cardiac oversensing and SVT events. CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate shocks, mainly due to cardiac oversensing...
Jade E Bilardi
Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV affects a third of women of reproductive age in the US and there is increasing evidence to suggest it may be sexually transmitted. This study aimed to extend and validate the findings of our earlier smaller qualitative study by exploring in detail women's views and experiences of the triggering factors associated with BV onset and recurrence.Women aged 20-49, who had experienced one or more symptomatic episode of BV within 6 months, were opportunistically recruited to complete a 38-item questionnaire on their experience of BV.103 women completed the questionnaire. Women were significantly more likely to report sexual than lifestyle factors triggered BV onset and recurrence (p<0.001. The top 3 factors women attributed to both BV onset and recurrence were identical-and all sexual. They included, in order: 1 unprotected sex; 2 sex with a new male partner; and 3 sex in general. The main lifestyle factors nominated included stress, diet, menstruation and the use of feminine hygiene products. While many women felt their BV had been transmitted through sexual contact (54% and developed as a result of sexual activity (59%, few considered BV a sexually transmitted infection (STI (10%. Despite this 57% felt partners should also be treated for BV.These data concur with our earlier qualitative findings that women believe BV is triggered by sexual activity. While many women felt BV was sexually transmitted and supported partner treatment, they did not consider BV an STI. This contradiction is likely due to information conveyed to women based on current guidelines. In the absence of highly effective BV treatments, this study highlights the need for guidelines to indicate there is scientific uncertainty around the pathogenesis of BV and to contain clear health messages regarding the evidence for practices shown to be associated with a reduced risk of BV (i.e. consistent condom use.
Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A
Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.
Kibombo, Richard; Neema, Stella; Ahmed, Fatima H
Uganda has been hailed as a success story in the fight against HIV that has seen a reversal in prevalence from a peak of 15% in 1991 to about 6.5% currently Since 1992, the largest and most consistent declines in HIV have occurred among the 15-19-year-olds. While many studies have examined how key behavior changes (Abstinence, Be faithful and Condom use) have contributed to the decline in HIV prevalence, few have studied the relationship between sexual behaviors and risk perception. Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents, multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to examine the strength of the association between risky sexual behavior and perceived risk among 12-19-year-old adolescents in Uganda. After controlling for other correlates of sexual behavior such as age, education, residence, region and marital status, the findings indicate highly significant positive association between perceived risk and risky sexual behavior among males but not females. The findings reveal that, regardless of their current sexual behavior, most female adolescents in Uganda feel at great risk of HIV infection. The findings also show that adolescents with broken marriages are much more vulnerable to high risk sexual behaviors than other categories of adolescents. These results further emphasize the need for a holistic approach in addressing the social, economic and contextual factors that continue to put many adolescents at risk of HIV infection.
Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A
This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City ( n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.
van Wees, Daphne A; den Daas, Chantal; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E; Heijne, Janneke C M
Risk perception plays an important role in testing behaviour for sexually transmitted infections, but is rarely included in mathematical models exploring the impact of testing. We explored the impact of incorporating sexual behaviour (SB), risk perception (RP) and differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups on prevalence, using chlamydia as an example. We developed a pair model with a susceptible-infected-susceptible structure representing heterosexuals aged 16-26 years. The effect of testing on chlamydia prevalence was compared between a model with only SB (SB model) and a model with SB and RP (SB-RP model). In the SB-RP model, a scenario without differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups was compared to scenarios with differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups. Introducing testing into the SB-RP model resulted in a slightly smaller reduction in chlamydia prevalence (-38.0%) as compared to the SB model (-40.4%). In the SB-RP model, the scenario without differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups overestimated the reduction in chlamydia prevalence (with 4.8%), especially in the group with high SB and low RP (19.8%). We conclude that mathematical models incorporating RP and differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups improve the impact assessment of testing and treatment on chlamydia prevalence. © 2018 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Among insects, sexual pheromones are typically mixtures of two to several components, all of which are generally required to elicit a behavioural response. Here we show for the first time that a complete blend of sexual pheromone components is needed to elicit a response also in a butterfly. Males of the Green-veined White, Pieris napi, emit an aphrodisiac pheromone, citral, from wing glands. This pheromone is requisite for females to accept mating with a courting male. Citral is a mixture of the two geometric isomers geranial (E-isomer and neral (Z-isomer in an approximate 1:1 ratio. We found that both these compounds are required to elicit acceptance behaviour, which indicates synergistic interaction between processing of the isomers. Using functional Ca2+ imaging we found that geranial and neral evoke significantly different but overlapping glomerular activity patterns in the antennal lobe, which suggests receptors with different affinity for the two isomers. However, these glomeruli were intermingled with glomeruli responding to ,for example, plant-related compounds, i.e. no distinct subpopulation of pheromone-responding glomeruli as in moths and other insects. In addition, these glomeruli showed lower specificity than pheromone-activated glomeruli in moths. We could, however, not detect any mixture interactions among four identified glomeruli, indicating that the synergistic effect may be generated at a higher processing level. Furthermore, correlations between glomerular activity patterns evoked by the single isomers and the blend did not change over time.
Babinská, Ingrid; Halánová, Monika; Kalinová, Zuzana; Čechová, Lenka; Čisláková, Lýdia; Madarasová Gecková, Andrea
The aim of the study was to explore sexual behaviour and the occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in the population living in Roma settlements compared to the majority population in Slovakia and to assess the association between alcohol use and sexual behaviour within both populations. A cross-sectional population-based Hepa-Meta study was conducted in Slovakia in 2011. The final sample comprised 452 Roma and 403 non-Roma respondents. The occurrence of CT was detected by direct proof of the pathogen by PCR. The association between alcohol use and the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour were assessed using a logistic regression. First intercourse at age 15 or younger was reported by 27.9% of Roma (vs. 4.5% of non-Roma); 93.4% of Roma (vs. 77.9% of non-Roma) used condom inconsistently, 22.8% of Roma (vs. 43.9% of non-Roma) used a condom for protection from unwanted pregnancies and only 8.8% of Roma (vs. 21.8% of non-Roma) due to protection against infectious diseases. However, Roma reported having had five or more sexual partners less often compared to the majority (11.5% of Roma vs. 20.6% of non-Roma). Binge drinking at least once a month was associated with a higher number of sexual partners in both groups, but not with condom non-use. The prevalence of CT infection in the Roma population was higher (3.8%) compared to non-Roma (2.7%); however, the difference was not statistically significant. Our study found no differences in the prevalence of CT infection between Roma and non-Roma despite differences in sexual behaviour. Roma begin their sexual life earlier and have unprotected sex more often, but on the other hand, they seem to be much more restrained in terms of the number of sexual partners compared to the majority population.
Carl De Crée
Full Text Available The sport of jūdō was intended as an activity “for all”. Since in 1996 a major sex abuse scandal broke out that involved a Dutch top jūdō coach and several female elite athletes, international media have identified many more abuses. To date no scholarly studies exist that have examined the nature, extent, and consequences of these anomalies. We intend in this paper to review and analyze sexual abuses in jūdō. To do so we offer a descriptive jurisprudence overview of relevant court and disciplinary cases, followed by a qualitative-analytical approach looking at the potential factors that prompt jūdō-related bullying and sexual harassment. Sex offenders may be attracted to jūdō because of: 1. the extensive bodily contact during grappling, 2. the easy access to voyeuristic opportunities during contest weigh-ins and showering, 3. Jūdō’s authoritarian and hierarchical structure as basis for ‘grooming’, 4. lack of integration of jūdō’s core moral component in contemporary jūdō coach and instructor education, and 5. its increasing eroticization by elite jūdō athletes posing for nude calendars and media and by specialized pornographic jūdō manga and movies. Cultural conceptions and jurisprudence are factors that affect how people perceive the seriousness and how these offences are dealt with. A survey of 19 cases of abuse in jūdō worldwide shows that cultural conceptions and jurisprudence cause that such cases are handled in a very heterogeneous way by the law and by the jūdō governing bodies. Jūdō clubs and organizations overall suffer from a lack of expertise, intellectual insight, ethical objectivity, and solid procedures of fairness for both victim and accused, in this way often failing in both sufficiently protecting the weak from sex offenders, and in educating and reintegrating past offenders through jūdō activities that do not involve their victim target groups. Jūdō’s moral philosophy implicitly
Irene Perdomo Victoria
. Objective: to identify the sexual behaviour in a population over 60 years of age in the health area of Tamarindo, Florencia Municipality, Ciego de Avila, 2010. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was performed which sample was composed of 980 older adults. Of these adults, a sample of 200 people was randomly selected. Some of the variables under study were: age, sex, marital status and interest of getting information about the topic. Results: "young adults" predominated what constituted a 72, 5 % of the sample studied; the married and engaged people represented a 67, 5 % of the sample; the male sex was the most represented one and the 95 % showed interest in getting information about sexuality . Conclusions: in general, older adults expressed that sexual activity is beneficial and showed their interest in having adequate information about sexuality.
Panea Pizarro, Isabel; Domínguez Martin, Ana Teresa; Barragán Prieto, Vanessa; Martos Sánchez, Almudena; López Espuela, Fidel
To explore the life experiences on sexual relationships in the third trimester of pregnancy in primiparous women. Phenomenological qualitative study, SITE: Cáceres (Extremadura). Primiparous women in the third trimester of their pregnancy. We use theoretical sampling, was conducted on pregnant primiparous. The study included 15 participants. The data was collected using in-depth interviews, that were voiced recorded and later transcribed. The analysis was made using Giorgi's proposal. The results show three main points. Fear of doing damage, mediated by the obstetric history and the desire to have the long-awaited child. Exploring new routes: forms of sexual expression are modified by the physical changes, the fears, and the mobility. Highlighting the importance of other displays of affection and love (kisses and caresses). The Sex Taboo: lack of information against sexuality during pregnancy is still common. Women in the third trimester of their pregnancy put aside their sexual appetite and that of their partners, and concentrate in the wellbeing of their new born baby. It highlights the role of the mother before the couple. The more desired and difficult the pregnancy has been, the more the sexual life is reduced. The Health Professionals must advise and inform the couples with an open-minded attitude. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collection. Participants’ alcohol consumption, smoking habits and sexual behaviour patterns were explored. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was done. Results: The prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual activity was found to occur in 5.7%, 7.2% and 5.5% of participants, respectively. The mean age of the participants’ first sexual activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco use was reported to be approximately 16.8 years. Multivariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. Other factors, such as religion and tobacco use among family members, were found to be influential. Conclusion: The potential coexistence of multiple risk behaviours in a student demands an integrated approach. Emphasis should be placed on health education in schools and an increased awareness among parents in order to prevent adolescents’ behaviours from becoming a risk to their health.
O'reilly, K R
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a particular problem in the developing world. Sexual behavior and rapid societal changes appear to be contributing to the high prevalence. Infertility, a consequence of STD, is seen as one of the most devastating things that could happen to an African woman. Behavioral risk factors for STD include age at 1st intercourse, number of sexual partners and use of contraception. The 1st two indicate length of exposure and amount of exposure respectively. Along with the prevalence of STD in the community, these factors allow an estimate of the population at risk for STD. Demographic risk factors from developed countries may not be applicable to developing countries. Data on sexual behavior in Africa is poor. Great intercultural variation exists. Age at 1st intercourse is earlier in Africa than America, with over 1/3 of African women reporting sexual activity by age 14, and 90% by age 17. Premarital sexual activity is high. Prostitution is widespread in African cities, and has been related to lack of expectations for marital fidelity, premarital celibacy and the infrequency of romantic love. Prostitutes play an important role in STD transmission. Current population growth in Africa has skewed the population towards the young, there has been rural to urban migration, and there are skewed sex ratios with many more men in cities: all of these factors predispose to STD. The high prevalence of untreated STD, resulting in increased infertility acts paradoxically to increase rather than decrease the fertility in Africa. Infertility is devastating for an African woman, resulting in divorce and diminished social status that often leads to prostitution. The fear of infertilty results in refusal of contraception and early childbearing to demonstrate fertiltiy.
Full Text Available This study, based on the case studies of 25 adolescent sex offenders, was designed to understand those factors that contribute to adolescent sexual offending. Although the focus is primarily on the micro level, we acknowledge the impacts of mezzo- and macro-level factors on family and individual functioning. External structural factors such as poverty, inequality, unemployment, societal values regarding sexuality, lack of support systems and violence penetrate the lives of individuals and families to manifest in a range of problems that human service professionals such as psychiatrists, social workers and psychologists deal with on a daily basis
Leichliter, Jami S; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Friedman, Allison L; Habel, Melissa A; Vezi, Alex; Sello, Martha; Farirai, Thato; Lewis, David A
Men may be key players in the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and it is important that STI/HIV health services reach men. The objective of this study was to explore sexual health care access and seeking behaviours in men. This study used focus groups to examine sexual health care access and seeking behaviours in men 5 years after implementation of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the South African public sector. Six focus groups (N=58) were conducted with men ≫18 years in an urban area of Gauteng province. Men were recruited from various locations throughout the community. Men reported several barriers and facilitators to the use of public and private clinics for sexual health services including HIV testing, and many men reported seeking care from traditional healers. Men often viewed public clinics as a place for women and reported experiences with some female nurses who were rude or judgmental of the men. Additionally, some men reported that they sought sexual health care services at public clinics; however, they were not given physical examinations by health care providers to diagnose their STI syndrome. Most men lacked knowledge about ART and avoided HIV testing because of fear of death or being abandoned by their families or friends. Study findings suggest that men still require better access to high-quality, non-judgmental sexual health care services. Future research is needed to determine the most effective method to increase men's access to sexual health care services.
van der Geugten, Jolien; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H G; de Vries, Nanne K
Evaluation research concerning the impact of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. This study obtained more insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions of students concerning SRH in Bolgatanga municipality in northern Ghana, and studied the effects of an SRH programme for this group. This quasi-experimental study used a pre-post-intervention design, with an SRH programme as intervention. A questionnaire was filled in by 312 students before, and by 272 students after the SRH programme. The results showed that before the programme, students answered half of the knowledge questions correctly, they thought positively about deciding for themselves whether to have a relationship and whether to have sex, and their intentions towards SRH behaviour, such as condom use were positive. The SRH intervention led to a small but significant increase in the students' knowledge. It was also found that the attitude of the students aged 18-20 significantly improved. Finally, it was found that female students aged 18-20 were more positive towards changing their behaviour after following the SRH programme. It can be concluded that the impact of the SRH programme in general was positive. Significant effects were found for gender and age.
