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Sample records for inactivity abdominal obesity

  1. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  2. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  3. Gender, alexithymia and physical inactivity associated with abdominal obesity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross sectional study at a secondary care hospital diabetes clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Eva O.; Svensson, Ralph; Thunander, Maria; Hillman, Magnus; Thulesius, Hans O.; Landin-Olsson, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is linked to cardiovascular diseases and increasingly common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) since the introduction of intensified insulin therapy. Our main aim was to explore associations between obesity and depression, anxiety, alexithymia and self-image measures and to control for lifestyle variables in a sample of persons with T1DM. Secondary aims were to explore associations between abdominal and general obesity and cardiovascular complications in T1DM. Methods Cros...

  4. Abdominal obesity in adolescent girls attending a public secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity, daily fruit consumption and watching of TV/Internet/Video games for =2hours /day were significantly associated with development of abdominal obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of abdominal obesity was low in this study compared to other studies; reduced physical activity and sedentary lifestyle identified ...

  5. Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis

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    Ritesh Kohli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications.

  6. Economic costs of abdominal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship between waist circumference and future health care costs across a broad range of waist circumference values based on individual level data. METHOD: A prospective cohort of 31,840 subjects aged 50-64 years at baseline had health status, lifestyle and socio-e...... be a potential for significant resource savings through prevention of abdominal obesity....

  7. VACUUM THERAPY VERSUS ABDOMINAL EXERCISES ON ABDOMINAL OBESITY

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    Nevein Mohammed Mohammed Gharib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a medical condition that may adversely affect wellbeing and leading to increased incidence of many health problems. Abdominal obesity tends to be associated with weight gain and obesity and it is significantly connected with different disorders like coronary heart disease and type II diabetes mellitus.This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of vacuum therapy as compared to abdominal exercises on abdominal obesity in overweight and obese women. Methods: Thirtyoverweight and obese women participated in this study with body mass index > 25 kg/m2andwaist circumference ≥ 85 cm. Their ages ranged from 28 - 40 years old.The subjects were excluded if they have diabetes, abdominal infection diseases or any physical limitation restricting exercise ability. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups; group I and group II. Group I received vacuum therapy sessions (by the use of LPG device in addition to aerobic exercise training. Group II received abdominal exercises in addition to the same aerobic exercisesgiven to group I. This study was extended for successive 8 weeks (3 sessions/ week. All subjects were assessed for thickness ofnthe abdominal skin fold, waist circumference and body mass index. Results: The results of this study showeda significant difference between group I and group II post-interventionas regarding to the mean values of waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aerobic exercises combined with vacuum therapy (for three sessions/week for successive 8 weeks have a positive effect on women with abdominal obesity in terms of reducing waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness.

  8. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

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    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  9. Generalized And Abdominal Obesity; The Association With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is an increasing problem in the developing world, with more than 115 million people suffering from obesity-related problems. Abdominal obesity and increased body mass index are known to be associated with hypertension5, an important public health problem worldwide and the most widely ...

  10. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  11. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Willms, J D

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the relation among children's physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI), while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Epidemiological study examining the relations among physical activity participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and television (TV)/video watching), and BMI on a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. A representative sample of Canadian children aged 7-11 (N=7216) from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used in the analysis. Physical activity and sport participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and TV/video watching), and BMI measured by parental report. Both organized and unorganized sport and physical activity are negatively associated with being overweight (10-24% reduced risk) or obese (23-43% reduced risk), while TV watching and video game use are risk factors for being overweight (17-44% increased risk) or obese (10-61% increased risk). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour partially account for the association of high socioeconomic status and two-parent family structure with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. This study provides evidence supporting the link between physical inactivity and obesity of Canadian children.

  12. Abdominal obesity, cardiometabolic risk and endocannabinoid system

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    G. Bittolo Bon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is of central importance in the definition of global cardiometabolic risk. Visceral adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators, which influence body weight homeostasis, insulin resistance, alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular events and of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification is the first-line approach to the management of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. However for patients at higher risk, who cannot achieve an appreciable reduction in weight and in global cardiometabolic risk with lifestyle modification alone, an adjunctive long term pharmacotherapy should be considered. The endocannabinoid system activity regulates food intake and metabolic factors through cannabinoid-1 (CB1 receptor located in multiple sites, including hypothalamus and limbic forebrain, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence suggests that CB1 receptor blockade offers a novel therapeutic strategy. Data from four phase III trials suggest that rimonabant, the first cannabinoid receptor inhibitor, modulates cardiometabolic risk factors, both through its impact on body weight and metabolic parameters such as HDL-cholesterol, tryglicerides, Hb1Ac, through direct pathways that are not related to weight loss.

  13. Screening for total and abdominal obesity among University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of total body fat and distribution has been stressed as a major risk factor for both adults and children. There is paucity of information concerning total and abdominal obesity among university students in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to screen for total and abdominal obesity among university of ...

  14. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, AN ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETER PREDICTING METABOLIC DISORDERS

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    Maricel Castellanos González

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waist circumference perimeter, as an indirect indicator of abdominal obesity, is commonly presented as an essential element in the clinical assessment of obesity. The link between abdominal obesity and insulin resistance is proposed as the core of metabolic syndrome’s pathophysiology and complications. Objective: To determine whether individuals with abdominal obesity present characteristics related to metabolic syndrome’s factors that differ from those observed in individuals with no abdominal obesity. Methods: A comparative analytical study was performed including cases control and design in two different groups. The sample was composed of 98 individuals of both sexes randomly selected out of a universe of 510 workers population at the Medical University of Cienfuegos from September to December 2005. They were all tested as to blood pressure, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and triglycerides. Results: Abdominal obesity was found in 30.6% of individuals. It was predominant in females (83.3% older than 40 years. The number of cases of obesity linked to hypertension was similar to the number of cases with low HDL cholesterol (53.3%. Impaired glucose was found in 16.7% of cases. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity is a health problem in the population included in this study and it increases as age does. Individuals with abdominal obesity are exposed to a higher risk of metabolic disorders, such as low levels of HDL cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, glucose alterations and hypertension.

  15. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.

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    Lihua Hu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.A cross-sectional survey of 15,364 participants aged 15 years and older was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014 in Jiangxi Province, China, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The physical measurements included body height, weight, waist circumference (WC, body fat percentage (BFP and visceral adipose index (VAI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity.The prevalence of overweight was 25.8% (25.9% in males and 25.7% in females, while that of obesity was 7.9% (8.4% in males and 7.6% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.2% (8.6% in males and 11.3% in females. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 37.1% in urban residents and 30.2% in rural residents, and this difference was significant (P < 0.001. Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of abdominal obesity than rural residents (11.6% vs 8.7%, P < 0.001. Among the participants with an underweight/normal body mass index (BMI, 1.3% still had abdominal obesity, 16.1% had a high BFP and 1.0% had a high VAI. Moreover, among obese participants, 9.7% had a low /normal WC, 0.8% had a normal BFP and 15.9% had a normal VAI. Meanwhile, the partial correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between VAI and BMI, VAI and WC, and BMI and WC were 0.700, 0.666, and 0.721, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that being female and having a high BFP and a high VAI were significantly associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. In addition, living in an urban area and older age correlated with overweight/obesity.This study revealed that obesity and abdominal obesity, which differed by gender and age, are epidemic in southern China. Moreover

  16. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  17. [Excess weight and abdominal obesity in Galician children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez, Ana; Malvar, Alberto; Hervada, Xurxo; Suanzes, Jorge

    2017-12-06

    The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obese children (Cole's cut-off criteria) and abdominal obesity (Taylor's cut-off criteria) were estimated after performing objective measurements of height, weight and waist circumference at school. A total of 7,438 students were weighed and measured in 137 schools. The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals was 24.9% and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%, with 4% of children with normal weight having abdominal obesity. These data highlight the need to promote primary prevention measures at early ages in order to decrease the occurrence of the premature onset of disease in the future. The prevalence of excess weight is underestimated if abdominal obesity is not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

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    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  19. Prevalence of abdominal obesity among rural South African children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early detection for increased abdominal fat may be crucial in early prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the current study was to explore the development of abdominal obesity of Ellisras rural children aged 6 to 14 years over time. Height, waist and hip circumferences were measured twice, yearly from ...

  20. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

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    Linda S Geiss

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48. APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  1. Ejaculate parameters in patients with abdominal obesity

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    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2015-01-01

    compared with the third group, moreover the indicated decline was more pronounced in men of the 1st group. The content of SHBG in serum was also significantly lower in the 1st and 2nd groups in relation to the 3rd group. Comparison of ejaculate indicators revealed significant differences in the 1st and 2nd groups of men, differing in the type of fat distribution, in terms of volume of ejaculate, share of progressively motile sperm and DNA fragmentation level. Differences are identified for some indicators of ejaculate between the 1st and 3rd groups, but the differences between the 2nd and 3rd groups on any indicator are not detected. Conclusion. The revealed differences indicate a negative effect on the ejaculate indicators, particularly of upper type of fat distribution, peculiar to the men of the 1st group. The obtained results justify the assumption that abdominal obesity with upper type fat distribution is an independent risk factor of male fertility reduction. 

  2. Ejaculate parameters in patients with abdominal obesity

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    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2015-04-01

    compared with the third group, moreover the indicated decline was more pronounced in men of the 1st group. The content of SHBG in serum was also significantly lower in the 1st and 2nd groups in relation to the 3rd group. Comparison of ejaculate indicators revealed significant differences in the 1st and 2nd groups of men, differing in the type of fat distribution, in terms of volume of ejaculate, share of progressively motile sperm and DNA fragmentation level. Differences are identified for some indicators of ejaculate between the 1st and 3rd groups, but the differences between the 2nd and 3rd groups on any indicator are not detected. Conclusion. The revealed differences indicate a negative effect on the ejaculate indicators, particularly of upper type of fat distribution, peculiar to the men of the 1st group. The obtained results justify the assumption that abdominal obesity with upper type fat distribution is an independent risk factor of male fertility reduction. 

  3. Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Michael D.; Company, Joseph M.; Brown, Jacob D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Booth, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6–11 yr old fail to obtain the reco...

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Change in Abdominal Obesity Among Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2012-01-01

    Context Depression has been hypothesized to result in abdominal obesity through the accumulation of visceral fat. No large study has tested this hypothesis longitudinally. Objective To examine whether depressive symptoms predict an increase in abdominal obesity in a large population-based sample of well-functioning older persons. Design The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study, with 5 years of follow-up. Setting Community-dwelling older persons residing in the areas surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Participants 2088 well-functioning white and black persons aged 70–79 years. Main Outcome Measures Baseline depression was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) score of ≥ 16. At baseline and after 5 years, overall obesity measures included body mass index and percent body fat (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry). Abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and visceral fat (measured by computed tomography). Results After adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle, diseases and overall obesity, baseline depression was associated with a 5-year increase in sagittal diameter (β=.054, p=.01) and visceral fat (β=.080, p=.001). Conclusions This study shows that depressive symptoms result in an increase in abdominal obesity, independent of overall obesity, suggesting that there may be specific pathophysiological mechanisms which link depression with visceral fat accumulation. These results might also help explain why depression increases risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19047525

  5. Dietary energy density: a mediator of depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity or independent predictor of abdominal obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A; Dunbar, Sandra B; Gary, Rebecca; Tohill, Beth C; Frediani, Jennifer K; Higgins, Melinda K

    2012-12-01

    In the U.S., Europe, and throughout the world, abdominal obesity prevalence is increasing. Depressive symptoms may contribute to abdominal obesity through the consumption of diets high in energy density. To test dietary energy density ([DED]; kilocalories/gram of food and beverages consumed) for an independent relationship with abdominal obesity or as a mediator between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. This cross-sectional study included 87 mid-life, overweight adults; 73.6% women; 50.6% African-American. Variables and measures: Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II) to measure depressive symptoms; 3-day weighed food records to calculate DED; and waist circumference, an indicator of abdominal obesity. Hierarchical regression tested if DED explained waist circumference variance while controlling for depressive symptoms and consumed food and beverage weight. Three approaches tested DED as a mediator. Nearly three-quarters of participants had abdominal obesity, and the mean waist circumference was 103.2 (SD 14.3) cm. Mean values: BDI-II was 8.67 (SD 8.34) which indicates that most participants experienced minimal depressive symptoms, and 21.8% reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥ 14); DED was 0.75 (SD 0.22) kilocalories/gram. Hierarchical regression showed an independent association between DED and waist circumference with DED explaining 7.0% of variance above that accounted for by BDI-II and food and beverage weight. DED did not mediate between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Depressive symptoms and DED were associated with elevated waist circumference, thus a comprehensive intervention aimed at improving depressive symptoms and decreasing DED to reduce waist circumference is warranted.

  6. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertension amongst adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

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    Isaac O. Amole

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:In many developing countries obesity and obesity-related morbidity are now becoming a problem of increasing importance. Obesity is associated with a number of disease conditions, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, gallstones, respiratory system problems and sleep apnoea.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity, as classified according to waist circumference (WC, and further to determine whether there was any association between abdominal obesity and hypertension amongst adults attending the Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 400 adults aged 18 years or older was conducted. Blood pressure and WC measurements were taken and participants completed a standardised questionnaire.Results: A group of 400 participants were randomly selected (221 women; 179 men, with a mean age of 48.7 ± 16.6 years. The overall prevalence of obesity as indicated by WC was 33.8%(men = 8.9%; women = 53.8%. Women were significantly more sedentary than men (50.8% for men vs 62.4% for women, p < 0.05. Most of the obese participants’ families also preferred high-energy foods (85.2%, p > 0.05. Overall prevalence of hypertension amongst the study population was 50.5%, but without a significant difference between men and women (52.0% for men vs 49.3% for women, p > 0.05. The prevalence of hypertension amongst the obese subset, however, was 60.0%.Conclusion: Prevalence of abdominal obesity was found to be particularly significant amongst women in this setting and was associated with hypertension, physical inactivity and the consumption of high-energy diets.

  7. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  8. Change in abdominal obesity and risk of coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabour, S.; Grobbee, D.E.; Prokop, M.; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Bots, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prospective follow-up study was conducted to examine the relationship between 9 year change in abdominal obesity and risk of coronary artery calcification (CAC). METHODS: Data on coronary risk factors for 573 postmenopausal women were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and

  9. Magnitude and gender distribution of obesity and abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity and abdominal adiposity are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity in diabetes. This study evaluated their magnitude and gender distribution in Nigerians with Type 2 DM attending a tertiary care clinic. Patients and Methods: 258 consecutive patients with type 2 DM were evaluated.

  10. Yogurt consumption and abdominal obesity reversion in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, S; Sayón-Orea, C; Babio, N; Ruiz-Canela, M; Martí, A; Corella, D; Estruch, R; Fitó, M; Aros, F; Ros, E; Gómez-García, E; Fiol, M; Lapetra, J; Serra-Majem, Ll; Becerra-Tomás, N; Salas-Salvadó, J; Pinto, X; Schröder, H; Martínez, J A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence on the association yogurt consumption and obesity is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between yogurt consumption, reversion of abdominal obesity status and waist circumference change in elderly. 4545 individuals at high cardiovascular risk were prospectively followed. Total, whole-fat and low-fat yogurt consumption were assessed using food frequency questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between yogurt consumption and waist circumference change (measured at baseline and yearly during the follow-up). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the reversion rate of abdominal obesity for each quintile of yogurt consumption compared with the lowest quintile. After multivariable adjustment, the average yearly waist circumference change in the quintiles of whole-fat yogurt consumption was: Q1: 0.00, Q2: 0.00 (-0.23 to 0.23), Q3: -0.15 (-0.42 to 0.13), Q4: 0.10 (-0.21 to 0.42), and Q5: -0.23 (-0.46 to -0.00) cm; p for trend = 0.05. The ORs for the reversion of abdominal obesity for whole-fat yogurt consumption were Q1: 1.00, Q2: 1.40 (1.04-1.90), Q3: 1.33 (0.94-1.89), Q4: 1.21 (0.83-1.77), and Q5: 1.43 (1.06-1.93); p for trend = 0.26. Total yogurt consumption was not significantly associated with reversion of abdominal obesity status and a lower waist circumference. However, consumption of whole-fat yogurt was associated with changes in waist circumference and higher probability for reversion of abdominal obesity. Therefore, it seems that whole-fat yogurt has more beneficial effects in management of abdominal obesity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables.

  12. Fatores familiares associados à obesidade abdominal entre adolescentes Family factors associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents

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    Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar a associação entre fatores de risco familiares e a presença de obesidade abdominal entre adolescentes. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta por 691 jovens de ambos os gêneros (11 a 17 anos, residentes em Presidente Prudente-SP no ano de 2007. A identificação da obesidade abdominal foi baseada no valor da circunferência de cintura, e os fatores de risco familiares (escolaridade e excesso de peso dos pais, condição socioeconômica, número de irmãos e quantidade de televisores na residência foram analisados por meio de questionários. A análise estatística utilizou o teste qui-quadrado e regressão logística (razão de chance [RC] e intervalos de confiança [IC95%]. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de obesidade abdominal foi igual a 14,8% na amostra avaliada e não foi diferente entre os gêneros (masculino: 17,7% e feminino: 12,9%; p=0,111. A obesidade abdominal associou-se com a rede privada de ensino (3,75 [1,27-11,00], sobrepeso/obesidade da mãe (3,82 [1,14-12,73] e de ambos os pais (6,21 [2,07-18,63]. CONCLUSÕES: os achados do presente estudo indicam que estudar na rede privada de ensino e o excesso de peso dos pais caracterizam importantes fatores de risco associados à presença da obesidade abdominal entre adolescentes.OBJECTIVES: to investigate the association between family risk factors and abdominal obesity in adolescents. METHODS: the sample comprised 691 young people of both sexes (aged between 11 and 17 years, residing in the municipality of Presidente Prudente, in the State of São Paulo, in 2007. Identification of abdominal obesity was based on the waist circumference and family risk factors (level of schooling and overweight in the parents, socio-economic conditions, number of siblings and number of televisions in the household. These variables were collected using questionnaires. Statistical analysis involved application of the chi-squared test and logistic regression (odds ratio [OR] and confidence

  13. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein can regulate obesity, a state of peripheral inflammation

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    Yosuke Yamawaki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Chronic inflammation in fat influences the development of obesity-related diseases. Many reports state that obesity increases the risk of morbidity in many diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and breast, prostate and colon cancers, leading to increased mortality. Obesity is also associated with chronic neuropathologic conditions such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. However, there is strong evidence that weight loss reduces these risks, by limiting blood pressure and improving levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol. Prevention and control of obesity is complex, and requires a multifaceted approach. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms driving fat metabolism (adipogenesis and lipolysis aims at developing clinical treatments to control obesity. We recently reported a new regulatory mechanism in fat metabolism: a protein phosphatase binding protein, phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP, regulates lipolysis in white adipocytes and heat production in brown adipocytes via phosphoregulation. Deficiency of PRIP in mice led to reduced fat accumulation and increased energy expenditure, resulting in a lean phenotype. Here, we evaluate PRIP as a new therapeutic target for the control of obesity.

  14. Influence of abdominal obesity on vascular endothelial function in overweight/obese adult men.

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    Weil, Brian R; Stauffer, Brian L; Mestek, Michael L; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that body fat distribution may be an important determinant of the impact of adiposity on endothelial function. We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese adults with abdominal adiposity exhibit worse endothelial vasodilator and fibrinolytic function than overweight/obese adults without abdominal adiposity. Sixty adult men were studied: 20 normal weight (BMI: 22.3 ± 0.7 kg/m2; waist circumference (WC): 84.9 ± 2.0 cm); 20 overweight/obese with WC obese with WC ≥102 cm (30.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 106.7 ± 1.0 cm). Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to intra-arterial acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were measured. Additionally, net endothelial release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) was determined in response to bradykinin (BK) and SNP. Overweight/obese men demonstrated lower (~30%; P obese men with (4.1 ± 0.3-10.8 ± 1.3 ml/100 ml tissue/min) and without (4.5 ± 0.3-11.6 ± 0.8 ml/100 ml tissue/min) abdominal adiposity. Similarly, endothelial t-PA release to BK was lower (~40%; P obese men compared with normal weight controls; however, t-PA release was not different between the overweight/obese men with (-0.7 ± 0.4-40.4 ± 6.2 ng/100 ml tissue/min) and without (-0.3 ± 0.6-48 ± 7.5 ng/100 ml tissue/min) abdominal adiposity. These results indicate that abdominal obesity is not associated with greater impairment in endothelial vasodilation and fibrinolytic capacity in overweight/obese men. Excess adiposity, regardless of anatomical distribution pattern, is associated with impaired endothelial function.

  15. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity among Urban Saudi Adolescents: Gender and Regional Variations

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    Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of secondary schools (1,401 males and 1,507 females) aged 14 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. Weight, height, and waist-circumference were measured; prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff reference standards of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cutoffs (above 0.5). The prevalence of overweight was 19.5% in males and 20.8% in females while that of obesity was 24.1% in males and 14% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in males and females was 35.9% and 30.3% respectively. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among adolescents in private schools. Across all ages, overweight and obesity ranged from 39.9% to 45.6% in males and from 30.4% to 38.7% in females. ANCOVA, controlling for age, showed significant interaction effects (city by gender). It is concluded that the proportions of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, observed among Saudi adolescents were remarkably high. Such high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a major public-health concern. PMID:25895197

  16. Trends of obesity and abdominal obesity in Tehranian adults: a cohort study

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    Mirmiran Parvin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the increasing trend of obesity reported in current data, this study was conducted to examine trends of obesity and abdominal obesity among Tehranian adults during a median follow-up of 6.6 years. Methods Height and weight of 4402 adults, aged 20 years and over, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, were measured in 1999-2001(phase I and again in 2002-2005(phase II and 2006-2008 (phase III. Criteria used for obesity and abdominal obesity defined body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 and waist circumference ≥ 94/80 cm for men/women respectively. Subjects were divided into10-year groups and the prevalence of obesity was compared across sex and age groups. Results The prevalence of obesity was 15.8, 18.6 and 21% in men and 31.5, 37.7 and 38.6% in women in phases I, II and III respectively (p Conclusion This study demonstrates alarming rises in the prevalences of both obesity and abdominal obesity in both sexes especially in young men, calling for urgent action to educate people in lifestyle modifications.

  17. Trends in Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Older Adult Population of Spain (2000-2010

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    Juan Luis Gutiérrez-Fisac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work examines the trend in obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish population aged 60 years and over during the first decade of the 21st century. Methods: We analyze data from a representative study of the Spanish population aged 60 years and older conducted in 2000-2001 and from the Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA conducted in 2008-2010. Results: In men, the distribution of BMI did not vary in the period 2000-2010. In contrast, in women there was a reduction in both mean BMI - from 29.3 to 28.8 kg/m2 - and the prevalence of obesity - from 40.8 to 36.3%. This decline was greatest in women aged 60-69 years. In men, no significant changes were observed in mean waist circumference (WC or in the prevalence of abdominal obesity. In contrast, WC decreased by 3.6 cm and abdominal obesity prevalence by 12.7% in women. The decline was greatest in women aged 60-69 years, in whom mean WC decreased by 5.1 cm and abdominal obesity prevalence by 18.6%. Conclusion: These findings show that the frequency of obesity has begun to decline in Spanish women aged 60 and over. The causes of this decline are unclear.

  18. [Obesity, physical activity and inactivity among adolescents in Morelos, Mexico: a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Claudia; Hernández, Bernardo; Moreno, Hortensia; Hernández-Girón, Carlos; Campero, Lourdes; Cruz, Aurelio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence has increased in Mexico. This increase can be explained partly by a decrease in physical activity. The objective of this study was to assess the association between the prevalence of obesity and overweight with physical activity and inactivity among Mexican adolescents. We analyzed data from a longitudinal study with baseline and follow-up measures in 446 adolescents 12 to 17 years old, attending public schools in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. We collected information on weight, physical activity and demographic characteristics. Obesity and overweight were determined using as indicador the body mass index, and the cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The baseline prevalence of obesity or overweight was 37.22% (42.99% for males and 30.95% for females), and in the final measure 34.30% (38.46% for males and 32.28% for females). The median time of TV viewing was 3.90 h/d, with 0.73 h/d dedicated to vigorous physical activity and 0.58 h/d to moderate physical activity. Using logistic regression, after adjustment for obesity in the baseline measure, sex and clustering by school, we found no significant associations between the prevalence of obesity or overweight with time dedicated to TV viewing, vigorous or moderate physical activity. However, when conducting the analysis with an interaction term by sex, we found significantly lower risk of obesity or overweight associated with an increase in vigorous physical activity among males only (beta = 0.22, 95% CI (0.05, 0.89). Results suggest that vigorous physical activity may reduce the risk of obesity or overweight among male adolescents.

  19. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation.

  20. Abdominal vs. overall obesity among women in a nutrition transition context: geographic and socio-economic patterns of abdominal-only obesity in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traissac, Pierre; Pradeilles, Rebecca; El Ati, Jalila; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Gartner, Agnès; Béji, Chiraz; Bougatef, Souha; Martin-Prével, Yves; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Maire, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Most assessments of the burden of obesity in nutrition transition contexts rely on body mass index (BMI) only, even though abdominal adiposity might be specifically predictive of adverse health outcomes. In Tunisia, a typical country of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where the burden of obesity is especially high among women, we compared female abdominal vs. overall obesity and its geographic and socio-economic cofactors, both at population and within-subject levels. The cross-sectional study used a stratified, three-level, clustered sample of 35- to 70-year-old women (n = 2,964). Overall obesity was BMI = weight/height(2) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity waist circumference ≥ 88 cm. We quantified the burden of obesity for overall and abdominal obesity separately and their association with place of residence (urban/rural, the seven regions that compose Tunisia), plus physiological and socio-economic cofactors by logistic regression. We studied the within-subject concordance of the two obesities and estimated the prevalence of subject-level "abdominal-only" obesity (AO) and "overall-only" obesity (OO) and assessed relationships with the cofactors by multinomial logistic regression. Abdominal obesity was much more prevalent (60.4% [57.7-63.0]) than overall obesity (37.0% [34.5-39.6]), due to a high proportion of AO status (25.0% [22.8-27.1]), while the proportion of OO was small (1.6% [1.1-2.2]). We found mostly similar associations between abdominal and overall obesity and all the cofactors except that the regional variability of abdominal obesity was much larger than that of overall obesity. There were no adjusted associations of AO status with urban/rural area of residence (P = 0.21), education (P = 0.97) or household welfare level (P = 0.94) and only non-menopausal women (P = 0.093), lower parity women (P = 0.061) or worker/employees (P = 0.038) were somewhat less likely to be AO. However, there was a large residual adjusted regional

  1. Overweight, obesity, and inactivity and urban design in rapidly growing Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen; Alfonzo, Mariela; Chen, Yufei; Guo, Zhan; Lee, Karen K

    2013-05-01

    China faces rising rates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among its citizens. Risk is highest in China's rapidly growing cities and urban populations. Current urban development practices and policies in China heighten this risk. These include policies that support decentralization in land use planning; practices of neighborhood gating; and policies and practices tied to motor vehicle travel, transit planning, and bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure. In this paper, we review cultural, political, and economic issues that influence overweight, obesity, and inactivity in China. We examine key urban planning features and policies that shape urban environments that may compromise physical activity as part of everyday life, including walking and bicycling. We review the empirical research to identify planning and design strategies that support physical activity in other high-density cities in developing and developed countries. Finally, we identify successful strategies to increase physical activity in another growing, high-density city - New York City - to suggest strategies that may have relevance for rapidly urbanizing Chinese cities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Harmonizing the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome--focusing on abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter; Stanton, Kenneth R; Grande, Antonio José

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, important health organizations met to construct a Joint Scientific Statement (JSS) intended to harmonize the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome worldwide. The JSS aimed to unify the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome, particularly in relation to whether to include abdominal obesity as a criterion of diagnosis. A large part of the JSS is devoted to discussing the diagnosis of abdominal obesity. More specifically, 9 of the 16 papers focused on abdominal obesity. Continuing this emphasis, we discuss the harmonization of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome worldwide, specifically focusing on the need to improve the diagnosis of abdominal obesity.

  3. The effect of exercise intensity on endothelial function in physically inactive lean and obese adults.

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    Rachel Hallmark

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of exercise intensity on acute changes in endothelial function in lean and obese adults.Sixteen lean (BMI 30, age 26 ± 6 yr physically inactive adults were studied during 3 randomized admissions [control (C, no exercise, moderate-intensity exercise (M, @ lactate threshold (LT and high-intensity exercise (H, midway between LT and VO2peak (30 min]. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 h post-exercise.RM ANCOVA revealed significant main effects for group, time, and group x condition interaction (p<0.05. A diurnal increase in FMD was observed in lean but not obese subjects. Lean subjects exhibited greater increases in FMD than obese subjects (p = 0.0005. In the obese group a trend was observed for increases in FMD at 2- and 4-hr after M (p = 0.08. For lean subjects, FMD was significantly elevated at all time points after H. The increase in FMD after H in lean subjects (3.2 ± 0.5% was greater than after both C (1.7 ± 0.4%, p = 0.015 and M (1.4 ± 0.4%, p = 0.002. FMD responses of lean and obese subjects significantly differed after C and H, but not after M.In lean young adults, high-intensity exercise acutely enhances endothelial function, while moderate-intensity exercise has no significant effect above that seen in the absence of exercise. The FMD response of obese adults is blunted compared to lean adults. Diurnal variation should be considered when examining the effects of acute exercise on FMD.