Mohanan, Padma; Swain, Subhashisa; Sanah, Noore; Sharma, Vikram; Ghosh, Deboporna
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old) studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collecti...
Hansen, Bo T.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lisen
than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. CONCLUSION: Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut...
The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that involvement with multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with older age, urban residence, religion, having primary or secondary education, and ever taken an HIV test. Condom use at last sex was significantly associated with age at first sex, multiple ...
Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie
Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (pdefinitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1 socioeconomic factors, 2 beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3 sexual behaviour. The Health Belief Model was used as a theoretical framework. Upper secondary school students (n = 832 aged 16, randomly chosen from a larger sample, were invited to participate in conjunction with the general health interview with the school nurse. A total of 751/832 (90.3%, girls (n = 391, 52% and boys (n = 360, 48% completed the questionnaire. HPV vaccination was associated with ethnicity and the mothers' education level; i.e. girls with a non-European background and girls with a less educated mother were less likely to have received the vaccine (p<0.01 and p = 0.04 respectively. Vaccinated girls perceived HPV infection as more severe (p = 0.01, had more insight into women's susceptibility to the infection (p = 0.02, perceived more benefits of the vaccine as protection against cervical cancer (p<0.01 and had a higher intention to engage in HPV-preventive behaviour (p = 0.01. Furthermore, boys and girls were almost equally sexually experienced, although fewer girls had used condom during first intercourse with their latest partner (p = 0.03. Finally, HPV vaccinated girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (p<0.01. In summary, catch-up HPV vaccination among young girls was associated with a European background and high maternal education level, as well as more favourable beliefs towards HPV prevention and
Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong
Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001) and condomless sex with sex workers (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001), while general friendship network ties reduce such risks (OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; OR = 0.84, p < 0.01) even after controlling for demographic background, housing conditions, length of stay, health beliefs and behaviours, and spousal companionship. Our findings suggest that native-place networks among Chinese male rural-urban migrants are associated with SRBs because homogenous networks may serve as a platform for the emergence of a deviant subculture that promotes risk behaviours. A Virtual Abstract of this paper is available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Crane, Catherine; Duggan, Danielle S
To explore the association between age of onset of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and overgeneral memory (OGM) in a clinical sample. Presence and age of onset of CSA and levels of OGM were assessed in 49 patients attending hospital following a recurrence of suicidal behaviour. Twenty six participants reported CSA. Earlier age of onset of CSA was associated with greater OGM, indexed by fewer specific and more categoric memories. The association was not accounted for either by elevated levels of depression in those reporting earlier abuse, nor by levels of general verbal fluency. The findings are consistent with previous work and support the hypothesis that abuse occurring earlier in development results in more pronounced OGM.
Ey, Lesley-anne; McInnes, Elspeth; Rigney, Lester Irabinna
As part of a wider study, this paper reports on Australian educators' understanding of children's typical and problematic sexual behaviour and their source of training in this area. A sample of 107 educators from government, independent and Catholic primary schools, preschools and care organisations across Australia answered an online…
Thuo, Daniel Njane; Nyaga, Veronica K.; Bururia, David N.; Barchok, Hilary K.
Education plays an important role in curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS among the youth. However, there is little known how teachers' motivation in teaching HIV/AIDS education affects students' knowledge and attitudes towards sexual behaviour. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teachers' level of motivation in…
Lindenburg, Catharina E. A.; Krol, Anneke; Smit, Colette; Buster, Marcel C. A.; Coutinho, Roel A.; Prins, Maria
OBJECTIVE: To study temporal changes in HIV incidence, HIV transmission routes, and both injecting and sexual risk behaviour in the open Amsterdam Cohort Study (ACS) among drug users. Initiated in 1985, the ACS enables us to study changes in trends since HAART became widespread in 1996. METHODS:
Santa Maria, Diane; Markham, Christine; Swank, Paul; Baumler, Elizabeth; McCurdy, Sheryl; Tortolero, Susan
This study examined parental monitoring (PM) as a potential moderator of the relation between parent-child communication (PCC) and pre-coital sexual behaviours (PCSB) in an urban, minority, early adolescent population. Seventh-grade students (n = 1609) reported PCC, PM and PCSB. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess for…
Dlamini, Siyabonga; Taylor, Myra; Mkhize, Nosipho; Huver, Rosemarie; Sathiparsad, Reshma; de Vries, Hein; Naidoo, Kala; Jinabhai, Champak
The cross-sectional study investigated South African rural high school learners' choice of sexual abstinence in order to be able to develop tailored health education messages. All Grade 9 learners from one class at each of 10 randomly selected rural high schools participated. The Integrated Model for Motivational and Behavioural Change was used to…
Cho, Hyunsan; Luseno, Winnie; Halpern, Carolyn; Zhang, Lei; Mbai, Isabella; Milimo, Benson; Hallfors, Denise Dion
This paper examines the discordance between biological data of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections and self-reported questionnaire responses among orphan adolescents in Western Kenya. In 2011, 837 orphan adolescents from 26 primary schools were enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. At baseline, blood samples were drawn for HIV and HSV-2 infection biomarker testing, and participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey. Comparing biological data with self-reported responses indicated that 70% of HIV-positive (7 out of 10) and 64% of HSV-2-positive (18 out of 28 positive) participants reported never having had sex. Among ever-married adolescents, 65% (57 out of 88) reported never having had sex. Overall, 10% of study participants appeared to have inconsistently reported their sexual behaviour. Logistic regression analyses indicated that lower educational level and exam scores were significant predictors of inconsistent reporting. Our study demonstrates the discordance between infections measured by biomarkers and self-reports of having had sex among orphan adolescents in Kenya. In order to detect programme effects accurately in prevention research, it is necessary to collect both baseline and endline biological data. Furthermore, it is recommended to triangulate multiple data sources about adolescent participants' self-reported information about marriage and pregnancies from school records and parent/guardians to verify the information. Researchers should recognise potential threats to validity in data and design surveys to consider cognitive factors and/or cultural context to obtain more accurate and reliable information from adolescents regarding HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviours. NCT01501864. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available In the world there are tendencies of early entering into sexual relations and simultaneous withdrawal of the age of marriage, an increase in the number of early pregnancies and abortions among minors. Existing programs for the prevention of risky sexual behavior are ineffective, since they are one-time, narrowly focused. The author presents the results of an experiment on the prevention of risky sexual behavior in adolescents based on the formation of their ideas of parenting and child-parent relations, and through the prism of this topic, allowing to build an image of reproductive behavior in the present and future. The program is designed taking into account the psychology of modern adolescents, in accordance with the principles of awareness and responsibility, is based on a restorative approach and resource approach to the formation of psychological readiness for parenthood M.E. Lantsburg. The program for the development of psychological preparedness for parenting in adolescents has two targets: the nearest: preventing adolescent pregnancy and reducing its negative consequences in the event of an early pregnancy, and strategic - preparing for the planning and birth of the coveted child in the future. The results prove that the adolescents' views about the family depend both on the experiences they experienced in their own childhood and on the trends in the social and political space discussed in this topic. The study showed that adolescents' views on sexual relations, family and parenthood can be purposefully influenced through a program based on the knowledge of age-related psychology, resource and recovery approaches and using interactive methods of teaching relevant to this age group.
Daniel Santiago Baldellou Monclús
Full Text Available This article analyzes the position of domestic workers between the late seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries in order to determine what their situation facing the dilemma of preserving their honor in an, usually, hostile enviroment and the social imperative of courting and got married placed on them. The Spanish domestic service in the Old Regime Spain, specially the maids, was exposed to plenty of risks. Sexual harassement was by far one of the most common. This happening could appear in several forms, since an originally consented relationship until crimes such as raping. Through this paper, we annalyze the most common servant ´s sexual conducts based on the court documentation for the XVII and XVIII centuries by analyzing the conflicts reflected in these sources. Maids precariousness, their legal resources and the society perspective over their position are the issues adressed in the paper searching for a overview of the servant´s sexual dangers and its consequences as well as the maid's strategies in openly hostile ambient.
Petal Petersen Williams
Full Text Available Men who have sex with men have been identified as a population at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Studies in South Africa have reported a high prevalence of HIV, as well as high levels of alcohol and other drug use, among men who have sex with men, and the use of substances (alcohol and drugs to facilitate their sexual encounters. Since 2007, interventions focused on prevention have been rolled out to vulnerable men who have sex with men and who also use alcohol or other drugs. The interventions include community-based outreach; provision of information on HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and safer sex practices; and the development of risk-reduction plans. Among 195 men who participated in our study, there were significant reductions in the proportion who used cannabis and ecstasy, including the use of these drugs during sex. No reduction was observed in the use of any other substances. In general, after the intervention our participants reported less frequent use of alcohol and drugs and greater engagement in safer sexual practices. Despite these encouraging findings, the combination of substance use while engaging in sex had actually increased. The study findings suggest that interventions that target men who have sex with men, and who use alcohol and other drugs, could reduce risk behaviours in this population.
A patient in whom primary Sjogren's syndrome and inappropriate antiduretic hormone secretion were associated is reported. This is the first report of such an association. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed and vasculitis proposed as the underlying pathogenetic mechanism.
Ngidi, Ndumiso Daluxolo; Moyo, Sibusiso; Zulu, Thobile; Adam, Jamila Khatoon; Krishna, Suresh Babu Naidu
The incidence of HIV and AIDS continues to be a source of great concern within universities in South Africa. Furthermore, university students constitute an important community in the intervention against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Students in the age group of 15-24 years are at a greater risk of HIV infection than any other group in the country; yet, little is known about why they continue to engage in risky sexual practices. This study was designed to explore the sexual behaviour of students in a metropolitan Durban University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal to understand the social factors underlying their risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study that used cluster sampling where the population was stratified by campus and faculty. The study population was selected using a standard randomization technique. This was a part of a multi-phased research project aimed at providing a sero-prevalence baseline and an analysis of risk-taking behaviour at a Durban University of Technology in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality area. The study highlights peer pressure among students as an influence in promoting high-risk sexual behaviour. Within this context, the findings revealed that university students lack the ability to negotiate risk-aware decisions especially regarding sexual relationships. This study draws attention to the perspectives of African university students regarding their risk-taking sexual practices and selected factors which influence such behaviour. The findings are not exhaustive in exploring contextual antecedents that shape students' sexual practices. However, they provide an important basis in understanding key factors which expose students to HIV infections. The study provides insights into opportunities for further studies as well as preventative implications.
Smith, Leah M; Kaufman, Jay S; Strumpf, Erin C; Lévesque, Linda E
Suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in some jurisdictions is partly attributed to fears that vaccination may increase risky sexual behaviour. We assessed the effect of HPV vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Ontario. Using Ontario's administrative health databases, we identified a population-based cohort of girls in grade 8 in the 2 years before (2005/06 and 2006/07) and after (2007/08 and 2008/09) implementation of Ontario's grade 8 HPV vaccination program. For each girl, we then obtained data on vaccine receipt in grades 8 and 9 and data on indicators of sexual behaviour (pregnancy and non-HPV-related sexually transmitted infections) in grades 10-12. Using a quasi-experimental method known as regression discontinuity, we estimated, for each outcome, the risk difference (RD) and relative risk (RR) attributable to vaccination and to program eligibility. The cohort comprised 260 493 girls, of whom 131 781 were ineligible for the program and 128 712 were eligible. We identified 15 441 (5.9%) cases of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection and found no evidence that vaccination increased the risk of this composite outcome: RD per 1000 girls -0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] -10.71 to 9.49) and RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Similarly, we found no discernible effect of program eligibility: RD per 1000 girls -0.25 (95% CI -4.35 to 3.85) and RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.06). The findings were similar when outcomes were assessed separately. We present strong evidence that HPV vaccination does not have any significant effect on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls. These results suggest that concerns over increased promiscuity following HPV vaccination are unwarranted and should not deter from vaccinating at a young age. © 2015 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Bozicević, Ivana; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Ajduković, Dean; Kufrin, Kresimir
This paper describes some of the results of the first national-level survey on sexual behaviour and the distribution of risks to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), among youth in Croatia, and the nature and the extent of their vulnerability to these adverse health outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional, probability-based household survey conducted in 2005, and included 1093 respondents aged 18-24. This paper aims to describe the findings related to the knowledge of HIV transmission, key behavioural outcomes relevant for potential transmission of HIV and STIs, and correlates of genital discharge in young men and young women. More than 80% of young people know that the correct use of condoms protects against HIV and that HIV can be transmitted by someone who looks healthy. Fifty-nine percent of young men and 52.4% of young women reported using condoms during the first sexual intercourse, and 59.3% of men and 46.1% of women used condoms during the last sexual intercourse with a casual partner. This points to the gap between knowledge of condom use and the actual use of condoms as a high proportion of risky sexual contact remain unprotected. Having sexual intercourse frequently or regularly while consuming alcohol was reported by 19.2% of men and 7.6% of women. Much lower proportion are using drugs frequently or regularly during sexual intercourse (3.7% of men and 2.1% of women). Among those sexually experienced, 11.8% of men and 44.1% of women reported ever having a genital discharge. Higher presence of genital discharge in women is suggestive of reproductive tract infections that are not necessarily sexually transmitted. In the multivariate analysis, the lack of knowledge of whether chlamydial infections is an STI and having more than five partners in life were correlates of genital discharge in men, while in women the correlates included having more than five partners in life and not using condoms
Over the last several years there has been a notable increase in neurological and neurodevelopmental research, with a keen interest in applying this research to our understanding of everyday human learning and behaviour. One aspect of this research has examined how the experience of trauma in childhood can affect neurodevelopment with implications…
Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N
Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We
O'Connor, Marie N
Inappropriate prescribing is highly prevalent in older people and is a major healthcare concern because of its association with negative healthcare outcomes including adverse drug events, related morbidity and hospitalization. With changing population demographics resulting in increasing proportions of older people worldwide, improving the quality and safety of prescribing in older people poses a global challenge. To date a number of different strategies have been used to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people. Over the last two decades, a number of criteria have been published to assist prescribers in detecting inappropriate prescribing, the majority of which have been explicit sets of criteria, though some are implicit. The majority of these prescribing indicators pertain to overprescribing and misprescribing, with only a minority focussing on the underprescribing of indicated medicines. Additional interventions to optimize prescribing in older people include comprehensive geriatric assessment, clinical pharmacist review, and education of prescribers as well as computerized prescribing with clinical decision support systems. In this review, we describe the inappropriate prescribing detection tools or criteria most frequently cited in the literature and examine their role in preventing inappropriate prescribing and other related healthcare outcomes. We also discuss other measures commonly used in the detection and prevention of inappropriate prescribing in older people and the evidence supporting their use and their application in everyday clinical practice.
Nirgude, Abhay; Solanki, Mridula J; Shinde, Ratnendra R; Naik, Poonam
Background: Bar girls are unorganized, difficult to reach high-risk group, and an urban phenomenon. Objectives: To study the demographic profile and sexual behavior of bar girls. Materials and Methods: Study setting is an urban slum area situated in the northwest part of Mumbai. Study design is a community-based cross-sectional study. Study duration was from January 2003 to January 2005. Phase I: Identification of key informants was done. Phase II: Mapping of bar girls in the study area was done with the help of key informants. Sampling: Out of the estimated 800-1200 bar girls, 120 bar girls who were willing to participate in the study were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. Confidentiality of names and locations was assured to both key informants and study subjects. Information was gathered about demographic profile, educational status, and their sexual behavior by conducting one to one interview with the use of predesigned, pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Most of the bar girls were in the age group of 21–25 years 52 (43.3%). None of them were educated above secondary level. Most of the subjects belong to West Bengal state 58 (48.4%). Majority of the subjects 88 (73.3%) reported that they have ever practiced commercial sex, and money was the criteria of selection of customers 53 (60.22%). Condom usage was reported less with regular customer as compared with that of nonregular customers (χ2 = 6.02, P < 0.02). Conclusions: Need to emphasize condom use with each and every sexual act irrespective of type of customers. PMID:21687378
Isil Irem Budakoglu
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to determine the knowledge level and behaviors of nurses towards AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD who are working at Baskent University Ankara Hospital\tDesign: There were 321 nurses at Baskent University Ankara Hospital at January 2005. Two hundred fifty six (79.7% of them participated the study. The data was collected with a questionnaire.\tMain outcome measures: The nurses who were answered the question “Are you using any method in order to prevent STD?” as\t“needless” were accepted as “sexually inactive”. The level of AIDS knowledge was evaluated over 100 point scale.\tRESULTS: The mean age of nurses was 25.8±0.2 (19-38, while 69.8% of them were college or faculty graduate and 71.1% of them were single. AIDS (94.4%, syphilis (70.6% and gonorrhea (60.2% were the first three STD implicated by nurses. The average value of AIDS knowledge of nurses was 83.8±0.8. The average value of nurses who had bachelor’s degree or doctorate, who were\tat the 26-27 age group, who were married or widowed and sexually inactive group, but these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05. Only 31 nurses (20.1% declared that they have been using any preventive method for STD.\tCONCLUSIONS: It is determined, although the status of STD and AIDS knowledge of nurses are high, but the percentage of usage of any preventive method is low.
Tognetti, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Faurie, Charlotte
Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could do...
Kibombo, Richard; Neema, Stella; Ahmed, Fatima H.
Uganda has been hailed as a success story in the fight against HIV that has seen a reversal in prevalence from a peak of 15% in 1991 to about 6.5% currently. Since 1992, the largest and most consistent declines in HIV have occurred among the 15–19-year-olds. While many studies have examined how key behavior changes (Abstinence, Be faithful and Condom use) have contributed to the decline in HIV prevalence, few have studied the relationship between sexual behaviors and risk perception. Using da...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has linked alcohol use with an increased number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and a raised incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. However, alcohol measures have been poorly standardised, with many ill-suited to eliciting, with adequate precision, the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour. This study investigates which alcohol indicator - single-item measures of frequency and patterns of drinking ( > = 6 drinks on 1 occasion, or the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT - can detect associations between alcohol use and unsafe sexual behaviour among male sex workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey in 2008 recruited male sex workers who sell sex to men from 65 venues in Mombasa district, Kenya, similar to a 2006 survey. Information was collected on socio-demographics, substance use, sexual behaviour, violence and STI symptoms. Multivariate models examined associations between the three measures of alcohol use and condom use, sexual violence, and penile or anal discharge. Results The 442 participants reported a median 2 clients/week (IQR = 1-3, with half using condoms consistently in the last 30 days. Of the approximately 70% of men who drink alcohol, half (50.5% drink two or more times a week. Binge drinking was common (38.9%. As defined by AUDIT, 35% of participants who drink had hazardous drinking, 15% harmful drinking and 21% alcohol dependence. Compared with abstinence, alcohol dependence was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.3-4.6, penile or anal discharge (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.0-3.8, and two-fold higher odds of sexual violence (AOR = 2.0, 95%CI = 0.9-4.9. Frequent drinking was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.1-3.0 and partner number, while binge drinking was only linked with inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.0-2.5. Conclusions Male sex workers have high levels of hazardous and
Anwar, Mudassir; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Ahmadi, Keivan; Kham, Tahir M.
Abstract Background Sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) rank among the most important health issues for the people especially the young adults worldwide. Young people tend to engage in sexual activity at younger ages in the past decade than in the 1970s, and 1980s. Knowledge is an essential precursor of sexual risk reduction. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, to produce the baseline information about school students' awareness and perception about sexually tr...
Repossi, A; Araneda, J M; Bustos, L; Puente, C; Rojas, C
The aim of this work was to study the knowledge, opinions and sexual behaviour of a sample of 464 students from the Universidad Austral de Chile. Results show that 78% of male and 41% of female students have had a sexual intercourse and that 78% of males and 72% of females with an active sexual life use contraceptive methods. The principal reasons to avoid the use of these methods are the irregularity of sexual intercourse and the reduction in pleasure. Most students think that these methods are harmful for their health but they should be used. The use of contraceptive methods increase with the frequency of sexual relations and university experience, but first year students use them more frequently than second year students. Most students know several contraceptive methods, but their knowledge about mechanisms of action is inadequate or distorted. Likewise, more than 50% think that it is possible to prevent pregnancy after a sexual intercourse. It is concluded that most sexually active students use contraceptive methods, but inappropriately. Stereotypes, myths and lack of information are influencing their sexual and contraceptive practices, showing incoherence between their knowledge and behavior. A possible explanation could be a scarce influence of high school and religion on their sexual formation.
Wong, Li Ping
The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban-rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10, contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16 and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13. The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40; higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban–rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.
Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan
Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8) than their counterparts. The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. RESULTS: Two-fifths (40% of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8 and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7, report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0 and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8 than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As immune compromised HIV sero-positive people regain health after initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART, they may seek a return to an active 'normal' life, including sexual activity. The aim of the paper is to explore the changing sexual desires and behaviour of people on ART in Uganda over a 30 month period. Methods This study employed longitudinal qualitative interviews with forty people starting ART. The participants received their ART, adherence education and counselling support from The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO. The participants were selected sequentially as they started ART, stratified by sex, ART delivery mode (clinic or home-based and HIV progression stage (early or advanced and interviewed at enrolment, 3, 6, 18 and 30 months of their ART use. Results Sexual desire changed over time with many reporting diminished desire at 3 and 6 months on ART compared to 18 and 30 months of use. The reasons for remaining abstinent included fear of superinfection or infecting others, fear that engaging in sex would awaken the virus and weaken them and a desire to adhere to the counsellors' health advice to remain abstinent. The motivations for resumption of sexual activity were: for companionship, to obtain material support, social norms around marriage, desire to bear children as well as to satisfy sexual desires. The challenges for most of the participants were using condoms consistently and finding a suitable sexual partner (preferably someone with a similar HIV serostatus who could agree to have a sexual relationship with them and provide for their material needs. Conclusions These findings point to the importance of tailoring counselling messages to the changing realities of the ART users' cultural expectations around child bearing, marriage and sexual desire. People taking ART require support so they feel comfortable to disclose their HIV status to sexual partners.
Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Atuyambe, Lynn; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Kibira, Simon Ps; Li, Qing; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Wagner, Glenn
The fishing communities are among population groups that are most at risk of HIV infection, with some studies putting the HIV prevalence at 5 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the major drivers of the sexual risk behaviour in the fishing communities. This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption patterns and risky behaviour in two fishing communities on Lake Victoria. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 303 men and 172 women at the fish landing sites; categorised into fishermen, traders of fish or fish products and other merchandise, and service providers such as casual labourers and waitresses in bars and hotels, including 12 female sexual workers. Stratified random sampling methodology was used to select study units. Multivariable analysis was conducted to assess independent relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risky behaviour. Measures of alcohol consumption included the alcohol use disorder test score (AUDIT), having gotten drunk in previous 30 days, drinking at least 2 times a week while measures for risky behaviour included engaging in transactional sex, inconsistent condom use, having sex with non-regular partner and having multiple sexual partners. The level of harmful use of alcohol in the two fishing communities was quite high as 62% of the male and 52% of the female drinkers had got drunk in previous 30 days. The level of risky sexual behaviour was equally high as 63% of the men and 59% of the women had unprotected sex at last sexual event. Of the 3 occupations fishermen had the highest levels of harmful use of alcohol and risky sexual behaviour followed by service providers judging from values of most indicators. The kind of alcohol consumption variables correlated with risky sexual behaviour variables, varied by occupation. Frequent alcohol consumption, higher AUDIT score, having got drunk, longer drinking hours and drinking any day of
Tumwesigye Nazarius M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The fishing communities are among population groups that are most at risk of HIV infection, with some studies putting the HIV prevalence at 5 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the major drivers of the sexual risk behaviour in the fishing communities. This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption patterns and risky behaviour in two fishing communities on Lake Victoria. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 303 men and 172 women at the fish landing sites; categorised into fishermen, traders of fish or fish products and other merchandise, and service providers such as casual labourers and waitresses in bars and hotels, including 12 female sexual workers. Stratified random sampling methodology was used to select study units. Multivariable analysis was conducted to assess independent relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risky behaviour. Measures of alcohol consumption included the alcohol use disorder test score (AUDIT, having gotten drunk in previous 30 days, drinking at least 2 times a week while measures for risky behaviour included engaging in transactional sex, inconsistent condom use, having sex with non-regular partner and having multiple sexual partners. Results The level of harmful use of alcohol in the two fishing communities was quite high as 62% of the male and 52% of the female drinkers had got drunk in previous 30 days. The level of risky sexual behaviour was equally high as 63% of the men and 59% of the women had unprotected sex at last sexual event. Of the 3 occupations fishermen had the highest levels of harmful use of alcohol and risky sexual behaviour followed by service providers judging from values of most indicators. The kind of alcohol consumption variables correlated with risky sexual behaviour variables, varied by occupation. Frequent alcohol consumption, higher AUDIT score, having
Most learners had obtained their HIV and AIDS knowledge from schools, but some did so from their parents, community activities, the radio or television. No learner had commenced with sexual activities and all had heard about HIV, but not all knew what HIV was, and even fewer could define AIDS. Less than one-third of the learners could mention the three most important HIV preventive measures. Most learners were willing to undergo voluntary counselling and testing (VCT, but few had done so. As no learner had commenced sexual activities, opportunities existed to empower Grade 8 (Form 1 learners with adequate HIV and AIDS knowledge. Generally the learners’ HIV and AIDS knowledge levels were high but some misconceptions existed. Schools should engage with radio and television programmes to address misconceptions about HIV and AIDS. Learners should be enabled to access VCT services. More effective HIV prevention education in Zimbabwe’s schools, could enable more youth to remain HIV negative. Opsomming Pogings om die Menslike Immuniteitsgebrekvirus (MIV en Verworwe immuniteits-gebreksindroom (VIGS pandemiese golf in Afrika te stuit, beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid dat leerders ingeligte besluite moet kan neem. Alhoewel leerders in Zimbabwe se skole onderrig word oor MIV en VIGS, behoort die omvang van die kennis vasgestel te word. Die hoofdoelwit was om sekondêre skool leerders van Harare, Zimbabwe, se MIV en VIGS kennis te bepaal. Gestruktureerde onderhoude is gevoer met 75 Graad 8 (Vorm 1 sekondêre skool leerders van vier skole in Harare. Die meeste leerders het hulle MIV and VIGS kennis by skole opgedoen terwyl ‘n paar dit van hulle ouers, gemeenskapsaktiwiteite, die radio en televisie gekry het. Geen leerders het met seksuele aktiwiteite begin nie, almal het van MIV gehoor, maar nie almal het geweet wat MIV is nie, en nog minder kon VIGS definieer. Minder as een-derde kon die drie belangrikste MIV voorkomende maatreëls noem. Die meeste leerders was gewillig om
Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Friedrich, W.N.; Corwin, D.L.
Age inappropriate sexual behavior is strongly associated with sexual abuse but is also correlated with other factors that often co-occur in the lives of vulnerable children, including physical abuse, domestic violence, excessive life stress, and inappropriate exposure to family sexuality. In
Puthuchira Ravi, Rejoice; Athimulam Kulasekaran, Ravishankar
Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be either asymptomatic or symptomatic. Regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms all STIs can lead to major complications if left untreated. Objective. To assess the care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing services for sexual health problems among young married women in rural areas of Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Results. The prevalence rate of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and STIs was observed to be 14.5% and 8.8%, respectively, among the study population. Itching/irritation over vulva, thick white discharge, discharge with unpleasant odor, and frequent and uncomfortable urination were most commonly experienced symptoms of sexual health problems. Around three-fourth of the women received treatment for sexual health problems. Perception of symptoms as normal, feeling shy, lack of female health workers, distance to health facility, and lack of availability of treatment were identified as major barriers for not seeking treatment for RTIs/STIs. Conclusion. Family tradition and poor socioeconomic conditions of the family appear to be the main reasons for not utilizing the health facility for sexual health problems. Integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating awareness to control the spread of sexual health problems among young people.