  4. Factors Associated with Abdominal Obesity in the Productive Age in Surabaya

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    Fani Kusteviani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a public health and nutrition issues the world both developed countries and developing countries, including Indonesia. Abdominal obesity is one type of obesity where there is abdominal fat deposits as measured by waist circumference. Abdominal obesity is more at risk of health problems such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular disease than general obesity. Behavioral and environmental factors as well as genetic plays a role in the onset of abdominal obesity. The purpose of the study was to analyze factors associated with abdominal obesity in the productive age (15–64 years in Surabaya. The independent variables used were age, sex, marital status, family size, education, occupation, smoking, physical activity, consumption of vegetables and or fruit, food or sugary drinks, fatty foods and mental health. This research was analytical study use cross sectional design. The study used secondary data from Basic Health Research Surabaya 2007 amounted to 2191 respondents by simple random sampling. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test and logistic regression. Result of analysis showed that risk factors of abdominal obesity were age 35–64 years, female gender and married or divorced status, level of education ≤ SMA and consume fatty food regularly. The most influential risk factors are female. Increasing knowledge, physical activity, and reducing fat intake can prevent the risk of abdominal obesity. Keyword: abdominal obesity, productive age, lifestyle, female

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Multiple Anthropometric Indices of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Chen; Wipawan C. Pensuksan; Vitool Lohsoonthorn; Somrat Lertmaharit; Bizu Gelaye; Michelle A.Williams

    2014-01-01

    Objective;To examine the associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity among young adults. Design and Methods;A total of 2911 college students in Thailand participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken by trained research staff. Results; Overall, 6.3% of college students had OSA determined by the Berlin Questionnaire, 9.6% were overweight (BMI: 25-29 kg/m2), 4.5% were obese (BMI¡Ý30 kg/m2); 12.4% had abdominal obesity (men: waist circumfe...

  6. Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Rossier, Jérôme; Preisig, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

  7. Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal obesity among Tehranian young boy students

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    J. Rahmani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity is a worrying issue in the present age and the cause of many chronic non-communicable diseases. Nutritional and non-nutritional factors involved in the development of this health crisis. One of the most important nutritional factors is dietary diversity. Objective: The present study was conducted to report the relationship among dietary diversity score (DDS, obesity and abdominal adiposity among Tehranian young students. Methods: This study was cross-sectional in which, 246 young men, according to the inclusion criteria, were selected. The study was conducted in April 2016. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were conducted according to international standards. For each participant recorded 24-hour recall food and calculated the DDS. Finally, nine food groups were measured for each person. The analysis was adjusted for confounding factors. Findings: The means of BMI and waist circumference were 23.9±3.8 and 88.7±10.6. The probability of obesity decreased with quartiles of DDS (1.00, 0.53, 0.08 and 0.19; P=0.01. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between the DDS and odds ratio of obesity and abdominal obesity was observed in young men. So that by increasing dietary diversity score, the odds ratio of obesity was lower. Further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this finding.

  8. The risk of Barrett's esophagus associated with abdominal obesity in males and females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendall, B.J.; Macdonald, G.A.; Hayward, N.K.; Prins, J.B.; O'Brien, S.; Whiteman, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett's esophagus (BE). Both occur predominantly in males. The role of abdominal obesity in this sex distribution is uncertain. Our study aimed to determine whether there is an association between abdominal obesity and risk of BE and if present was it modified

  9. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  10. Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bendsen, N.T.; Christensen, R.; Bartels, E.M.; Kok, F.J.; Sierksma, A.; Raben, A.; Astrup, A.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed

  11. Obesity, abdominal obesity and migraine: a cross-sectional analysis of ELSA-Brasil baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Passos, Valeria M; Molina, Maria del Carmen; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-04-01

    Most studies assessing the association between migraine and obesity have shown conflicting results. We aimed to evaluate the association between obesity and migraine in ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 individuals aged 35-74 years. We assessed migraine using a validated questionnaire based on International Headache Society criteria and anthropometric measurements using standard techniques. Migraine was categorized as daily and non-daily. World Health Organization criteria were used to categorize overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity (AbO). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using multivariate logistic regression models to study the association between migraine and obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), compared to controls without migraine. We found an association between daily migraine and obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.86; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.12-3.09). Although the presence of AbO was not associated with migraine, interaction models showed that the association between obesity and daily migraine remained strong only in the absence of AbO diagnosis, notably in individuals aged 35-49 years. In our large sample of individuals aged 35 years or older, obesity, but not AbO, was associated with daily migraine. AbO influenced the association between BMI and daily migraine in migraineurs aged 35-49 years. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Bout of Circuit Resistance Exercise With Moderateintensity in Inactive Obese Males

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    Asghari Jafarabadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a state characterized by a low-grade inflammation that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess serum interleukin-18 (IL-18, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in response to circuit resistance exercise in obese and normal-weight subjects with different levels of physical activity. Methods: Thirty-two healthy male students participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their BMI and level of physical activity: active obese (n=8, active non-obese (n=8, inactive obese (n=8, and inactive non-obese (n=8. To determine serum IL-6, IL-18, CRP, glucose and insulin concentrations, fasting and post-exercise blood samples were obtained. Subjects performed a bout of circuit resistance exercise in 2 sets with 10 repetitions at 60% of 1RM. Results: Obese subjects comparing non-obese ones showed significant increase in IL-6 and significant decrease in IL-18 concentrations in response to exercise (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between active normal and inactive normal subjects in response to exercise. Also, there were not significant differences in four groups in response to exercise. Discussion: The significant decrease in IL-18 concentration in the obese group comparing normal group in response to exercise was probably due to anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Also, recommending this kind of exercise for obese persons with low level of physical activity can improve insulin resistance.

  13. Prevalência de obesidade abdominal em hipertensos cadastrados em uma Unidade de Saúde da Família Prevalence of abdominal obesity in hypertensive patients registered in a Family Health Unit

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    Edmarlon Girotto

    2010-06-01

    . High waist circumference was present in 66.8% of adults and 64.3% of elderly patients, also with differences between sexes (p <0.001. High waist circumference was associated, in women, to diabetes and to nonsmoking, and in men, to diabetes and to physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: These results show a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, especially among women, reinforcing the need for strategies to reduce abdominal obesity among hypertensive patients.

  14. Frequency of abdominal obesity and its association with diabetes mellitus among people of peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Faheem, M.; Shah, S.T.; Hadi, A.; Rafiullah; Ahmad, S.; Gul, A.M.; Shah, S.F.A.; Jan, H.; Hafizullah, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased body weight is a major risk factor for the metabolic syndrome which is a cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors, like: hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus in the population of Peshawar and association between them. Method: This was a cross sectional study, performed by the Cardiology Department, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, in the population of Peshawar. All participants were interviewed in detail regarding known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Waist circumference (=102 cm in male and =88 cm in females) was used as the surrogate marker for abdominal obesity in already diagnosed patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Results: A total of 2548 individuals were included, 71.1 percentage were male. Mean age was 37.94±12.59 years. Mean waist circumference was 90.25±13.4 5cm in males and 90.52±12.52 cm in females. Diabetes was present in 4.4 percentage of the participants and abdominal obesity in 56.6 percentage Among the male, abdominal obesity was present in 39.4 percentage and diabetes in 2.9 percentage. Out of 39.4 percentage males with abdominal obesity, 2 percentage were diabetic. Out of 38.6 percentage males with no abdominal obesity, 0.9 percentage was diabetic. Amongst the total 559 (21.1 percentage) female subjects, 17.2 percentage were having abdominal obesity and 1.4 percentage was diabetics. Among 123 (4.8 percentage) females with no abdominal obesity, 0.1 percentage was diabetic. A positive association was established between abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus with a significant p-valve (<0.05). Conclusion: Abdominal obesity is more common in the local population of Peshawar and associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  15. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms are risk factors for obesity and physical inactivity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalife, Natasha; Kantomaa, Marko; Glover, Vivette; Tammelin, Tuija; Laitinen, Jaana; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rodriguez, Alina

    2014-04-01

    To prospectively investigate the association and directionality between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and obesity from childhood to adolescence in the general population. We examined whether obesogenic behaviors, namely, physical inactivity and binge eating, underlie the potential ADHD symptom-obesity association. We explored whether childhood conduct disorder (CD) symptoms are related to adolescent obesity/physical inactivity. At 7 to 8 years (n = 8,106), teachers reported ADHD and CD symptoms, and parents reported body mass index (BMI) and physically active play. At 16 years (n = 6,934), parents reported ADHD symptoms; adolescents reported physical activity (transformed to metabolic equivalent of task [MET] hours per week) and binge eating; BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured via clinical examination. Obesity was defined using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs for BMI and the 95th percentile cut-off for WHR. Childhood ADHD symptoms significantly predicted adolescent obesity, rather than the opposite. Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 8 years were associated with indices of obesity at 16 years (obese BMI: odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-3.33; 95th percentile WHR: OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.78), adjusted for gender, baseline BMI, physical activity, family structure change, and maternal education. Child CD symptoms associated with indices of adolescent obesity. Reduced physically active play in childhood predicted adolescent inattention (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.16-2.24). Childhood ADHD and CD symptoms were linked with physical inactivity in adolescence (inattention-hyperactivity; OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.20-2.13), but not binge eating. Physical inactivity mediated the associations. Children with ADHD or CD symptoms are at increased risk for becoming obese and physically inactive adolescents. Physical activity may be beneficial for both behavior problems and obesity

  16. Comparison of CAD risk factors in abdominal obesity versus General obesity with normal WC in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, S.M.; Iftikhar, R.; Khan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the presence of coronary artery disease risk factors in patients with abdominal obesity versus generalised obesity and to determine the probability of developing the disease in both groups. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Okara, from January 2012 to April 2013. Using consecutive sampling, 785 outdoor healthy adult males were enrolled. Body mass index >25kg/m/sup 2/ and waist circumference >90cm defined obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. Blood pressure >140/90mmHg defined Hypertension. All the subjects underwent BSF, electrocardiogram, Lipid profile, personality and physical activity assessment. Risk estimation was done using Eric Brittain scoring system. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: In patients with abdominal obesity, 583 (99.2 %) individuals had at least 1 risk factor for coronary artery disease, while in those with generalised obesity this prevalence was 96.5% (n=191). In patients with abdominal obesity, 52.9% had more than 4% risk of developing the disease in the next 6 years compared to 36.9% individuals with generalised obesity. Conclusion: Both increasing body mass index and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of developing coronary artery disease, with significantly higher risk prevalence in the latter group. Moreover, those with abdominal obesity had a higher risk of developing CAD in next 6 years as compared to those with generalised obesity. Thus waist circumference offers additional prognostic information beyond body mass index. (author)

  17. Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: health effects and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Michele; Sassi, Franco; Lauer, Jeremy A; Lee, Yong Y; Guajardo-Barron, Veronica; Chisholm, Daniel

    2010-11-20

    The obesity epidemic is spreading to low-income and middle-income countries as a result of new dietary habits and sedentary ways of life, fuelling chronic diseases and premature mortality. In this report we present an assessment of public health strategies designed to tackle behavioural risk factors for chronic diseases that are closely linked with obesity, including aspects of diet and physical inactivity, in Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. England was included for comparative purposes. Several population-based prevention policies can be expected to generate substantial health gains while entirely or largely paying for themselves through future reductions of health-care expenditures. These strategies include health information and communication strategies that improve population awareness about the benefits of healthy eating and physical activity; fiscal measures that increase the price of unhealthy food content or reduce the cost of healthy foods rich in fibre; and regulatory measures that improve nutritional information or restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods to children. A package of measures for the prevention of chronic diseases would deliver substantial health gains, with a very favourable cost-effectiveness profile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased cortisol bioavailability, abdominal obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Martine; Marquez Pereira, Patricia; Barat, Pascal; Gatta, Blandin; Roger, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to obtain a detailed profile of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and reactivity and its differential relationships with body fat distribution and total fat mass in premenopausal obese women. Cortisol responses to stimulation (awakening, food intake, exercise) and suppression (0.25 mg dexamethasone), cortisol metabolism, and tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids were studied in 53 premenopausal obese women grouped according to their waist-to hip ratio: women with abdominal body fat distribution (A-BFD; n = 31) and women with peripheral fat distribution (P-BFD; n = 22). Comparatively, A-BFD women had 1) lower awakening salivary cortisol levels; 2) increased salivary responsiveness to a standardized lunch; 3) similar pituitary sensitivity to dexamethasone but decreased sensitivity of monocytes to dexamethasone; 4) similar 24-hour urinary free cortisol but increased 24-hour urinary ratio of cortisone-to-cortisol; and 5) no difference in corticosteroid binding protein parameters. Although abdominal obesity is not very different from generalized obesity in terms of HPA function, subtle variations in HPA axis activity and reactivity are evidenced in A-BFD premenopausal obese women.

  19. Obesity, physical inactivity, and colonic diverticular disease requiring hospitalization in women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjern, Fredrik; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas

    2012-02-01

    Lifestyle factors other than dietary fiber intake and risk for colonic diverticular disease have only been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and physical inactivity and diverticular disease in a population-based cohort of women. This was a prospective population-based cohort study. In all, 36,592 women, born 1914-1948, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort were followed 1997-2009. Body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), physical activity, diet, smoking, and other lifestyle factors were collected at baseline through questionnaires. Cases of diverticular disease were identified from the Swedish Patient and Death Registers. Relative risks (RRs) of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (or being the cause of death) according to BMI and physical activity were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. The multivariable models were adjusted for age; intake of dietary fiber; diabetes; hypertension; use of acetylsalicylate acid, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, or steroid medication; alcohol consumption; smoking; and educational level. During 12 years, 626 cases of incident diverticular disease requiring hospitalization were found. Two women were registered in the National Death Register only. In multivariable analysis, women with BMI 25-29.99 had 29% increased risk (RR=1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.54) and obese women (BMI≥30) had 33% (1.33; 95% CI: 1.03-1.72) increased risk of diverticular disease compared to women with BMI 20-24.99. Exercise ≤30 min/day increased the risk for disease with 42% (1.42; 95% CI: 1.18-1.69) compared with exercise >30 min/day in multivariable analysis. Ninety-eight subjects were hospitalized due to complications; perforation or abscess. Women with BMI≥30 had a twofold (RR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.08-3.73; P=0.028) increased risk for complicated disease. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among women increase diverticular disease requiring

  20. An Obesity Dietary Quality Index Predicts Abdominal Obesity in Women: Potential Opportunity for New Prevention and Treatment Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores M. Wolongevicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Links between dietary quality and abdominal obesity are poorly understood. Objective. To examine the association between an obesity-specific dietary quality index and abdominal obesity risk in women. Methods. Over 12 years, we followed 288 Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women, aged 30–69 years, without metabolic syndrome risk factors, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes at baseline. An 11-nutrient obesity-specific dietary quality index was derived using mean ranks of nutrient intakes from 3-day dietary records. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference >88 cm was assessed during follow-up. Results. Using multiple logistic regression, women with poorer dietary quality were more likely to develop abdominal obesity compared to those with higher dietary quality (OR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.01, 3.47; P for trend =.048 independent of age, physical activity, smoking, and menopausal status. Conclusions. An obesity-specific dietary quality index predicted abdominal obesity in women, suggesting targets for dietary quality assessment, intervention, and treatment to address abdominal adiposity.

  1. Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity:Pró-Saúde Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi.METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age.RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment.CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities.

  2. FREQUENCY OF ABDOMINAL OBESITY AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PEOPLE OF PESHAWAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Attaullah; Faheem, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Tahir; Hadi, Abdul; Rafiullah; Ahmad, Salman; Gul, Adnan Mahmood; Shah, Sayyad Farhat Abbas; Jan, Hikmatullah; Hafizullah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Increased body weight is a major risk factor for the metabolic syndrome which is a cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors, like: hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus in the population of Peshawar and association between them. This was a cross sectional study, performed by the Cardiology Department, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, in the population of Peshawar. All participants were interviewed in detail regarding known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Waist circumference (≥102 cm in male and ≥88 cm in females) was used as the surrogate marker for abdominal obesity in already diagnosed patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 2548 individuals were included, 71.1% were male. Mean age was 37.94±12.59 years. Mean waist circumference was 90.25±13.45cm in males and 90.52±12.52cm in females. Diabetes was present in 4.4% of the participants and abdominal obesity in 56.6% Among the male, abdominal obesity was present in 39.4% and diabetes in 2.9%. Out of 39.4% males with abdominal obesity, 2% were diabetic. Out of 38.6% males with no abdominal obesity, 0.9% was diabetic. Amongst the total 559 (21.1%) female subjects, 17.2% were having abdominal obesity and 1.4% was diabetics. Among 123 (4.8%) females with no abdominal obesity, 0.1% was diabetic. A positive association was established between abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus with a significant p-valve (obesity is more common in the local population of Peshawar and associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Higher association of coronary artery calcification with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than with abdominal obesity in middle-aged Korean men: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Kyung; Park, Hye-Jeong; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-07-15

    It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or abdominal obesity is more associated with atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether NAFLD or abdominal obesity is more strongly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis represented by coronary artery calcification (CAC). A total of 21,335 male participants in a health screening program (mean age 41 years) were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements of fatty liver and multi-detector computed tomography were performed to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The presence of CAC was defined as CACS > 0. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of NAFLD and/or abdominal obesity as assessed by waist-hip ratio (WHR) > 0.9. The presence of CAC was detected in 2,385 subjects (11.2%). The proportion of subjects with CAC was highest in the abdominal obesity only group (23.2%). After adjustment for age, diabetes history, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio (OR) for CAC was the highest in the group with both abnormalities [1.465 (1.324-1.623)]. The NAFLD only group showed significantly increased OR for CAC compared to that in the abdominal obesity only group [1.286 (1.151-1.436) vs. 1.076 (0.939-1.233)]. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is more closely associated with CAC than abdominal obesity as assessed by the WHR. NAFLD could be considered an independent determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by CAC.

  4. The effect of abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet on lateral abdominal muscles thickness of overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Rostami, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The role of transabdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) on core stability has been shown previously. Energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training are commonly used by overweight and obese people to reduce their weight. In this study we investigated the impact of 12 weeks concurrent energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training on the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles of 19 obese and overweight women employing ultrasonography in resting and drawing-in maneuvers. The results showed significant increase of the muscle thicknesses during drawing-in maneuver after 12 weeks intervention. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that 12 weeks concurrent abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet in addition to weight loss lead to improvement of transabdominal muscles thickness in obese and overweight people. Considering the role of these muscles in core stability, using this therapeutic protocol in obese people, particularly in those who have weakness of these muscles might be helpful. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contribution of lifestyle factors to educational differences in abdominal obesity among the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Muñoz, Luz Ma; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Regidor, Enrique; López-García, Esther; Martínez-Gómez, David; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    This is the first study to systematically examine the behavioral factors that may explain the inverse association between education and abdominal obesity in adults. Cross-sectional study conducted among 3541 men and 3564 women representative of the population aged 25-64 years in Spain. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women. Analyzes were performed with logistic regression, with progressive adjustment for obesity-related behaviors. The age-, sex- and town size-adjusted odds ratios for abdominal obesity were 1.69 in men and 1.85 in women among individuals with lowest versus highest education. After adjustment for all the studied behaviors, the odds ratio was reduced to 1.49 in men and to 1.45 in women. The factors with the largest contribution to the higher prevalence of abdominal obesity in individuals with lowest versus highest education were more time spent watching TV and less time spent in exercising, as well as a higher energy intake in women. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, physical activity at home, leisure walking, sedentary behaviors other than TV watching, and sleep duration did not explain the educational gradient in abdominal obesity. Watching TV, physical exercise and energy intake explain a substantial part of the inverse association between education and abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Causal Association of Overall Obesity and Abdominal Obesity with Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Rong; Ma, Xiaojing; Wang, Shiyun; He, Zhen; Huang, Yeping; Xu, Bo; Li, Yangyang; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Feng; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the causal effect of overall obesity and abdominal obesity on type 2 diabetes among Chinese Han individuals. The causal relationship of BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with the risk of glucose deterioration and glycemic traits was compared using two different genetic instruments based on 30 BMI loci and 6 WHR loci with Mendelian randomization (MR) in three prospective cohorts (n = 6,476). Each 1-SD genetically instrumented higher WHR was associated with a 65.7% higher risk of glucose deterioration (95% CI = 1.069-2.569, P = 0.024), whereas no significant association of BMI with glucose deterioration was observed. Furthermore, a causal relationship was found only between BMI and homeostatic model assessment β-cell function (HOMA-B) (β = 0.143, P = 0.001), and there was a nominal association with Stumvoll second-phase insulin secretion traits (β = 0.074, P = 0.022). The significance level did not persist in sensitivity analyses, except in the causal estimate of WHR on the Gutt index in MR-Egger (β = -0.379, P = 0.022) and the causal estimate of BMI on homeostatic model assessment β-cell function in weighted median MR (β = 0.128, P = 0.017). The data from this study support the potential causal relationship between abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia, which may be driven by aggravated insulin resistance, in contrast with the potential causal relationship between overall obesity and insulin secretion. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  7. Lifestyle factors and socioeconomic variables associated with abdominal obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira de; Falcão, Mário Cícero

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle variables have a key role in the development of abdominal obesity (AO). The objective of this study was to identify lifestyle factors and socioeconomic variables associated with AO in adolescents. This study carried out a school-based survey in the Brazilian city of Maringá in Paraná. The representative sample was of 991 adolescents (54.5% girls) from both public and private high schools selected through multi-stage random sampling. AO was classified according to waist circumference value. The independent variables studied were: gender, age, socioeconomic level, parental and household characteristics, smoking, alcohol use, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and nutrition-related habits. Poisson regression was used with robust variance adjustment to analyse the associations. The analysis was stratified by sexes. The prevalence of AO was 32.7% (girls = 36.3%, boys = 28.4%). In girls, excessive intake of fried foods was inversely associated with AO and excessive consumption of soda was positively associated. In boys, the results demonstrated a negative association with excessive consumption of sweets and soda. It is concluded that the prevalence of AO among adolescents was higher in both sexes. AO is associated with different eating habits in females and males and these relationships are mediated by familial contexts.

  8. Minireview: glucocorticoids--food intake, abdominal obesity, and wealthy nations in 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallman, Mary F.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Pecoraro, Norman C.; Gomez, Francisca; Houshyar, Hani; Akana, Susan F.

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have a major effect on food intake that is underappreciated, although the effects of glucocorticoids on metabolism and abdominal obesity are quite well understood. Physiologically appropriate concentrations of naturally secreted corticosteroids (cortisol in humans, corticosterone in

  9. Longitudinal relationship of depressive and anxiety symptoms with dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veen, T.; Zitman, F. G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

  10. Longitudinal Relationship of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms With Dyslipidemia and Abdominal Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

  11. Relationships of occupational and non-occupational physical activity to abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, J A; Bassett, D R; Thompson, D L; Fitzhugh, E C

    2012-01-01

    Physically active occupations may protect against the risk of abdominal obesity. This study assessed the interaction between non-occupational physical activity (NOA) (leisure-time, transport and domestic activity) and occupational activity (OA) in relation to abdominal obesity. A total of 3539 adults over the age of 20, with no work limitations, employed in one of the 17 occupations classified as low OA (LOA) or high OA (HOA) were identified in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Waist circumference (WC) was used to categorize individuals into either non-obese or abdominally obese (WC>88 cm in women and >102 cm in men) categories. NOA was divided into three categories based upon physical activity guidelines: (1) no NOA; (2) insufficient NOA; and (3) sufficient NOA. Logistic regression was used to examine possible associations between NOA, OA and abdominal obesity. In those who are sedentary outside of work, a high-activity occupation reduces the odds risk ratio of being categorized with abdominal obesity to 0.37 in comparison with those who work in low-activity occupations. For people working in low-activity occupations, there was a clear association with activity outside of work and the odds risk ratio of being categorized with abdominal obesity. In these adults, a reduced odds ratio was found only among those who met the physical activity guidelines through NOA (odds ratio=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.40-0.75). HOA is associated with a reduced risk of abdominal obesity. Thus, it is important to include OA in studies seeking to understand the association between physical activity and abdominal adiposity.

  12. Postmenopausal hypertension, abdominal obesity, apolipoprotein and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Samir; Belfki-Benali, Hanen; Ahmed, Decy Ben; Haddad, Najet; Jmal, Awatef; Abdennebi, Monia; Romdhane, Habiba Ben

    This study aimed to evaluate the association of abdominal obesity, apolipoprotein and insulin resistance (IR) with the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women. We analyzed a total of 242 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric indices, lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess IR. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP (SBP) ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or current treatment with antihypertensive drugs. Women with hypertension showed significantly higher mean values of age, SBP and DBP, waist circumference (WC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, HOMAIR and the apolipoprotein B (apoB). When analyses were done according to the menopausal status, higher prevalence of hypertension was observed in postmenopausal women (72.8% vs. 26.0%, p menopause (p = 0.008) were significantly associated with higher risk for hypertension. These results suggest that changes in WC, apoB and IR accompanying menopause lead to a greater prevalence of hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  13. Abdominal obesity and hypertension: a double burden to the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziębło-Zyczkowska, Beata; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO) is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensives. Visceral adipose tissue has an important part in water retention, the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, which may influence central and systemic hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between AO and the hemodynamic profile of patients with arterial hypertension (AH). The clinical evaluation of 144 hypertensives included the following: (1) echocardiographic assessment of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the global longitudinal systolic strain (GLSS) and diastolic function (E/A-phase ratio of mitral flow early (E) and late (A) and E/e'-ratio of early mitral flow and mitral septal annulus early diastolic velocity (e')); (2) the applanation tonometry including the central pulse pressure (CPP) and augmentation index (AI); and (3) the impedance cardiography, acceleration index (ACI), velocity index (VI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and total artery compliance (TAC). Obese hypertensives in comparison with non-obese ones were characterized with the following values: (1) lower echocardiographic (GLSS: -17.2±2.5% vs. -19.0±2.8%, P=0.0002) and impedance indices of left ventricular performance (VI: 44.8±12.4 vs. 51.6±14.2 × 1000*Ω* s(-1), P=0.006; ACI: 66.7±27.8 vs. 79.1±31.2 100*Ω* s(-)(2), P=0.003) and (2) worse diastolic function (e': 9.08±2.69 vs. 10.39±2.34 cm*s(-1), P=0.003; E/e': 7.54±1.81 vs. 6.74±1.40, P=0.007; E/A: 1.02±0.34 vs. 1.15±0.33, P=0.008). No relevant differences for gender, age, blood pressure, heart rate, LVEF, SVRI, TAC, CPP and AI were identified. AH and AO have overlapping effects on cardiovascular hemodynamics. At the early asymptomatic stage, this overlap is exhibited in the impaired cardiac function.

  14. Assessment of abdominal fat compartments using DXA in premenopausal women from anorexia nervosa to morbid obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Gill, Corey M.; Keating, Leigh K.; Torriani, Martin; Anderson, Ellen J.; Punyanitya, Mark; Wilson, Kevin E.; Kelly, Thomas L.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test a newly developed DXA method for abdominal fat depot quantification in subjects with AN, normal weight, and obesity using CT as a gold standard. Design and Methods 135 premenopausal women (overweight/obese: n=89, normal-weight: n=27, AN: n=19); abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and total adipose tissue (TAT) areas determined on CT and DXA. Results There were strong correlations between DXA and CT measurements of abdominal fat compartments in all groups with the strongest correlation coefficients in the normal-weight and overweight/obese groups. Correlations of DXA and CT VAT measurements were strongest in the obese group and weakest in the AN group. DXA abdominal fat depots were higher in all groups compared to CT, with the largest % mean difference in the AN group and smallest in the obese group. Conclusions A new DXA technique is able to assess abdominal fat compartments including VAT in premenopausal women across a large weight spectrum However, DXA measurements of abdominal fat were higher than CT, and this percent bias was most pronounced in the AN subjects and decreased with increasing weight, suggesting that this technique may be more useful in obese individuals. PMID:23512706

  15. Effect of Endurance, Strength and Combined Training on Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Inactive Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Ramezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, Iranian lifestyles are changing, especially children may be effected by the increase of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that different methods of exercise are the most important determinants of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to survey the lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels following eight weeks of endurance, strength and combined training in inactive obese children. Methods: The present quasi-experimental field was conducted on Sixty obese male children (age: 8-12 years, BMI between 30-35 kg/m2 according to the World Health Organization who were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 individuals including endurance exercise, resistance exercise, combined exercise and control. Exercise training programs were performed four times a week for eight weeks. To assess variable changes, ANOVA with repeated measurement and one way ANOVA was used. Results: Results showed that after three types of exercise training  the BMI, total chlostrol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and insulin resistance significantly decreased in experimental groups compared to control group (P=0.001. Serum HDL and adiponectin was significantly increased after different training in experimental groups in comparison to control group (P=0.001.  Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested that among three types of exercise applied in this study, particularly, endurance training is use to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity-related disorders in inactive obese children. .

  16. Abdominal obesity, TV-viewing time and prospective declines in physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakerveld, J.; Dunstan, D.W.; Bot, S.D.M.; Salmon, J.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Owen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prospective associations of baseline abdominal obesity and TV-viewing time with five-year reductions in leisure-time physical activity level. Methods: We used data from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab), a nationally representative

  17. Fatores associados à obesidade abdominal em mulheres em idade reprodutiva Factors associated with abdominal obesity among childbearing-age women

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    Gilberto Kac

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar variáveis potencialmente associadas à obesidade abdominal em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS: Foram investigadas 781 mulheres a partir de informações coletadas pela Pesquisa Nutrição e Saúde realizada em 1996 no Município do Rio de Janeiro. A obesidade abdominal foi definida como circunferência da cintura (CC > 80 cm ou como Razão Cintura Quadril (RCQ > 0,85. A análise estatística envolveu o cálculo de medidas de tendência central. A associação entre obesidade abdominal e Índice de Massa Corporal, idade, paridade e uso de tabaco foi testada por meio do cálculo do "Odds Ratio" (OR, usando a técnica de regressão logística multivariada. RESULTADOS: As maiores freqüências de obesidade abdominal foram observadas em mulheres acima de 35 anos e com dois ou mais filhos (50,7%. Os valores de OR demonstram o efeito da interação entre paridade e idade para CC>80 cm quando controlado apenas o efeito dessas duas variáveis. A partir dos modelos de regressão logística, verificou-se que quando a população foi estratificada em mulheres com e sem sobrepeso, apenas a escolaridade esteve associada à RCQ, enquanto a associação com idade e paridade desapareceu para a CC>80 cm. CONCLUSÕES: A obesidade abdominal nesse grupo populacional independe da idade e da paridade quando ajustado pelo peso relativo, sendo suas maiores determinantes a adiposidade geral e a escolaridade. Ter maior escolaridade significou possuir uma RCQ menor. É fundamental implementar estratégias de prevenção para o desenvolvimento da obesidade, cujo enfoque sejam mulheres em idade reprodutiva.OBJECTIVE: To investigate variables potentially associated with abdominal obesity among childbearing-age women. METHODS: A total of 781 women were studied based on data from the Nutrition and Health Survey conducted in 1996 in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist girth (WG > 80 cm or waist

  18. Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Robin; Bartels, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed...... towards a positive association or no association between beer intake and waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio in men, whereas results for women were inconsistent. Data from a subset of studies indicated that beer intake > 500 mL/day may be positively associated with abdominal obesity. Regarding...... general obesity, most observational studies pointed towards an inverse association or no association between beer intake and body weight in women and a positive association or no association in men. Data from six experimental studies in men, in which alcoholic beer was compared with low-alcoholic beer...

  19. Prevalence of physical inactivity and barriers to physical activity among obese attendants at a community health-care center in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Khuwaja Ali Khan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are significant public health problems worldwide with serious health consequences. With increasing urbanization and modernization there has been an increase in prevalence of obesity that is attributed to reduced levels of physical activity (PA. However, little is known about the prevalence of physical inactivity and factors that prohibit physical activity among Pakistani population. This cross-sectional study is aimed at estimating the prevalence of physical inactivity, and determining associated barriers in obese attendants accompanying patients coming to a Community Health Center in Karachi, Pakistan. Findings PA was assessed by using international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ. Barriers to PA were also assessed in inactive obese attendants. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 350 obese attendants. Among 350 study participants 254 (72.6% were found to be physically inactive (95% CI: 68.0%, 77.2%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age greater than 33 years, BMI greater than 33 kg/m2 and family history of obesity were independently and significantly associated with physical inactivity. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between family structure and gender; females living in extended families were about twice more likely to be inactive, whereas males from extended families were six times more likely to be inactive relative to females from nuclear families. Lack of information, motivation and skills, spouse & family support, accessibility to places for physical activity, cost effective facilities and time were found to be important barriers to PA. Conclusions Considering the public health implications of physical inactivity it is essential to promote PA in context of an individual's health and environment. Findings highlight considerable barriers to PA among obese individuals that need to be addressed during counseling sessions

  20. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old, Danish men. Relation to sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, Kristian; Brixen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old men and to analyze whether sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status are independent correlates of obesity and physical inactivity. DESIGN: Population-based, cross...... men and the 2042 questionnaire respondents matched the background population demographically. The 783 men matched the questionnaire respondents as regards BMI, physical activity, chronic disease, medication, smoking, sociodemography and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity...... significantly with age and correlated inversely with WC, but not with BMI. Occupation, geography, partner status, fatherhood and tobacco exposure were independently related with obesity and physical inactivity. Obesity was also related to musculoskeletal complaints, whereas chronic diseases and low educational...

  1. The Risk of Abdominal Obesity according to the Degree of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Men

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Keun; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Choi, Joong-Myung; Seo, Min Woo; Park, Chung Min

    2016-01-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been reported as a cardiometabolic risk factor, the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver is yet to be clarified on abdominal obesity. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the longitudinal relationship of non-alcoholic fatty liver on the development of abdominal obesity. The study participants were composed of 11,212 Korean men without abdominal obesity. They were followed up from 2005 to 2010 to be monitored for the development of ab...

  2. Excessive homework, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and screen viewing time are major contributors to high paediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong; Zhou, Zhixiong; Liu, Wenxi Kevin; Wang, Xiujiang; Yin, Zenong

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) outside school hours and obesity in Chinese primary school students. We also explored the influence of gender on those relationships. The study sample was a cross-sectional cohort of 5032 Chinese children who were enrolled in grades 1-6 in primary schools in five Chinese cities and whose mean ages ranged from seven years and three months to 11.9 years. The children's parents completed a survey on their child's height, weight and EBRBs outside school hours. The response rate was 97%, and the reported rates of overweight and obesity were 13.6% and 13.8%, respectively. The obesity rates were higher in boys and lower grade children. Most EBRBs varied between boys and girls and with increased grade levels. The amount of time spent on academic-related activities, screen viewing, outdoor activities and sleep was mostly associated with obesity on weekdays and varied by gender. Rate of obesity was alarmingly high in the primary school Chinese children in this cohort, especially in younger children. Excessive time spent on academic-related activities outside school hours, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and higher levels of screen viewing were major contributors to obesity in these Chinese children. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pfasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity and Abdominal Obesity among the Adult Population of Yakutia

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    E.S. Kylbanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes data obtained as a result of a one-stage epidemiological study for levels of CVD risk factors among indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (RS(Y. A total of 1,856 indigenous residents (Yakuts and non-indigenous residents (Russians were examined: 512 men (mean age 47.5±15.1 and 1,344 women (mean age 48.1±14.2. Among the surveyed adult population of Yakutia, the average values of BMI, regardless of ethnicity, were high with a regular increase in this indicator with age, especially in women. Overweight is more common for indigenous men (40% compared with indigenous women (34.5 %. Among the non-indigenous residents, there were no gender differences. In the sample of the indigenous population, obesity was more common in women (24.3% than in men (18.7%. Among non-indigenous residents, similar differences were not obtained, except for a higher incidence of obesity in older women. The average waist circumference in men and women of both ethnic groups is not high, but the indicators are higher for men than for women; the gender differences are leveled in the older age group in both ethnic groups. Prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO is extremely high in indigenous residents (61.6%; in both ethnic groups, the prevalence of AO is higher among women than men. The incidence of overweight, obesity and AO was significantly higher in Yakut people.

  5. Prevalence and geographic variation of abdominal obesity in 7- and 9-year-old children in Greece; World Health Organization Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassapidou, Maria; Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Makri, Evangelia; Pagkalos, Ioannis; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Kapantais, Efthymios; Abrahamian, Annet; Polymeris, Antonis; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-28

    In children, abdominal obesity is a better predictor of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index (BMI)-defined obesity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Greek pediatric population and to assess the impact of residence on the prevalence of both BMI-defined and abdominal obesity. In the context of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, a national representative sample of 7.0-7.9 and 9.0-9.9-year-old children was evaluated (n = 2,531 and 2,700, respectively). Overweight and obesity according to BMI were estimated using both the WHO and International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference/height ratio >0.5. The prevalence of abdominal obesity did not differ between 7-year-old boys and girls (25.2 and 25.3%, respectively; p = NS). Among 9-year-old children, abdominal obesity was more prevalent in boys than in girls (33.2 and 28.2%, respectively; p = 0.005). Among normal weight and overweight children, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 1.6-6.8 and 21.8-49.1%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal and BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in the mainland, in Crete and in other islands except in 7-year-old girls, where the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity was highest in those living in Crete, intermediate in those living in other islands and lowest in those living in the mainland. In 9-year-old boys and in 7- and 9-year-old girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was highest in children living in Athens and lowest in children living in Thessaloniki, whereas children living in other cities and in villages showed intermediate rates. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in 7-year-old boys and the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in cities and villages. The prevalence of pediatric abdominal obesity in Greece is among

  6. Prevalence and geographic variation of abdominal obesity in 7- and 9-year-old children in Greece; World Health Organization Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2010

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    Maria Hassapidou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In children, abdominal obesity is a better predictor of the presence of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index (BMI-defined obesity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in the Greek pediatric population and to assess the impact of residence on the prevalence of both BMI-defined and abdominal obesity. Methods In the context of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO Regional Office for Europe, a national representative sample of 7.0–7.9 and 9.0–9.9-year-old children was evaluated (n = 2,531 and 2,700, respectively. Overweight and obesity according to BMI were estimated using both the WHO and International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference/height ratio >0.5. Results The prevalence of abdominal obesity did not differ between 7-year-old boys and girls (25.2 and 25.3%, respectively; p = NS. Among 9-year-old children, abdominal obesity was more prevalent in boys than in girls (33.2 and 28.2%, respectively; p = 0.005. Among normal weight and overweight children, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 1.6–6.8 and 21.8–49.1%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal and BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in the mainland, in Crete and in other islands except in 7-year-old girls, where the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity was highest in those living in Crete, intermediate in those living in other islands and lowest in those living in the mainland. In 9-year-old boys and in 7- and 9-year-old girls, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was highest in children living in Athens and lowest in children living in Thessaloniki, whereas children living in other cities and in villages showed intermediate rates. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in 7-year-old boys and the prevalence of BMI-defined obesity did not differ between children living in cities and villages

  7. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L

    2016-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999-2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20-40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6-12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease.

  8. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Sarathy

    Full Text Available Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity.We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999-2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20-40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria.Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4% versus Mexican-Americans (40.6% or non-Hispanic whites (37.4% (P-value = 0.004. Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6-12.2, p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease.Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease.

  9. Physical inactivity mediates the association between the perceived exercising behavior of social network members and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

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    Janette S Leroux

    Full Text Available Social networks influence the spread of depression, health behaviors, and obesity. The social networks of older urban-dwelling adults were examined to assess whether physical inactivity mediated the association between social networks and obesity.Data come from the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging study (n=2707. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI with obesity defined as a BMI ≥ 30. A name generator/interpreter instrument was used to elicit participants' core ties (i.e., alters, and assess whether alters exercised regularly and resided in participants' neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical inactivity. Separate multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted for younger (18-54 years and older (55 years plus age groups to examine the association between the exercising behavior of alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses examined whether the residential location of alters was associated with obesity. Mediation analyses assessed whether physical inactivity mediated the association between alter exercising behavior and obesity. Models adjusted for participant socio-demographic and -economic characteristics.Among the older age stratum (55 years plus, physically inactive individuals were more likely obese (OR 2.14; 95% CIs: 1.48-3.10; participants who had more exercising alters were less likely obese (OR: 0.85; 95% CIs: 0.72-0.99. Physical inactivity mediated the association between exercising alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses showed that having exercising alters in the neighborhood compared to other locations tended to reduce the odds of obesity.This work demonstrates the importance of social networks among older adults in facilitating a physically active lifestyle and reducing the odds of obesity. Such findings can inform the design of public health interventions that seek to improve the environmental conditions supporting the

  10. Physical inactivity mediates the association between the perceived exercising behavior of social network members and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Janette S; Moore, Spencer; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Social networks influence the spread of depression, health behaviors, and obesity. The social networks of older urban-dwelling adults were examined to assess whether physical inactivity mediated the association between social networks and obesity. Data come from the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging study (n=2707). Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) with obesity defined as a BMI ≥ 30. A name generator/interpreter instrument was used to elicit participants' core ties (i.e., alters), and assess whether alters exercised regularly and resided in participants' neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical inactivity. Separate multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted for younger (18-54 years) and older (55 years plus) age groups to examine the association between the exercising behavior of alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses examined whether the residential location of alters was associated with obesity. Mediation analyses assessed whether physical inactivity mediated the association between alter exercising behavior and obesity. Models adjusted for participant socio-demographic and -economic characteristics. Among the older age stratum (55 years plus), physically inactive individuals were more likely obese (OR 2.14; 95% CIs: 1.48-3.10); participants who had more exercising alters were less likely obese (OR: 0.85; 95% CIs: 0.72-0.99). Physical inactivity mediated the association between exercising alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses showed that having exercising alters in the neighborhood compared to other locations tended to reduce the odds of obesity. This work demonstrates the importance of social networks among older adults in facilitating a physically active lifestyle and reducing the odds of obesity. Such findings can inform the design of public health interventions that seek to improve the environmental conditions supporting the physical

  11. Prevalence of obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity and its association with physical activity in a federal university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Miguel Ataide Pinto; Vasconcelos, Ana Gloria Godoi; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes

    2014-01-01

    A cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity and its association with the level of physical activity (PA) measured in employees of a Rio de Janeiro University according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).299 employees selected by random sampling were interviewed. The association between PA and anthropometric markers was estimated by Poisson models (robust variance). The prevalence of obesity was 27.4% (men 22.8% and 36.3% women), the prevalence of overweight was 63.5% (men 65.0% and women 65.8%) and the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 45.2% (men 35.5% and 63.7% women). Women reported a higher prevalence of low PA (42.2%) compared to men (33.0%). The models adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral variables and habits related to health, showed a significant association between PA and the outcomes analyzed. The low level of practice of PA (high level reference) has remained associated with the occurrence of obesity (PR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.05 - 3.42) and overweight (PR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.80). For the abdominal obesity, both the mid level (PR = 1.70; 95%CI 1.11 - 2.58) and the low level (PR = 1.74; 95%CI 1.14 - 2.66) were related. This study found inverse association between the practice of PA and obesity in line with what has been recommended by the WHO, and it reinforces the use of IPAQ in population studies. Specifically in relation to abdominal obesity, a remarkable gradient was not observed between levels of PA, suggesting that what is important is the high level of practice of PA.

  12. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in adolescents: association between sociodemographic factors and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, João Antônio Chula; Nunes, Heloyse Elaine Gimenes; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and verify the association with sociodemographic factors (gender, school shift, ethnicity, age, maternal education and economic status) and lifestyle (alcohol consumption, sleep, soft drink consumption, level of physical activity and sedentary behavior) in adolescents in Southern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 930 adolescents (490 girls) aged 14 to 19 years, living in the city of São José, SC, Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and lifestyle data. Abdominal obesity was measured through the waist circumference and analyzed according to gender and age. Descriptive statistics (absolute and relative frequency, mean and standard deviation) and binary logistic regression, expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were employed, with p<0.05 being considered statistically significant; the SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analyses. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.6% for the total sample (10.5% male, 10.8% female). Adolescents that watched television daily for two or more hours (OR=2.11, 95%CI 1.08 to 4.13) had a higher chance of having abdominal obesity and adolescents whose mothers had fewer than eight years of schooling (OR=0.56; 95%CI from 0.35 to 0.91) had a lower chance of having abdominal obesity. Approximately one in 10 adolescents had abdominal obesity; the associated factors were maternal schooling (≥8 years) and television screen time (≥2hours/day). Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Abdominal obesity: causal factor or simply a symptom of obesity-related health risk

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    Oh S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sechang Oh,1 Kiyoji Tanaka,2 Jin-won Noh,3 Rina So,2,4 Takehiko Tsujimoto,2 Hiroyuki Sasai,1,4 Mijung Kim,5 Junichi Shoda11Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Faculty of Health and Sports Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Healthcare Management, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea; 4Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 5Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JapanBackground: Abdominal fat (AF reduction is advocated in the treatment of obesity-related diseases. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown additional beneficial effects against obesity-related health risks, independent of AF reduction. Therefore it is important to determine whether AF plays a causal role in promoting metabolic disorders or is simply a symptom of increased obesity-related health risk factors. Clarification of the primary role of AF in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disease is also important.Objective: This retrospective study was conducted with the objectives of 1 comparison between groups exhibiting equivalent amounts of AF loss that resulted from distinct treatments (exercise and dietary restriction with respect to degrees of improvement in obesity-related health risk factors and 2 determination of definite differences in the outcomes of obesity-related health risk in subjects receiving identical treatment (exercise but exhibiting a remarkable difference in AF reduction.Design: In 66 subjects who completed a 12-week exercise or dietary restriction program, 17 parameters (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]; leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6; alanine aminotransferase [ALT], gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [γGT]; lipid profile: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDLC], triglyceride [TG

  14. Association of General and Abdominal Obesity With Hypertension, Dyslipidemia and Prediabetes in the PREDAPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrós, F Javier; Torrecilla, Jesús; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Carrillo, Lourdes; Mancera, José; Mur, Teresa; Franch, Josep; Díez, Javier; Goday, Albert; Serrano, Rosario; García-Soidán, F Javier; Cuatrecasas, Gabriel; Igual, Dimas; Moreno, Ana; Millaruelo, J Manuel; Carramiñana, Francisco; Ruiz, Manuel Antonio; Pérez, Francisco Carlos; Iriarte, Yon; Lorenzo, Ángela; González, María; Álvarez, Beatriz; Barutell, Lourdes; Mayayo, M Soledad; Del Castillo, Mercedes; Navarro, Emma; Malo, Fernando; Cambra, Ainhoa; López, Riánsares; Gutiérrez, M Ángel; Gutiérrez, Luisa; Boente, Carmen; Mediavilla, J Javier; Prieto, Luis; Mendo, Luis; Mansilla, M José; Ortega, Francisco Javier; Borras, Antonia; Sánchez, L Gabriel; Obaya, J Carlos; Alonso, Margarita; García, Francisco; Gutiérrez, Ángela Trinidad; Hernández, Ana M; Suárez, Dulce; Álvarez, J Carlos; Sáenz, Isabel; Martínez, F Javier; Casorrán, Ana; Ripoll, Jazmín; Salanova, Alejandro; Marín, M Teresa; Gutiérrez, Félix; Innerárity, Jaime; Álvarez, M Del Mar; Artola, Sara; Bedoya, M Jesús; Poveda, Santiago; Álvarez, Fernando; Brito, M Jesús; Iglesias, Rosario; Paniagua, Francisca; Nogales, Pedro; Gómez, Ángel; Rubio, José Félix; Durán, M Carmen; Sagredo, Julio; Gijón, M Teresa; Rollán, M Ángeles; Pérez, Pedro P; Gamarra, Javier; Carbonell, Francisco; García-Giralda, Luis; Antón, J Joaquín; de la Flor, Manuel; Martínez, Rosario; Pardo, José Luis; Ruiz, Antonio; Plana, Raquel; Macía, Ramón; Villaró, Mercè; Babace, Carmen; Torres, José Luis; Blanco, Concepción; Jurado, Ángeles; Martín, José Luis; Navarro, Jorge; Sanz, Gloria; Colas, Rafael; Cordero, Blanca; de Castro, Cristina; Ibáñez, Mercedes; Monzón, Alicia; Porta, Nuria; Gómez, María Del Carmen; Llanes, Rafael; Rodríguez, J José; Granero, Esteban; Sánchez, Manuel; Martínez, Juan; Ezkurra, Patxi; Ávila, Luis; de la Sen, Carlos; Rodríguez, Antonio; Buil, Pilar; Gabriel, Paula; Roura, Pilar; Tarragó, Eduard; Mundet, Xavier; Bosch, Remei; González, J Carles; Bobé, M Isabel; Mata, Manel; Ruiz, Irene; López, Flora; Birules, Marti; Armengol, Oriol; de Miguel, Rosa Mar; Romera, Laura; Benito, Belén; Piulats, Neus; Bilbeny, Beatriz; Cabré, J José; Cos, Xavier; Pujol, Ramón; Seguí, Mateu; Losada, Carmen; de Santiago, A María; Muñoz, Pedro; Regidor, Enrique

    2018-03-01

    Some anthropometric measurements show a greater capacity than others to identify the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. This study estimated the magnitude of the association of different anthropometric indicators of obesity with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and prediabetes (altered fasting plasma glucose and/or glycosylated hemoglobin). Cross-sectional analysis of information collected from 2022 participants in the PREDAPS study (baseline phase). General obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30kg/m 2 and abdominal obesity was defined with 2 criteria: a) waist circumference (WC) ≥ 102cm in men/WC ≥ 88cm in women, and b) waist-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.55. The magnitude of the association was estimated by logistic regression. Hypertension showed the strongest association with general obesity in women (OR, 3.01; 95%CI, 2.24-4.04) and with abdominal obesity based on the WHtR criterion in men (OR, 3.65; 95%CI, 2.66-5.01). Hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity based on the WHtR criterion in women (OR, 2.49; 95%CI, 1.68-3.67 and OR, 2.70; 95%CI, 1.89-3.86) and with general obesity in men (OR, 2.06; 95%CI, 1.56-2.73 and OR, 1.68; 95%CI, 1.21-2.33). Prediabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity based on the WHtR criterion in women (OR, 2.48; 95%CI, 1.85-3.33) and with abdominal obesity based on the WC criterion in men (OR, 2.33; 95%CI, 1.75-3.08). Abdominal obesity indicators showed the strongest association with the presence of prediabetes. The association of anthropometric indicators with hypertension and dyslipidemia showed heterogeneous results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Household food insecurity is associated with abdominal but not general obesity among Iranian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Fateme; Ehsani, Simin; Nadjarzadeh, Azadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Noori-Shadkam, Mahmood; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin

    2017-04-21

    Childhood obesity is increasing all over the world. Food insecurity is mentioned as a possible risk factor; however, previous studies have led to inconsistent results in different societies while data are lacking for the Middle East. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and general or abdominal obesity in Iranian children in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data including height, weight, and waist circumference were measured by trained nutritionists. General and abdominal obesity were defined based on world health organization (WHO) and Iranian reference curves for age and gender, respectively. Radimer/Cornell food security questionnaire was filled by parents. Data about the physical activity of participants, family socio-economic status, parental obesity and data about perinatal period were also gathered using self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression was incorporated to investigate the association between food insecurity and obesity in crude and multi-variable adjusted models. A total of 587 children aged 9.30 ± 1.49 years had complete data for analysis. Food insecurity at household level was significantly associated with abdominal obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; confidence interval (CI):1.01-2.34, p Food insecurity was associated with general obesity neither in crude analysis and multi-variable adjusted models. The slight levels of food insecurity might increase the likelihood of abdominal obesity in Iranian children and macroeconomic policies to improve the food security are necessary. Large-scale prospective studies, particularly in the Middle East, are highly recommended to confirm our results.

  16. The Risk of Abdominal Obesity according to the Degree of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Choi, Joong-Myung; Seo, Min Woo; Park, Chung Min

    2016-03-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been reported as a cardiometabolic risk factor, the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver is yet to be clarified on abdominal obesity. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the longitudinal relationship of non-alcoholic fatty liver on the development of abdominal obesity. The study participants were composed of 11,212 Korean men without abdominal obesity. They were followed up from 2005 to 2010 to be monitored for the development of abdominal obesity according to their degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (normal, mild, and moderate to severe). Cox-proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios for abdominal obesity according to the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While the average incidence was 15.5%, the incidence of abdominal obesity increased according to the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver (normal: 11.6%, mild: 25.2%, moderate to severe: 41.0%, P obesity independently increased proportionally to the degree of NAFLD (mild [1.07; 0.94-1.23], moderate to severe [1.58; 1.11-2.26], P for trend obesity increased proportionally to the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This finding guarantees further studies to reveal the incidental relationship of abdominal obesity with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  17. Anthropometric indicators of abdominal obesity: review of the papers indexed on SciELO electronic library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Barnabé dos Santos Cavalcanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n2p217   A systematic review of original articles published between 1993 and 2007 and indexed in SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online was carried out to identify the anthropometric indicators used to assess abdominal obesity in different target subgroups, and to provide an overview of available evidence regarding the relationship between these anthropometric indicators and obesity-associated comorbidities. The articles were analyzed and the following data were collected:year of publication, sample size and age, anthropometric measure used to detect abdominal obesity, and main results of the study. The review comprised 47 articles which met all inclusion criteria, most of them published over the last 5 years. Waist-hip ratio and waist circumference were used as indicators of abdominal obesity in 34 and 11 of the articles reviewed, respectively. With respect to age range, the samples were heterogeneous in most of the studies (n=27 and ten included adolescents. Four studies were conducted on elderly subjects and three included children, but none exclusively involved adolescents as the target population. The sample size was larger than 500 in 26 studies. Despite disagreement in terms of the degree of correlation, the studies generally showed that the anthropometric indicators of abdominal obesity were correlated with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemias, and coronary heart risk. The results of this review suggest that abdominal obesity is associated with metabolic diseases. However, there is a lack of studies involving the adolescent population, suggesting the need for further research in this area.

  18. [Prevalence of abdominal obesity and associated factors among individuals 25 to 59 years of age in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Claudia Porto Sabino; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de; Batista Filho, Malaquias; Coelho, Poliana Cabral; Sequeira, Leopoldina Augusta de Souza; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de

    2013-02-01

    In order to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and associated factors in Pernambuco State, Brazil, a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2006, including 1,580 adults 25 to 59 years of age. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference (WC) ≥ 80 cm in women and ≥ 94 cm in men. The conceptual model included demographic, socioeconomic, reproductive, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was 27.1% (95%CI: 23.8-30.7) in males and 69.9% (95%CI: 66.8-72.8) in females (p Pernambuco, and the determinants of obesity differ between the sexes.

  19. The prevalence of abdominal obesity among pupils with visual impairment in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesińska, Magdalena; Urzędowicz, Beata; Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Motylewski, Sławomir; Pawlicki, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    Obesity particularly affects young people with disabilities, whose ability to participate in health promotion programs is reduced. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity among students with visual impairment in Poland according to waist-to-height ratio, including indicators such as gender, age or certain additional coexisting disabilities or disorders. A total of 238 students who were blind or partially-sighted, aged 7.35-23.35 years (mean age 15.5; ±3.9 years), were included in the study. Abdominal obesity was estimated using waist-to-height ratio; a cutoff point of ≥0.50 was determined as central obesity. Abdominal obesity was identified among 26.9% [N = 64] of the participants: 33.1% [N = 41] of male students and 20.2% [N = 23] of female students (ch2 = 5.02; p = 0.025; Phi = 0.145). Of all the students, the multivariate logistic regression showed that abdominal obesity was one and a half times more likely to be detected in the 7-9 year age group (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 0.58-4.18; P = 0.376) than the 19-23 year age group. However, among the female subjects, abdominal obesity was over six times more common in the 7-9 year group (OR = 6.48; 95% CI 1.29-32.5; P = 0.022) than in the group of early adults. Central obesity was detected almost three times more frequently among students with visual impairment and additional intellectual disability (OR = 2.99; 95% CI 0.52-17.1; P = 0.215) than those with only visual impairment. Prevention programs aimed at reducing abdominal obesity among pupils with visual impairment from special schools are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of abdominal obesity and its association with cardio metabolic risk factors among older adults in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orces, Carlos H; Montalvan, Martha; Tettamanti, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of abdominal obesity and its association with cardio metabolic risk factors among older adults in Ecuador. The present study used data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging survey to examine the prevalence of abdominal obesity according to certain demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of the participants. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to evaluate the association of abdominal obesity with cardio metabolic risk factors. Of 2053 participants aged 60 years and older, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 65.9% (95% CI; 62.2%, 69.4%) in women and 16.3% (95% CI; 13.8%, 19.2%) in men. Notably, a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity was seen among residents in the urban areas of the country, those who reported their race as black or mulatto, individuals with sedentary lifestyle and obesity, and older adults with greater number of comorbidities. Moreover, after adjustment for potential confounders, women with abdominal obesity were 2.0, 2.8, and 1.6 times more likely to have diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and hypertriglyceridemia as compared with those without, respectively. Likewise, men with abdominal obesity had 51% and 22% higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than their non-obese counterparts, respectively. the prevalence of abdominal obesity is high among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, abdominal obesity is significantly associated with cardio metabolic risk factors. Therefore, further research is needed to evaluate sociodemographic and nutritional determinants of this emerging public health burden among older Ecuadorians. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leptin, abdominal obesity, and onset of depression in older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milaneschi, Y.; Simonsick, E.M.; Vogelzangs, N.; Strotmeyer, E.S.; Yaffe, K.; Harris, T.B.; Tolea, M.I.; Ferrucci, L.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The mechanisms that underlie the association between abdominal obesity and depression risk in older persons are not well known, but the "leptin hypothesis" of depression suggests that leptin resistance may be involved in mood regulation. We tested whether high circulatory concentration of

  2. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  3. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m 2 ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R 2 =0.474).

  4. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for the Diagnosis of Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Sook Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches.

  5. Abdominal obesity and its association with socioeconomic factors among adolescents from different living environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa de Oliveira Forkert, E; de Moraes, A C F; Carvalho, H B; Kafatos, A; Manios, Y; Sjöström, M; González-Gross, M; Gottrand, F; Beghin, L; Censi, L; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A

    2017-04-01

    Socioeconomic status has been associated with obesity in children and adolescents. This association may be dependent according with where adolescents lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different socioeconomic indicators such as parental education and occupation and socioeconomic status with abdominal obesity in adolescents from two observational studies: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study (HELENA-CSS) and the Brazilian Cardiovascular Adolescent Health (BRACAH) study. European (n = 3192, aged 12.5-17.5 years, with 53.1% girls from HELENA-CSS) and Brazilian (n = 991, aged 14-18 years, with 54.5% girls from BRACAH study) adolescents from two cross-sectional studies were included in this analysis. Complete data on waist circumference (WC), height, socioeconomic status indicators and several confounders were collected. Socioeconomic indicators were measured using a self-reported questionnaire in order to assess the family social status of the adolescents. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine associations, and results were adjusted for potential confounders. Adjusted results showed inverse associations between mother's and father's education levels (p adolescents, both indicators of abdominal obesity did not remain associated with the independents variables, after adjustment for potential confounders. Abdominal obesity was associated with socioeconomic indicators in higher-income countries, but this association was not observed in a lower-middle-income country. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Subcutaneous abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in vitro inversely correlates with central obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permana, Paska A; Nair, Saraswathy; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Expansion of adipose tissue mass results from increased number and size of adipocyte cells. We hypothesized that subcutaneous abdominal preadipocytes in obese individuals might have an intrinsically higher propensity to differentiate into adipocytes. Thus we investigated the relationship between...... obesity and the level of in vitro preadipocyte differentiation in Pima Indians. Subcutaneous abdominal stromal vascular fractions containing preadipocytes were cultured from 58 nondiabetic subjects [31 M/27 F, 30 +/- 6 yr, body fat 34 +/- 8% by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (means +/- SD)]. The average...... not (IGF-IR, r = 0.003, P = 1.0; PPARgamma, r = -0.1, P = 0.5; GATA-3, r = 0.02, P = 0.9; CUP/AP-2alpha, r = -0.2, P = 0.1; ECSM2, r = 0.04, P = 0.7). Contrary to our hypothesis, the results may indicate a blunted in vitro differentiation potential of preadipocytes in centrally obese individuals. The lower...

  7. Cost of inaction on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: implications for obesity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugendhaft, Aviva; Manyema, Mercy; Veerman, Lennert J; Chola, Lumbwe; Labadarios, Demetre; Hofman, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the effect of increased sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption on future adult obesity prevalence in South Africa in the absence of preventive measures. A model was constructed to simulate the effect of a 2·4 % annual increase in SSB consumption on obesity prevalence. The model computed the change in energy intake assuming a compounding increase in SSB consumption. The population distribution of BMI by age and sex was modelled by fitting measured data from the 2012 South African National Income Dynamics Survey to the log-normal distribution and shifting the mean values. Over the past decade the prevalence of obesity and related non-communicable diseases has increased in South Africa, as have the sales and availability of SSB. Soft drink sales in South Africa are projected to grow between 2012 and 2017 at an annual compounded growth rate of 2·4 % in the absence of preventive measures to curb consumption. A 2·4 % annual growth in SSB sales alongside population growth and ageing will result in an additional 1 287 000 obese adults in South Africa by 2017, 22 % of which will be due to increased SSB consumption. In order to meet the South African target of reducing the number of people who are obese and/or overweight by 10 % by 2020, the country cannot afford to delay implementing effective population-wide interventions. In the face of plans to increase growth of SSB, the country will soon face even greater challenges in overcoming obesity and related non-communicable diseases.