Mwanga Joseph R
Full Text Available Abstract Background A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities. Methods We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 48 focus group discussions with sexually active participants (18-60 years of age who were selected purposively in two fishing and one non-fishing communities. Results The study revealed a number of socio-economic and cultural factors which act as structural drivers of HIV epidemic. Mobility and migration were mentioned to be associated with the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Sexual promiscuous behaviour was common in all study communities. Chomolea, (a quick transactional sex was reported to exist in fishing communities, whereas extramarital sex in the bush was reported in non-fishing community which was predominantly Christian and polygamous. Traditional practices such as Kusomboka (death cleansing through unprotected sex was reported to exist. Other risky sexual behaviour and traditional practices together with their socio-economic and cultural contexts are presented in details and discussed. Knowledge of condom was low as some people mistook them for balloons to play with and as decorations for their living rooms. Acute scarcity of condoms in some remote areas such as vizingani (fishing islands push some people to make their own condoms locally known as kondomu za pepsi using polythene bags. Conclusions HIV prevention efforts can succeed by addressing sexual behaviour and its socio-economic and cultural contexts. More innovative, interdisciplinary and productive structural approaches to HIV
Mwanga, Joseph R; Mshana, Gerry; Kaatano, Godfrey; Changalucha, John
A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities. We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 48 focus group discussions with sexually active participants (18-60 years of age) who were selected purposively in two fishing and one non-fishing communities. The study revealed a number of socio-economic and cultural factors which act as structural drivers of HIV epidemic. Mobility and migration were mentioned to be associated with the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Sexual promiscuous behaviour was common in all study communities. Chomolea, (a quick transactional sex) was reported to exist in fishing communities, whereas extramarital sex in the bush was reported in non-fishing community which was predominantly Christian and polygamous. Traditional practices such as Kusomboka (death cleansing through unprotected sex) was reported to exist. Other risky sexual behaviour and traditional practices together with their socio-economic and cultural contexts are presented in details and discussed. Knowledge of condom was low as some people mistook them for balloons to play with and as decorations for their living rooms. Acute scarcity of condoms in some remote areas such as vizingani (fishing islands) push some people to make their own condoms locally known as kondomu za pepsi using polythene bags. HIV prevention efforts can succeed by addressing sexual behaviour and its socio-economic and cultural contexts. More innovative, interdisciplinary and productive structural approaches to HIV prevention need to be developed in close collaboration with
Michela L. Sammarco
Full Text Available Italian university students were investigated for: sources of information about HIV, knowledge of HIV risk behaviours, as well as sexual behaviours and condom use. A self completed anonymous questionnaire was administered to 430 university students in Campobasso, Italy (mean age 23,1; males 35,8%. Although TV, radio and the printed press were the most common sources of HIV information (>60% of respondents, most respondents preferred to receive information from physicians or resource centres (50 and 51%. Most students (>97% were aware that specific sexual behaviours (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse and sharing of needles with illegal injecting drug users could transmit HIV. Most students (>50% did not regularly use condoms (despite understanding their protective effect, and continued to engage in behaviours considered risky. Males were significantly more likely than females to engage in vaginal sex (84 vs. 67% or anal sex (37 vs. 13% with both regular and casual partners. Although knowledge of HIV in itself is not enough to produce behaviour change, increases in students’ levels of knowledge may be useful.
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Sexual violence from police was common in this cohort of
Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Gupte, Mohan D; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Thomas, Beena E; Kallam, Srinivasan; Girish, C P K
To characterize and describe patterns of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and sexual behaviour of male clients of female sex workers (FSW). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 4821 clients of FSW from 12 districts in three states in India: Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. A structured questionnaire was administered to elicit demographic characteristics and sexual behavioural patterns. Blood and urine samples were tested for HIV, syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 serology, gonococcal and chlamydial infection. The median age of clients surveyed was 30 years; 57% were married and 64% had a steady sexual partner; 61% had sex with more than one FSW and 39% had four or more sexual encounters in the past month. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 2.0% to 10.9%, syphilis ranged from 3.1% to 10.1%; gonorrhoea and chlamydia ranged between 0% and 4.5%. Clients older than 30 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.05] and having a different mix of commercial and non-commercial partners (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.25-1.96) had a higher volume of sex acts with FSW. Inconsistent condom use with FSW was significantly associated with older clients (OR 4.2; 95% CI 3.33-5.29), illiteracy (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.14-1.69), age sex (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.24-2.70) and having different FSW partners in the past month (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.23-2.18). Clients of FSW studied here constitute a significant bridge group for HIV and other STI, because of their high volume of different sexual partners and very low consistent condom use. HIV prevention programmes need to address male clients.
Full Text Available The authors argue that the important changes in behaviour related to family and sexual life that were seen in Quebec during the second half of the 20th century are a consequence of a major transformation of the foundation of the normative system shared by the members of Quebec’s main socio-religious group, Frenchspeaking Catholics. Using data from Gallup polls, the authors compare the evolution of the opinions of French-speaking Quebec Catholics and Englishspeaking Ontario Protestants on matters related to sexual and family behaviour from the 1950s to the beginning of the 2000s. The general result is that the evolution of the differences between the two groups is compatible with the hypothesis.
Bupe Bwalya Bwalya
Full Text Available Background: Although people of any age are susceptible to HIV, youths aged 15 – 24 face disproportionate risk of contracting it because of challenges that they face with regard to correct HIV and AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and practices. This study was aimed at determining whether HIV and AIDS can be fought by targeting interventions at youths aged 15 – 24 years by assessing their current knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviours in Zambia. Methods: The study utilised secondary data from a self-weighting nationally representative sample of the 2009 Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey. Results: Generally correct comprehensive knowledge is very low among youths (43 percent. This is in spite having good command of general and full general knowledge and the ABCs of HIV and AIDS prevention. Attitudes towards PLHIV, Condom use and HIV counselling and testing were negative. About one third (58 percent of youths in Zambia have a history of early sexual debut (sex before age 15 with more females (64 percent than males (51 percent having hard sex. Male youths were more likely to have used a condom with most recent sexual partner as compared to females (AOR=0.265, 95%CI: 0.160, 0.438; p<0.001. Youths in rural areas had reduced odds of using a condom during their first sexual intercourse compared with those in urban areas (AOR=0.530, 95%CI: 0.387, 0.726; p<0.001. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be seen lack of comprehensive correct knowledge, gender disparities, poor educational levels, youth’s age and place of residence are some of the contributing factors that may hinder the fight against HIV/AIDS among youths in Zambia.Key words: Youths; HIV/AIDS; Knowledge; Attitudes; Behaviour, Zambia
Juma, Milka; Askew, Ian; Alaii, Jane; Bartholomew, L Kay; van den Borne, Bart
This study explored community perceptions of cultural beliefs and practices that may increase sexual risk behaviour of adolescents, to understand more about meaning they hold within the culture and how they expose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to higher risks in a high HIV and teenage pregnancy prevalence context. Using a qualitative descriptive cross-sectional design 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 78 adolescents and 68 parents/guardians purposively selected to represent their communities. Thirteen key informant interviews were also conducted with community leaders, health care and child welfare workers, and adolescents who were also selected purposively. The two methods were used to explore how cultural beliefs and practices predispose adolescent orphans and non- orphans to risky sexual behaviours. Data were analysed through line-by-line coding, grouped into families and retrieved as themes and sub-themes. Identified cultural practices that predisposed adolescents orphans and non-orphans to risky sexual behaviours included: adolescent sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, replacing a deceased married daughter with her younger sister in marriage, widow inheritance among boys, early marriage among girls, and preference for boys/sons. Cultural risks perceived to equally affect both orphans and non-orphans were sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, and sister replacement. Factors associated more with orphans than non-orphans were widow inheritance among boys and a preference for boy over girl children. Adolescent sexual risk reduction programs should be developed considering the specific cultural context, using strategies that empower communities to challenge the widely accepted cultural norms that may predispose young people in general to sexual risks while targeting those that unequally influence orphans.
Brown, B; Blas, M M; Heidari, O; Carcamo, C; Halsey, N A
Limited data exist on the effect of clinical trial participation on sexual behavioural change. Two hundred female sex workers working in Lima, Peru received human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in either the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or modified (0, 3, 6 months) schedule. Participants received comprehensive screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), counselling on safe sex practices, education about HPV and the HPV vaccine, contraceptives (oral and condoms) and family planning at each visit. We assessed vaccine completion rates, change in sexual practices, and changes in HPV knowledge before and after participation in the vaccine trial. There were high rates of vaccine completion, 91% overall. The estimated number of reported new and total clients over a 30-day period decreased significantly (P Knowledge about HPV and HPV-related disease increased among all participants. In addition, all participants listed at least one preventive strategy during the month 7 follow-up survey.
Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A
We examined variation in glucocorticoid levels in the mandrill, a brightly coloured primate species, to identify major social influences on stress hormones, and investigate relationships among glucocorticoid levels, testosterone and secondary sexual ornamentation. We collected a total of 317 fecal samples for 16 adult male mandrills over 13 months, including mating and non-mating periods and periods of both dominance rank stability and instability, and compared fecal glucocorticoid levels with dominance rank, rank stability, presence of receptive females, gastro-intestinal parasite infection, fecal testosterone and facial red coloration. Glucocorticoid levels did not vary systematically with dominance rank, but increased when the dominance hierarchy was unstable, and increased in the presence of receptive females. The relationship between dominance rank and glucocorticoid levels changed direction according to the stability of the dominance hierarchy: glucocorticoid levels were higher in subordinate males under stable conditions, but under conditions of instability higher ranking males had higher glucocorticoid levels. The influence of dominance rank also interacted with the presence of receptive females: glucocorticoids were higher in dominant males than in subordinates, but only during mating periods, suggesting that dominant males are more stressed than subordinates during such periods. These findings support previous studies showing that the relationship between glucocorticoids and dominance rank in male baboons is dependent on the social environment. We also found that males with higher glucocorticoids suffered a higher diversity of gastrointestinal parasite infection, in line with evidence that glucocorticoids suppress the immune system in other species. However, we found no support for the stress-mediated immunocompetence handicap hypothesis for the evolution of condition-dependent ornaments: glucocorticoid and testosterone levels were positively related
Juma, Milka; Askew, Ian; Alaii, Jane; Bartholomew, L Kay; van den Borne, Bart
Background This study explored community perceptions of cultural beliefs and practices that may increase sexual risk behaviour of adolescents, to understand more about meaning they hold within the culture and how they expose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to higher risks in a high HIV and teenage pregnancy prevalence context. Methods Using a qualitative descriptive cross-sectional design 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 78 adolescents and 68 parents/guardians purposively sel...
Erin K Martin
Full Text Available Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA, called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behaviour of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes towards it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85% agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behaviour (our primary outcome variable. Behavioural questions asked individuals to select behaviours used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking how many times in the previous 3-months have you talked about healthy sexual development or child sexual abuse with a child you know; suspected a child was sexually abused; taken steps to protect a child; or reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 – 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behaviour and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline
Data analysis involved use of World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators, Updated 2002 Beer's criteria and DRUG-REAX® system software package of MICROMEDEX (R) Healthcare Series to assess the prescribing pattern, identify potentially inappropriate medications and potential drug-drug interactions, ...
Locke, Robin L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
Some children show emotion that is not consistent with normative appraisal of the context and can therefore be defined as context inappropriate (CI). The authors used individual growth curve modeling and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine whether CI anger predicts differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, as…
Objectives: To quantify missed opportunities for immunisation, document reasons for their occurrence and evaluate the extent of inappropriately given vaccine doses. Design: A cross sectional study of children under two years of age attending health facilities. Setting: Six health facilities predominantly serving the slums of ...
Carter, Stacy L.; Wheeler, John J.
Functional analysis was used to determine the possible function of inappropriate spitting behavior of an adult woman who had been diagnosed with profound mental retardation. Results of an initial descriptive assessment indicated a possible attention function and led to an attention-based intervention, which was deemed ineffective at reducing the…
Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S
Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16-29, surveyed in New Zealand. We analysed the 2006-2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents' condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pope, Howard; Garcia, Jonathan; Cherry, Chauncey
Although pornography is widely available and frequently used among many adults in the USA, little is known about the relationship between pornography and risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men. Baseline assessments from a behavioural intervention trial for at-risk men who have sex with men were conducted in Atlanta, GA in 2009. Univariate and multivariate generalised linear models were used to assess the relationships between known risk factors for HIV infection, time spent viewing pornography, and sex behaviours. One hundred forty-nine men reporting HIV-negative status and two or more unprotected anal sex partners in the past 6 months were enrolled in an intervention trial and completed survey assessments. Time spent viewing pornography was significantly associated with having more male sexual partners (B=0.45, SE=0.04, Ppornography. This exploratory study is novel in that it sheds light on the associations between viewing pornography and sexual risk taking for HIV infection. Future studies in this area should focus on understanding how the content of pornography; in particular, the viewing of unprotected and protected sex acts, may affect sexual risk taking behaviour.
Nuwaha, Fred; Kasasa, Simon; Wana, Godwill; Muganzi, Elly; Tumwesigye, Elioda
A large, district-wide, home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) programme was implemented in Bushenyi district of Uganda from 2004 to 2007. This programme provided free HBHCT services to all consenting adults of Bushenyi district and had a very high uptake and acceptability. We measured population-level changes in knowledge of HIV status, stigma and HIV-risk behaviours before and after HBHCT to assess whether widespread HBHCT had an effect on trends of risky sexual behaviours and on stigma and discrimination towards HIV. Serial cross-sectional surveys were carried out before and after the implementation of HBHCT programme in Bushenyi district of Uganda. A total of 1402 randomly selected adults (18 to 49 years) were interviewed in the baseline survey. After the implementation, a different set of randomly selected 1562 adults was interviewed using the same questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, whether respondents had ever tested for HIV and stigma and discrimination towards HIV/AIDS. The proportion of people who had ever tested for HIV increased from 18.6% to 62% (pHIV test result with a sexual partner increased from 41% to 57% (pHIV services especially in areas where access to HCT is low.
Adeokun, L A; Ricketts, O L; Ajuwon, A J; Ladipo, O A
Adolescence is marked by progression from the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics to sexual and reproductive maturity. Curiosity about bodily changes is heightened. However, adolescents' perceived sexuality education needs have been poorly documented. A survey of 989 adolescents from 24 North-Eastern Nigerian secondary schools yielded information on socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health knowledge, sexual activities and sexuality education needs. Of the interviewed respondents, 72% of females had experienced menstruation. Overall, 9% were sexually active, 3.1% knew when ovulation occurs, 47% knew pregnancy could result from first coitus and 56% knew of contraception. 84% opined that adolescents should be given sexuality education but only 48.3% had received any. Sexuality education should be provided for in-school adolescents through their preferred and reliable sources of information.