  8. Association between abdominal obesity and periodontal disease. Cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Juarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study is to determine the association. between abdominal obesity and periodontal disease by means of multivariate analysis. Materials and method: A cross -sectional observational study was carried out. From March to April 2014, patients admitted to the Dental Sciences Building at Universidad Austral de Chile were subjected to a clinical periodontal examination. Periodontitis was defined by a probing pocket depth equal to or greater than 4mm in at least one site of the teeth in two different quadrants, along with active bleeding within 30 seconds after probing. Abdominal obesity was defined by waist-hip ratio with values equal to or greater than 0.90 for men and 0.88 for women. Oral hygiene was assessed by Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Smoker status was determined after undergoing an interview. Results: The sample comprised 136 participants (51 males and 85 females, with a mean age of 40.6±15.1 years. Prevalence of periodontal disease was 49.2% and obesity was 50.7%. A 62.3% of the patients showed both, periodontal disease and obesity. A statistically significant association between abdominal obesity (Odds ratio (OR=2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1, 5.1, cigarette comsumption (OR=4.0, 95% CI: 1.0, 16.5, poor oral hygiene (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 5.9 and periodontal disease was established. Conclusion: There is a statically significant association between abdominal obesity and periodontal disease.

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Change in Abdominal Obesity in the Elderly: positive or negative association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    WONG, Samuel YS; LEUNG, Jason C; LEUNG, Ping C; WOO, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Recent evidence suggests depression could result in abdominal obesity in the elderly. Few longitudinal studies are available and none has been conducted outside of the US. Methods To examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity, data from 3998 community dwelling Chinese elderly men and women aged 65 years and above with 4-year follow up were analyzed. Depression was defined by a Geriatric Depression Scale score of 8 or higher. At baseline and after 4 years, overall obesity measures included body mass index, percentage of body fat and general adiposity or body fat index (BFI) (expressed by total body fat mass measured by DEXA in kilograms divided by the square of stature in metres). Abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, waist hip ratio and relative truncal fat (ratio of truncal fat mass to total fat mass measured by DEXA). Results After adjustment for socio-demographics, lifestyle and medical factors, the presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms at baseline was associated with significant decrease in waist circumference at follow up after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, baseline obesity, lifestyle and medical factors (β=−1.801, t=−2.93, df=1564, p=0.0034) although this relationship disappeared in older aged women in further age stratified analysis. Conclusions This study shows that depressive symptoms may result in a decrease in abdominal obesity, suggesting that more research is needed to further explore this relationship. Similar studies conducted in different cultural groups may help to explain these conflicting findings. PMID:21788923

  10. Abdominal obesity, TV-viewing time and prospective declines in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Dunstan, David; Bot, Sandra; Salmon, Jo; Dekker, Jacqueline; Nijpels, Giel; Owen, Neville

    2011-10-01

    To examine the prospective associations of baseline abdominal obesity and TV-viewing time with five-year reductions in leisure-time physical activity level. We used data from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab), a nationally representative population-based cohort study with measures collected in 1999-2000 and 2004-2005. Abdominal obesity was determined by waist circumference and TV-viewing time and physical activity level were assessed using established interviewer-administered questionnaires. Among 2,191 men and 2,650 women aged ≥ 25years, odds ratios (ORs) of 5-year reductions from sufficient to insufficient or no physical activity, and from insufficient to no physical activity were estimated with logistic regression. We adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The odds of reducing physical levels from baseline to the follow-up survey for obese men (34.2%) and women (38.1%), respectively were 1.40 (1.10-1.79) and 1.44 (1.16-1.80), compared to those with a normal waist circumference. Women, but not men, with higher levels of TV-viewing time had higher odds of reducing physical activity levels (8.6%; OR 1.46; 1.01-2.11), independent of abdominal obesity. These findings suggest that abdominal obesity is associated with prospective reductions in physical activity level, and that high levels of TV-viewing time might have an additional adverse influence for women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity from four to 16 years old children living in the Mexico-USA border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jones, Elizabeth G; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS), elementary (ES), and middle high (MHS) public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers and eight graduate students were trained at one central location on how to take anthropometric measurements using a portable scale, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape to determine weight, height, and waist circumference. Body Mass Index values were computed and compared to age/gender BMI percentiles according to WHO criteria. Waist circumference for-age at the 90th percentile from NHANES III (Mexican-American) was used to define abdominal obesity. The sample was composed of 646 PS children, 961 ES children, and 1,095 MHS children. Their ages ranged from 4- 16 years. Results showed an overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in younger than 5y preschool children (> 2 SD) of 23.1%, in ≥ 5 y PS (> 1 SD) of 33.8%, in ES children of 46.3%, and in MHS children of 41.9%. Abdominal obesity in PS children was 18%, in ES children was 16.7%, and in MHS children was 15.2%. These results warrant immediate and comprehensive actions to prevent a critical public health problem in Mexico. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Abdominal obesity as the colorectal adenomas risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Mylytsya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases, including colorectal cancer. Aim: to study association of the constitutional features (height, weight, waist circumference with detection of colon polyps on the screening colonoscopy. Materials and methods: Constitutional features (height, weight, waist circumference of 145 patients were assessed with detection of colon polyps on the screening colonoscopy for the period from 2013to 2015. Exclusion criteria were: cancer of any location in history, surgery within the past two years, the inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, HIV, AIDS, SLE, diabetes, chronic liver or kidney disease, family polyposis. Results: the presence of adenomas (OR = 6.0 CI: 2,2-16,7; multiplicity of polyps (the possibility that there will be ≥ 3 polyps was 6.4, CI: 1,4-29,9 were significantly higher in obese patients than in those with normal weight. Subjects with a waist circumference in the highest tertile (>115 cm, were 4.6 times more likely to identify ≥ 3 polyps than those with waist circumference in the lowest tertile (<96 cm . The probability of detection of adenomas in patients with a waist circumference in the highest tertile were 6.2 times higher than in the lowest tertile. Conclusions. Visceral obesity is associated with a morphological type and number of colon polyps. The presence of visceral obesity significantly increases the risk of colon adenomas. Increased visceral fat layer is an indication for colonoscopy especially of the right half of the colon examination. Screening colonoscopy should be recommended for the obese patients after 50 y.o. in order to diagnose adenomas of the colon and colorectal cancer.

  13. Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents: results of the E-MOVO project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croezen, S.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Bogt, ter N.C.W.; Veling, M.L.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective/Background: To investigate the association between skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity with overweight and obesity in adolescents. The design comprises cross-sectional electronic health survey (E-MOVO). Subjects/Methods: Over 35 000 Dutch adolescents in grade 2

  14. Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents : results of the E-MOVO project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croezen, S.; Visscher, T. L. S.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Veling, M. L.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    Objective/Background: To investigate the association between skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity with overweight and obesity in adolescents. The design comprises cross-sectional electronic health survey (E-MOVO). Subjects/Methods: Over 35 000 Dutch adolescents in grade 2

  15. Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents: results of the E-MOVO project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croezen, S.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Ter Bogt, N.C.W.; Veling, M.L.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective/Background: To investigate the association between skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity with overweight and obesity in adolescents. The design comprises cross-sectional electronic health survey (E-MOVO). Subjects/Methods: Over 35000 Dutch adolescents in grade 2

  16. Abdominal Contouring Outcomes in Class III Obesity: Analysis of the ACS-NSQIP Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQattan, Husain T; Mundra, Leela S; Rubio, Gustavo A; Thaller, Seth R

    2018-02-01

    Obesity may increase the risk of complications following abdominal contouring. The aim of this study is to evaluate panniculectomy outcomes in patients with class III obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m 2 ). The American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program ACS-NSQIP (2010-2014) was used to identify patients who underwent panniculectomy. Class III obesity patients were identified. Demographics, comorbidities and postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Risk-adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess impact of class III obesity on panniculectomy outcomes. A total of 4497 panniculectomies were identified. Of these, 545 (12.1%) were performed in patients with class III obesity. This group was older (mean age 50.3 vs. 45.9, p Class III obesity group also had higher rates of comorbidities (p class III obesity patients experienced much higher rates of wound complications (17.8 vs. 6.8%), sepsis (3.3 vs. 0.8%), venous thromboembolism (1.5 vs. 0.7%) and medical complications (6.4 vs. 1.8%), p class III obesity was independently associated with increased risk of wound complications (OR 2.22, p Class III obesity patients are at significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes following abdominal contouring. Plastic surgeons should consider these risks for counseling and preoperative risk optimization. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity among older people in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia - a decomposition analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujilestari, Cahya Utamie; Nyström, Lennarth; Norberg, Margareta; Weinehall, Lars; Hakimi, Mohammad; Ng, Nawi

    2017-12-12

    Obesity has become a global health challenge as its prevalence has increased globally in recent decades. Studies in high-income countries have shown that obesity is more prevalent among the poor. In contrast, obesity is more prevalent among the rich in low- and middle-income countries, hence requiring different focal points to design public health policies in the latter contexts. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia and identified factors contributing to the inequalities. We utilised data from the WHO-INDEPTH Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-INDEPTH SAGE) conducted in the Purworejo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Purworejo District, Indonesia in 2010. The study included 14,235 individuals aged 50 years and older. Inequalities in abdominal obesity across wealth groups were assessed separately for men and women using concentration indexes. Decomposition analysis was conducted to assess the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity was five-fold more prevalent among women than in men (30% vs. 6.1%; p inequalities in abdominal obesity were less prominent among women (CI = 0.26, SE = 0.02, p inequalities in abdominal obesity among men, explaining 47% of the inequalities, followed by poor socioeconomic status (31%), ≤ 6 years of education (15%) and current smoking (11%). The three major determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among women were poor socio-economic status (48%), physical labour (17%) and no formal education (16%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among older women in a rural Indonesian setting. Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity exists and concentrates more among the rich population in both sexes. The inequality gap is less prominent among women, indicating a trend towards obesity being more common in poor women. Policies to address social determinants of

  18. Waist circumference based abdominal obesity may be helpful as a marker for unmet needs in patients with RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uutela, T; Kautiainen, H; Järvenpää, S; Salomaa, S; Hakala, M; Häkkinen, A

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of abdominal obesity (AO) on disease severity, cardiovascular risk factors, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two hundred and thirty consecutive outpatients were cross-sectionally assessed. Waist circumference (WC) with a cut-off point of ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 88 cm in women indicated AO. Clinical assessment included joint counts, radiographs of small joints, and laboratory tests. Comorbidities and medication were verified from the patients' database. Patient questionnaires included sociodemographics, pain intensity, global disease activity, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), physical activity level, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). The association of AO with the 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and mental (MCS) and physical component scores (PCS) of the SF-36 and the HAQ was assessed by using regression models with the propensity score as a covariate. The AO prevalence was 52% in the 200 eligible patients. In a univariate analysis, AO was associated with cardiovascular risk factors, low HAQ score, physical inactivity, disease activity parameters, impaired MCS, higher pain, and increased use of biological drugs and antidepressants. In a multivariable model, only poorer DAS28 (p = 0.018) and poorer HAQ score (p = 0.004) remained significantly associated with AO. AO is highly prevalent in patients with RA. In addition to cardiovascular risk factors, AO is associated with higher disease activity, higher disability, physical inactivity, more patients' perception of pain, and poorer mental health. Multifaceted promotion of lifestyle habits would be beneficial for improving AO-related health outcomes in patients with RA.

  19. Trends in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and their related lifestyle factors in Korean young adults, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon

    2017-05-05

    This study aimed to assess trends of underweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity and related lifestyle factors in young Korean adults. The analysis focused on adults aged 19-39 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I-V (1998-2012). Underweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) obesity as BMI≥30kg/m 2 ; and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥90cm in men and ≥85cm in women. We evaluated trends by analyzing the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and the proportions and ORs of lifestyles. As compared with KNHANES I, the ORs for obesity were higher in III, IV, and V and the ORs for abdominal obesity were higher in IV and V in men, which showed an increasing trend (P for trendobesity showed a significant increasing tendency (P for trendobesity in young men and women, and abdominal obesity in young men is needed. Meanwhile, management of underweight in young women is simultaneously required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Understanding the causes of obesity in children with trisomy 21: hyperphagia vs physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerste, T; Sabin, M; Reid, S; Reddihough, D

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. This is particularly evident in people with trisomy 21 and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Although metabolic factors are known to contribute to obesity in trisomy 21 and hyperphagia plays a primary role in PWS, hyperphagia has not yet been investigated as a possible contributing factor to obesity in trisomy 21. Participants comprised three diagnostic groups: trisomy 21 (T21 group), PWS (PWS group) and lifestyle-related obesity (LRO group). They were required to be aged 6-18 years and have a body mass index over the 85th percentile for age and gender. A parent of each participant completed the Hyperphagia Questionnaire and the Children's Leisure Activity Study Survey. Mean scores for each domain and across all domains of the Hyperphagia Questionnaire and the Children's Leisure Activity Study Survey were compared between diagnostic groups using linear regression analysis. The study group consisted of 52 young people (23 men and 29 women) aged 6-18 years (mean 12.5 years; T21 group n = 17, PWS group n = 16 and LRO group n = 19). As hypothesised, the PWS group had the highest mean scores across all domains of the Hyperphagia Questionnaire, and the LRO group had the lowest. Food-seeking behaviour was more pronounced in the PWS group than the T21 group (mean score 13.2 vs. 8.6, p = 0.008). The LRO group spent more hours per week engaged in physical activity (14.7) in comparison with the other groups (9.6 and 9.7), whereas between the groups, differences in time spent in sedentary activities were less pronounced. Preoccupation with food and low levels of physical activity may contribute to the development of overweight and obesity in some individuals with trisomy 21. These factors warrant consideration in the clinical context. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley

  1. Epidemiology of general obesity, abdominal obesity and related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of northeast china: the CHPSNE study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Mei-Meng; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk of many diseases. However, there has been little literature about the epidemiology of obesity classified by body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity) among urban Chinese adults. This study is to fill the gap by assessing the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among urban Chinese adults. Methods A representative sample of 25,196 urban adults aged 18 to 74 years in Northeast China was selected and measurements of height, wei...

  2. Chronic Abdominal Pain and Symptoms 5 Years After Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgestøl, Ingvild K; Chahal-Kummen, Monica; Eribe, Inger; Brunborg, Cathrine; Stubhaug, Audun; Hewitt, Stephen; Kristinsson, Jon; Mala, Tom

    2017-06-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is widely performed as treatment of morbid obesity. Long-term weight loss, effects on co-morbidities, and quality of life after RYGB have been well addressed. Other long-term outcomes are less elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, symptom characteristics, and possible predictors of chronic abdominal pain and gastrointestinal symptoms during consultations 5 years after RYGB. A 5-year follow-up study of patients operated with RYGB 2008-2009 was performed. The patients completed questionnaires regarding chronic abdominal pain, the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), the ROME III questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophing Scale (PCS), the Brief Pain Inventory, and SF-36. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses of characteristics associated with chronic abdominal pain were performed. A total of 165/234 (71%) patients met to the follow-up, 160 of these accepted study inclusion. The mean follow-up was 64 (SD 4.2) months. The mean age was 42.5 (SD 8.7) years and 59% were females. The mean total weight loss was 23.9% (SD 11.2). Chronic abdominal pain was reported by 33.8%. Female gender, average strength of bodily pain, and the PCS sum score were associated with chronic abdominal pain. Symptoms of indigestion and irritable bowel syndrome were reported by 48.8% and 29.1%, respectively. Chronic abdominal pain was associated with reduced health related quality of life. A substantial proportion of patients experienced chronic abdominal pain and symptoms 5 years after RYGB. Abdominal pain should be addressed at follow-up consultations after RYGB.

  3. Association of psychiatric illness and obesity, physical inactivity, and smoking among a national sample of veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwastiak, Lydia A; Rosenheck, Robert A; Kazis, Lewis E

    2011-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been reported across a number of chronic psychiatric illnesses. Interventions to decrease cardiovascular risk have focused on single health behaviors. To evaluate the co-occurrence of multiple poor health behaviors that increase cardiovascular risk among veterans with psychiatric diagnoses. Using data from the 1999 Large Health Survey of Veterans (n=501,161), multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between current smoking, no regular exercise, and obesity with each of six Axis I diagnoses. There were statistically increased odds of co-occurrence of obesity, current tobacco use, and no regular exercise among veterans with each of the psychiatric diagnoses, with the exception of drug use disorders (which was not significantly different from 1). The highest odds were among veterans with schizophrenia, PTSD, and bipolar disorder [OR (95% CI) of 1.37 (1.29, 1.45); 1.26 (1.20, 1.32); and 1.19 (1.11, 1.25), respectively]. The OR for depression was not significant after adjustment for medical comorbidity. Veterans with psychiatric illnesses, and particularly those with schizophrenia, PTSD, and bipolar disorder, are much more likely to have multiple poor health behaviors that increase their cardiovascular risk. Interventions to decrease cardiovascular risk among veterans with serious mental illness need to target multiple health behaviors. Copyright © 2011 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased neck soft tissue mass and worsening of obstructive sleep apnea after growth hormone treatment in men with abdominal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Koranyi, Josef; Franco, Celina

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion.......Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion....

  5. Abdominal obesity in Japanese-Brazilians: which measure is best for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselle Rodrigues Bevilacqua

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify which anthropometric measure of abdominal obesity was the best predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Japanese-Brazilians. The study followed 1,581 subjects for 14 years. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and anthropometric data were collected. The dependent variable was vital status (alive or dead at the end of the study, and the independent variable was presence of abdominal obesity according to different baseline measures. The mortality rate was estimated, and Poisson regression was used to obtain mortality rate ratios with abdominal obesity, adjusted simultaneously for the other variables. The mortality rate was 10.68/thousand person-years. Male gender, age > 60 years, and arterial hypertension were independent risk factors for mortality. The results indicate that prevalence of abdominal obesity was high among Japanese-Brazilians, and that waist/hip ratio was the measure with the greatest capacity to predict mortality (especially cardiovascular mortality in this group.

  6. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. METHODS: In a ...

  7. Cardiovascular risk assessment according to the Framingham score and abdominal obesity in individuals seen by a clinical school of nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes de; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa; Santos, Arianne Albuquerque

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective: To analyze the relation of abdominal obesity on cardiovascular risk in individuals seen by a clinic school of nutrition, classifying them based on Framingham score. Methods: Cross-sectional study, conducted at the nutrition clinic of a private college in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. We included randomly selected adults and elderly individuals with abdominal obesity, of both sexes, treated from August to December of 2009, with no history of cardiomyopathy or cardiovascular...

  8. Association of abdominal obesity with lumbar disc degeneration--a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Takatalo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate whether midsagittal (abdominal obesity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, waist circumference (WC and body fat percentage are associated with lumbar disc degeneration in early adulthood. METHODS: We obtained the lumbar MRI (1.5-T scanner of 325 females and 233 males at a mean age of 21 years. Lumbar disc degeneration was evaluated using Pfirrmann classification. We analysed the associations of MRI measures of obesity (abdominal diameter (AD, sagittal diameter (SAD, ventral subcutaneous thickness (VST, and dorsal subcutaneous thickness (DST, WC and body fat percentage with disc degeneration sum scores using ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 155 (48% females and 147 (63% males had disc degeneration. AD and SAD were associated with a disc degeneration sum score of ≥3 compared to disc degeneration sum score of 0-2 (OR 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.20-2.33 and OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.12-1.75, respectively among males, but we found no association among females. WC was also associated with disc degeneration among males (OR 1.03 per one cm; 95% CI 1.00-1.05, but not among females. CONCLUSION: Measures of abdominal obesity in MRI and waist circumference were associated with disc degeneration among 21-year-old males.

  9. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in relation to risk of small intestinal cancer in a European Prospective Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yunxia; Cross, Amanda J.; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Katzke, Verena A.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsson, Åsa; Johansson, Ingegerd; Renström, Frida; Panico, Salvatore; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Siersema, Peter D.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Tsironis, Christos; Agudo, Antonio; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez, María José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio

    Background: The etiology of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is largely unknown, and there are very few epidemiological studies published to date. No studies have investigated abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC. Methods: We investigated overall obesity and abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC in

  10. Abdominal obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Chen-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Sung, Yi-Ting; Lee, Li-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To examine how elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) could be associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on a mass health examination. The odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were compared between people with and without abdominal obesity, together with and without elevated ALT levels. 5499 people were included in this study. Two hundred fifty two (4.6%) fulfilled the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with 178 (3.2%) undiagnosed before. Metabolic syndrome was vigorously associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (12.4% vs. 1.4% and 9.0% vs. 0.9%), but elevated ALT alone was not. However, coexisting with obesity, elevated ALTs were robustly associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. For the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, in comparison to non-obese people with normal ALT (1.7%, OR = 1), obese people especially with elevated ALT levels had significantly higher ORs (obese with ALT ≤ 40 U/L: 4.7%, OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.08-2.77, P 0.023; ALT 41-80 U/L: 6.8%, OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.55, P 0.009; ALT 81-120 U/L: 8.8%, OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.38-6.84, P 0.006; ALT > 120 U/L: 18.2%, OR 7.44, 95% CI 3.04-18.18, P obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. People with abdominal obesity, especially with coexisting elevated ALT levels should be screened for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

  11. Abdominal obesity is associated with albuminuria in women: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong Gyu; Kim, Yang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Shik; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Do Hoon

    2014-03-01

    The effects of obesity on the kidney, apart from diabetes or hypertension, have not drawn much attention. Moreover, only a few studies have reported the relationship between obesity status and albuminuria in Asian countries, including South Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between obesity status and albuminuria in Korean adults. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Of the 4,979 subjects included in the general-population group, 3,274 were sorted into a nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population group. Obesity status was measured by body mass index and waist circumference. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.08 [1.04-4.16]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 6.96 [2.34-20.64]) after further adjustment for confounders. Among generally nonobese women, abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (OR [95% CI]: 2.82 [1.51-5.29]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 5.32 [1.47-19.22]). Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk for albuminuria in Korean women, independently of diabetes or hypertension. Screening for abdominal obesity, especially in women, may therefore provide earlier identification of individuals at risk for developing renal disease and cardiovascular disease, even those who are nondiabetic and nonhypertensive.

  12. Obesity, physical inactivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness of high school students in Urban Ludhiana, North West India: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy A David

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF among the early adolescent would provide a measure of future burden of cardiovascular disease in Ludhiana, North West India. Aims: The aim was to estimate the level of CRF with the help of multi-stage-fitness (Bleep test in high school students. Settings and Design: Cross sectional study in urban Ludhiana. Subjects and Methods: Totally, 200 school children were selected by simple random sampling from four schools. After the consent, a pretested questionnaire was administered, and the Bleep test performed. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequencies and proportions were calculated, Chi-square and t-test were the tests of significance. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 2.5%, overweight, severe thinness, and thin was15.5%, 1.5%, and 5%, respectively. There were more extreme weights among boys compared to girls (Chi-square = 7.59 and P = 0.022. The mean hours of weekly vigorous sports activity was 2.14 ± 0.63. The mean maximum aerobic capacity was 26.80 ± 4.37. CRF scores of very poor in 72.0% with only 7.05% scoring as Fair. More boys (93.8% had very poor CRF scores compared to girls (43.7%. Score of Fair CRF in 16.0% girls and 0.9% boy. Conclusions: The high school children in urban Ludhiana, Northwest India exhibit high levels of physical inactivity, worsening obesity, and low levels of CRF, boys are more affected compared to girls. The bleep test is a low-cost and feasible quantitative tool to measure cardio respiratory fitness in limited resource setting.

  13. Abdominal Adiposity Correlates with Adenotonsillectomy Outcome in Obese Adolescents with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obese adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA have a unique pathophysiology that combines adenotonsillar hypertrophy and increased visceral fat distribution. We hypothesized that in this population waist circumference (WC, as a clinical marker of abdominal fat distribution, correlates with the likelihood of response to AT. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of obese adolescents ( percentile that underwent AT for therapy of severe OSA (. We contrasted WC and covariates in a group of subjects that had complete resolution of severe OSA after AT ( with those obtained in subjects with residual OSA after AT (. Multivariate linear and logistic models were built to control possible confounders. Results. WC correlated negatively with a positive AT response in young adolescents and the percentage of improvement in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI after AT (. Extended multivariate analysis demonstrated that the link between WC and AT response was independent of demographic variables, OSA severity, clinical upper airway assessment, obesity severity (BMI, and neck circumference (NC. Conclusion. The results suggest that in obese adolescents, abdominal fat distribution determined by WC may be a useful clinical predictor for residual OSA after AT.

  14. Impact of obesity on outcomes after open surgical and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Owen N; Sidawy, Anton N; Scanlon, James M; Walcott, Roger; Arora, Subodh; Macsata, Robyn A; Amdur, Richard L; Henderson, William G

    2010-02-01

    This study examined impact of obesity on outcomes after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Data were obtained from the Veterans Affairs National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized according to National Institutes of Health guidelines. Multivariate regression adjusted for 40 other risk factors to analyze trends in complications and death within 30 days. We identified 2,201 patients undergoing 1,185 open and 1,016 endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms from January 2004 through December 2005. BMI distribution was identical in both groups and reflected national population statistics: approximately 30% were normal (BMI 18.5 to 24.9), 40% were overweight (25.0 to 29.9), and 30% were obese class I (30.0 to 34.9), II (35.0 to 39.9), or III (>/=40.0). After open repair, obesity of any class was independently predictive of wound complications (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 5.3; p = 0.002). Class III obesity was also an independent predictor or renal complications (adjusted odds rato = 6.3; 95% CI, 2.2 to 18.0; p aggresive wound infection prevention measures.

  15. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Insulin resistance induced by hydrocortisone is increased in patients with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Patrice; Dadoun, Frédéric; Boullu-Ciocca, Sandrine; Grino, Michel; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Dutour, Anne

    2006-11-01

    Glucocorticoids hypersensitivity may be involved in the development of abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Eight normal weight and eight obese women received on two occasions a 3-h intravenous infusion of saline or hydrocortisone (HC) (1.5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Plasma cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels were measured every 30 min from time(-30) (min) (time(-30)) to time(240). Free fatty acids, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were measured at time(-30), time(180), and time(240). At time(240), subjects underwent an insulin tolerance test to obtain an index of insulin sensitivity (K(ITT)). Mean(30-240) cortisol level was similar in control and obese women after saline (74 +/- 16 vs. 75 +/- 20 microg/l) and HC (235 +/- 17 vs. 245 +/- 47 microg/l). The effect of HC on mean(180-240) insulin, mean(180-240) insulin resistance obtained by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), and K(ITT) was significant in obese (11.4 +/- 2.0 vs. 8.2 +/- 1.3 mU/l, P obese women (+25%) than in controls (+12%) (P obese women than in controls. These deleterious effects are correlated with the amount of visceral fat.

  17. Gender differences in health-related quality of life associated with abdominal obesity in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jina; Jeon, Seonhui; Lee, Juneyoung

    2014-01-24

    Overall obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a low level of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but little is known about abdominal obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC), would be significantly associated with HRQOL independent of overall obesity, and if so, whether the association would differ by gender among the Korean population. Cross-sectional study. South Korea. Using data from the 2007-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 13 754 men and women aged 19-65 years were selected, and information about height (cm), weight (kg), WC (cm) and the EuroQOL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores for HRQOL were taken. Not only an overall obesity (as categorised into obese, overweight or non-overweight groups based on BMI) but also an abdominal obesity (defined by WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women) was significantly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic variables and a number of comorbidities. Even after adjusting BMI effect, the association between abdominal obesity and lower EQ-5D scores remained significant for women, but not for men. Among the Korean population aged 19-65 years, abdominal obesity was associated with impaired HRQOL, independently of overall obesity. Furthermore, this association differed by gender, being significant only for women. Therefore, primary healthcare professionals should pay attention to gender differences in the impact of obesity on HRQOL when evaluating population-based health programmes.

  18. General and abdominal obesity and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, Annika; Huerta, José-Maria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, J Ramón; Ohlsson, Bodil; Johansson, Mattias; Wallner, Bengt; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Key, Tim J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    General obesity, as reflected by BMI, is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a suspected risk factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCC) and appears unrelated to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCC). How abdominal obesity, as commonly measured by waist

  19. Increased neck soft tissue mass and worsening of obstructive sleep apnea after growth hormone treatment in men with abdominal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Koranyi, Josef; Franco, Celina

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion....

  20. Correlation of abdominal obesity indices with blood pressure in young adults: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Jena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The youth of this era are the sufferings of overweight and obesity because of sedentary lifestyle, eating habits, altered pattern of behaviour and mental stress. Abdominal obesity is a predominant risk factor of cardiovascular disease. With this background, this study was proposed to correlate abdominal obesity with blood pressure (BP in young adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 205 young male adults of 20–25 years were selected from various local educational institutions. Estimation for waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC and BP recording was done. Waist–hip ratio (WHR was calculated from WC and HC. Recording of BP was performed between 8 and 9 am after 5–10 min rest. On the basis of WC, participants were classified into two groups, i.e., WC ≤90 cm and WC >90 cm. On the basis of WHR, participants were classified into two groups, i.e., WHR <0.90 and WHR ≥0.90. Results: In the present study, we found that the participants those WC and WHR above the cut-off value shown significantly more BP (both systolic and diastolic than normal. Likely, the pulse pressure was higher in participants WC and WHR above cut-off value but not significant. We found a positive correlation between WC and WHR with BP. Conclusion: This study suggested that WC and WHR have a positive correlation with BP and hence concluded that adults with abdominal obesity are at higher risk to develop CVD in their future life.

  1. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype-dietary fat interaction was also examined. The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene-dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype-dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Association of general and abdominal obesity with age, endocrine and metabolic factors in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor Hng Hang; Hart, William George

    2016-01-01

    This study made use of the percent abdominal fat to define abdominal obesity (AbO) and examined the differential associations of general obesity (GOb) and AbO with age, metabolic and endocrine factors. Metabolic, endocrine and anthropometric factors and body composition were measured in 481 Asian men. A DEXA-derived ≥25% abdominal fat (PAbdF) was used to define men with AbO. Age was directly associated with PAbdF and percent total body fat (PBF). Exercise intensity was negatively associated with PBF. Both PBF and PAbdF were associated with HDL and LDL, but have opposite correlation with triglyceride. Furthermore, both PBF and PAbdF were associated with the number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. Men with GOb had lower levels of percent lean mass (PLM), testosterone and bioavailable testosterone, and higher insulin and glucose levels. Men with AbO had lower arm and leg fat, higher insulin levels and triglycerides. Men with GOb and AbO had different pattern of body composition. Age may be a contributory factor in AbO and a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to GOb. Both GOb and AbO are associated with an increased risk of MetS, with GOb more predispose to risk of diabetes, while AbO more at risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Longitudinal relationship of depressive and anxiety symptoms with dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reedt Dortland, Arianne K B; Giltay, Erik J; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety participants, we studied whether severity of depressive (Inventory of Depressive Symptoms) or anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory) symptoms at baseline was associated with changes in lipids (i.e., total, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) or waist circumference during a 2-year follow-up period. We also examined whether changes in severity of symptoms were associated with changes in lipid or waist circumference levels over these 2 years. Multivariate linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, and tobacco consumption. Baseline symptoms of depression or anxiety predicted a decrease in HDL cholesterol (adjusted β = -.062 [p = .003] and β = -.050 [p = .02], respectively) and an increase in waist circumference (adjusted β = .060 [p = .01] and β = .053 [p = .02], respectively) for 2 years. Reduction of symptoms of depression or anxiety over time did not coincide with an amelioration of lipid or waist circumference values. People with initially severe symptoms of depression or anxiety showed a subsequent decrease in HDL cholesterol levels and an increase in abdominal obesity over time, independent of a potential reduction in symptom severity in this period. Therefore, such people are at elongated and increasing risk for dyslipidemia and obesity, predisposing them to cardiovascular disease.

  4. Vegetarian diet reduces the risk of hypertension independent of abdominal obesity and inflammation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Hsiung, Chao A; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-11-01

    A vegetarian diet may prevent elevation of blood pressures and lower the risk for hypertension through lower degrees of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. This study investigated the association between a vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence in a cohort of Taiwanese adult nonsmokers and examined whether this association was mediated through inflammation, abdominal obesity, or insulin resistance (using fasting glucose as a proxy). This matched cohort study was from the 1994-2008 MJ Health Screening Database. Each vegetarian was matched with five nonvegetarians by age, sex, and study site. The analysis included 4109 nonsmokers (3423 nonvegetarians and 686 vegetarians), followed for a median of 1.61 years. The outcome includes hypertension incidence, as well as SBP and DBP levels. Regression analysis was performed to assess the association between vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence or future blood pressure levels in the presence/absence of potential mediators. Vegetarians had a 34% lower risk for hypertension, adjusting for age and sex (odds ratio: 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.87; SBP: -3.3 mmHg, P vegetarian diet and hypertension appeared to be consistent across age groups. Taiwanese vegetarians had lower incidence of hypertension than nonvegetarians. Vegetarian diets may protect against hypertension beyond lower abdominal obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  5. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  6. Severe Periodontitis Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Non-abdominal Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Moon; Ji, Suk; Jun, Sang Ho; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-11-01

    We hypothesized that insulin resistance, even with normal body weight (body mass index or waist circumference), can aggravate periodontitis severity. We investigated the associations between diabetes, insulin resistance, and severe periodontitis. Among 29 235 total participants, 5690 subjects aged ≥ 30 y who had periodontal disease with community periodontal index (CPI) of 3 or 4 were selected for this study. Data were derived from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have severe periodontitis (CPI 4) compared with patients with normal glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (P periodontitis had significantly higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, serum triglycerides, and insulin resistance (P values of .012, periodontitis were significantly increased from normal glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose (OR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.64) to type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.11-2.02), after adjusting for potential confounders (P for trend = .003). The prevalence of severe periodontitis increased significantly with increasing insulin resistance (P for trend = .04) in nondiabetic individuals. Furthermore, insulin-resistant individuals with normal waist circumference showed significantly higher odds of severe periodontitis (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16-1.87) than did insulin-sensitive individuals with normal waist circumference. Non-abdominally obese subjects with insulin resistance were more likely to have severe periodontitis. Insulin resistance can be considered an independent risk factor of periodontal disease in normal weight population defined by abdominal obesity.

  7. Leptin, abdominal obesity and onset of depression in older men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Tolea, Magdalena I; Ferrucci, Luigi; Penninx, Brenda W

    2012-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms that underlie the association between abdominal obesity and depression risk in older persons are not well known, but the “leptin hypothesis” of depression suggests that leptin resistance may be involved in mood regulation. We tested whether high circulatory concentration of leptin, alone and in combination with visceral adiposity, is associated with onset of depression in a sample of older persons. Method Participants were 1220 men and 1282 women aged 70–79 years, enrolled in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Plasma concentration of leptin and abdominal visceral fat ascertained by computed tomography were assessed at baseline (April 1997 – June 1998). Onset of depression was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale 10-item score ≥ 10 and/or new antidepressant medication use at any annual visit over a 5-year follow-up. Results Higher leptin was associated with the risk of depression onset in men with high visceral fat (HR=1.25,95%CI=1.06–1.46, p=0.01) but not in those with normal visceral fat (HR=0.98,95%CI=0.80–1.19, p=0.80) (leptin*visceral fat p=0.04). No interaction between leptin and visceral fat was detected in the analysis focusing on women (p=0.90). Conclusion In older men, high leptin was associated with an increased onset of depressive symptoms especially in the presence of abdominal obesity, suggesting that underlying leptin resistance may play a role in this link. Differences in visceral fat levels and metabolic consequences may explain the absence of this association in women. These findings suggest a potential biological link between depression, obesity and their joint association with negative health outcomes. PMID:22687702

  8. Leptin, abdominal obesity, and onset of depression in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Tolea, Magdalena I; Ferrucci, Luigi; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2012-09-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the association between abdominal obesity and depression risk in older persons are not well known, but the "leptin hypothesis" of depression suggests that leptin resistance may be involved in mood regulation. We tested whether high circulatory concentration of leptin, alone and in combination with visceral adiposity, is associated with onset of depression in a sample of older persons. Participants were 1,220 men and 1,282 women aged 70-79 years and enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Serum concentration of leptin and abdominal visceral fat, ascertained by computed tomography, were assessed at baseline (April 1997-June 1998). Onset of depression, the primary outcome measure, was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies-depression scale 10-item score ≥ 10 and/or new antidepressant medication use at any annual visit over a 5-year follow-up. Higher leptin level was associated with the risk of depression onset in men with high levels of visceral fat (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.46; P = .01) but not in those with normal visceral fat (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.80-1.19; P = .80) (leptin-by-visceral fat, P = .04). No interaction between leptin and visceral fat was detected in the analysis focusing on women (P = .90). In older men, high leptin level was associated with an increased onset of depressive symptoms, especially in the presence of abdominal obesity, suggesting that underlying leptin resistance may play a role in this link. Differences in visceral fat levels and metabolic consequences may explain the absence of this association in women. These findings suggest a potential biological link between depression, obesity, and their joint association with negative health outcomes. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Treatment of abdominally obese men with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, T; Ahlberg, A C; Holm, G; Friberg, P; Andersson, B; Eriksson, E; Björntorp, P

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system perturbations found in abdominal obesity. Treatment for 6 months with citalopram and for 6 months with placebo using a double-blind, cross-over design, with a 2-month wash-out period between treatment periods. Sixteen healthy men, 45-60 years, moderately obese and with an abdominal fat distribution. Anthropometry, three different depression rating scales, serum lipids, testosterone, IGF-I, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pituitary stimulation with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), arithmetic stress test, and excretion of cortisol and metoxycatecholamines in urine, collected during 24 h. Cortisol concentrations in the morning were low before treatment, indicating a perturbed function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. After treatment with citalopram morning cortisol concentrations rose to normal. Cortisol concentrations after stimulation with CRH or stress were elevated by citalopram treatment, but urinary cortisol excretion was unchanged. The glucose concentrations after OGTT (120 min) tended to be reduced, with unchanged insulin concentrations, whilst other metabolic values did not change during treatment. Heart rate after administration of CRH, and during laboratory stress test, decreased by treatment with citalopram. Diurnal urinary excretion of metoxycatecholamines tended to decrease. Neither body mass index nor waist/hip circumference ratio decreased. Depression scores were within normal limits before treatment and did not change. The results of this pilot study indicate improvements in the regulation of neuroendocrine-autonomic systems as well as metabolism in abdominal obesity during treatment with an SSRI.

  10. Physical activity in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood: a case-control study among women shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity may have a protective effect against abdominal obesity, an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the practice of physical activities in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood among women shift workers in Southern Brazil in 2011. This case-control study included 215 cases (waist circumference greater than or equal to 88 cm) and 326 controls. For both the case and control groups, participation in leisure-time physical activities was most frequent in adolescence and was significantly less in adulthood. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, women who participated in five or more physical activities in adolescence were 50 percent less likely to have abdominal obesity than women who participated in one activity or no physical activities (Odds Ratio = 0.50; 95% confidential interval: 0.27-0.93, p value = .029). Participation in various types of leisure-time physical activities in adolescence may protect against abdominal obesity in adulthood, even if the number of physical activities decreases over time. This finding demonstrated the importance of physical activity as well as the period of life in which these should be encouraged for the prevention of health disorders, such as abdominal obesity.

  11. The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey: prevalence of obesity, and abdominal obesity among the Malaysian elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzana, S; Kee, C C; Jamaludin, A R; Noor Safiza, M N; Khor, G L; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ahmad Ali, Z; Rahmah, R; Ruzita, A T; Ahmad Fauzi, Y

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is an emerging public health threat in the elderly population in developing countries. Hence, the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey has assessed 4746 individuals aged 60 years and older recruited through a household survey to determine the prevalence of adiposity using body mass index and waist circumference. The national's prevalence of overweight and obesity in men was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.2-31.3) and 7.4% (95% CI = 6.4-8.6), respectively. However, the prevalence decreased with age. The figures in women were 30.3% (95% CI = 28.5-32.1) and 13.8% (95% CI = 12.5-15.2), respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 21.4% (95%CI = 20.2-22.6), with 7.7% (95% CI = 6.7-9.0) in men and 33.4% (95% CI = 31.4-35.3) in women. Predictors of adiposity include the following: Malay and Indian ethnicity, higher education level, higher household income, from urban area, and being married. In conclusion, adiposity affects about one third of the Malaysian elderly population, especially those of the younger age group, women, and those with higher socioeconomic status.

  12. PERIOD2 Variants Are Associated with Abdominal Obesity, Psycho-Behavioral Factors, and Attrition in the Dietary Treatment of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARAULET, MARTA; CORBALÁN-TUTAU, M. DOLORES; MADRID, JUAN A.; BARAZA, JUAN C.; PARNELL, LAURENCE D.; LEE, YU-CHI; ORDOVAS, JOSE M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test for association between polymorphisms in the circadian clock–related gene PERIOD2 (PER2) and attrition in patients prone to withdrawal from a behavioral weight-reduction program based on the Mediterranean diet. A total of 454 overweight/obese participants (women=380, men=74), aged 20 to 65 years, who attended outpatient clinics specializing in obesity between January and December 2008, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary-intake variables were analyzed. Effectiveness of the program was assessed, and a questionnaire of barriers to weight loss was considered. Multivariate analysis and logistic regression models were performed. Results indicate that PER2 polymorphisms rs2304672C>G and rs4663302C>T were associated with abdominal obesity (Pdieting than those who completed treatment. Frequency of rs4663307 minor allele was significantly greater in withdrawers than in those who successfully completed treatment (PG minor allele carriers had a greater probability of dropping out, displaying extreme snacking, experiencing stress with dieting, eating when bored, and skipping breakfast than noncarriers. PER2 is implicated in attrition in weight-loss treatment and may modulate eating-behavior–related phenotypes. These findings could represent a step toward personalized health care and nutrition based on a combination of genotyping and psycho-behavioral characterization. PMID:20497782

  13. Recurrent abdominal pain in school children: effect of obesity and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaty, Hoda M; Abudayyeh, Suhaib; Fraley, Ken; Graham, David Y; Gilger, Mark A; Hollier, David R

    2007-04-01

    To study the epidemiology and some of the risk factors of childhood recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in school age children. We used a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic parameters, intensity, frequency, duration, nature of RAP and anthropometric measures. We used several criteria to identify RAP and the Wong-Baker FACES scale for pain intensity and calculated the gender/age-specific body mass index (BMI) Z-score using NCHS standards. Obesity was defined as a BMI>or=95th percentile for age and gender. A total of 925 children mean age of 9.5 years completed and returned the questionnaires. The prevalence of RAP was 24%; 22% among boys versus 26% among girls (p=0.28) and reached its peak among children aged 7-9 (29%) years. Children with BMI>or=95% percentile reported more RAP compared to those not obese (33.3% vs. 22.5%) (OR=1.8, p=0.01). There was an inverse correlation between fruit consumption and RAP prevalence with 20% among children reporting more than three serving of fruit per week compared to 40% of those who did not consume any fruits (por=95th percentile and low consumption of fruits are significant risk factors for RAP. There is a significant association between RAP and obesity and both conditions are prevalent among children in this population. Understanding more about the co-morbidity between RAP and obesity could have important implications on RAP management and treatment.

  14. Higher Risk of Abdominal Obesity, Elevated LDL Cholesterol and Hypertriglyceridemia, but not of Hypertension, in People Living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelpi, Marco; Afzal, Shoaib; Lundgren, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) have lower life expectancy than uninfected individuals, partly explained by excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD risk factors. We investigated the association between HIV infection and abdominal obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL...... and underwent blood pressure, waist-, hip-, weight-, and height-measurements. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants. We assessed whether HIV was independently associated with abdominal obesity, elevated LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension using logistic regression models...... adjusted for known risk factors. Results: HIV infection was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.92[1.60-2.30]) for a given BMI, elevated LDL-C (aOR: 1.32[1.09-1.59]), hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 1.76[1.49-2.08]), and lower risk of hypertension (aOR: 0.63[0.54 - 0...

  15. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

  16. Some aspects concerning abdominal obesity diagnosis in city population of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Misiura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Optimized preventive approaches concerning the development of comorbidity in the patients with overweight of various degree is a topical issue of medical science. Efficiency of such approaches depends on a whole range of pathogenic factors related to metabolic complications caused by obesity — the basis for comorbidity development, and determination of those markers which are the most information valuable as for their development. The changes observed in adipokine-cytokine system (marked with blood fractalkine, clusterin, vaspin, omentin contents present some of these factors and associated with them alterations of free fatty acid metabolism as well. Nevertheless, the above mentioned markers are not determined in the most medical centers. Therefore, it is reasonable to determine the information value of the common risk criteria for the development of metabolic complications related to the above mentioned processes. However, no research concerning information value of these both criteria to assess the changes in adipokine-cytokine system and associated with them disorders of metabolism of free fatty acids in representatives of Ukrainian population has not been done yet. Objective. To assess information value of such criteria of abdominal obesity as waist circumference and waist circumference/hip circumference regarding the development of local inflammation of adipose tissue, systemic low intensity inflammation in the body, changes in secretory function of adipose tissue and metabolic features in city residents representing Ukrainian population. Material and methods. 250 indivi­duals aged 65.48 ± 11.86 years were examined, the contents of circulating fractalkine, clusterin, vaspin, omentin and leptin were determined by enzyme immunoassay; content of free fatty acids was determined by Duncombe’s method. The nature of correlations of the above mentioned parameters with waist circumference and hip circumference, waist

  17. Associations between childhood overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesogenic behaviors and practices in Australian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Drayton, Bradley A; Bauman, Adrian E; Hardy, Louise L

    2017-07-21

    Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5-16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height). Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors) were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI) = 1.39 (1.07-1.81) p = 0.015, OR (95% CI) =1.42 (1.16-1.74) p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI) = 1.54 (1.13-2.09) p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI) = 1.29 (1.07-1.55) p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI) = 2.18 (1.05-4.52) p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children and adolescents, specifically those from social

  18. Associations between childhood overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesogenic behaviors and practices in Australian homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mihrshahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. Methods This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5–16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height. Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Results Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI = 1.39 (1.07–1.81 p = 0.015, OR (95% CI =1.42 (1.16–1.74 p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI = 1.54 (1.13–2.09 p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI = 1.29 (1.07–1.55 p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI = 2.18 (1.05–4.52 p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children

  19. Abdominal Obesity Is Associated With an Increased Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Patients With HFpEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi

    2017-12-05

    There is a lack of studies that evaluate the association between abdominal obesity and subsequent outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The present study aimed to assess the association between abdominal obesity and risk of all-cause mortality in patients with HFpEF. The present study used data from the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. We analyzed and compared the hazard ratios (HRs) in patients with abdominal obesity and those without abdominal obesity using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference of ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women. The present study included 3,310 patients with HFpEF: 2,413 patients with abdominal obesity and 897 without abdominal obesity. The mean follow-up was 3.4 ± 1.7 years. During follow-up, 500 patients died. All-cause mortality rates in patients with and without abdominal obesity were 46.1 and 40.7 events per 1,000 person-years, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients with abdominal obesity than in those without abdominal obesity (adjusted HR: 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.99; p = 0.002). The risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality was also significantly higher in patients with abdominal obesity than in those without abdominal obesity (adjusted HR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.08; p = 0.01 and adjusted HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.51; p = 0.04, respectively). The risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients with HFpEF with abdominal obesity than in those without abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sedentarismo e variáveis clínico-metabólicas associadas à obesidade em adolescentes Inactivity and clinical and metabolic variables associated with adolescent obesity

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    Priscila Trapp Abbes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação da obesidade com variáveis metabólicas, variáveis clínicas e sedentarismo, em adolescentes pós-púberes de escolas públicas de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle com 128 adolescentes obesos (índice de massa corporal > percentil 95 e 151 adolescentes eutróficos (índice de massa corporal entre percentis 5 e 85. Foram realizados exame físico, avaliação bioquímica e de composição corporal. Foi aplicado questionário previamente testado, que gerou um escore de sedentarismo. Na análise estatística, foi realizada a análise de variância com testes de comparações múltiplas de Bonferroni e qui-quadrado (Pearson. O modelo logístico múltiplo foi utilizado para verificar as associações entre variáveis clínicas, variáveis metabólicas, escore de sedentarismo e estado nutricional. RESULTADOS Por meio da análise de variância, foi identificado um gradiente nos valores médios das variáveis metabólicas e clínicas com piora dessas variáveis em paralelo ao aumento do grau de sedentarismo, o que foi confirmado pelo teste qui-quadrado. Na análise bivariada de riscos para obesidade, os adolescentes obesos apresentaram maiores frequências de sedentarismo, de alterações nos níveis de lipoproteína de alta densidade e triglicérides, de hiperinsulinemia e homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistence alterado, e de pressão arterial alterada (pOBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of obesity with metabolic and clinical variables and inactivity in post-pubertal adolescents attending public schools in São Paulo City. METHODS: This was a case-control study with 128 obese adolescents (body mass indices >the 95th percentile, and 151 normal weight adolescents (body mass indices between the 5th and 85th percentiles. Physical examination and biochemical and body composition assessments were done. A pretested questionnaire was administered, generating an inactivity score. Analysis

  1. Obesidad mórbida: caso excepcional de reconstrucción de pared abdominal Morbid obesity: an exceptional patient. Apronectomy and new abdominal wall reconstruction

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    F.J. Gabilondo Zubizarreta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una nueva técnica para la reconstrucción de la pared abdominal, con material sintético en una paciente que padeciendo un cuadro de obesidad mórbida sin cirugía ni traumatismo previo, sufre una diástasis de músculos rectos de su pared abdominal por la que se produce una evisceración intestinal que al alojarse en el faldón abdominal y añadirse un proceso de acumulación de líquidos en el intersticio semejante al linfedema, supuso como tratamiento una resección superior a los 60 Kg. entre sólidos y líquidos y una estrategia y técnica nuevas de reconstrucción del defecto de la pared abdominal.The aim of this work is to show a new technique for reconstruction of the abdominal wall with synthetic matherial in a patient with morbid obesity. The disease has no relation with antecedents of previous surgery or trauma and is asociated with a dyasthasis of the rectus abdomini muscles which has conditionated a intestinal evisceration.This evisceration is accommodated in the abdominal apron and is associated with a great accumulation of fluid (liquid in the interstitium, which seems a linphedema. Taking account the combination of liquid and soft tissues the resection is larger than 60 Kg. and this has forced us to develop new strategies for the menagement of the patient and techniques for the reconstruction of the abdominal wall defect.

  2. Investigation of Abdominal and General Obesity and Its Related Factors in students of Qom City, 2015, Iran

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    Parisa Sarraf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Abdominal and general obesities are greatly affected by diet and physical activities. Prevalence of this complication in communities has an increasing trend, so that even adolescents are no exception in this regard. The current study aimed to investigate abdominal and general obesity and its related factors in’ students of Qom city. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 301 (17 girls and 114 boys students in medical and Azad universities in Qom city. These individuals were selected by proportional to size sampling method and studied by anthropometric measures, international short physical activity questionnaire, and 11-item nutritional habits questionnaire. Data were analyzed by independent t-, chi-square, and correlation coefficient tests. The significance level was considered to be α=0.05. Results: The mean BMI and WHR in students was 22.6±3.2kg/m2 and 0.8±0.0, respectively. A significant direct correlation was observed between anthropometric measures and abdominal obesity. Only 23.3% of the students had regular sport activity, so that the mean light physical activity in obese students was lower than normal students (38.9±43.1 vs. 60.8±67.5min. No heavy physical activity was seen in this group, and fast-food consumption was higher in this group of students compared to the normal students (93.2% vs. 67.8%. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, there is a significant relationship between nutritional status and level of physical activity and abdominal and general obesity. Therefore, overweight, abdominal, and general obesity were lower in male students, and subjects involved in regular physical activity and lower fast-food consumption.

  3. Relationship between abdominal obesity and alcohol drinking pattern in normal-weight, middle-aged adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kye-Yeung; Park, Hoon-Ki; Hwang, Hwan-Sik

    2017-08-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with obesity-related health risks regardless of body weight. The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol drinking pattern is associated with abdominal obesity in normal-weight, middle-aged adults. Cross-sectional study using complex sampling design analyses. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted from 2008 to 2013. Normal-weight participants aged 40-69 years with BMI of 18·5-25·0 kg/m2 (n 11 289, 4491 men and 6798 women) were included. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 cm for men or ≥85 cm for women. Alcohol drinking pattern was assessed by self-report on questionnaires. Among 11 289 normal-weight participants, 7·9 % (n 379) of men and 7·6 % (n 609) of women had abdominal obesity. Both men and women who consumed a higher quantity of alcohol per drinking occasion had higher odds (OR; 95 % CI) for abdominal obesity compared with individuals who consumed fewer than 2 drinks (1·86; 1·04, 3·32 for ≥10 drinks/typical occasion in men; and 3·28; 1·13, 9·46 in women). Men who binge drink every day had higher odds for abdominal obesity (2·10; 1·21, 3·63). In both sexes, frequency of alcohol drinking was not associated with normal-weight abdominal obesity. Our study showed that the amount of alcohol drinking per occasion influenced abdominal obesity in normal-weight, middle-aged individuals that may have impacted obesity-related health risks. Healthy alcohol drinking habits need to be controlled for prevention of abdominal obesity even among persons with normal weight.

  4. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and

  5. The Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat and Not the Intraabdominal Fat Compartment Is Associated with Anovulation in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; Zijlstra, T.M.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    Context: Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. Objective: We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Design: Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1

  6. Distribuição de obesidade geral e abdominal em adultos de uma cidade no Sul do Brasil Distribution of general and abdominal obesity in adults in a city in southern Brazil

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    Rogério da Silva Linhares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi determinar a prevalência e a evolução da obesidade geral e abdominal em adultos com 20 anos ou mais em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado em 2010. A obesidade geral foi definida pelo índice de massa corporal (IMC > 30kg/m² e a obesidade abdominal definida como > 88cm para mulheres e > 102cm para homens. Foram entrevistados 2.448 indivíduos. A prevalência de obesidade foi de 21,7% nos homens e 29,2% nas mulheres, já a obesidade abdominal foi de 19,5% e 37,5%, respectivamente. Na análise multivariada, menor escolaridade esteve associada ao aumento da obesidade geral e abdominal em mulheres. Renda familiar apresentou relação inversa com obesidade abdominal em homens. Comparativamente, mostraram aumento das prevalências de obesidade de 1,2 vez para as mulheres e 1,5 vez para os homens, com estudos em 1994 e 2000. Porém, para obesidade abdominal houve pequena redução entre as mulheres e se manteve semelhante para os homens. A prevalência de obesidade geral aumentou nos últimos 10 anos, enquanto que a obesidade abdominal mostrou estabilidade.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends in general and abdominal obesity in adults 20 years or older in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, using a cross-sectional population-based design, in 2010. General obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI > 30kg/m² and abdominal obesity as waist circumference (WC > 88cm for women and > 102cm for men. Interviews were held with 2,448 eligible individuals. General obesity prevalence was 21.7% in men and 29.2% in women, while abdominal obesity was present in 19.5% of men and 37.5% of women. According to multivariate analysis, lower schooling was associated with increased BMI and WC in women. Family income was inversely related to abdominal obesity in men. Prevalence of general obesity had increased 1.2 times in women and 1.5 in men, when compared to

  7. Cardiovascular risk assessment according to the Framingham score and abdominal obesity in individuals seen by a clinical school of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes de; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa; Santos, Arianne Albuquerque

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the relation of abdominal obesity on cardiovascular risk in individuals seen by a clinic school of nutrition, classifying them based on Framingham score. Cross-sectional study, conducted at the nutrition clinic of a private college in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. We included randomly selected adults and elderly individuals with abdominal obesity, of both sexes, treated from August to December of 2009, with no history of cardiomyopathy or cardiovascular events. To determine the cardiovascular risk, the Framingham score was calculated. All analyzes were performed with SPSS software version 20.0, with p cardiovascular risk in the subjects studied (r=0.065, p=0.048), and there was no relationship between these parameters. Abdominal fat distribution was weakly related to cardiovascular risk in patients seen by a clinical school of nutrition.

  8. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions.

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    Bhanu Prakash Kn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort. Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. RESULTS: Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01 were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, -17.33±3.07%, -15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, -3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background-image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables

  9. Association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure: difference between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alison O; Silva, Micaelly V; Pereira, Lisley K N; Feitosa, Wallacy M N; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Diniz, Paula R B; Oliveira, Luciano M F T

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure in adolescents of both genders from the public school system. This was an epidemiological, descriptive, exploratory study, with a quantitative approach and local scope whose sample consisted of 481 high school students (aged 14-19), selected by using a random cluster sampling strategy. Blood pressure was measured through the use of automated monitor and was considered high when the pressure values were at or above the 95th percentile. The analyses were performed using the chi-squared test and binary logistic regression. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 6.4%, and it was higher among boys (9.0% vs. 4.7%, phigh blood pressure was associated with general (OR=6.4; phigh blood pressure only in boys, regardless of age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral anabolic steroid treatment, but not parenteral androgen treatment, decreases abdominal fat in obese, older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, J C; Bray, G A; Greeson, C S; Klemperer, M; Morris, J; Partington, C; Tulley, R

    1995-09-01

    To compare the effects of testosterone enanthate (TE), anabolic steroid (AS) or placebo (PL) on regional fat distribution and health risk factors in obese middle-aged men undergoing weight loss by dietary means. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, carried out for 9 months with primary assessments at 3 month intervals. Due to adverse blood lipid changes, the AS group was switched from oral oxandrolone (ASOX) to parenteral nandrolone decaoate (ASND) after the 3 month assessment point. Thirty healthy, obese men, aged 40-60 years, with serum testosterone (T) levels in the low-normal range (2-5 ng/mL). Abdominal fat distribution and thigh muscle volume by CT scan, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), insulin sensitivity by the Minimal Model method, blood lipids, blood chemistry, blood pressure, thyroid hormones and urological parameters. After 3 months, there was a significantly greater decrease in subcutaneous (SQ) abdominal fat in the ASOX group compared to the TE and PL groups although body weight changes did not differ by treatment group. There was also a tendency for the ASOX group to exhibit greater losses in visceral fat, and the absolute level of visceral fat in this group was significantly lower at 3 months than in the TE and PL groups. There were significant main effects of treatment at 3 months on serum T and free T (increased in the TE group and decreased in the ASOX group) and on thyroid hormone parameters (T4 and T3 resin uptake significantly decreased in the ASOX group compared with the other two groups). There was a significant decrease in HDL-C, and increase in LDL-C in the ASOX group, which led to their being switched to the parenteral nandrolone decanoate (ASND) after 3 months. ASND had opposite effects on visceral fat from ASOX, producing a significant increase from 3 to 9 months while continuing to decrease SQ abdominal fat. ASND treatment also decreased thigh muscle area, while ASOX treatment

  11. Waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and depression among overweight and obese U.S. adults: national health and nutrition examination survey 2005-2006

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    Balluz Lina S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with an increased risk of mental illness; however, evidence linking body mass index (BMI-a measure of overall obesity, to mental illness is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with waist circumference or abdominal obesity among overweight and obese U.S. adults. Methods A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used. We analyzed the data from 2,439 U.S. adults (1,325 men and 1,114 nonpregnant women aged ≥ 20 years who were either overweight or obese with BMI of ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference of > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women. Depressive symptoms (defined as having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 diagnostic algorithm. The prevalence and the odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for having major depressive symptoms and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, waist circumference was significantly associated with both major depressive symptoms (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04, and adults with abdominal obesity were significantly more likely to have major depressive symptoms (OR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.35-3.59 or have moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.34-4.90 than those without. These relationships persisted after further adjusting for coexistence of multiple chronic conditions and persisted in participants who were overweight (BMI: 25.0-2 when stratified analyses were conducted by BMI status. Conclusion Among overweight and obese U.S. adults, waist circumference or abdominal obesity was significantly associated

  12. Efficacy of octreotide-LAR in dieting women with abdominal obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambineri, Alessandra; Patton, Laura; De Iasio, Rosaria; Cantelli, Barbara; Cognini, Graciela Estela; Filicori, Marco; Barreca, Antonina; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Pagotto, Uberto; Pasquali, Renato

    2005-07-01

    Somatostatin reduces LH, GH, and insulin, and somatostatin receptors are present at the ovarian level; somatostatin analogs are thus potential candidates for treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of octreotide-LAR, a long-acting somatostatin analog, in anovulatory abdominal obese women with PCOS. A single-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed, lasting for 7 months. The patients were ambulatory throughout the study. Twenty PCOS subjects were enrolled. Eighteen completed the study. A low-calorie diet was given during the first month, a low-calorie diet plus octreotide-LAR (10 mg; n = 10 subjects) or placebo (n = 10 subjects) was then given, with one im injection every 28 d (for 6 months). The main outcome measures were clinical features, computerized tomography measurement of fat distribution, androgens, GH, IGF-I, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin, and ovulation. Octreotide had no additional effect in reducing body fat or improving fat distribution than placebo. Conversely, octreotide produced an additional decrease in fasting (P = 0.018) and glucose-stimulated (P = 0.038) insulin levels, an increase in IGFBP-2 (P = 0.042) and IGFBP-3 (P = 0.047), and an improvement in hirsutism (P = 0.004). Moreover, a trend toward greater reductions in testosterone (P = 0.061) and androstenedione (P = 0.069) was observed in women treated with octreotide-LAR compared with those given placebo. All women treated with octreotide ovulated at the end of the study compared with only one of those receiving placebo (P < 0.001). Octreotide-LAR may be usefully applied to hypocalorically dieting, abdominal obese PCOS women to improve hyperandrogenism and the insulin-IGF-I system. Restoration of ovulatory menstrual cycles appears to be another advantage of this treatment.