Chiara De Waure
Full Text Available Aims: Improvements have been made in terms of STIs mortality, but young women still have a lack of attention to the STIs prevention.We investigated the knowledge and attitudes about STIs and their prevention among a sample of Italian university female students.Methods: We designed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes toward STIs, Papanicolau test (Pap test and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and had it filled out by 285 young women. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and a multivariable analysis were performed in order to identify associated factors. Results: Knowledge about STIs seems weak, oppositely to knowledge about preventive measures. In line with the results of the univariate analyses, the multivariable one confirmed a higher probability to answer rightly for women who knew the effective behaviours for preventing STIs, women who took information about STIs from Internet, books and TV and those using natural methods (OR 2.77 - 95%CI 1.47-5.23, OR 2.99 - 95%CI 1.62-5.53 and OR 2.55 - 95%CI 1.05-6.18, respectively and a lower one for students from Cassino and those who knew is possible to recover from STIs (OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.17-0.87 and 0.42, 95%CI 0.20-0.88, respectively. Furthermore, about Pap test it also confirmed the role of a medium-high STIs level of knowledge (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.02-4.37 and a lower probability to know about it for women from Cassino (OR 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.73.Conclusions: Young women are not completely aware of STIs risks and preventive measures. Informational and educational campaigns should be implemented to reach this target group and lighten the current and future burden of STIs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years. Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%. Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0. Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4, ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3, and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7 increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42 decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0 increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6, and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8. Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia
Bui, T D; Pham, C K; Pham, T H; Hoang, L T; Nguyen, T V; Vu, T Q; Detels, R
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts of Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, to find out what proportion of the people who lived there engaged in behaviour that put them at risk of becoming infected with HIV, and to measure their knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS. The survey was conducted in a rural district, Yen Hung; a mountainous district inhabited primarily by ethnic minority groups, Binh Lieu; and an urban district, Ha Long. Participants aged 15-45 years were randomly selected from the general population to be interviewed. A total of 630 people from 707 households were interviewed; 8% were not home despite repeated visits and 3% refused to participate. The prevalence of premarital intercourse ranged from 9% to 16% among married men and 4% to 7% among married women. Among single men the proportion who had ever had intercourse ranged from 6% to 16%. Fewer than 3% reported having ever had sex with a sex worker. The median number of extramarital sex partners was 1. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high in the urban and rural areas but low in the mountainous area. Being male and being 20-29 years old were associated with having multiple sex partners. The low prevalence of individuals reporting that they had had intercourse with sex workers and partners other than their spouse may explain the low rates of HIV infection among the heterosexual population; these rates are in contrast to the high rates of HIV infection found among injecting drug users. The association between having extramarital partners and being a younger man suggests that the tendency to have more sexual partners may increase in the future. If this happens, the potential for HIV to be spread through heterosexual sex will increase.
Lofthouse, Rachael E; Lindsay, William R; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P; Boer, Douglas P; Haaven, James L
The purpose of the present study was to add to the literature on the predictive accuracy of a dynamic intellectual disability specific risk assessment tool. A dynamic risk assessment for sexual reoffending (ARMIDILO-S), a static risk assessment for sexual offending (STATIC-99), and a static risk assessment for violence (Violence Risk Appraisal Guide [VRAG]) were completed for a sample of 64 adult males with an intellectual disability. The dynamic risk assessment for sexual offenders with an intellectual disability resulted in the best prediction of sexual reoffending (ARMIDILO-S area under the curve (AUC) = 0.92) this was better than an established sexual offending static risk assessment (STATIC-99 AUC = 0.75). A static tool for violent reoffending, did not perform as well in this group (VRAG AUC = 0.58). Results suggest that dynamic variables are useful in predicting sexual reoffending with individuals with an intellectual disability, confirming previous findings. The ARMIDILO-S is a promising dynamic risk assessment for individuals with an intellectual disability. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Selikow, Terry-Ann; Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Mukoma, Wanjiru
Young people in South Africa are susceptible to HIV infection. They are vulnerable to peer pressure to have sex, but little is known about how peer pressure operates. The aim of the study was to understand how negative peer pressure increases high risk sexual behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. Qualitative research methods were used. Eight focus groups were conducted with young people between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Peer pressure among both boys and girls undermines healthy social norms and HIV prevention messages to abstain, be faithful, use a condom and delay sexual debut. HIV prevention projects need to engage with peer pressure with the aim of changing harmful social norms into healthy norms. Increased communication with adults about sex is one way to decrease the impact of negative peer pressure. Peer education is a further mechanism by which trained peers can role model healthy social norms and challenge a peer culture that promotes high risk sexual behaviour. Successful HIV prevention interventions need to engage with the disconnect between educational messages and social messages and to exploit the gaps between awareness, decision making, norms, intentions and actions as spaces for positive interventions.
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Åkerman, Eva; Essén, Birgitta; Westerling, Ragnar; Larsson, Elin
Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden and Thai immigrants comprise the immigrant group most frequently diagnosed with HIV. Little is known about their healthcare-seeking behaviour and views on HIV prevention. This study explored Thai women's healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health and their views on HIV prevention. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Thai-born women in the Stockholm area. Three themes were identified: (1) poor access to healthcare in Sweden, preferring to seek care in Thailand; (2) partners playing a key role in women's access to healthcare; (3) no perceived risk of HIV, but a positive attitude towards prevention. Despite expressing sexual and reproductive healthcare needs, most women had not sought this type of care, except for the cervical cancer screening programme to which they had been invited. Identified barriers for poor access to healthcare were lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language difficulties. To achieve 'healthcare on equal terms', programmes and interventions must meet Thai women's healthcare needs and consider what factors influence their care-seeking behaviour. Integrating HIV prevention and contraceptive counselling into the cervical screening programme might be one way to improve access.
Rongen, S.; Kramers, C.; O'Mahony, D.; Feuth, T.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Ahmed, A.I.A.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing including potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescription omissions (PPOs) and to assess related risk factors in older people with major psychiatric illness.
Schneider, M; Phillips, S P
This paper reports the qualitative data from a study of sexual harassment of female family physicians by patients. In addition to the everyday harassment that any woman might encounter in a work setting, the physicians in this study also reported types of harassment which are unique to the practice of medicine. These include opportunistic harassment such as exposure of the genitals, inappropriately touching the physician when the examination requires close contact, excessive discussion of sexual matters for apparent erotic gratification, and acting out behaviours from non-competent patients. Other reported behaviours were not, strictly speaking, sexual harassment but were troublesome nonetheless, including spontaneous erections during physical examinations, physically intimidating behaviour, and ambiguous behaviours which were sexual in nature, but difficult to interpret. The findings are discussed in the context of theory pertaining to contrapower harassment. It is concluded that for some patients the gender of the physician takes precedence over her occupational status and, this combined with the unique characteristics of the doctor/patient relationship, can make the practice of family medicine more conductive to sexual harassment than other professions.
The sexual double standard (SDS) is a divergent set of expectations for boys and men, and girls and women for engaging in romantic and sexual behaviour. It prescribes that boys and men should be sexually active, assertive and take sexual initiative, whereas girls and women should be sexually
Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Prakash, Seppan
According to Indian Systems of Medicine, Mucuna pruriens Linn., belonging to the leguminous family (Papilionaceae), were used for treating male sexual disorders since ancient times. In this study, the effects of ethanolic extracts of the Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on general mating behaviour, libido and potency of normal male Wister albino rats were investigated and also compared with the standard reference drug, Sildenafil citrate. Animals were divided into one control group (Group I--received saline) and four experimental groups (Groups II-V). Experimental groups were divided on the basis of the dosage of extract to the animals as follows: 150 mg/kg body weight (Group I), 200mg/kg body weight (Group II) and 250 mg/kg body weight (Group IV) while Group V received Sildenafil citrate (5mg/kg body weight). Animals were fed PO with saline or extract or standard drug once in a day for 45 days. To analyse the mating behaviour, female rats with oestrus phase were used. The extract administered PO significantly increased the mounting frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculation latency, and decreased the mounting latency, intromission latency, post-ejaculatory interval and inter-intromission interval. The potency test significantly increased erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. Therefore, the results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats at a particular dose (200mg/kg). When compared to control, all the drug-treated groups have shown drug-induced effects for a few parameters. However in Group II, there was an obvious enhancement in all parameters, without affecting the normal behaviour. When compared with the standard drug, the net effect of extract is even less than that in Group II. Therefore, the resulting aphrodisiac activity of the extract lends support to the claim that it has traditionally been used for the treatment of sexual
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-interviews, where the respondent rather than the interviewer enters answers to questions, have been proposed as a way to reduce social desirability bias associated with interviewer-led interviews. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI are commonly proposed since the computer programme can guide respondents; however they require both language and computer literacy. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using electronic methods to administer quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in the Somkhele demographic surveillance area (DSA in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We conducted a four-arm randomized trial of paper-and-pen-interview, computer-assisted personal-interview (CAPI, CASI and audio-CASI with an age-sex-urbanicity stratified sample of 504 adults resident in the DSA in 2015. We compared respondents’ answers to their responses to the same questions in previous surveillance rounds. We also conducted 48 cognitive interviews, dual-coding responses using the Framework approach. Results Three hundred forty (67% individuals were interviewed and covariates and participation rates were balanced across arms. CASI and audio-CASI were significantly slower than interviewer-led interviews. Item non-response rates were higher in self-interview arms. In single-paper meta-analysis, self-interviewed individuals reported more socially undesirable sexual behaviours. Cognitive interviews found high acceptance of both self-interviews and the use of electronic methods, with some concerns that self-interview methods required more participant effort and literacy. Conclusions Electronic data collection methods, including self-interview methods, proved feasible and acceptable for completing quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in a poor, rural South African setting. However, each method had both benefits and costs, and the choice of method should be based on context-specific criteria.
Wasie, Belaynew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet
Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use. a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practice STI protective behaviours in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. Results a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5% had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6% of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4% students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI. Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7% of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87, condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24 and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19 were statistically significantly associated with condom use. Conclusion a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the
Schrimshaw, Eric W; Downing, Martin J; Cohn, Daniel J; Siegel, Karolynn
Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory, we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private, and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: (1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else's, (2) others had no reason to know, (3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal, (4) they were private people in general and (5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health-promotion services for this population.
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Li, Ren-Hau; Yu, Hsing-Yi
The purpose of this study was to test a model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition affecting sexual communication in Taiwanese adolescents. Parent-adolescent sexual communication has been shown to influence adolescent sexual behaviour. Self-concept is an important predictor of human behaviour, especially sexual behaviour. Few researchers have assessed sexual self-concept in adolescents, despite its clear relevance to understanding adolescent sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was used in this study. In 2009, data were collected by questionnaire from 748 adolescent students at a junior college in Taiwan. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data from this study well. Sexual self-concept significantly predicts sexual risk cognition and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition significantly predicts sexual communication and has an intervening effect on the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition is important in explaining sexuality in adolescents. Sexual self-concept has both direct and indirect effects on sexual communication. Our findings provide concrete directions for school educators in developing sexual health programmes to increase adolescent sexual self-concept and sexual communication with their parents. Future sexual health programmes about sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition must add for increasing adolescent's sexual communication with their parents. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Aoife M Doyle
Full Text Available The ability of specific behaviour-change interventions to reduce HIV infection in young people remains questionable. Since January 1999, an adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH intervention has been implemented in ten randomly chosen intervention communities in rural Tanzania, within a community randomised trial (see below; NCT00248469. The intervention consisted of teacher-led, peer-assisted in-school education, youth-friendly health services, community activities, and youth condom promotion and distribution. Process evaluation in 1999-2002 showed high intervention quality and coverage. A 2001/2 intervention impact evaluation showed no impact on the primary outcomes of HIV seroincidence and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 seroprevalence but found substantial improvements in SRH knowledge, reported attitudes, and some reported sexual behaviours. It was postulated that the impact on "upstream" knowledge, attitude, and reported behaviour outcomes seen at the 3-year follow-up would, in the longer term, lead to a reduction in HIV and HSV-2 infection rates and other biological outcomes. A further impact evaluation survey in 2007/8 ( approximately 9 years post-intervention tested this hypothesis.This is a cross-sectional survey (June 2007 through July 2008 of 13,814 young people aged 15-30 y who had attended trial schools during the first phase of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention trial (1999-2002. Prevalences of the primary outcomes HIV and HSV-2 were 1.8% and 25.9% in males and 4.0% and 41.4% in females, respectively. The intervention did not significantly reduce risk of HIV (males adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.91, 95%CI 0.50-1.65; females aPR 1.07, 95%CI 0.68-1.67 or HSV-2 (males aPR 0.94, 95%CI 0.77-1.15; females aPR 0.96, 95%CI 0.87-1.06. The intervention was associated with a reduction in the proportion of males reporting more than four sexual partners in their lifetime (aPR 0.87, 95%CI 0.78-0.97 and an increase in reported
Shoop, Robert J.
Sexual abuse of students by teachers is a serious problem. A 1998 "Education Week" nationwide study identified 244 cases of inappropriate sexual behavior during one six-month period. Overly affectionate behavior, inappropriate noneducation-related contact, and harassing behaviors are warning signs. Administrators should craft policies, pay…
Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
Bellis Mark A
Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries age at pubertal onset has declined substantially. Relatively little attention has been paid to how this decline may affect adolescent behaviours such as substance use, violence and unprotected sex and consequently impact on public health. Methods In the UK, two opportunistic samples (aged 16-45 years, paper-based (n = 976 and online (n = 1117, examined factors associated with earlier pubertal onset and whether earlier age of onset predicted sexual risk-taking, substance use and anti-social behaviours during early adolescence. Results Overall, 45.6% of females reported menarche ≤ 12 years and 53.3% of males were categorised as having pubertal onset ≤ 11 years. For both sexes earlier pubertal onset was associated with poorer parental socio-economic status. Other pre-pubertal predictors of early onset were being overweight, more childhood illnesses (females and younger age at time of survey (males. For both sexes earlier puberty predicted having drunk alcohol, been drunk, smoked and used drugs Conclusion Results provide sufficient evidence for changes in age of pubertal onset to be further explored as a potential influence on trends in adolescent risk behaviours. Further insight into the relationship between early puberty and both obesity and socio-economic status may help inform early interventions to tackle the development of risk behaviours and health inequalities during early adolescence.