  13. Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in insulin resistance of abdominal obesity: cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M J; Ping-Delfos, W Chan She; Sherriff, J L; Nezhad, D H; Cummings, N K; Zhao, Y

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to examine whether there were causal links between vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone, insulin resistance (IR)/insulin sensitivity (IS) and the metabolic syndrome (MS). A total of 72 Caucasian men and women, aged 55.7 ± 7.57 years, with body mass index 33.4 ± 4.02  kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity, were assessed for IR/IS based on three commonly used indices before and after 12 weeks of supervised weight loss. During weight stability, though both lower intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and higher vitamin D were independently associated with greater IS/lower IR, this was consistent for iPTH across the surrogate measures tested. Higher iPTH, but not lower vitamin D, increased the risk of MS after adjustment for IR/IS. Weight loss resulted in significant reductions in percent fat (-2.83 ± 2.20%), waist (-9.26 ± 5.11  cm), improvements in all IS indices, reductions in MS and iPTH (-0.28 ± 1.17  pmol/l), but no increase in vitamin D (+2.19 ± 12.17  nmol/l). Following weight loss, ΔiPTH either predicted change in IR/IS or contributed to their variance by 4.1-8.9%. On adjustment for IR/IS, higher ΔiPTH did not significantly predict MS after weight loss, though the odds ratios for the effect were sizeable. The data are suggestive of an intrinsic inverse relationship between iPTH and IS in abdominally obese individuals, independent of vitamin D. There remains the possibility of a direct relationship between iPTH and MS.

  14. Dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity in a cohort of young Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Kac, Gilberto; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Goldani, Marcelo; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity among young adults (23-25 years). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2061 participants of a birth cohort from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, started in 1978-1979. Twenty-seven subjects with caloric intake outside ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2034 individuals. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity as waist circumference (WC > 80 cm for women; >90 cm for men) and waist/hip ratio (WHR > 0.85 for women; >0.90 for men). Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Four dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis: healthy, traditional Brazilian, bar and energy dense. In the adjusted analysis, the bar pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excess weight (PR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.23-1.73) and abdominal obesity based on WHR (PR 2.19; 95 % CI 1.59-3.01). The energy-dense pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.73; 95 % CI 0.61-0.88). Men with greater adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern showed a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51-0.82), but no association was found for women. There was no association between the healthy pattern and excess weight/abdominal obesity. In this sample, the bar pattern was associated with higher prevalences of excess weight and abdominal obesity, while the energy-dense (for both genders) and traditional Brazilian (only for men) patterns were associated with lower prevalences of excess weight.

  15. Waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and depression among overweight and obese U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang; Ford, Earl S; Li, Chaoyang; Tsai, James; Dhingra, Satvinder; Balluz, Lina S

    2011-08-11

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of mental illness; however, evidence linking body mass index (BMI)-a measure of overall obesity, to mental illness is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with waist circumference or abdominal obesity among overweight and obese U.S. adults. A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used. We analyzed the data from 2,439 U.S. adults (1,325 men and 1,114 nonpregnant women) aged ≥ 20 years who were either overweight or obese with BMI of ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference of > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women. Depressive symptoms (defined as having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms) were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 diagnostic algorithm. The prevalence and the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for having major depressive symptoms and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, waist circumference was significantly associated with both major depressive symptoms (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and adults with abdominal obesity were significantly more likely to have major depressive symptoms (OR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.35-3.59) or have moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.34-4.90) than those without. These relationships persisted after further adjusting for coexistence of multiple chronic conditions and persisted in participants who were overweight (BMI: 25.0-waist circumference or abdominal obesity was significantly associated with increased likelihoods of having major depressive symptoms or moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Thus, mental health status should be monitored

  16. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

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    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  17. Diet-Induced Abdominal Obesity, Metabolic Changes, and Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Minipigs

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    Ahmed Ludvigsen Al-Mashhadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are major risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases; however, a causal link remains elusive. Animal models resembling human MetS and its complications, while important, are scarce. We aimed at developing a porcine model of human MetS. Methods. Forty pigs with familial hypercholesterolemia were fed a high fat + fructose diet for 30 weeks. Metabolic assessments and subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained at 18 and 30 weeks, and fat distribution was assessed by CT-scans. Postmortem, macrophage density, and phenotype in fat tissues were quantified along with atherosclerotic burden. Results. During the experiment, we observed a >4-fold in body weight, a significant but small increase in fasting glucose (4.1 mmol/L, insulin (3.1 mU/L, triglycerides (0.5 mmol/L, and HDL cholesterol (2.6 mmol/L. Subcutaneous fat correlated with insulin resistance, but intra-abdominal fat correlated inversely with insulin resistance and LDL cholesterol. More inflammatory macrophages were found in visceral versus subcutaneous fat, and inflammation decreased in subcutaneous fat over time. Conclusions. MetS based on human criteria was not achieved. Surprisingly, visceral fat seemed part of a healthier metabolic and inflammatory profile. These results differ from human findings, and further research is needed to understand the relationship between obesity and MetS in porcine models.

  18. Sonographically Assessed Intra-Abdominal Fat And Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adolescents with Extreme Obesity

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    Anja Moss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The metabolic and cardiovascular risk of obesity is predominantly defined through the amount of intra-abdominal fat (IAF. Regarding this risk and the benefits of weight reduction gender-specific differences have been described. The aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific relationship between IAF assessed via ultrasound and the cardiometabolic risk profile in extremely obese adolescents before and after weight loss. Methods: In 107 consecutively admitted adolescents (n = 59 girls, mean age 15.4 ± 2.6 years boys and 15.1 ± 2.1 years girls, mean BMI z-score 3.2 ± 0.6 boys and 3.5 ± 0.6 girls anthropometric and fasting laboratory chemical parameters were measured before and after an in-patient long-term therapy (mean durance 5.6 ± 2.3 months. IAF was determined by measuring the intra-abdominal depth (IAD via ultrasound. Results: IAD was higher in boys as compared to girls (58.0 ± 22.4 mm vs. 51.3 ± 16.0 mm. IAD values were positively associated with BMI-z scores, waist circumferences, HOMA-IR and serum levels of γGT, hs-CRP and IL-6 in both genders. In boys, but not in girls, IAD was significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglycerides, ALT as well as adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol. After a marked mean weight loss of -27.1 ± 16.2 kg (-20.1 ± 7.9% in boys and of -20.5 ± 11.5 kg (-17.3 ± 7.1% in girls, IAD decreased by -20.7 ± 16.2 mm (--32.4 ± 16.9% in boys and by -18.4 ± 12,7 mm (-34.3 ± 18.4% in girls, resulting in more pronounced ameliorations of cardiovascular risk factors in boys than in girls. Conclusions: The present study indicates that IAF assessed by ultrasound is a good indicator for the cardiometabolic risk factor profile in extremely obese adolescents. Associations between IAF and risk factors are more pronounced in boys than in girls.

  19. Prevalência e fatores associados à obesidade abdominal em adolescentes Prevalencia y factores asociados a la obesidad abdominal en adolescentes Prevalence of abdominal obesity and associated factors in adolescents

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    Marcelo Romanzini

    2011-12-01

    razones de odds (OR brutas y ajustadas con intervalo de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de obesidad abdominal fue de 7,5%. Adolescentes del sexo masculino (OR 2,34; IC95% 1,27-4,32, de nivel económico intermediario (OR 2,89; IC95% 1,35-6,59 y alto (OR 2,98; IC95% 1,31-6,77 y que consumían bebidas alcohólicas de modo abusivo (OR 2,12; IC95% 1,10-4,09 presentaron mayores posibilidades de tener obesidad abdominal. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de obesidad abdominal fue baja en comparación a los estudios internacionales. Además, se encontró que el sexo, el nivel económico y el consumo abusivo de alcohol se asociaron a la obesidad abdominal.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity in adolescents and its association with demographic, economic and lifestyle variables in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 644 adolescents (397 girls and 247 boys from 15 to 19 years old. Demographic (gender and age, economic (economic status, and lifestyle data (physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption were collected. Abdominal obesity (primary outcome was evaluated based on the cut-off values for gender- and age-specific waist circumference. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, estimating the unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios (OR with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 7.5%. Boys (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.27-4.32 of intermediate (OR 2.89; 95%CI 1.35-6.59 and high socioeconomic status (OR 2.98; 95%CI 1.31-6.77 who had an excessive consumption of alcohol (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.10-4.09 presented the highest chance of abdominal obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was low in the studied population compared to rates reported in international studies. Gender, economic status and excessive alcohol consumption were associated with abdominal obesity.

  20. Chronic Low-Calorie Sweetener Use and Risk of Abdominal Obesity among Older Adults: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chee W; Shardell, Michelle; Tanaka, Toshiko; Liu, David D; Gravenstein, Kristofer S; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Egan, Josephine M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Low-calorie sweetener use for weight control has come under increasing scrutiny as obesity, especially abdominal obesity, remain entrenched despite substantial low-calorie sweetener use. We evaluated whether chronic low-calorie sweetener use is a risk factor for abdominal obesity. We used 8268 anthropometric measurements and 3096 food diary records with detailed information on low-calorie sweetener consumption in all food products, from 1454 participants (741 men, 713 women) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging collected from 1984 to 2012 with median follow-up of 10 years (range: 0-28 years). At baseline, 785 were low-calorie sweetener non-users (51.7% men) and 669 participants were low-calorie sweetener users (50.1% men). Time-varying low-calorie sweetener use was operationalized as the proportion of visits since baseline at which low-calorie sweetener use was reported. We used marginal structural models to determine the association between baseline and time-varying low-calorie sweetener use with longitudinal outcomes-body mass index, waist circumference, obesity and abdominal obesity-with outcome status assessed at the visit following low-calorie sweetener ascertainment to minimize the potential for reverse causality. All models were adjusted for year of visit, age, sex, age by sex interaction, race, current smoking status, dietary intake (caffeine, fructose, protein, carbohydrate, and fat), physical activity, diabetes status, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score as confounders. With median follow-up of 10 years, low-calorie sweetener users had 0.80 kg/m2 higher body mass index (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-1.44), 2.6 cm larger waist circumference (95% CI, 0.71-4.39), 36.7% higher prevalence (prevalence ratio = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.69) and 53% higher incidence (hazard ratio = 1.53; 95% CI 1.10-2.12) of abdominal obesity than low-calorie sweetener non-users. Low-calorie sweetener use is independently associated with heavier relative

  1. The effects of body mass index on complications and mortality after emergency abdominal operations: The obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Elizabeth R; Dilektasli, Evren; Haltmeier, Tobias; Beale, Elizabeth; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2017-11-01

    Recent literature suggests that obesity is protective in critically illness. This study addresses the effect of BMI on outcomes after emergency abdominal surgery (EAS). Retrospective, ACS-NSQIP analysis. All patients that underwent EAS were included. The study population was divided into five groups based on BMI; regression models were used to evaluate the role of obesity in morbidity and mortality. 101,078 patients underwent EAS; morbidity and mortality were 19.5% and 4.5%, respectively. Adjusted mortality was higher in underweight patients (AOR 1.92), but significantly lower in all obesity groups (AOR's 0.73, 0.66, 0.70, 0.70 respectively). Underweight and class III obesity was associated with increased complications (AOR 1.47 and 1.30), while mild obesity was protective (AOR 0.92). Underweight patients undergoing EAS have increased morbidity and mortality. Although class III obesity is associated with increased morbidity, overweight and class I obesity were protective. All grades of obesity may be protective against mortality after EAS relative to normal weight patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

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    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  3. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  4. Relationship of milk intake and physical activity to abdominal obesity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, S; Santos, R; Moreira, C; Santos, P C; Vale, S; Soares-Miranda, L; Autran, R; Mota, J; Moreira, P

    2014-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Diet and physical activity (PA) are recognized as important factors to prevent abdominal obesity (AO). Studies have found an inverse relationship between milk intake or milk products and body weight and/or body fat in children and adolescents. Evidence suggests that low levels of PA are associated with AO in youth. What this study adds Our study explored the combined association of milk intake and PA on AO in adolescents, which are most often studied in isolation. Our findings suggested that adolescents with high milk intakes, regardless of whether they were active or low active, were less likely to have AO. Our findings could have a great epidemiological interest and bring important evidence in the field of AO management among adolescents. Diet and physical activity (PA) are recognized as important factors to prevent abdominal obesity (AO), which is strongly associated with chronic diseases. Some studies have reported an inverse association between milk consumption and AO. This study examined the association between milk intake, PA and AO in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1209 adolescents, aged 15-18 from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal in 2008. AO was defined by a waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile. Adolescent food intake was measured using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and milk intake was categorized as 'low milk intake' (active (>10 points) and low-active groups (≤10 points) on the basis of their reported PA. They were then divided into four smaller groups, according to milk intake and PA: (i) low milk intake/low active; (ii) low milk intake/active; (iii) high milk intake/low active and (iv) high milk intake/active. The association between milk intake, PA and AO was evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and the results were adjusted for demographic, body mass index, pubertal stage and dietary confounders. In this study, the majority of adolescents

  5. Effects of endurance and endurance-strength exercise on biochemical parameters of liver function in women with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnik, Damian; Ratajczak, Marzena; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Mądry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the standard therapy for obesity involves physical exercise, well-planned studies of the changes in liver function in response to different exercise intensities in obese subjects are scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine a question of how does exercise mode affect the liver function. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into two exercise groups: endurance (group A) and endurance-strength (group B). Women in each group exercised for 60min 3 times/week for a 3-month period. Markers of liver function: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and bilirubin levels were quantified. We found significant differences in ALT (pexercise. Blood ALT and AST tended to decrease in group B, increase in group A. Significant reduction in serum GGT level after exercise in both groups was observed (pstrength exercise led to changes in serum ALP activity and total or direct bilirubin level. However, endurance-strength training resulted in significant decreases in serum indirect bilirubin (pstrength exercise (group B). The mode of exercise does matter: endurance-strength exercise led to a greater improvement, compared to endurance exercise, in the liver function in women with abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Spanish Adult Population (Aged 25-64 Years) 2014-2015: The ENPE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Alberdi-Aresti, Goiuri; Ramos-Carrera, Natalia; Lázaro-Masedo, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    According to the 2013 analysis of the Institute of Health Metrics, high body mass index values are the most important risk factor for disease in Spain. Consequently, we describe the prevalence of total obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) for 2014-2015. The sample was taken from the ENPE study, a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population (n = 6800) carried out between May 2014 and May 2015. This analysis refers to the population between age 25 and 64 years (n = 3966). The anthropometric measurements were performed by trained observers at participants' homes according to standard international protocols. Body mass index ≥ 25 was defined as overweight and ≥ 30 as obesity. Abdominal obesity was classified as waist > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women. The estimated prevalence of overweight in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) was 39.3% 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 35.7%-42.9%). The prevalence of general obesity was 21.6% (95%CI, 19.0%-24.2%) and, more specifically, was 22.8% (95%CI, 20.6%-25.0%) among men and 20.5% (95%CI, 18.5%-22.5%) among women, and rose with age. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was estimated at 33.4% (95%CI, 31.1%-35.7%) and was higher among women (43.3%; 95%CI, 41.1%-45.8%) than among men (23.3%; 95%CI, 20.9%-25.5%), and also rose with age. The prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity in Spain is high, although the distribution differs according to autonomous community. A comparison with earlier data reveals a considerable increase in overweight, indicating the need for routine monitoring and comprehensive initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural myocardial changes in chronic heart failure of II functional class based on overweight and abdominal obesity

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    V. Z. Netyazhenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. 153 patients with CHF of II functional class, with normal weight, overweight and abdominal obesity I-III degrees Examined. Studied structural myocardial changes at CHF depending on the degree of excess weight. Structural changes of the heart, the extent and type of myocardial hypertrophy of left ventricle depending on the availability of overweight and obesity were revealed. Actuality. Chronic heart failure (CHF is characterized by a high mortality rate and frequency of hospitalization of patients, a significant decline in their quality of life and significant financial burden. CHF is a medical and social problem that a certain dominant in the near future all over the world, because the average life expectancy of patients with the diagnosis ranges from 1,7 to 7 years and the long-term observation is evidence of the increased risk of death, that 5 year more than four times the initial value. The main etiological factors of occurrence, progression and adverse exit of CHF are age, coronary heart disease (CHD, arterial hypertension, valvular heart disease, diabetes and obesity. In general, structural changes of heart in obesity can be divided into the following main components: left ventricle hypertrophy, changes in the structural composition of cardiac tissue, heart obesity, change of the sizes of the right ventricle and left atrium (PL, valvular heart disease. Research objective: to establish the structural changes of CHF of II functional class depending on the availability of overweight and abdominal type of obesity various degrees. Material and methods: 153 patients with CHF of II functional class were examined. Etiological factors of development CHF were hypertensive disease, chronic forms of CAD and the combination of these pathologies. The diagnosis of CHF installed according to WHO criteria, the European society of cardiology and the Association of cardiologists of Ukraine, and classified according to functional classification of

  8. Endocrine and metabolic aberrations in men with abdominal obesity in relation to anxio-depressive infirmity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmond, R; Björntorp, P

    1998-10-01

    Abdominal obesity, anxiety, and depression have been found to cluster in several studies. To further characterize these associations, the following study was performed. In a population of 51-year-old men (N = 284), measurements of obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and body fat distribution (waist to hip ratio [WHR] and sagittal trunk recumbent diameter [D]) were analyzed in relation to dexamethasone (0.5 mg) inhibition of cortisol secretion, measured as salivary cortisol. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were defined by a validated questionnaire. Furthermore, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin, glucose, and serum lipid levels were measured. Twenty-five men (8.8%) had symptoms of anxiety and depression. BMI, WHR, and D correlated negatively with testosterone, except for BMI in the anxio-depressive (ADP) group. IGF-I showed no significant relationship. Furthermore, fasting insulin and the insulin to glucose ratio correlated positively and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol correlated negatively with BMI, WHR, and D in the total study population and in the subgroups. Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol showed no significant relationships. Correlation coefficients tended to be higher in ADP men. Dexamethasone inhibition showed a negative significant relationship with BMI (rho = -.47, P = .025), WHR (borderline, rho = -.37, P = .086), and D (rho = -.43, P = .046) only in the ADP group. Comparing the ADP group versus the group without anxio-depression (ADO) and high or low BMI (P = .008), WHR (P = .026), and D (P = .012) showed blunted dexamethasone inhibition only in ADP men with high anthropometric measurements. These findings suggest there is a subgroup with elevated BMI, WHR, and D in whom a blunted dexamethasone response is found associated with traits of anxiety and depression, conditions characterized by such an abnormality. The reason for the association might be insufficient control of cortisol secretion, followed

  9. Gallstone disease and obesity: a population-based study on abdominal fat distribution and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmard, Amir Reza; Merat, Shahin; Kooraki, Soheil; Ashraf, Mahya; Keshtkar, Abbas; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Jafari, Elham; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests the visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. We aimed to investigate the value of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue thickness (VAT) for prediction of gallstone disease (GSD) in general population by focus on gender differences and comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this cross-sectional survey, 1,494 subjects (51.4 % men), aged above 50, randomly selected from Golestan Cohort Study residing in Gonbad City, Iran, underwent anthropometric measurements and abdominal ultrasonography. Prevalence of GSD was 17.8% (95% CI 15.9-19.8). Following adjustment for age and then other potential risk factors, all obesity indices, except for SAT, were associated with GSD in women with the highest odds ratio observed in WHtR (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.89). In contrast, WHR was the only associated index in men (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.06). The trend of increasing obesity measures across the quartiles with the risk of GSD was significant in subgroups of WHtR and BMI in women and WHR in men. No significant association was found between SAT and GSD in men or women. The best anthropometric indicators of the risk of GSD may differ by gender. In men, WHR might be the only preferred index to estimate risk of GSD. WHtR, WHR, VAT and BMI are associated with GSD risk in women, although WHtR might better explain this risk. SAT is the poor indicator for identifying subjects with GSD in both genders.

  10. Effects of regular physical exercises in the water on the metabolic profile of women with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Lucja

    2014-06-28

    Recreational physical exercise in the water is predominantly based on aerobic metabolism. Since it involves both carbohydrate and lipid sources of energy, aqua aerobics has a beneficial effect on metabolism of these substrates. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a 3 month aqua aerobics training program on the metabolic profile of women with abdominal obesity. The study sample comprised 32 women aged 41-72 years. Somatic characteristics and variables characterizing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were measured before the commencement and after the completion of the training program. During the 2nd measurement all mean anthropometric variables were found to be significantly lower (p≤0.01). In the blood lipid profile, the concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HOMAIR were significantly lower (paqua aerobics program contributed to positive changes in lipid metabolism, anthropometric variables, as well as the fasting insulin, glucose levels and insulin resistance index in women with abdominal obesity.

  11. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has impaired effect on abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Simonsen, L; Arngrim, N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have a role in lipid metabolism. Recently, we showed that GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia increases triglyceride uptake in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean humans. It has been suggested...... that increased GIP secretion in obesity will promote lipid deposition in adipose tissue. In light of the current attempts to employ GIP antagonists in the treatment and prevention of human obesity, the present experiments were performed in order to elucidate whether the adipose tissue lipid metabolism would...... to an oral glucose challenge: (i) NGT and (ii) IGT. Abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting measurements of arteriovenous concentrations of metabolites and regional adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) during GIP (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in combination with a HI...

  12. Association of birth weight with abdominal obesity and weight disorders in children and adolescents: the weight disorder survey of the CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ansari

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: BW is a determinant of weight disorders and abdominal obesity in childhood and adolescence. This finding underscores the importance of prenatal care as well as close monitoring of the growth pattern of children born with low or high BW.

  13. Fatty Acid Content of Plasma Triglycerides May Contribute to the Heterogeneity in the Relationship Between Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Juan C; Barona, Jacqueline; Gonzalez-Zapata, Laura I; Deossa, Gloria C; Estrada, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    About one-third of the people with abdominal obesity do not exhibit the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fatty acids in plasma triglycerides (TGs) may help to explain part of this heterogeneity. This study compared TG fatty acid profile of adults with and without abdominal obesity and examined the associations of these fatty acids with MetS components. Fifty-four abdominally obese subjects were matched by age and sex with 54 adults without abdominal obesity. People were classified with MetS according to the harmonizing criteria for MetS. Fatty acids in plasma TGs were analyzed by gas chromatography. There were no differences in fatty acids of plasma TGs between people with and without abdominal obesity. However, there were differences between abdominally obese people with and without MetS. The abdominally obese group with MetS had higher palmitic (+2.9%; P = 0.012) and oleic (+4.0%; P = 0.001) acids and lower linoleic (-6.4%; P = 0.018) and arachidonic (-1.2%; P = 0.004) acids. After adjustment for abdominal obesity, age, and sex, a stepwise regression analysis showed that palmitic acid positively contributed to the variance in insulin (β = +1.08 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (β = +1.09 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and myristic acid positively contributed to the variance in systolic blood pressure (β = +1.09 ± 1.03; P = 0.006). In contrast, linoleic acid negatively contributed to the variance in glucose (β = -0.321 ± 0.09; P = 0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; β = -1.05 ± 1.01; P = 0.000). There were no differences in the plasma TG fatty acid profile between people with and without abdominal obesity. Likewise, fatty acids in plasma TGs associated with many of the MetS variables independently of abdominal obesity. These results suggest that the plasma TG fatty acid profile may help to explain part of the heterogeneity

  14. Effects of Regular Physical Exercises in the Water on the Metabolic Profile of Women with Abdominal Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja

    2014-01-01

    Recreational physical exercise in the water is predominantly based on aerobic metabolism. Since it involves both carbohydrate and lipid sources of energy, aqua aerobics has a beneficial effect on metabolism of these substrates. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a 3 month aqua aerobics training program on the metabolic profile of women with abdominal obesity. The study sample comprised 32 women aged 41-72 years. Somatic characteristics and variables characterizing carbohydrate a...

  15. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9% than women (17.7%, P Conclusion Eating takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with poorer diet quality and a higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in young men and women.

  16. Translation of fetal abdominal circumference-guided therapy of gestational diabetes complicated by maternal obesity to a clinical outpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Stephen F; Bovbjerg, Marit L; Kington, Randi L

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of fetal abdominal circumference-guided therapy for gestational diabetes (GDM) in an outpatient population characterized by highly-prevalent maternal obesity. Data for this translational retrospective cohort study come from medical records. Fetal abdominal circumference was assessed by ultrasound in late second trimester, and sex- and gestational age-specific percentiles assigned. Taking fetal abdominal circumference percentile as a marker for adequacy of fetal growth, maternal glucose targets were set accordingly: loose, moderate or tight. Associations between mother's targets and neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and neonatal hypoglycemia) were assessed using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for pre-gravid body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. In 419 consecutive pregnancies complicated by GDM, neonatal outcomes compared favorably with previous randomized trials of intensive GDM management. Importantly, adverse outcomes were observed less often than might be expected in an obese GDM population. BMI did not have an independent effect on neonatal outcomes. Ultrasound-guided therapy of GDM, in general clinic use, can limit excess macrosomia and LGA, even in a population with significant maternal obesity.

  17. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  18. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Mehmet M; Nayer, Behzad; Walford, Eric C; Johnson, Kevin B; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Reiser, Jochen; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Ortega, Luis M; Nayer, Ali

    2012-02-07

    Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver) and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus) organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was noted between ob/ob and control mice. This study

  19. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

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    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  20. Quantitative X-ray CT analysis of calcification of the abdominal aorta and its relationship to obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinagawa, Toshio; Hiraiwa, Yoshio; Mizuno, Seio; Kusunoki, Norio; Nitta, Yu; Matsubara, Takao; Iwainaka, Yoichi; Konishi, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of abdominal aorta calcification by X-ray CT is useful method for non-invasive diagnosis of atherosclerosis. We recently examined the relationship between the X-ray CT measurement of abdominal aorta calcification and the degree of obesity. For this purpose, the body mass index (BMI) and the subcutaneous fat thickness (determined by X-ray CT at the umbilical level) were analyzed in relation to the abdominal aorta calcification index (ACI) in 845 patients (453 males and 392 females aged 40-79 years). Patients with BMI under 20 were classified as 'lean', those with BMI between 20-26 as 'normal' and those with BMI over 26 as 'obese'. 1. Among males, the ACI was highest in lean individuals and lowest in obese individuals. The difference in ACI between lean and obese males was significant in the middle aged group (40-65 years). Among females, no relationship was observed between the degree of obesity and ACI. 2. Among males, ACI was higher in individuals with low subcutaneous fat thickness and lower in individuals with greater subcutaneous fat thickness. The difference was significant in the middle aged group. Among females, no relationship was observed between the two parameters. 3. When the visceral fat to subcutaneous fat ratio (V/S) in 85 males and females aged 60-69 years was analyzed in relation to ACI, ACI tended to decrease as the V/S increased, in both males and females. 4. Relationships between BMI and subcutaneous fat thickness, between BMI and lipids and between lipids and ACI were also analyzed. (author)

  1. Epidemiology of general obesity, abdominal obesity and related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of northeast china: the CHPSNE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity increases the risk of many diseases. However, there has been little literature about the epidemiology of obesity classified by body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity) among urban Chinese adults. This study is to fill the gap by assessing the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among urban Chinese adults. Methods A representative sample of 25,196 urban adults aged 18 to 74 years in Northeast China was selected and measurements of height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were taken from 2009–2010. Definitions of overweight and obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO) were used. Results The overall prevalence rates of general obesity and overweight classified by BMI were 15.0% (15.7% for men and 14.3% for women, pmen and 17.7% for women, pobesity was 37.6% (31.1% for men and women 43.9% for women, pobesity, alcohol drinking, or former cigarette smoking were at high risk of obesity classified by BMI or WC, whereas those with a higher level of education, higher family income, or a healthy and balanced diet were at low risk of obesity. Analysis stratified by gender showed that men with a higher level education level, a white-collar job, a cadre job, or higher family income were the high risk group, and women with a higher level of education or higher family income were the low risk group. Conclusions Obesity and overweight have become epidemic in urban populations in China; associations of risk factors with obesity differ between men and women. PMID:23146089

  2. Correlates of Adverse Outcomes in Abdominally Obese Individuals: Findings from the Five-Year Followup of the Population-Based Study of Health in Pomerania

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    Nele Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and premature death. However, it has not been resolved which factors predispose for the development of these adverse obesity-related outcomes in otherwise healthy individuals with abdominal obesity. Methods. We studied 1,506 abdominal obese individuals (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5 free of CVD or T2DM from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania and assessed the incidence of CVD or T2DM after a five-year followup. Logistic regression models were adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors and liver, kidney diseases, and sociodemographic status. Results. During follow-up time, we observed 114 and 136 new T2DM and CVD cases, respectively. Regression models identified age, waist circumference, serum glucose, and liver disease as predictors of T2DM. Regarding CVD, only age, unemployment, and a divorced or widowed marital status were significantly associated with incident CVD. In this subgroup of obese individuals blood pressure, serum glucose, or lipids did not influence incidence of T2DM or CVD. Conclusion. We identified various factors associated with an increased risk of incident T2DM and CVD among abdominally obese individuals. These findings may improve the detection of high-risk individuals and help to advance prevention strategies in abdominal obesity.