Keane, R A
Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the literature on the relationship between conflict-related trauma and high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB often focuses on refugees and not mass in-country displaced people due to armed conflicts. There is paucity of research about contexts underlying HRSB and HIV/AIDS in conflict and post-conflict communities in Uganda. Understanding factors that underpin vulnerability to HRSB in post-conflict communities is vital in designing HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. We explored the socio-cultural factors, social interactions, socio-cultural practices, social norms and social network structures that underlie war trauma and vulnerability to HRSB in a post-conflict population. Methods We did a cross-sectional qualitative study of 3 sub-counties in Katakwi district and 1 in Amuria in Uganda between March and May 2009. We collected data using 8 FGDs, 32 key informant interviews and 16 in-depth interviews. We tape-recorded and transcribed the data. We followed thematic analysis principles to manage, analyse and interpret the data. We constantly identified and compared themes and sub-themes in the dataset as we read the transcripts. We used illuminating verbatim quotations to illustrate major findings. Results The commonly identified HRSB behaviours include; transactional sex, sexual predation, multiple partners, early marriages and forced marriages. Breakdown of the social structure due to conflict had resulted in economic destruction and a perceived soaring of vulnerable people whose propensity to HRSB is high. Dishonour of sexual sanctity through transactional sex and practices like incest mirrored the consequence of exposure to conflict. HRSB was associated with concentration of people in camps where idleness and unemployment were the norm. Reports of girls and women who had been victims of rape and defilement by men with guns were common. Many people were known to have started to display persistent worries, hopelessness, and
Brito, Maximo O; Hodge, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Khosla, Shaveta; Lerebours, Leonel; Pope, Zachary
Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with STIs in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (GMT) in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic. Design A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of GMT persons. Setting The study was conducted in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic, in June–July 2013. Participants Out of 117 GMT persons screened, a total of 100 completed the study. Participants had to be at least 18 years of age, reside in La Romana and have had sex with another man in the preceding 12 months. All participants were interviewed and tested for STI. Primary outcome measure The main outcome of interest was the detection of any STI (HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, hepatitis B or C) by serology. Results Among 100 participants, the median age was 22 years (range 18–65). One-third had consumed illicit drugs the preceding year and only 43% consistently used condoms. Prevalence was 38% for HSV-2, 5% for HIV and 13% for syphilis. There were no cases of hepatitis B or C. Factors associated with the odds of a STI were age >22 years (OR=11.1, 95% CI 3.6 to 34.5), receptive anal intercourse (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.6) and having ≥2 male sexual partners during the preceding month (OR=4, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.5). Conclusions In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region. PMID:25926151
Lachowsky, Nathan J; Saxton, Peter J W; Hughes, Anthony J; Dickson, Nigel P; Milhausen, Robin R; Dewey, Cate E; Summerlee, Alastair J S
Background Condom promotion remains a cornerstone of HIV/STI control, but must be informed by evidence of uptake and address disparities in use. This study sought to determine the prevalence of, and demographic, behavioural and relational factors associated with, condom use during insertive and receptive anal intercourse with casual partners among younger gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) in New Zealand. The 2006-2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data for YMSM aged 16-29 years was pooled. Separately for each sexual position, frequent (always/almost always) versus infrequent condom use was regressed onto explanatory variables using manual backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis. Three-quarters of YMSM reported frequent condom use during insertive (76.0%) and receptive (73.8%) anal intercourse. YMSM who were exclusively insertive were more likely to report frequent condom use than versatile YMSM. Factors positively associated with frequent condom use, irrespective of sexual position were: in-person versus web-based recruitment, testing HIV negative versus never testing or testing HIV positive, having no recent sex with women, reporting two to five versus one male sexual partner in the past 6 months, reporting no current regular partner, but if in a regular relationship, reporting a boyfriend-type versus fuckbuddy-type partner, and frequent versus infrequent regular partner condom use. Pacific ethnicity and less formal education were negatively associated with frequent condom use only during receptive anal intercourse. The findings from this study demonstrate that condom norms can be actively established and maintained among YMSM. Condom promotion efforts must increase YMSM's capacity, agency and skills to negotiate condom use, especially for the receptive partner.
Pandey, Arvind; Benara, Sudhir Kumar; Roy, Nandini; Sahu, Damodar; Thomas, Mariamma; Joshi, Dhirendra Kumar; Sengupta, Utpal; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Bhalla, Aparajita; Prakash, Ajay
To report HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and sexual behaviour of long-distance truckers on four national highway routes from a large, cross-sectional, national-level trucker survey in India. Seven trans-shipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes, north-west (NW), north-south (NS), north-east (NE) and south-east (SE) were identified as survey sites. A total of 2066 long-distance truckers were selected using a two-stage, time-location cluster sampling approach and, after consent, interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Urine and blood sample were tested for selected STIs. Overall, HIV prevalence among truckers was found to be 4.6%, with prevalence highest on the SE route (6.8%) and lowest on the NS (2.4%). Positive HSV-2 serology, which was tested in a 10% subsample, was low along three routes, 10.0%, 12.8% and 6.7% for the NE, NS and NW, respectively, but 38.7% in the SE. The truckers from the SE were found to be more likely to have sex with paid partners than the NE route. Moreover, truckers who owned their trucks were more likely than those who did not use condoms consistently with paid partners, and truckers who drive trucks owned by their relatives/friends are more likely than others to have any STI. Low self-risk perception for HIV (9.9%), low consistent condom use with non-paid partners (18.6%) and wives (3%), low reported exposure to any interventions (25.6%) and low levels of ever having taken an HIV test (16.5%) make truckers an important bridge population requiring strengthened interventions.
Full Text Available Background: Condomless anal intercourse (CLAI has long been recognised as the primary mode of sexual transmission of HIV in gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM. A variety of measures of CLAI have been commonly used in behavioural surveillance for HIV risk and to forecast trends in HIV infection. However, gay and other MSM’s sexual practices changed as the understanding of disease and treatment options advance. In the present paper, we argue that summary measures such as any CLAI do not accurately measure HIV sexual risk behaviour. Methods: Participants were 1,427 HIV-negative men from the Health in Men cohort study run from 2001 to 2007 in Sydney, Australia, with six-monthly interviews. At each interview, detailed quantitative data on the number of episodes of insertive and receptive CLAI in the last six months were collected, separated by partner type (regular vs. casual and partners’ HIV status (negative, positive, and HIV status unknown.Results: A total of 228,064 episodes of CLAI were reported during the study period with a mean of 44 episodes per year per participant (median: 14. The great majority of CLAI episodes were with a regular partner (92.6%, most of them with HIV-negative regular partners (84.8%. Participants were more likely to engage in insertive CLAI with casual than with regular partners (66.7% vs. 55.3% of all acts of CLAI with each partner type, p<0.001. Men were more likely to report CLAI in the receptive position with HIV-negative and HIV status unknown partners than with HIV-positive partners (p<0.001 for both regular and casual partners. Conclusion: Gay and other MSM engaging in CLAI demonstrate clear patterns of HIV risk reduction behaviour. As HIV prevention enters the era of antiretroviral-based biomedical approach, using all forms of CLAI indiscriminately as a measure of HIV behavioural risk is not helpful in understanding the current drivers of HIV transmission in the community.
Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence
The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.
Research has shown that in countries such as Nigeria many urban dwellers live in a state of squalour and lack the basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter. The present study set out to examine the association between forms of basic deprivation--such as food deprivation, high occupancy ratio as a form of shelter deprivation, and inadequate clothing--and two sexual outcomes--timing of onset of penetrative sex and involvement in multiple sexual partnerships. The study used survey data from a sample of 480 girls resident in Iwaya community. A survival analysis of the timing of onset of sex and a regression model for involvement in multiple sexual partnerships reveal that among the forms of deprivation explored, food deprivation is the only significant predictor of the timing of onset of sex and involvement in multiple sexual partnerships. The study concludes that the sexual activities of poor out-of-school girls are partly explained by their desire to overcome food deprivation and recommends that government and non-governmental-organisation programmes working with young people should address the problem of basic deprivation among adolescent girls.
Graham, M Dean; Gardner Gregory, James; Hussain, Dema; Brake, Wayne G; Pfaus, James G
Dopamine (DA) transmission in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) plays a critical role in the control of appetitive sexual behaviour in the female rat. We have shown previously that a DA D1 receptor (D1R)-mediated excitatory state appears to occur in females primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P), whereas a DA D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated inhibitory state appears to occur in females primed only with EB. The present experiment employed three techniques to better understand what changes occur to DA receptors (DARs) in the mPOA under different hormonal profiles. Ovariectomized females were randomly assigned to one of three steroid treatment groups: EB + P (10 and 500 μg, respectively), EB + Oil, or the control (Oil + Oil), with hormone injections administered at 48 and 4 h prior to euthanizing. First, the number of neurons in the mPOA that contained D1R or D2R was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Second, the mPOA and two control areas (the prelimbic cortex and caudate putamen) were analysed for DAR protein levels using western blot, and DAR functional binding levels using autoradiography. Ovarian steroid hormones affected the two DAR subtypes in opposite ways in the mPOA. All three techniques supported previous behavioural findings that females primed with EB have a lower D1R : D2R ratio, and thus a D2R-mediated system, and females primed with EB + P have a higher D1R : D2R ratio, and thus a D1R-mediated system. This provides strong evidence for a DA-driven pathway of female sexual motivation, desire, and behaviour that is modified by different hormone priming regimens. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…
The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development.
Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliott, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa
Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited. To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour among MSM after a negative HIV infection test. To identify effective components within interventions in reducing HIV risk-related behaviours and develop a candidate intervention. To host expert events addressing the implementation and optimisation of a candidate intervention. All major electronic databases (British Education Index, BioMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Educational Resource Index and Abstracts, Health and Medical Complete, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed and Social Science Citation Index) were searched between January 2000 and December 2014. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions was conducted. Interventions were examined using the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy, theory coding assessment, mode of delivery and proximity to HIV infection testing. Data were summarised in narrative review and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was carried out. Supplemental analyses for the development of the candidate intervention focused on post hoc realist review method, the assessment of the sequential delivery and content of intervention components, and the social and historical context of primary studies. Expert panels reviewed the candidate intervention for issues of implementation and optimisation. Overall, trials included in this review ( n = 10) demonstrated that individual-level behaviour change interventions are effective in reducing key HIV infection risk
Xu, J J; Smith, M K; Chu, J; Ding, G W; Chang, D F; Sharp, G B; Qian, H Z; Lu, L; Bi, A M; Wang, N
To examine the HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related risk behaviours among community-based female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients in Yunnan Province, China, we performed a cross-sectional study of 705 FSWs and 100 male clients. We found that HIV seroprevalence among FSWs was 13.0% and the most prevalent STI was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (71.1%), followed by Chlamydia trachomatis (18.1%) and syphilis (8.8%). The 20% of FSWs who reported injection drug use also reported needle-sharing behaviours in the last three months. Drug-using FSWs had substantially higher HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, serviced more clients and had a longer history of sex work than non-using FSWs. In total, 57.0% of male clients did not consistently use condoms with FSWs, 2.0% reported illicit drug use and 17.0% had STI symptoms in the last year. The dual risk behaviours of drug-using FSWs and clients place them at greater risk of HIV infection. Intervention programmes must adopt comprehensive methods.
Soka, Moses J; Choi, Mary J; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Rogers, Emerson; Purpura, Lawrence J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Abad, Neetu; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip K; Christie, Athalia; Ladele, Victor; Subah, Oneykachi C; Pillai, Satish; Mugisha, Margaret; Kpaka, Jonathan; Kowalewski, Stephen; German, Emilio; Stenger, Mark; Nichol, Stuart; Ströher, Ute; Vanderende, Kristin E; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Green, Hugh Henry W; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Williams, Desmond
Ebola virus has been detected in semen of Ebola virus disease survivors after recovery. Liberia's Men's Health Screening Program (MHSP) offers Ebola virus disease survivors semen testing for Ebola virus. We present preliminary results and behavioural outcomes from the first national semen testing programme for Ebola virus. The MHSP operates out of three locations in Liberia: Redemption Hospital in Montserrado County, Phebe Hospital in Bong County, and Tellewoyan Hospital in Lofa County. Men aged 15 years and older who had an Ebola treatment unit discharge certificate are eligible for inclusion. Participants' semen samples were tested for Ebola virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR and participants received counselling on safe sexual practices. Participants graduated after receiving two consecutive negative semen tests. Counsellors collected information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviours using questionnaires administered at enrolment, follow up, and graduation visits. Because the programme is ongoing, data analysis was restricted to data obtained from July 7, 2015, to May 6, 2016. As of May 6, 2016, 466 Ebola virus disease survivors had enrolled in the programme; real-time RT-PCR results were available from 429 participants. 38 participants (9%) produced at least one semen specimen that tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. Of these, 24 (63%) provided semen specimens that tested positive 12 months or longer after Ebola virus disease recovery. The longest interval between discharge from an Ebola treatment unit and collection of a positive semen sample was 565 days. Among participants who enrolled and provided specimens more than 90 days since their Ebola treatment unit discharge, men older than 40 years were more likely to have a semen sample test positive than were men aged 40 years or younger (p=0·0004). 84 (74%) of 113 participants who reported not using a condom at enrolment reported using condoms at their first follow-up visit (pEbola virus RNA by real-time RT
Schmidt, K W; Fouchard, J R; Krasnik, A; Zoffmann, H; Jacobsen, H L; Kreiner, S
An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was distributed to (1) male members of the Danish Gay and Lesbian Association (2) through a gay magazine and (3) to readers of a gay pornographic magazine. For the purpose of this study sexual practices were classified into three categories taking into account the HIV-status of the respondent and his partner(s): safe sex (mutual masturbation, sex with condoms, sex without condoms between two HIV-positives), potentially safe sex (oral-genital sex without condoms irrespective of HIV-status, anal-genital sex without condoms between two HIV-negatives), unsafe sex (anal-genital sex without condoms between discordant partners or partners of unknown HIV status). Of the 2058 respondents 29.7% had had unsafe sex in the last 12 months. Multivariate analysis by recursive graphical models showed that sexual practice was directly related (that is conditionally dependent given the rest of the variables) to having a steady partner. Among men without a steady partner sexual practice was also directly related to age and number of partners showing an increase in unsafe sex with number of partners and a decrease with age. Thus of the men 16-19 years of age 43.5% had had unsafe sex irrespective of number of partners vs 5.7% of men older than 44 years and with one to two partners. Sexual practice was not directly related to any other demographic or psychosocial factor in the study. The adopted classification of sexual practice preclude that the high occurrence of unsafe sex could be explained by unsafe sex taking place among partners of concordant HIV status. The results emphasize the need for further preventive efforts to reduce transmission of HIV among homosexual men.