  3. The Combined Effects of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and Major Depression/Anxiety on Health-Related Quality of Life: the LifeLines Cohort Study.

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    Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Jonge, Peter; van Rossum, Elisabeth; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD)/anxiety disorders often co-occur and aggravate each other resulting in adverse health-related outcomes. As little is known about the potential effects of interaction between obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), this study was aimed at examining these combined effects. We collected data among N = 89,332 participants from the LifeLines cohort study. We categorized body weight using body mass index (kg/m2) as normal weight (18.5-24.99), overweight (25-29.9), mild obesity (30-34.9) and moderate/severe obesity (≥ 35); we measured abdominal obesity using a waist circumference of ≥102 and ≥ 88 cm for males and females, respectively. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. HR-QoL was assessed using the RAND-36 questionnaire to compute physical and mental quality of life scores. We used binary logistic and linear regression analyses. The combined effect of obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on physical QoL was larger than the sum of their separate effects; regression coefficients, B (95%-confidence interval, 95%-CI) were: - 1.32 (-1.75; -0.90). However, the combined effect of obesity and major depression alone on mental QoL was less than the additive effect. With increasing body weight participants report poorer physical QoL; when they also have MDD and/or anxiety disorders participants report even poorer physical QoL. In persons without MDD and/or anxiety disorders, obesity was associated with a better mental QoL. Obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders act synergistically on physical and mental QoL. The management of MDD and/or anxiety disorders and weight loss may be important routes to improve HR-QoL.

  4. Lifestyle risk factors of general and abdominal obesity in students of the school of medicine and health science of the university of development studies, tamale, ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogre, Victor; Nyaba, Rauf; Aleyira, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among students of the University for Development Studies, School of Medicine and Health Sciences (UDS-SMHS), Tamale, Ghana. Also, lifestyle risk factors for the two obesity indices were investigated. This study was conducted among a sample of 646 students. Anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference were appropriately assessed. The prevalence of general and abdominal obesity was 1.9% and 4.2%, respectively. Risk factors of general obesity were being female (crude OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.85-25.80, P = 0.0021), engaging in light PA (OR = 12.45, 95% CI = 2.96-52.41, P = 0.0006), being aged 28-37 years (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.39-20.68, P = 0.0329), nonintake of coffee (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.10-15.28, P = 0.0357), being married (OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.48-22.02, P = 0.0286), and being abdominally obese (OR = 02.7, 95% CI = 25.61-11.60, P coffee. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent than general obesity. Risk factors included being female, married, and generally obese and nonintake of coffee.

  5. Screening of abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus in women with oncological diseases

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    N.O. Pertseva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the study was to assess the presence of excess body weight, abdominal obesity (AO, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in oncological diseases in women of young and middle age. Materials and methods. 32 outpatient women aged 31 to 59 years with a verified oncological disease were examined. Standard clinical methods of investigation, statistical processing of results by nonparametric statistics were used. Results. Cervical cancer was verified in 24 (75.0 % persons, breast adenocarcinoma — in 5 (15.6 %, rectal cancer — in 3 (9.4 % patients. Elevated body mass index was detected in 24 (75.0 % women: excess body weight — in 11 (34.4%, AO stage I — in 8 (25.0%, stage II — in 5 persons (15.6 %. Overweight or AO were detected in 30 (93.8 % patients according to waist-to-height ratio. Type 2 DM was detected only in 2 patients (6.3 %. A heredity in oncopathology was recorded in half of women, of them for AO — in 8 (25.0 %, for type 2 DM — in 5 (15.6 % patients. A direct correlation was established between heredity in oncological disease and body weight (r = 0.62, p < 0.01, waist circumference (r = 0.61, p < 0.01, body mass index (r = 0.66, p < 0.01, waist-to-height ratio (r = 0.49, p <0.05, waist circumference/hip circumference ratio (r = 0.41, p < 0.01. Conclusions. Overweight and obesity are common among women with cancer, especially, with cervical cancer. Correlation between increased anthropometric indicators and a family history of oncological diseases among women was noted. For comprehensive diagnosis of overweight, in addition to the standard anthropometric indicators, the waist-to-height ratio should be used, as well as additional examinations to detect type 2 DM, insulin resistance, metabolic changes.

  6. Importance of Different Grades of Abdominal Obesity on Testosterone Level, Erectile Dysfunction, and Clinical Coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Juraj; Levcikova, Michaela; Ondrusova, Martina; Breza, Jan; Labas, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of different grades of abdominal obesity (AO) on the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), erectile dysfunction (ED), and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a cross-sectional descriptive study, a total of 216 males underwent a complete urological, internal, and hormonal evaluation. Males were divided according to waist circumference into five groups: less than 94 cm (Grade [G] 0), 94 to 101 cm (G1), 102 to 109 cm (G2), 110 to 119 cm (G3), and more than 120 cm (G4). Incidence of ED, TDS, and MetS was compared in these groups and in participants without AO. Some degree of ED was identified in 74.7% of males with AO. In G1, there were 61% of males with ED, in G2 68%, in G3 83%, and in G4 87%. A strong correlation between testosterone (TST) level and AO was identified. Ninety-eight out of 198 (49.5%) males with AO and 1/18 (5.5%) males without AO had TDS. There were significant differences between individual groups. In the group of males with AO G4 (more than 120 cm), 87.1% had TDS. MetS was diagnosed in 105/198 (53.0%) males with AO, but in G4, 83.9% of males with AO had MetS. Males older than 40 years of age with AO have a higher incidence of ED, TDS, and MetS. Dividing males into five groups according to waist circumference seems to be reasonable. With growing AO, there were significantly more males with ED, TDS, and MetS.

  7. Disability, Physical Inactivity, and Impaired Health-Related Quality of Life Are Not Different in Metabolically Healthy vs. Unhealthy Obese Subjects

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    Lorenzo M. Donini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO and metabolically unhealthy (MUO obese subjects with regard to physical activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL. Methods: All subjects underwent a multidimensional evaluation, encompassing the assessment of body composition, metabolic biomarkers and inflammation, physical activity level (IPAQ questionnaire, disability (TSD-OC test, and HR-QoL (SF-36 questionnaire. MHO and MUO were defined based on the absence or the presence of the metabolic syndrome, respectively. Results: 253 subjects were included (54 men and 199 women; age: 51.7 ± 12.8 vs. 50.3 ± 11.7 years, p = 0.46; BMI: 38.1 ± 5.7 vs. 38.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2, p = 0.37. No significant difference was observed in body composition. There was no difference between MHO and MUO considering inflammation (hs-CRP: 6517.1 ± 11,409.9 vs. 5294.1 ± 5612.2 g/L; p = 0.37, physical inactivity (IPAQ score below 3000 METs-min/week in 77.6% of MHO vs. 80% of MUO subjects; p = 0.36, obesity-related disability (TSD-OC score > 33%, indicating a high level of obesity-related disability, in 20.2% of MHO vs. 26.5% of MUO subjects; p = 0.28, and the HR-QoL (SF-36 total score: 60 ± 20.8 vs. 62.8 ± 18.2, p = 0.27. Discussion and Conclusion: The metabolic comorbidity and the impairment of functional ability and psycho-social functioning may have a different timing in the natural history of obesity. Alterations in the physical activity level and mobility disabilities may precede the onset of metabolic abnormalities. (Trial registration 2369 prot 166/12—registered 23 February 2012; Amendment 223/14—registered 13 February 2014.

  8. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population.

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    Karina Fischer

    Full Text Available Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA in the accumulation of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SAAT abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2. Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET, or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA, or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02 than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07, but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05 than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3. Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3 and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3 in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA or second (4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA tertile (P ≤ 0.016; P trend ≤ 0.0005. They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥ 4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT.

  9. Cardiovascular risk assessment according to the Framingham score and abdominal obesity in individuals seen by a clinical school of nutrition

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    Alane Cabral Menezes de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To analyze the relation of abdominal obesity on cardiovascular risk in individuals seen by a clinic school of nutrition, classifying them based on Framingham score. Methods: Cross-sectional study, conducted at the nutrition clinic of a private college in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. We included randomly selected adults and elderly individuals with abdominal obesity, of both sexes, treated from August to December of 2009, with no history of cardiomyopathy or cardiovascular events. To determine the cardiovascular risk, the Framingham score was calculated. All analyzes were performed with SPSS software version 20.0, with p <0.05 as significative. Results: We studied 54 subjects, 83% female, the mean age was 48 years old, ranging from 31 to 73 years. No correlation was observed between measurements of waist circumference and cardiovascular risk in the subjects studied (r=0.065, p=0.048, and there was no relationship between these parameters. Conclusion: Abdominal fat distribution was weakly related to cardiovascular risk in patients seen by a clinical school of nutrition.

  10. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p  0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in the future.

  11. Mediterranean dietary pattern in pregnant women and offspring risk of overweight and abdominal obesity in early childhood: the INMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrés, S; Romaguera, D; Valvi, D; Martínez, D; Vioque, J; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; Amiano, P; Gonzalez-Palacios, S; Guxens, M; Pereda, E; Riaño, I; Tardón, A; Iñiguez, C; Arija, V; Sunyer, J; Vrijheid, M

    2016-12-01

    Animal models have suggested that maternal diet quality may reduce offspring obesity risk regardless of maternal body weight; however, evidence from human studies is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) during pregnancy and childhood overweight and abdominal obesity risk at 4 years of age. We analysed 1827 mother-child pairs from the Spanish 'Infancia y Medio Ambiente' cohort study, recruited between 2003 and 2008. Diet was assessed during pregnancy using a food frequency questionnaire and MD adherence by the relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED). Overweight (including obesity) was defined as an age-specific and sex-specific body mass index ≥85th percentile (World Health Organization referent), and abdominal obesity as a waist circumference (WC) >90th percentile. Multivariate adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between pregnancy rMED and offspring overweight and abdominal obesity. There was no association between rMED and body mass index z-score, whereas there was a significant association between higher adherence to MD and lower WC (β of high vs. low rMED: -0.62 cm; 95% confidence interval: -1.10, -0.14 cm, P for trend = 0.009). Pregnancy adherence to the MD was not associated with childhood overweight risk, but it was associated with lower WC, a marker of abdominal obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Association of Major Dietary Patterns with General and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane Basiri, Marjan; Sotoudeh, Gity; Djalali, Mahmood; Reza Eshraghian, Mohammad; Noorshahi, Neda; Rafiee, Masoumeh; Nikbazm, Ronak; Karimi, Zeinab; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns associated with general and abdominal obesity in type 2 diabetic patients. We included 728 patients (35 - 65 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in this cross-sectional study. The usual dietary intake of individuals over 1 year was collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured according to standard protocol. The two major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for the general obesity when compared to the lowest quintile (OR = 0.45, 95 % CI = 0.26 - 0.79, P for trend = 0.02), while patients in the highest quintile of the unhealthy dietary pattern scores had greater odds for the general obesity (OR = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.8 - 5.9, P for trend obesity, even after adjusting for confounding factors. This study shows that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated and an unhealthy dietary pattern is directly associated with general obesity.

  13. Association of the Myostatin gene with obesity, abdominal obesity and low lean body mass and in non-diabetic Asian Indians in north India.

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    Surya Prakash Bhatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine the association of the A55T and K153R polymorphisms of the Myostatin gene with obesity, abdominal obesity and lean body mass (LBM in Asian Indians in north India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 335 subjects (238 men and 97 women were assessed for anthropometry, % body fat (BF, LBM and biochemical parameters. Associations of Myostatin gene polymorphisms were evaluated with anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters. In A55T polymorphism, BMI (p=0.04, suprailiac skinfold (p=0.05, total skinfold (p=0.008, %BF (p=0.002 and total fat mass (p=0.003 were highest and % LBM (p=0.03 and total LBM (Kg were lowest (p=0.04 in subjects with Thr/Thr genotype as compared to other genotypes. Association analysis of K153R polymorphism showed that subjects with R/R genotype had significantly higher BMI (p=0.05, waist circumference (p=0.04, %BF (p=0.04 and total fat mass (p=0.03, and lower %LBM (p=0.02 and total LBM [(Kg, (p=0.04] as compared to other genotypes. Using a multivariate logistic regression model after adjusting for age and sex, subjects with Thr/Thr genotype of A55T showed high risk for high %BF (OR, 3.92, 95% Cl: 2.61-12.41, truncal subcutaneous adiposity (OR, 2.9, 95% Cl: 1.57-6.60] and low LBM (OR, 0.64, 95% CI: 0.33-0.89 whereas R/R genotype of K153R showed high risk of obesity (BMI; OR, 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-12.9; %BF, OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.04-12.4, abdominal obesity (OR, 2.12, 95% CI: 2.71-14.23 and low LBM (OR, 0.61, 95% CI: 0.29-0.79. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report that variants of Myostatin gene predispose to obesity, abdominal obesity and low lean body mass in Asian Indians in north India.

  14. How central obesity influences intra-abdominal pressure : a prospective, observational study in cardiothoracic surgical patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Marije; Werner, Maureen J. M.; Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke Oude; Dieperink, Willem; Zijlstra, Jan G.; van Meurs, Matijs

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is frequently present in critically ill patients and is an independent predictor for mortality. Better recognition of clinically important thresholds is necessary. Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is associated with renal dysfunction, and renal

  15. Association of perceived ethnic discrimination with general and abdominal obesity in ethnic minority groups: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmengler, Heiko; Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Kunst, Anton E; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Discrimination is associated with obesity, but this may differ according to the type of obesity and ethnic group. This study examines the association of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with general and abdominal obesity in 5 ethnic minority groups. We used cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study, collected from 2011 to 2015. The study sample included 2297 Ghanaians, 4110 African Surinamese, 3021 South-Asian Surinamese, 3562 Turks and 3868 Moroccans aged 18-70 years residing in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure for general obesity, and waist circumference (WC) for abdominal obesity. PED was measured using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. We used linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographics, psychosocial stressors and health behaviours. In additional analysis, we used standardised variables to compare the strength of the associations. In adjusted models, PED was significantly, positively associated with BMI in the South-Asian Surinamese (β coefficient 0.338; 95% CI 0.106 to 0.570), African Surinamese (0.394; 0.171 to 0.618) and Turks (0.269; 0.027 to 0.510). For WC, a similar pattern was seen: positive associations in the South-Asian Surinamese (0.759; 0.166 to 1.353), African Surinamese (0.833; 0.278 to 1.388) and Turks (0.870; 0.299 to 1.440). When stratified by sex, we found positive associations in Surinamese women, Turkish men and Moroccan men. The strength of the associations with BMI and WC was comparable in the groups. Among the Ghanaians, no significant associations were observed. Ethnic and sex variations are observed in the association of PED with both general and abdominal obesity. Further research on psychosocial buffers and underlying biological mechanisms might help in understanding these variations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Age, physical inactivity, obesity, health conditions, and health-related quality of life among patients receiving conservative management for musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhail SM

    2014-07-01

    generalized linear model indicated that, after adjusting for age, self-reported physical activity was positively associated (z=4.22, P<0.001, and comorbidities were negatively associated (z=–2.67, P<0.01 with patients’ health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Older patients were more frequently affected by undesirable clinical attributes of comorbidity, obesity, and physical inactivity. However, findings from this investigation are compelling for the care of patients of all ages. Potential integration of physical activity behavior change or other effective lifestyle interventions into models of care for patients with musculoskeletal disorders is worthy of further investigation. Keywords: aging, comorbidity, physical activity, orthopedic, sedentary, overweight

  17. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2017-03-25

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18-64 years) from the ANIBES ("Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles") cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p weight and/or abdominal obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p weight and/or abdominal obesity (5.21%), p weight and abdominal obesity only when the whole sample was considered.

  18. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; van Asselt, Sophie J; Bolster, Johanna H T; Zwerver, J; Slart, Riemer H J; Vd Jagt, Erik J; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2011-09-01

    It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. In a prospective pilot cohort study, anovulatory women with PCOS underwent a 6 month lifestyle program in a tertiary fertility clinic. Body fat distribution was assessed by anthropometrics, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and single slice abdominal CT scan at intake, after 3 months and after 6 months. Baseline-corrected changes over time were analysed using generalized estimating equations longitudinal regression analysis. In 32 anovulatory women with PCOS (age, 28 ± 4 years; BMI, 37.5 ± 5.0 kg/m²), there were no significant baseline differences in anthropometrics and biochemical assessment between 14 RO+ participants and 18 RO- participants. RO+ women lost more weight (6.3 versus 3.0%) and abdominal fat on DEXA (15.0 versus 4.3%) compared with RO- women. Resumption of ovulation was associated with early and consistent loss of IAF (12.4 versus 5.0% at 3 months and 18.5 versus 8.6% at 6 months). Loss of SAF between the RO+ women and the RO- women was similar at 3 months (6.2 versus 6.1%) but did not change any further in RO- women (6.1%) as it did in RO+ women (11.4%) at 6 months. In anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity undergoing a lifestyle program, RO+ women lose more body weight and abdominal fat on DEXA than RO- women. In addition, this study shows that early and consistent loss of IAF is associated with resumption of ovulation. Future studies should address the mechanisms behind these changes and should assess interventions aimed at loss of IAF to facilitate resumption of ovulation.

  19. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  20. [CHOICE OF THE TREATMENT TACTICS IN PATIENTS, SUFFERING POSTOPERATIVE HERNIA OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL WITH CONCOMITANT MORBID OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, B M

    2015-08-01

    Experience of treatment of 73 patients, suffering postoperative hernia of anterior abdominal wall with concomitant obesity, was presented. In 31 (42.5%) of them in a period of reduction and stabilization of a body mass the allohernioplasty as a second stage after bariatric operation was done, and in 9 (42.5%)--simultant bariatric operations with hernioplasty and dermatolipectomy. During a follow-up period after bariatric operation and hernioplasty the hernia recurrence have occurred in 3 (9.1%) patients, after hernioplasty--in 11 (33.3%), witnessing high efficacy of staged treatment in such patients.

  1. Low CD36 and LOX-1 Levels and CD36 Gene Subexpression Are Associated with Metabolic Dysregulation in Older Individuals with Abdominal Obesity

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    Perla-Monserrat Madrigal-Ruíz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity study in the context of scavenger receptors has been linked to atherosclerosis. CD36 and LOX-1 are important, since they have been associated with atherogenic and metabolic disease but not fat redistribution. The aim of our study was to determinate the association between CD36 and LOX-1 in presence of age and abdominal obesity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that included 151 healthy individuals, clinically and anthropometrically classified into two groups by age (<30 and ≥30 years old and abdominal obesity (according to World Health Organization guidelines. We excluded individuals with any chronic and metabolic illness, use of medication, or smoking. Fasting blood samples were taken to perform determination of CD36 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, lipid profile and metabolic and low grade inflammation markers by routine methods, and soluble scavenger receptors (CD36 and LOX-1 by ELISA. Results. Individuals ≥30 years old with abdominal obesity presented high atherogenic index, lower soluble scavenger receptor levels, and subexpression of CD36 mRNA (54% less. On the other hand, individuals <30 years old with abdominal adiposity presented higher levels in the same parameters, except LOX-1 soluble levels. Conclusion. In this study, individuals over 30 years of age presented low soluble scavenger receptors levels pattern and CD36 gene subexpression, which suggest the chronic metabolic dysregulation in abdominal obesity.

  2. Association of Smoking in Adolescence With Abdominal Obesity in Adulthood: A Follow-Up Study of 5 Birth Cohorts of Finnish Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Kantonen, Suvi; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association of adolescent smoking with overweight and abdominal obesity in adulthood. Methods. We used the FinnTwin16, a prospective, population-based questionnaire study of 5 consecutive and complete birth cohorts of Finnish twins born between 1975 and 1979 (N = 4296) and studied at four points between the ages of 16 and 27 years to analyze the effect of adolescent smoking on abdominal obesity and overweight in early adulthood. Results. Smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily when aged 16 to 18 years increased the risk of adult abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.26). After we adjusted for confounders, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.11, 1.88), and after further adjustment for current body mass index (BMI), the OR was 1.34 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.88). Adolescent smoking significantly increased the risk of becoming overweight among women even after adjustment for possible confounders, including baseline BMI (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.88). Conclusions. Smoking is a risk factor for abdominal obesity among both genders and for overweight in women. The prevention of smoking during adolescence may play an important role in promoting healthy weight and in decreasing the morbidity related to abdominal obesity. PMID:19059868

  3. The potential impact of animal protein intake on global and abdominal obesity: evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Buckley, Jonathan D; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle; Crichton, Georgina E

    2015-07-01

    To examine the association of total animal protein intake and protein derived from different dietary sources (meat; fish and shellfish; eggs; milk products) with global and abdominal obesity among adults in Luxembourg. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between animal protein intake (as a percentage of total energy intake) and global obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women), after controlling for potential confounders. Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study. The study population was derived from a national cross-sectional stratified sample of 1152 individuals aged 18-69 years, recruited between November 2007 and January 2009. There was an independent positive association between total animal protein intake and both global (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.12, 1.25) and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.08, 1.20) after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, physical activity and intakes of total fat, carbohydrate, fibre, and fruit and vegetables. Protein intakes from meat, fish and shellfish were positively associated with global and abdominal obesity with further adjustment for vegetal protein and other sources of animal-derived protein (all P Protein derived from eggs or milk products was unrelated to global or abdominal obesity. Our findings suggest that protein derived from animal sources, in particular from meat, fish and shellfish, may be associated with increased risk of both global and abdominal obesity among presumably healthy adults in Luxembourg. These findings suggest that lower animal protein intakes may be important for maintenance of healthy body weight.

  4. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G.; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles”) cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p obesity (5.18%), p obesity (5.21%), p obesity only when the whole sample was considered. PMID:28346353

  5. The potential for reducing differences in life expectancy between educational groups in five European countries: the effects of obesity, physical inactivity and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, Netta E; Martikainen, Pekka T; Eikemo, Terje; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, Olle; Ostergren, Olof; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2014-07-01

    This study assesses the effects of obesity, physical inactivity and smoking on life expectancy (LE) differences between educational groups in five European countries in the early 2000s. We estimate the contribution of risk factors on LE differences between educational groups using the observed risk factor distributions and under a hypothetically more optimal risk factor distribution. Data on risk factor prevalence were obtained from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe study, and data on mortality from census-linked data sets for the age between 50 and 79 according to sex and education. Substantial differences in LE of up to 2.8 years emerged between men with a low and a high level of education in Denmark, Austria and France, and smaller differences among men in Italy and Spain. The educational differences in LE were not as large among women. The largest potential for reducing educational differences was in Denmark (25% among men and 41% among women) and Italy (14% among men). The magnitude of the effect of unhealthy behaviours on educational differences in LE varied between countries. LE among those with a low or medium level of education could increase in some European countries if the behavioural risk factor distributions were similar to those observed among the highly educated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Effects of Regular Physical Exercises in the Water on the Metabolic Profile of Women with Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzak Zbigniew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recreational physical exercise in the water is predominantly based on aerobic metabolism. Since it involves both carbohydrate and lipid sources of energy, aqua aerobics has a beneficial effect on metabolism of these substrates. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a 3 month aqua aerobics training program on the metabolic profile of women with abdominal obesity. The study sample comprised 32 women aged 41-72 years. Somatic characteristics and variables characterizing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were measured before the commencement and after the completion of the training program. During the 2nd measurement all mean anthropometric variables were found to be significantly lower (p<0.01. In the blood lipid profile, the concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HOMAIR were significantly lower (p<0.01. Furthermore, the levels of fasting triglycerides, glucose and insulin were reduced significantly (p<0.05 after the training program. The aqua aerobics program contributed to positive changes in lipid metabolism, anthropometric variables, as well as the fasting insulin, glucose levels and insulin resistance index in women with abdominal obesity.

  7. The Combined Effects of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and Major Depression/Anxiety on Health-Related Quality of Life: the LifeLines Cohort Study.

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    Yeshambel T Nigatu

    Full Text Available Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD/anxiety disorders often co-occur and aggravate each other resulting in adverse health-related outcomes. As little is known about the potential effects of interaction between obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL, this study was aimed at examining these combined effects.We collected data among N = 89,332 participants from the LifeLines cohort study. We categorized body weight using body mass index (kg/m2 as normal weight (18.5-24.99, overweight (25-29.9, mild obesity (30-34.9 and moderate/severe obesity (≥ 35; we measured abdominal obesity using a waist circumference of ≥102 and ≥ 88 cm for males and females, respectively. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. HR-QoL was assessed using the RAND-36 questionnaire to compute physical and mental quality of life scores. We used binary logistic and linear regression analyses.The combined effect of obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on physical QoL was larger than the sum of their separate effects; regression coefficients, B (95%-confidence interval, 95%-CI were: - 1.32 (-1.75; -0.90. However, the combined effect of obesity and major depression alone on mental QoL was less than the additive effect. With increasing body weight participants report poorer physical QoL; when they also have MDD and/or anxiety disorders participants report even poorer physical QoL. In persons without MDD and/or anxiety disorders, obesity was associated with a better mental QoL.Obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders act synergistically on physical and mental QoL. The management of MDD and/or anxiety disorders and weight loss may be important routes to improve HR-QoL.

  8. The Combined Effects of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and Major Depression/Anxiety on Health-Related Quality of Life: the LifeLines Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Jonge, Peter; van Rossum, Elisabeth; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD)/anxiety disorders often co-occur and aggravate each other resulting in adverse health-related outcomes. As little is known about the potential effects of interaction between obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), this study was aimed at examining these combined effects. Methods We collected data among N = 89,332 participants from the LifeLines cohort study. We categorized body weight using body mass index (kg/m2) as normal weight (18.5–24.99), overweight (25–29.9), mild obesity (30–34.9) and moderate/severe obesity (≥ 35); we measured abdominal obesity using a waist circumference of ≥102 and ≥ 88 cm for males and females, respectively. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. HR-QoL was assessed using the RAND-36 questionnaire to compute physical and mental quality of life scores. We used binary logistic and linear regression analyses. Results The combined effect of obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on physical QoL was larger than the sum of their separate effects; regression coefficients, B (95%-confidence interval, 95%-CI) were: - 1.32 (-1.75; -0.90). However, the combined effect of obesity and major depression alone on mental QoL was less than the additive effect. With increasing body weight participants report poorer physical QoL; when they also have MDD and/or anxiety disorders participants report even poorer physical QoL. In persons without MDD and/or anxiety disorders, obesity was associated with a better mental QoL. Conclusions Obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders act synergistically on physical and mental QoL. The management of MDD and/or anxiety disorders and weight loss may be important routes to improve HR-QoL. PMID:26866920

  9. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Daubenmier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI =31.2 were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR, and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  10. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Kristeller, Jean; Hecht, Frederick M; Maninger, Nicole; Kuwata, Margaret; Jhaveri, Kinnari; Lustig, Robert H; Kemeny, Margaret; Karan, Lori; Epel, Elissa

    2011-01-01

    Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI = 31.2) were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue as determinants of abdominal obesity in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years and obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle, but these do not fully...... between PCBs and waist circumference as suggested by laboratory evidence. More work is needed to fully elucidate the role of compounds such as PCBs in the present obesity epidemic....

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Changes in Abdominal Compartments in Obese Diabetics during a Low-Calorie Weight-Loss Program.

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    Lena J Vogt

    Full Text Available To investigate changes in the fat content of abdominal compartments and muscle area during weight loss using confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in overweight diabetics.Twenty-nine obese diabetics (10/19 men/women, median age: 59.0 years, median body mass index (BMI: 34.0 kg/m2 prospectively joined a standardized 15-week weight-loss program (six weeks of formula diet exclusively, followed by reintroduction of regular food with gradually increasing energy content over nine weeks over 15 weeks. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol including a confounder-adjusted chemical-shift-encoded MR sequence with water/fat separation before the program as well at the end of the six weeks of formula diet and at the end of the program at 15 weeks. Fat fractions of abdominal organs and vertebral bone marrow as well as volumes of visceral and subcutaneous fat were determined. Furthermore, muscle area was evaluated using the L4/L5 method. Data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples.Median BMI decreased significantly from 34.0 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2 (p 0.15. Visceral fat volume (3.2 L to 1.6 L, p < 0.001 and subcutaneous fat diameter (3.0 cm to 2.2 cm, p < 0.001 also decreased significantly. Muscle area declined by 6.8% from 243.9 cm2 to 226.8 cm2.MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in abdominal compartments during weight loss. In overweight diabetics, weight loss leads to fat reduction in abdominal compartments, such as visceral fat, as well as liver fat and vertebral bone marrow fat while pancreas fat remains unchanged.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years. Obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle and possibly the widespread...... cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans...... is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged ≥ 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten...