Multicentre RCT and economic evaluation of a psychological intervention together with a leaflet to reduce risk behaviour amongst men who have sex with men (MSM prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV following sexual exposure (PEPSE: A protocol
Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP following sexual exposure to HIV has been recommended as a method of preventing HIV infection in the UK. Men who have sex with men (MSM are the group most affected by HIV in the UK and their sexual risk taking behaviour is reported to be increasing. One-to-one behavioural interventions, such as motivational interviewing (MI have been recommended to reduce HIV in high risk groups. The Information, Motivation and Behavioral skills (IMB model has been shown to provide a good basis for understanding and predicting HIV-relevant health behaviour and health behaviour change, however the IMB has yet to be applied to PEP after risky sexual exposure. The primary aim of this trial is to examine the impact of MI augmented with information provision and behavioural skills building (informed by the IMB Model, over and above usual care, on risky sexual behaviour in MSM prescribed PEP after potential sexual exposure. A secondary aim of this research is to examine the impact of the intervention on adherence to PEP. This study will also provide estimates of the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Methods A manualised parallel group randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation will be conducted. The primary outcome is the proportion of risky sexual practices. Secondary outcomes include: i Levels of adherence to PEP treatment; ii Number of subsequent courses of PEP; iii Levels of motivation to avoid risky sexual behaviours; iv Levels of HIV risk-reduction information/knowledge; v Levels of risk reduction behavioural skills; vi Diagnosis of anal gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and/or HIV. 250 participants will be asked to self-complete a questionnaire at four time points during the study (at 0,3,6,12 months. The intervention will consist of a two-session, fixed duration, telephone administered augmented MI intervention based on the IMB model. A newly developed treatment manual will guide the selection of
Emmett, Sarah; Boros, Samuel; Whiteman, David C; Porceddu, Sandro V; Panizza, Benedict J; Antonsson, Annika
A significant proportion of mucosal squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC; particularly of the oropharynx) are directly attributable to the human papillomavirus (HPV). The increase in the incidence of HPV-related tumours has been postulated to be due to changing sexual practices in the community. We analysed 136 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded squamous cell carcinomas from the oral cavity (n=40) and oropharynx (n=96) recruited from the Princess Alexandra Hospital (Brisbane, Australia). Samples were analysed for the presence of HPV DNA using a combination of mucosal HPV general primer GP+ PCR and sequencing; p 16INK4a expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Each patient completed a questionnaire detailing their lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, marital status, and sexual behaviour and history. The HPV DNA prevalence was 5 % in the oral cavity cancers and 72 % in the oropharyngeal cancers (P<0.0001). HPV-16 was the most commonly detected HPV type (found in 91 % of all HPV-positive tumours). There was a strong correlation between HPV DNA positivity and positive p16 INK4a staining in oropharyngeal tumours (P<0.0001). Having an HPV-related tumour was associated with being married or having been married previously (P=0.046), an increasing number of passionate kissing partners (P=0.046), ever having given oral sex (P=0.0007) and an increasing number of oral sex partners (P=0.0015). This study found a higher prevalence of HPV in oropharyngeal compared to oral cavity tumours, with a strong association being identified between oral sex behaviours and HPV-positive tumours. Further research is needed to establish that vaccines will reduce the transmission and carriage of oropharyngeal HPV infections.
Aghaizu, Adamma; Wayal, Sonali; Nardone, Anthony; Parsons, Victoria; Copas, Andrew; Mercey, Danielle; Hart, Graham; Gilson, Richard; Johnson, Anne M
HIV incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) in the UK has remained unchanged over the past decade despite increases in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage. In this study, we examine trends in sexual behaviours and HIV testing in MSM and explore the risk of transmitting and acquiring HIV. In this serial cross-sectional study, we obtained data from ten cross-sectional surveys done between 2000 and 2013, consisting of anonymous self-administered questionnaires and oral HIV antibody testing in MSM recruited in gay social venues in London, UK. Data were collected between October and January for all survey years up to 2008 and between February and August thereafter. All men older than 16 years were eligible to take part and fieldworkers attempted to approach all MSM in each venue and recorded refusal rates. Data were collected on demographic and sexual behavioural characteristics. We analysed trends over time using linear, logistic, and quantile regression. Of 13 861 questionnaires collected between 2000 and 2013, we excluded 1985 (124 had completed the survey previously or were heterosexual reporting no anal intercourse in the past year, and 1861 did not provide samples for antibody testing). Of the 11 876 eligible MSM recruited, 1512 (13%) were HIV positive, with no significant trend in HIV positivity over time. 35% (531 of 1505) of HIV-positive MSM had undiagnosed infection, which decreased non-linearly over time from 34% (45 of 131) to 24% (25 of 106; p=0·01), while recent HIV testing (ie, in the past year) increased from 26% (263 of 997) to 60% (467 of 777; pmove towards eradication of HIV. Public Health England. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Veiga, Luisa; Teixeira, Filomena; Martins, Isabel; Melico-Silvestre, Antonio
Sex education in Portugal has become a right and an obligation starting in the first years of school. However, despite being required by legislation, this is not easy to achieve, partly because of weaknesses in the training of teachers, which need to be identified. In this study, data were collected about the knowledge, behaviours and beliefs of…
Franchuk, V V
Despite the fact that the ever growing relevance of the problem of the inappropriate medical care was long ago brought to the worldwide attention, it has not been practically addressed in the Ukraine since the country gained independence in 1991. The objective of the present study was to consider the specific features of expert examination of the cases of inappropriate medical care as exemplified by the materials of the legal actions and lawsuits instituted against healthcare specialists violating their occupational duties. The results of forensic medical examination by the local Bureaux of forensic medical expertise concerning the 350 so-called malpractice suits instituted in the Ternopol, Zhitomir, and Chernovtsy regions during the period from 207 to 2016 were available for the analysis. The facts of inadequate and inappropriate medical care were documented in 245 (72.0%) cases. The frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic errors amounted to 29.7% and 26.9% respectively while the improper formulation of the medical documentation was recorded in 21.3% of the cases. The cases of poor organization of the diagnostic and treatment process accounted for 14.6% of the total whereas the improper behaviour of the medical personnel was reported in 7.5% of all the known cases of provision of the healthcare services. It is concluded that in the majority of the cases, the citizens of the modern-day Ukraine receive the inappropriate (insufficient and untimely) medical care. Over 80% of the cases of the inappropriate medical care currently provided in the country can be accounted for by the objective reasons, with each fifths case being due to the violation of professional responsibilities by the healthcare providers.
Ali, Mohamed M; Cleland, John
A comparative analysis of exposure to sexual activity, contraceptive use, conceptions, and pregnancy resolutions among single women aged 15-24 in eight Latin American countries is presented. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys complete contraceptive and reproductive histories are constructed for single women aged 15-24 during the 5 year period preceding each survey. Pre-marital conception rates and overall and cause-specific life-table probabilities of contraceptive discontinuation are estimated. Pregnancy outcome and intention status of births are summarized. Trends in virginity, contraceptive protection, and conception rates for five sites are documented. In all eight countries, virginity accounts for over half of all single woman-years of exposure between age 15 and 24. The percentage of sexually active time protected by contraception is less than 20% in five countries, is about 30% in Peru and 50% in Brazil and Colombia. The contribution of condoms to contraceptive protection ranges from one-tenth to one-fifth. Pre-marital conception rates among sexually active single women range from 14.1 per 100 woman-years in Nicaragua to 25.8 in Bolivia. Most pre-marital conceptions ended in live birth, and births that are legitimized by marriage or cohabitation are more likely to be wanted. In five settings, virginity has fallen over time, especially in Northeast Brazil and Colombia, and uptake of condoms has increased faster than use of other methods. Because of pervasive declines in the protective effect of virginity, conception rates among single women in Latin America are rising. Contraceptive uptake, particularly of condoms, is increasing but not sufficiently to offset the decline in virginity.
Parry, C D H; Carney, T; Petersen Williams, P
Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use is increasingly recognised as having a direct and indirect effect on the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there is evidence to suggest that drug- and sex-related HIV risk-reduction interventions targeted at drug users within drug treatment centres or via community outreach efforts can lead to positive health outcomes. This study aimed to test whether a community-level intervention aimed at AOD users has an impact on risky AOD use and sexual risk behaviour. In 2007, in collaboration with a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Durban, an initiative was begun to implement a number of harm reduction strategies for injection and non-injection drug users. The NGO recruited peer outreach workers who received intensive initial training, which was followed by six-monthly monitoring and evaluation of their performance. Participants had to be 16 years of age or older, and self-reported alcohol and/or drug users. Peer outreach workers completed a face-to-face baseline questionnaire with participants which recorded risk behaviours and a risk-reduction plan was developed with participants which consisted of reducing injection (if applicable) and non-injection drug use and sex-related risks. Other components of the intervention included distribution of condoms, risk-reduction counselling, expanded access to HIV Testing Services, HIV/sexually transmitted infection care and treatment, and referrals to substance abuse treatment and social services. At follow-up, the baseline questionnaire was completed again and participants were also asked the frequency of reducing identified risk behaviours. Baseline information was collected from 138 drug users recruited into the study through community-based outreach, and who were subsequently followed up between 2010 and 2012. No injection drug users were reached. The data presented here are for first contact (baseline) and the final follow-up contact with the participants
Romi, Juan C
In this article we describe the criminal sexual conducts and their incidence in crime, as well as the psychogenesis of the criminal sexual behaviour, the profile of the sexual delinquent and the most common sexual disturbances found. It shall be mentioned the paraphilic crime, the serial sexual delinquent and their legal consequences.
Full Text Available Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services.This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013-14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method.About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05 and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10 and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05.This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI prevention and care services
Fuller, Richard L; Goldfield, Norbert I; Averill, Richard F; Hughes, John S
In this article, the authors demonstrate that the use of relative weights, as incorporated within the National Quality Forum-endorsed PacifiCare readmission measure, is inappropriate for risk adjusting rates of hospital readmission.
Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R
relevance to understanding sexual behaviour and HIV among MSM were identified, with an encouraging amount of new data coming from sub-Saharan Africa. However, limitations in the quality, utility and comparability of available information persist. At least three measures could be promoted for use in surveillance and academic studies: standardised indicators for MSM studies; standardised operational definitions of, and instructions to describe, variables; and standardised research designs and data gathering strategies. A prerequisite for this all is intense advocacy to ensure a social climate in which research into such matters is prioritised, resources are made available as needed and the human rights of MSM are respected.
Tanga, Pius Tangwe; Tangwe, Magdaline Nji
Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of 'power to' and 'power within', on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants, the ability to make independent sexual decisions was also enhanced. These improvements were greeted enthusiastically, particularly by the female participants, given their previously disadvantaged status as a result of coming from rural patriarchal villages with gender-defined hegemonic notions of respectability. The findings also indicate that environmental factors and others, such as meagre salaries, encouraged some of the female workers to engage in transactional sex, while some of the male participants tended to increase their sexual relationships as a result of acquiring employment and income from the industry. It is the contention of the authors of this study that true empowerment requires both vital resources and individual and
Simpson, Grahame; Simons-Coghill, Martine; Bates, Annerley; Gan, Caron
Positive sexual development is a core task in the transition from childhood/adolescence to adulthood. Little is known about the extent of research addressing this topic after acquired brain injury (ABI). To identify publications (1980 to 2016) addressing positive sexual health among children/adolescents with ABI. A scoping review. A search conducted using OVID and PubMed databases yielded 2021 citations with 28 publications meeting the inclusion criteria (six reviews, one expert account, 19 observational and two intervention studies). Teenagers with ABI reported poorer body image, feeling less sexually or physically attractive than sex and age matched non brain-damaged controls. The one study with findings on sexual orientation, reported 15% of adolescents with ABI identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual. Precocious puberty was a rare outcome from ABI, but the most common focus of the publications (14/28). Finally, two case studies (genital touching and classroom masturbation respectively) found that behavioral interventions were an effective means of extinguishing inappropriate sexual behaviour after childhood ABI. Sexual health is a neglected area of research in post-ABI care for children/adolescents. A better understanding of the needs and challenges will help rehabilitation professionals and parents provide more informed and effective supports.
Wouters, Hans; Scheper, Jessica; Koning, Hedi; Brouwer, Chris; Twisk, Jos W.; van der Meer, Helene; Boersma, Froukje; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Taxis, Katja
Background: Inappropriate prescribing is a well-known clinical problem in nursing home residents, but few interventions have focused on reducing inappropriate medication use. Objective: To examine successful discontinuation of inappropriate medication use and to improve prescribing in nursing home
Wouters, H.; Scheper, J.; Koning, H.; Brouwer, C.; Twisk, J.; Van Der Meer, H.; Boersma, F.; Zuidema, S.; Taxis, K.
Introduction: Inappropriate prescribing is a prevalent problem in nursing home residents that is associated with cognitive and physical impairment. Few interventions have been shown to reduce inappropriate prescribing. The aim was therefore to examine successful discontinuation of inappropriate
Sustaining and strengthening the ability of the elderly to continue their sexual needs can be realized as part of improving their quality of life, health and well-being. There is no age at which ends the expression of sexuality and intimacy. Through education, quality of life and advances in medicine, the average life expectancy is still increasing. Sexual activity of older people society usually describe using pejorative terms as an inappropriate, bizarre or obscene, but these labels are different than reality. Hormonal changes and other physiological changes associated with aging affect sexual interest. Erectile dysfunction is a problem in men increasing with age. There is no evidence that premature ejaculation is more common in older age. Cross-sectional studies showed no difference in sexual dysfunction between older and younger women. Age is not a barrier to sexually transmitted diseases. The most common pathogenetic factors for male erectile dysfunction are vascular diseases. In women, the most important symptoms of sexual dysfunction are lack of emotional wellbeing and a sense of intimacy during sexual intercourse. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Hawkins, Emma; Kingsdorf, Sheri; Charnock, Jackie; Szabo, Mariann; Middleton, Edi; Phillips, Jo; Gautreaux, Grant
This article describes how a behaviour contract has been implemented to achieve positive and enduring results for four boys with a diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Four case studies are described which address reductions in behaviours such as assaultive and destructive behaviour, out-of-seat behaviour, inappropriate contact with…
Patra, Shraboni; Singh, Rakesh Kumar
The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years) clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years), interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson's Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, Pgap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda. Significance for public healthThe present study represents the evidence of a recent increase in HIV infection in Uganda from the latest round of AIDs indicator survey. This manuscript describes how young women (15-24 years-old) are disproportionately HIV-infected compared to young men in Uganda. They are more vulnerable to HIV than young men. Moreover, it is also observed that young women are at greater risk of acquiring HIV because of their risky sexual behaviour and inappropriate knowledge of HIV transmission. Some educational programmes, growing gender equity in HIV/AIDS activities and services, dropping violence and coercion, addressing male norms and behaviours, improving women's legal protection, and rising women's access to income and productive resources can be very effective in minimising the vulnerability of young women to HIV/AIDS.
The evaluation of immediate behavioural outcomes of the syndromic case management approach for the treatement of patients with sexually transmitted infections at PHC centres of South Africa: Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and sexual behaviour.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The laboratory overuse is widely prevalent in hospital practice, mostly in the emergency care. Reasons for excessive and inappropriate test-ordering include defensive behaviour and fear or uncertainty, lack of experience, the misuse of protocols and guidelines, “routine” and local attitudes, inadequate educational feedback and clinician’s unawareness about the cost of examinations and their related implications. AIM OF THE STUDY AND METHODS The primary target of our working group was to reduce inappropriate ordering on a urgent basis test, implementing further examinations not yet previewed in the hospital panel of the available urgencies, according to the evidence based diagnosis concept. The secondary goal was to indicate strategies of re-engineering of the processes, improving turnaround time in the laboratory management of emergencies. After evaluating, as first intervention, the more reliable sources for practice guidelines, systematic reviews and RCTs, the committee further discussed main topics with in-hospital stakeholders, selected from Emergency, Internal Medicine and Surgery Depts. The working group, in many subsequent audits, tried to obtain a systematic feed back with all involved professionals. RESULTS After reviewing literature’s evidence, the board constrained testing options by defining the basic emergency laboratory panel tests (blood type, hemogram, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, glucose, sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolarity, CRP, bicarbonate, CPK, creatine phosphokinase-MB, myoglobin, troponin, BNP and NT-proBNP, PT-INR, PTT, D-dimer, beta- HCG, biochemical urinalysis etc.. As final result, the proposed tests reduced the overall number of inappropriate investigations and increased, with newer and updated tests, the available panel for critical patients. DISCUSSION A collegiate review of data reporting, in-hospital deepening of problems and the inter- professional discussion of the evidences
physical, sexual, emotional and intellectual maturity, who are no longer children, nor ..... the expression of Coles and Stokes (1985), “sexual behaviour and thoughts ... norms that govern sexual conduct have been tremendously weakened by a.
Full Text Available EnglishThe authors argue that the important changes in behaviour related to family andsexual life that were seen in Quebec during the second half of the 20th centuryare a consequence of a major transformation of the foundation of the normativesystem shared by the members of Quebec's main socio-religious group, French speakingCatholics. Using data from Gallup polls, the authors compare theevolution of the opinions of French-speaking Quebec Catholics and English speakingOntario Protestants on matters related to sexual and family behaviourfrom the 1950s to the beginning of the 2000s. The general result is that theevolution of the differences between the two groups is compatible with thehypothesis.FrenchLes auteurs proposent d’expliquer les importants changements qui se sontproduits, dans le Québec de la deuxième moitié du 20e siècle, dans lescomportements liés à la famille et à la vie sexuelle par la transformation dusystème normatif des membres de son principal groupe socio-religieux, lesfrancophones catholiques. À partir des données de sondages Gallup, ilscomparent l'évolution des opinions des francophones catholiques du Québec etdes anglophones protestants de l’Ontario sur des questions liées à la famille etau comportement sexuel et de famille des années 1950 à 2000. L’évolution desdifférences entre les deux groupes est compatible avec l’hypothèse.
Full Text Available Interviewer-administered surveys are an important method of collecting population-level epidemiological data, but suffer from declining response rates and increasing costs. Web surveys offer more rapid data collection and lower costs. There are concerns, however, about data quality from web surveys. Previous research has largely focused on selection biases, and few have explored measurement differences. This paper aims to assess the extent to which mode affects the responses given by the same respondents at two points in time, providing information on potential measurement error if web surveys are used in the future.527 participants from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, which uses computer assisted personal interview (CAPI and self-interview (CASI modes, subsequently responded to identically-worded questions in a web survey. McNemar tests assessed whether within-person differences in responses were at random or indicated a mode effect, i.e. higher reporting of more sensitive responses in one mode. An analysis of pooled responses by generalized estimating equations addressed the impact of gender and question type on change.Only 10% of responses changed between surveys. However mode effects were found for about a third of variables, with higher reporting of sensitive responses more commonly found on the web compared with Natsal-3.The web appears a promising mode for surveys of sensitive behaviours, most likely as part of a mixed-mode design. Our findings suggest that mode effects may vary by question type and content, and by the particular mix of modes used. Mixed-mode surveys need careful development to understand mode effects and how to account for them.
Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; Brouwer, Tom F.; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A. M. J.; Boersma, Lucas V. A.; Johansen, Jens B.; Neuzil, Petr; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Carter, Nathan; Husby, Michael; Lambiase, Pier D.; Knops, Reinoud E.
The entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) eliminates the need for transvenous leads, and therefore has the potential to improve lead-longevity and reduce lead-related complications. The S-ICD has a morphology-based sensing algorithm of which inappropriate shocks have
Kristensen, Rachel Underlien; Nørgaard, Ane; Jensen-Dahm, Christina
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy (use of ≥5 different medications) and potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) are well-known risk factors for numerous negative health outcomes. However, the use of polypharmacy and PIM in people with dementia is not well-described. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence...
Delgado Silveira, Eva
Older people are a heterogeneous group of patients, often with multiple comorbidities for which they are prescribed a large number of drugs, leading to an increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and drug interactions. This risk is compounded by physiological age-related changes in physiology, changes in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as by disease-related, functional and social issues. Inappropriate prescription of drugs is common in the older individuals and contributes to the increased risk of ADR. Several tools have been developed to detect potentially inappropriate prescription, the most frequently used in Spain being Beers\\' criteria. However, the value of these criteria is limited, especially as they were developed in a different healthcare system. In this article, the Spanish version of a new tool to detect potentially inappropriate prescriptions-STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person\\'s Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment) criteria-is presented. The creation, development, reliability, and use of these criteria in routine practice is described and discussed. These criteria have shown better sensitivity than Beers\\' criteria in detecting prescription problems and have the added value of being able to detect not only inappropriate prescription of some drugs, but also the omission of well indicated drugs. The STOPP\\/START criteria could become a useful screening tool to improve prescription in older people.
Zhu, Xihe; Davis, Summer; Kirk, T. Nicole; Haegele, Justin A.; Knott, Stephen E.
Fitness education is becoming an integrated component for many physical education programs. As such, many physical educators conduct health-related fitness tests on a regular basis. Some states even mandate certain types of physical fitness tests to be administered and reported annually or by semester. Yet, inappropriate practices have been…
By comparing the patients according to their site of care, 52.4 % (43/82) of ICU patients compared to 87.4 % (97/111) of medically hospitalized patient (non-ICU) were inappropriately receiving PPIs (p = 0.000). Conclusion: Adherence to the current practice guidelines for safe prescription of PPIs is poor. Thus, updating ...
Sueiro, E; Gayoso, P; Perdiz, C; Doval, J L
We intend to describe the sexual behaviour of pregnancies women. Family Planning Center Nóvoa Santos, of Galician Health Service (SERGAS), of Ourense (SPAIN). 206 pregnancies women that are attended in a obstetric psychoprophylaxis's programme, during two years (January/93-January/95). We analysed the social economic, of reproduction, of medical attention and psycho-sexual variables. We use the PRESTA and SPSS statistics programmes. The average age is 28 years old, is married, has elementary studies and this is the first pregnancy. Her pregnancy is desire and normally developed. Her sexual desire and intercourse frequency is the same (1-2 per week); the intercourse is pleasant and the more habitual position is she over. Some times, the couple has relations without coitus and she practises the masturbation, and she enjoy of this practice. The pregnancies women have different sexual behaviours. They are satisfied with all them. The health' professional should favour the complete enjoy of the sexuality during the pregnancy.
Using a questionnaire instrument, information was obtained on sexual behaviours of interest such as sexual initiation, multi-partnered sexual activity and condom use. Findings showed a noticeable variation in the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviour. Contrary to expectations, students from ...
Full Text Available Background: Cyproterone acetate (CPA is a steroidal anti-androgenic medication used in the field of psychiatry for the treatment of paraphilic disorders, hypersexuality, and inappropriate sexual behaviour which may be present in patients with disorders such as mild and major neurocognitive disorders. In the forensic psychiatric population, it is prescribed for these indications especially for patients with a history of committing a sexual offence or who are at moderate to high risk of recidivism. Objectives: To investigate the use of CPA in a forensic psychiatric cohort of male sex offenders and its associations with sexual activity and sexual functioning. Methods: Seventy-six forensic psychiatric patients from Weskoppies Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, participated in the study which measured their sexual functioning. A specifically designed questionnaire was used to capture relevant background information. The use of CPA was studied. The Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Male Clinical Version (CSFQ-M-C was used to measure sexual functioning of participants. The CSFQ-M-C scores, and those of all its subscales, of participants on CPA were compared to those not on the drug. Relevant statistical analyses were performed. Results: Thirteen out of the 76 participants were being treated with CPA (17.11%. In total, 53.85% of the participants on CPA and 65.08% not on CPA had scores indicating the presence of sexual dysfunction. The total CSFQ-M-C scores for participants on CPA (mean = 40.54; median = 42 were not statistically significantly lower than those not on the drug (mean = 41.22; median = 41. More notable is that the use of CPA in this population was associated with lower levels of desire, frequency of and pleasure from sexual activity. There was an association between having intellectual disability and being treated with CPA. Conclusion: That all the participants were being treated with psychotropic medication could account for
Mauka, Wilhellmuss I; Mtuy, Tara B; Mahande, Michael J; Msuya, Sia E; Mboya, Innocent B; Juma, Abdul; Philemon, Rune N
Blood is a critical aspect of treatment in life saving situations, increasing demand. Blood requisition practices greatly effect sufficient supply in blood banks. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for inappropriate blood requisition in Tanzania. This was a cross sectional study using secondary data of 14,460 patients' blood requests from 42 transfusion hospitals. Primary data were obtained by using cluster-sampling design. Data were analysed using a two-level mixed-effects Poisson regression to determine fixed-effects of individual-level factors and hospital level factors associated with inappropriate blood requests. P-value Factors significantly associated with inappropriate requisition were; reporting pulse rate and capillary refill decrease the risk (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.64, 0.84) and (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63, 0.85) respectively and the following increased the risk; having surgery during hospital stay (RR 1.22; 95% CI 1.06, 1.4); being in general surgical ward (RR 3.3; 95% CI 2.7, 4.2), paediatric ward (RR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2, 2.7), obstetric ward (RR 2.5; 95% CI 2.0, 3.1), gynaecological ward (RR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5, 2.9), orthopaedics ward (RR 3.8; 95% CI 2.2, 6.7). Age of the patient, pallor and confirmation of pre-transfusion haemoglobin level were also significantly associated with inappropriate requisition. Majority of appropriate requisitions within the wards were marked in internal medicine (91.7%) and gynaecological wards (77.8%). The proportion of inappropriate blood requests was high. Blood requisition was determined by clinical and laboratory findings and the ward patients were admitted to. Adherence to transfusion guidelines is recommended to assure the best use of limited blood supply.
White, Jaclyn M; Dunham, Emilia; Rowley, Blake; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Sexually explicit media may perpetuate racial and sexual norms among men who have sex with men. While men may be exposed to sexually explicit media in the online settings where they seek sex with other men, no studies to our knowledge have explored the relationship between the racial and sexual content of advertisements appearing in these spaces. In 2011, using a detailed codebook, 217 sexually explicit advertisements on a male sex-seeking website were coded for themes, actor characteristics and sexual acts depicted. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between skin colour, theme, sexual acts and condomless sex acts. Nearly half (45%) featured a 'thug' theme (a style emphasising Black masculinity/hip-hop culture), 21% featured a college theme and 44% featured condomless sex. Advertisements featuring only Black men, advertisements featuring Black men with men of other skin tones and advertisements depicting a thug theme were positively associated with depictions of condomless sex. Online sexually explicit advertisements featuring Black themes and actors more frequently depicted condomless sex than advertisements with White men alone. Future research should examine whether depictions of Black men engaging in condomless sex in online advertisements influence the sexual norms and cognitions of Black men who have sex with men and their partners.
Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K
Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.
The need to promote behaviour change at the cultural level: one factor explaining the limited impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health intervention in rural Tanzania. A process evaluation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few of the many behavioral sexual health interventions in Africa have been rigorously evaluated. Where biological outcomes have been measured, improvements have rarely been found. One of the most rigorous trials was of the multi-component MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health programme, which showed improvements in knowledge and reported attitudes and behaviour, but none in biological outcomes. This paper attempts to explain these outcomes by reviewing the process evaluation findings, particularly in terms of contextual factors. Methods A large-scale, primarily qualitative process evaluation based mainly on participant observation identified the principal contextual barriers and facilitators of behavioural change. Results The contextual barriers involved four interrelated socio-structural factors: culture (i.e. shared practices and systems of belief, economic circumstances, social status, and gender. At an individual level they appeared to operate through the constructs of the theories underlying MEMA kwa Vijana - Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action – but the intervention was unable to substantially modify these individual-level constructs, apart from knowledge. Conclusion The process evaluation suggests that one important reason for this failure is that the intervention did not operate sufficiently at a structural level, particularly in regard to culture. Recently most structural interventions have focused on gender or/and economics. Complementing these with a cultural approach could address the belief systems that justify and perpetuate gender and economic inequalities, as well as other barriers to behaviour change.
Vandenabeele, Sylvie P.; Grundy, Edwa