  14. Obesidade abdominal em adolescentes: prevalência e associação com atividade física e hábitos alimentares Abdominal obesity in adolescents: prevalence and association with physical activity and eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Barnabé dos Santos Cavalcanti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A obesidade abdominal em adolescentes está associada a doenças cardiovasculares e metabólicas, mas a prevalência e os fatores associados à sua ocorrência são ignorados. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência e verificar se indicadores de atividade física e hábitos alimentares estão associados à ocorrência de obesidade abdominal em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A amostra compreendeu 4.138 estudantes do ensino médio (14-19 anos, selecionados mediante amostragem por conglomerados em dois estágios. Obtiveram-se os dados por meio do Global School-based Health Survey, enquanto medidas antropométricas foram aferidas para determinação de excesso de peso e obesidade abdominal. Regressão logística binária foi empregada para análise dos fatores comportamentais associados à ocorrência de obesidade abdominal. Identificação dos casos de obesidade abdominal foi efetuada por análise da circunferência da cintura, tomando-se como referência pontos de corte para idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 16,8 anos (s =1,4, e 59,8% dos sujeitos eram do sexo feminino; a prevalência de obesidade abdominal foi de 6% (IC95%:5,3-6,7, significativamente superior entre as moças (6,7%; IC95%: 5,8-7,8 em comparação aos rapazes (4,9%; IC95%:3,9-6,0. As análises brutas evidenciaram que sexo e excesso de peso são fatores associados à ocorrência de obesidade abdominal. O ajustamento das análises por regressão logística permitiu observar que a prática de atividades físicas está significativamente associada à ocorrência de obesidade abdominal nesse grupo (OR = 0,7; IC95%:0,49-0,99, independentemente da presença de excesso de peso. CONCLUSÕES: A Prevalência de obesidade abdominal foi baixa em comparação ao observado em levantamentos internacionais, e a prática de atividades físicas é um fator associado à ocorrência desse evento em adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity in adolescents is associated with

  15. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p muscle area and an increase (+1%, p muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  16. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Spanish children and adolescents. Do we need waist circumference measurements in pediatric practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90(th) percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice.

  17. PER2 variants are associated with abdominal obesity, psycho-behavioral factors and attrition in the dietary treatment of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose was to test for association between polymorphisms in the circadian clock-related gene PER2 and attrition in patients prone to withdrawal from a behavioral weight-reduction-program based on the Mediterranean Diet. 454 overweight/obese subjects (women= 380, men= 74), aged 20-65 years, who ...

  18. obesity a disease of inactivity?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a nutritional disorder, and the result of a positive energy bal- ance and ... nutritional status, adipose tissue stores and state of training. This feedback control .... For each 'i, mind treadmill time, 1.5 k. Higherbaseline activity levels . . . of ,. Women who“quit~~"smo increased activity gain weight than those who quit smoking. 1'.

  19. Associations between Overall and Abdominal Obesity and Suicidal Ideation among US Adult Women

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S.; Tsai, James; Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Croft, Janet B.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Balluz, Lina S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risks for mental disorders. This study examined associations of obesity indicators including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation among U.S. women. We analyzed data from 3,732 nonpregnant women aged ≥20 years who participated in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference to calculate BMI and waist-height ratio...

  20. Muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity, but not content, is altered with abdominal obesity in sedentary men: synergism with changes in insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanseaume, Emilie; Barquissau, Valentin; Salles, Jérôme; Aucouturier, Julien; Patrac, Véronique; Giraudet, Christophe; Gryson, Céline; Duché, Pascale; Boirie, Yves; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Morio, Béatrice

    2010-06-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for muscle insulin resistance. Mitochondria may play a key role in this etiology. Changes in muscle mitochondrial content and function were examined according to abdominal obesity and insulin sensitivity in men. The descriptive MitHyCal study was conducted on the general population of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Forty-two healthy sedentary men (41.7 +/- 4.3 yr) were divided into four groups according to waist circumference: 87 cm or less (group 1, n = 10); 88-93 cm (group 2, n = 12); 94-101 cm (group 3, n = 10); and 102 cm or greater (group 4, n = 10). Plasma metabolic check-up was performed, and insulin sensitivity index was calculated from glucose and insulin responses to a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test. Muscle biopsies were obtained to assess mitochondrial content, oxidative phosphorylation activity, and superoxide anion (reactive oxygen species) production. Assessment of muscle mitochondrial content and function was planned before data collection began. Abdominal obesity was negatively correlated to insulin sensitivity index (r = -0.39; P muscle mitochondrial content and maximal activity of key oxidative enzymes. In contrast, muscle mitochondrial ADP-stimulated respiration rate was 24% higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to groups 1 and 4 (P Abdominal obesity is associated with alterations in intrinsic muscle mitochondrial function but not content. These adaptations mainly result in reduced mitochondrial ATP production rate in response to insulin resistance.

  1. Impact of abdominal obesity and ambulatory blood pressure in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in never treated hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José A; Martín, Joaquin; González, Carmen; Pascual, Jose M; Redon, Josep

    2014-03-20

    The principal objective was to assess the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive, never treated patients, depending on adjustment for body surface or height. Secondary objectives were to determine geometric alterations of the left ventricle and to analyze the interdependence of hypertension and obesity to induce LVH. Cross-sectional study that included 750 patients (387 men) aged 47 (13, SD) years who underwent ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) monitoring and echocardiography. The prevalence of LVH was 40.4% (303 patients), adjusted for body surface area (BSA, LVHBSA), and 61.7% (463 patients), adjusted for height(2.7) (LVHheight(2.7)). In a multivariate logistic analysis, systolic BP24h, gender and presence of elevated microalbuminuria were associated with both LVHBSA and LVHheight(2.7). Increased waist circumference was the strongest independent predictor of LVHheight(2.7), but was not associated with LVHBSA. We found a significant interaction between abdominal obesity and systolic BP24h in LVHheight(2.7). Concentric remodelling seems to be the most prevalent alteration of left ventricular geometry in early stages of hypertension (37.5%). The impact of obesity as predictor of LVH in never treated hypertensives is present only when left ventricular mass (LVM) is indexed to height(2.7). Obesity interacts with systolic BP24h in an additive but not merely synergistic manner. Systolic BP24h is the strongest determinant of LVH when indexed for BSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnic differences in prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity among low-income rural Kazakh and Uyghur adults in far western China and implications in preventive public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China's far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity.A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009-2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥ 18 years old in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC.The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female's prevalence of obesity was higher than male's for general obesity (45-54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041 and abdominal obesity (≥ 55 years in Kazakhs, P(55 ∼ = 0.010, P(65 ∼ = 0.001; and ≥ 18 years in Uyghurs, P<0.001. Kazakh's prevalence of obesity was higher than Uyghur's (general obesity: ≥ 35 years, P<0.001; abdominal obesity: ≥ 25 years in males and ≥ 65 years in females, P<0.01. The prevalence of obesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities.Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related

  3. Fatores associados à obesidade global e à obesidade abdominal em mulheres na pós-menopausa Factors associated with body and abdominal obesity in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula França

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a prevalência de obesidade global e obesidade abdominal, em mulheres pós-menopausa, segundo o grau de instrução, nível de atividade física, uso de terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM e paridade. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistadas 157 mulheres na pós-menopausa, atendidas em dois ambulatórios públicos da cidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. A obesidade foi determinada segundo o índice de massa corporal (IMC > 30,0 e segundo o percentual de gordura corporal (%GC > 37%. A obesidade abdominal foi determinada pela relação cintura-quadril (RCQ > 0,85. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de obesidade global foi 34,4% (segundo o IMC e de 40,1% (segundo o %GC. A prevalência de obesidade abdominal foi de 73,8%. Grande parte das entrevistadas referiu até sete anos de instrução formal (47,8%, foi considerada sedentária ou insuficientemente ativa (52,3% e nunca tinha utilizado THM oral ou tinha utilizado por menos de 12 meses (72,0%. Foi constatada maior prevalência de obesidade global no grupo de mulheres sedentárias ou insuficientemente ativas e no grupo de não usuárias de THM (pOBJECTIVES: to evaluate the body and abdominal obesity in post-menopausal women, according to educational level, level of physical activity, use of hormone therapy (HT, and parity. METHODS: 157 post-menopausal women, attending two public out-patients clinics in the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, were interviewed. The prevalence of body obesity was calculated using the body mass index (BMI >30.0 and the body fat percentage (%BF > 37%. Abdominal obesity was calculated using the waist hip ratio (WHR >0.85. RESULTS: the prevalence of body obesity was 34.4% (using the BMI and 40.1% (using %BF. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 73.8%. Most of the women had up to seven years of formal schooling (47.8%, were considered sedentary or insufficiently active (52.3%, and had never used oral HT or had been using it for less than 12 months (72

  4. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Ulf; Ward, Heather; Norat, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall...... of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion...

  5. Abdominal obesity as a mediator of the influence of physical activity on insulin resistance in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and insulin resistance (IR) in Spanish adults and to examine whether this relationship is mediated by abdominal obesity (waist circumference - WC). The cross-sectional study included 1162 healthy subjects belonging to the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.3years; 61.8% women) from six different Spanish provinces. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured objectively over 7days using Actigraph accelerometers, collecting data in 60-second epochs, and retaining respondents with ≥4 valid days for the analysis. The homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to determine IR, and its individual components - fasting glucose and insulin - were determined using standard protocols. Linear regression models were fitted according to Baron and Kenny's procedures for mediation analysis. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR levels were significantly worse in adults who spent fewer minutes in MVPA (first quartile≤30.1 and 22.7min/day in men and women, respectively) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits, drinking habits, accelerometer wear time, sedentary time, and Mediterranean diet adherence. However, when WC was added to the ANCOVA models as a covariate, the effects disappeared. Mediation analysis reported that WC acts as a full mediator in the relationship between MVPA and IR (HOMA-IR and fasting insulin). These findings show that WC plays a pivotal role in the relationship between MVPA and IR, and therefore highlights that decreasing abdominal obesity might be considered as an intermediate outcome for evaluating interventions aimed at preventing diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chest wall mechanics and abdominal pressure during general anaesthesia in normal and obese individuals and in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Paolo; Luecke, Thomas; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2011-02-01

    This article discusses the methods available to evaluate chest wall mechanics and the relationship between intraabdominal pressure (IAP) and chest wall mechanics during general anaesthesia in normal and obese individuals, as well as in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. The interactions between the abdominal and thoracic compartments pose a specific challenge for intensive care physicians. IAP affects respiratory system, lung and chest wall elastance in an unpredictable way. Thus, transpulmonary pressure should be measured if IAP is more than 12 mmHg or if chest wall elastance is compromised for other reasons, even though the absolute values of pleural and transpulmonary pressures are not easily obtained at bedside. We suggest defining intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) as IAP at least 20 mmHg and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) as IAP at least 20 mmHg associated with failure of one or more organs, although further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. Additionally, in the presence of IAH, controlled mechanical ventilation should be applied and positive end-expiratory pressure individually titrated. Prophylactic open abdomen should be considered in the presence of ACS. Increased IAP markedly affects respiratory function and complicates patient management. Frequent assessment of IAP is recommended.

  7. Total and abdominal obesity are risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Paolo; Buonavolontà, Roberta; Miele, Erasmo; Masi, Paola; Coccorullo, Paola; Staiano, Annamaria

    2012-07-01

    The association between GERD and obesity has been frequently reported in adults. Data in children are scarce and inconclusive, evaluating only general obesity. Central adiposity has never been investigated in children as a possible risk factor for GERD. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in overweight and obese children in comparison with a general normal-weight population and whether the GERD symptoms are associated with waist circumference (WC). The study population consisted of 153 healthy children. A detailed clinical history and a physical examination were obtained from each patient. A questionnaire on reflux symptoms was completed by caregivers. The reflux symptomatic score resulted significantly higher in obese than in normal-weight children and in children with WC >90th percentile compared with those with WC obesity are risk factors for the development of GERD symptoms in children. The risk of GERD symptoms rises progressively with the increase in both body mass index and waist circumference, even in normal-weight children.

  8. Weight loss moderately affects the mixed meal challenge response of the plasma metabolome and transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in abdominally obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Joris, Peter J; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Esser, Diederik; Afman, Lydia; Hankemeier, Thomas; Jacobs, Doris M; Mihaleva, Velitchka V; Kersten, Sander; van Duynhoven, John; Boekschoten, Mark V

    2018-01-01

    The response to dietary challenges has been proposed as a more accurate measure of metabolic health than static measurements performed in the fasted state. This has prompted many groups to explore the potential of dietary challenge tests for assessment of diet and lifestyle induced shifts in metabolic phenotype. We examined whether the response to a mixed-meal challenge could provide a readout for a weight loss (WL)-induced phenotype shift in abdominally obese male subjects. The underlying assumption of a mixed meal challenge is that it triggers all aspects of phenotypic flexibility and provokes a more prolonged insulin response, possibly allowing for better differentiation between individuals. Abdominally obese men (n = 29, BMI = 30.3 ± 2.4 kg/m 2 ) received a mixed-meal challenge prior to and after an 8-week WL or no-WL control intervention. Lean subjects (n = 15, BMI = 23.0 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) only received the mixed meal challenge at baseline to have a benchmark for WL-induced phenotype shifts. Levels of several plasma metabolites were significantly different between lean and abdominally obese at baseline as well as during postprandial metabolic responses. Genes related to oxidative phosphorylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were expressed at higher levels in abdominally obese subjects as compared to lean subjects at fasting, which was partially reverted after WL. The impact of WL on the postprandial response was modest, both at the metabolic and gene expression level in PBMCs. We conclude that mixed-meal challenges are not necessarily superior to measurements in the fasted state to assess metabolic health. Furthermore, the mechanisms accounting for the observed differences between lean and abdominally obese in the fasted state are different from those underlying the dissimilarity observed during the postprandial response.

  9. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  10. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nurul-Fadhilah

    Full Text Available Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2% fell in the normal body mass index (BMI ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50% were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI, BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  11. Body composition in 13-year-old adolescents with abdominal obesity, depending on the BMI value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna S; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Excessive adipocyte growth during the pubertal transition predisposes to the development and persistence of obesity in adulthood. Visceral accumulation of body fat is particularly disadvantageous when it is correlated with insulin resistance, secondary hyperinsulinaemia, dysglicaemia, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to conduct a nutritional status assessment and body composition analysis in 13-year-old adolescents of both genders with visceral fat accumulation (WC ≥ 90th percentile) and different BMI values. The evaluation of state of nutrition of 1,738 Polish boys (n = 882) and girls (n = 856) aged 13 was done based on anthropometric measurements and calculated BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference) and WHtR indices (waist-to-height ratio). Taking into consideration the value of WC ≥ 90 pc, 353 people were designated (20.3 % of the total) with visceral obesity (but with various BMI), whose body composition was examined by the method of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). A total of 249 adolescents of both sexes (70.5% of the selected, 102 boys and 147 girls) and their parents agreed to the study. In adolescents with visceral obesity a significant change of body content was ascertained depending on the value of the BMI. Even in the people with a proper value of the BMI, a significantly higher than standard increase of the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and decrease of both the percentage of body lean (BL) and the content of total body water (TBW) in the body was observed. The values of the BMI, WC and WHtR in adolescents were significantly correlated with each other as well as with TBF, BL and TBW, and the strength of correlation was dependent on sex. The state of nutrition in adolescents with visceral obesity, even with a proper BMI, might contribute to the development of a metabolic syndrome.

  12. Associations between Overall and Abdominal Obesity and Suicidal Ideation among US Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixiang Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risks for mental disorders. This study examined associations of obesity indicators including body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation among U.S. women. We analyzed data from 3,732 nonpregnant women aged ≥20 years who participated in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used anthropometric measures of weight, height, and waist circumference to calculate BMI and waist-height ratio. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Odds ratios with 95% conference intervals were estimated using logistic regression analyses after controlling for potential confounders. The age-adjusted prevalence of suicidal ideation was 3.0%; the prevalence increased linearly across quartiles of BMI, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio (P for linear trend <0.01 for all. The positive associations of waist circumference and waist-height ratio with suicidal ideation remained significant (<0.05 after adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle-related behavioral factors, and having either chronic conditions or current depression. However, these associations were attenuated after both chronic conditions and depression were entered into the models. Thus, the previously reported association between obesity and suicidal ideation appears to be confounded by coexistence of chronic conditions and current depression among women of the United States.

  13. Abdominal Obesity Is Characterized by Higher Pulse Pressure: Possible Role of Free Triiodothyronine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Pergola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined whether obesity is characterized by higher 24 h mean pulse pressure (24 h mean SBP-24 h mean DBP and whether free thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4 have a relationship with 24 h mean pulse pressure. Methods. A total of 231 euthyroid overweight and obese patients, 103 women and 128 men, aged 18–68 yrs, normotensive ( or with recently developed hypertension (, never treated with antihypertensive drugs, were investigated. Fasting insulin, TSH, FT3, FT4, glucose, and lipid serum concentrations were measured. Waist circumference was measured as an indirect parameter of central fat accumulation. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed. Results. 24 h mean pulse pressure (PP showed a significant positive correlation with BMI (, waist circumference (, and FT3 ( and insulin serum levels (. When a multivariate analysis was performed, and 24 h PP was considered as the dependent variable, and waist circumference, FT3, insulin, male sex, and age as independent parameters, 24 h mean PP maintained a significant association only with waist circumference ( and FT3 levels (. Conclusion. Our results suggest that FT3 per se may contribute to higher pulse pressure in obese subjects.

  14. Effects of testosterone supplementation on whole body and regional fat mass and distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Parker, Robert A; Sattler, Fred; Haubrich, Richard; Alston, Beverly; Umbleja, Triin; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2007-03-01

    Whole body and abdominal obesity are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus and heart disease. The effects of testosterone therapy on whole body and visceral fat mass in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone therapy on intraabdominal fat mass and whole body fat distribution in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity. IN this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 88 HIV-positive men with abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.95 or mid-waist circumference > 100 cm) and total testosterone 125-400 ng/dl, or bioavailable testosterone less than 115 ng/dl, or free testosterone less than 50 pg/ml on stable antiretroviral regimen, and HIV RNA less than 10,000 copies per milliliter were randomized to receive 10 g testosterone gel or placebo daily for 24 wk. Fat mass and distribution were determined by abdominal computerized tomography and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry during wk 0, 12, and 24. We used an intention-to-treat approach and nonparametric statistical methods. Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. In 75 subjects evaluated, median percent change from baseline to wk 24 in visceral fat did not differ significantly between groups (testosterone 0.3%, placebo 3.1%, P = 0.75). Total (testosterone -1.5%, placebo 4.3%, P = 0.04) and sc (testosterone-7.2%, placebo 8.1%, P fat mass decreased in testosterone-treated men, but increased in placebo group. Testosterone therapy was associated with significant decrease in whole body, trunk, and appendicular fat mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (all P fat increased significantly in the placebo group. The percent of individuals reporting a decrease in abdomen (P = 0.01), neck (P = 0.08), and breast size (P = 0.01) at wk 24 was significantly greater in testosterone-treated than placebo-treated men. Testosterone-treated men had greater increase in lean body mass than placebo

  15. Low Sleeping Time, High TV Viewing Time, and Physical Inactivity in School Are Risk Factors for Obesity in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Srichan, Weerachat; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Khouw, Ilse Tan; Deurenberg, Pual

    2016-03-01

    Explore the association between physically active behavior and obesity in 7- to 12-years-old Thai children. As part of SEANUTS Thailand, information on anthropometry, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables were collected in 7- to 12-years-old urban and rural Thai children. Multi-stage sampling technique was used and 1,345 children (32% urban, and 50.3% boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) using World Health Organization Growth Reference. Obesity was defined as BAZ > 2SD. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). The PAQ provided an activity score, activity time in school, sleeping hours, and TV watching time as categorical variable, low, moderate, and high. Chi-square by likelihood ratio test and logistic regression were used to compare obese and non-obese groups. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.2 and 10.8% respectively, whereas 8.2% was classified as thin. Maternal education and religion did not differ between obese and non-obese children. However, obese children's family income was higher. After controlling for family income, maternal education, and religion, obese children were significantly less active during break times in school, slept less, and watched more TV than non-obese. However, there was no difference in the activity score of obese and non-obese children. The study showed that physical activity during break time in school, sleep duration, and hours of TV viewing were associated with obesity in pre-adolescent Thai children. It is important to note that activity score was not associated with obesity. One of the most important benefits to be physically active in childhood is the potential to maintain this behavior into adulthood. Therefore, programs that encourage healthy behaviors and address these modifiable risk factors should be incorporated in the school curriculum.

  16. Influence of non-dietary factors on the prevalence of abdominal obesity as a major component of the metabolic syndrome among 17-18-year-old youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Ewa; Broniecka, Anna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Youth nutrition and their nutritional status are conditioned by many factors, some of the main ones being: economic, social, climatic, cultural, and psychological factors as well as nutritional knowledge. With the growing problem of overweight and obesity among children and young people, the incidence of the metabolic syndrome is also increasing. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of demographic, sociological and psychological factors on the incidence of obesity among 17-18-year-old adolescents from Wroclaw and vicinity as a major risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome. The study was conducted in three upper-secondary schools in Wroclaw, Poland. In the surveyed group (17-18 years old, n = 269) girls accounted for 59.5% and boys constituted 40.5%. Majority of young people were Wroclaw citizens (72.9%). Centile charts elaborated by the Children's Memorial Health Institute were adopted for the evaluation of anthropometric parameters. Evaluation of the impact of non-dietary factors on the manner of nutrition was carried out using own questionnaire. Based on the tests, abdominal obesity was determined among 34.5% of adolescents aged 17 years and among 65.5% of these aged 18 years. Obesity was more common in girls carrying genetic burden of the disease. Youth with the largest waist circumference most often declared to use slimming diets - 6.7%, and the lowest hunger sensation in stress - 3.4%. In addition, 30.5% of the adolescents with the smallest waist circumference and 11.5% with the largest waist circumference declared to be non-smoking. Occasional alcohol consumption was declared by 30.1% of young people with the smallest waist circumference, and 13.4% with the largest waist circumference. Youth with abdominal obesity significantly more likely than those with normal waist circumference applied slimming diets. Significant impact on the formation of abdominal obesity among girls had inherited disease burden.

  17. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in patients with complex abdominal wall hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, John M; Geletzke, Abby K; Phillips, Brett E; Miller, Jamie; Dykes, Thomas M; Soybel, David I

    2016-11-01

    Chronic muscle wasting, or sarcopenia, has been associated with poor-health outcomes after major surgical procedures. Here, we explore the utility of CT-generated determinations of sarcopenia as markers of risk in patients undergoing evaluation for complex ventral hernia repair. In 148 successive patients being evaluated for complex ventral hernia repair, CT scans were analyzed retrospectively for attributes of the hernia and indices of core-muscle mass, correlating them with preoperative clinical/laboratory profiles and outcomes in 82 patients who had undergone surgery. Prevalence of sarcopenia, and sarcopenia corrected for obesity, was 26% and 20% respectively. Sarcopenia was associated with age, some laboratory indicators, and increased hospital length of stay but not with a higher likelihood of surgical site occurrence. Obesity may obscure the value of sarcopenia as a marker of metabolic disturbance and postoperative outcome. Image-based measurements of core-muscle mass should be used with caution as predictors of risk in similar surgical populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalência de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura em escolares de uma cidade serrana no sul do Brasil Prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students of a city in the mountains of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahna dos Reis Roth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é considerada a mais importante desordem nutricional devido ao aumento acelerado de suas prevalências nos últimos anos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a prevalência de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura em escolares de 11 a 14 anos (meninos e meninas de uma cidade serrana no sul do Brasil, e verificar as possíveis associações com classificação econômica, sexo, idade, hábitos alimentares, hábitos de vida (atividades físicas e atividades sedentárias e insatisfação com a imagem corporal. Foram avaliados 1230 escolares através de um estudo transversal. As variáveis antropométricas estudadas foram circunferência da cintura e as dobras cutâneas do tríceps e da panturrilha. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva e uma bivariada entre as variáveis independentes e o desfecho. As prevalências de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura corporal foram 28,7% e 40,1%, respectivamente. Houve associação estatítisca significante com maior número de refeições e insatisfação com a imagem corporal para obesidade abdominal, que também esteve associada com os avaliados do sexo feminino, e para excesso de gordura corporal e. As prevalências de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura corporal estão elevadas e justificam a implementação de ações de saúde nas escolas.Obesity is considered the most important nutritional disorder due to a rapid increase in its prevalence in recent years. The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students aged 11 to 14 (boys and girls from a town in the mountains of southern Brazil, and to verify the possible associations with economic classification, gender, age, eating habits, lifestyle habits (physical activity and sedentary activities and dissatisfaction with body image. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1230 students. The anthropometric variables studied were the waist circumference and the skin folds of

  19. Pragmatic study of orlistat 60 mg on abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Makwana, A; Newbould, R; Rao, A W; Gambarota, G; Frost, G; Delafont, B; Mishra, R G; Matthews, P M; Berk, E S; Schwartz, S M; Bell, J D; Beaver, J D

    2011-11-01

    It is well established that combining a reduced calorie, low-fat diet with the lipase inhibitor orlistat results in significantly greater weight loss than placebo plus diet. This weight loss is accompanied by changes in adipose tissue (AT) distribution. As 60 mg orlistat is now available as an over-the-counter medication, the primary objective of this study was to determine whether 60 mg orlistat is effective as a weight loss option in a free-living community population with minimal professional input. AT and ectopic lipid content were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and (1)H MR spectroscopy, respectively, in 27 subjects following 3 months treatment with orlistat 60 mg and a reduced calorie, low-fat diet. Significant reductions in intra-abdominal AT (-10.6%, P=0.023), subcutaneous (-11.7% P<0.0001) and pericardial fat (-9.8%, P=0.034) volumes and intrahepatocellular lipids (-43.3%, P=0.0003) were observed. These changes in body fat content and distribution were accompanied by improvements in plasma lipids and decreases in blood pressure and heart rate. These findings suggest that over-the-counter 60 mg orlistat, in combination with the type of advice a subject could expect to be given when obtaining 60 mg orlistat in a community setting, does indeed result in potentially clinically beneficial changes in body composition and risk factors for metabolic diseases.

  20. Chronic stress and comfort foods: self-medication and abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallman, Mary F; Pecoraro, Norman C; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2005-07-01

    Central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) networks are recruited by chronic stressors and elevated glucocorticoids (GCs) that initiate recruitment of central CRF activity in the amygdala. Increased central activity of the CRF network stimulates all monoaminergic cell groups, as well as premotor autonomic and other limbic structures resulting in the typical arousal, behavioral changes, autonomic, and neuroendocrine changes that accompany the chronic imposition of a stressor. By contrast, elevated GCs appear, through a variety of means to counteract the effects of central CRF, which they have initiated. Together with insulin, the GCs stimulate drive for and ingestion of "comfort foods" that may directly result in reduction of the negative effects of the chronic stressor in the nucleus Accumbens, through stimulation of the anterior, more pleasure-associated part of this cell group, thus reducing the weight of the stress-stimulated posterior, more defensive part. Furthermore, the shift in caloric intake from chow to preference for "comfort foods," together with elevated GCs and insulin, reorganize energy stores from a peripheral to a central distribution, primarily as abdominal fat. A signal associated with this fat depot appears, as with eating "comfort foods," to reduce the influence of the chronic stress network on behaviors, autonomic, and neuroendocrine outflow.

  1. Risks of Overweight and Abdominal Obesity at Age 16 Years Associated With Prenatal Exposures to Maternal Prepregnancy Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Pirkola, Jatta; Pouta, Anneli; Bloigu, Aini; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The associations of prenatal exposures to maternal prepregnancy overweight and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with offspring overweight are controversial. Research estimating risk for offspring overweight due to these exposures, separately and concomitantly, is limited. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity at age 16 years and odds ratios (ORs) for prenatal exposures to maternal prepregnancy overweight and GDM were estimated in participants ...

  2. Simultaneous abdominal surgery in patients with the metabolic syndrome and obesity

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    K. M. Mylytsya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to discuss the possibility and appropriateness of simultaneous operations in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and obesity (O. Material and methods. The analysis of 50 simultaneous operations in patients with MS and O was performed. Gender, age, medical history and clinical-laboratory features were explored. Duration of operations, the number of complications, length of hospital stay were analyzed. Results and discussion. Body mass index ranged from 33 kg/m2 to 51 kg/m2. Skin and fat flaps weight ranged from 3 to 12 kg. Weight loss of patients in one week after surgery ranged from 5 to 14 kg. There were no complications in the early and late postoperative period. Analysis of carbohydrate metabolism showed no significant differences in pre- and post-operative period. Nevertheless simultaneous abdominoplasty as corrective surgery reduces weight, improves the self-perception of body image, physical and mental components of quality of life. Conclusion. The introduction of simultaneous operations will contribute: - for state: to increase and maintain the reproductive potential of the nation, to save the hospital beds, to save finances, to reduce the incidence of metabolic forms of cancer pathology; - for the patient: performing one operation instead of two ones, allowing to go through preoperative stress, anesthesia, postoperative period and the rehabilitation period once; during one operation to solve two-three issues; during surgical treatment of main disease to prevent oncological, cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, etc. Of course, the widespread adoption of the program of simultaneous gynecology, surgery requires the dissemination of knowledge and techniques refinement. simultaneous surgery; metabolic syndrome; obesity

  3. Ethnic Differences in Prevalence of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Guo, Shuxia; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Shugang; Xu, Shangzhi; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Heng; Ma, Rulin

    2014-01-01

    Background The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China’s far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity. Methods A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009–2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC. Results The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female’s prevalence of obesity was higher than male’s for general obesity (45–54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041) and abdominal obesity (≥55 years in Kazakhs, P55∼ = 0.010, P65∼ = 0.001; and ≥18 years in Uyghurs, Pobesity was higher than Uyghur’s (general obesity: ≥35 years, Pobesity: ≥25 years in males and ≥65 years in females, Pobesity increased after 18 years old and subsequently decreased after 55 years old. Meat consumption, older age, and female gender had a higher risk of obesity in these two minorities. Conclusions Both general and abdominal obesity were common in rural ethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related diseases in low-income rural

  4. Self-reported type 2 diabetes Mellitus is associated with abdominal obesity and poor perception of health in shift workers

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    Carine FRÖHLICH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate factors that are associated with type 2 diabetes Mellitus in shift workers of a slaughterhouse in Southern Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,194 18- to 50-year-old workers of both sexes. The presence of type 2 diabetes Mellitus was self-reported and confirmed by the use of hypoglycemic drugs or insulin. The independent variables were sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, family income, leisure time physical activity, smoking, and self-reported health and nutritional status (body mass index and waist circumference. Multivariate analysis was performed from an a priori conceptual model. Results: The prevalence of diabetes was 1.3% (95%CI=0.6-1.9. Type 2 diabetes Mellitus was associated with poor or regular self-reported health (OR=3.72; 95%CI=1.28-10.78 and level II abdominal obesity ³102 for men and ³88 for women (OR=5.76; 95%CI=1.07-29.10. Conclusion: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes Mellitus was low. Moreover, the study evidenced the importance of using waist circumference to surveil and screen for metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes Mellitus, and to monitor the low quality of life in the study individuals given the poor self-perceived health of workers with the said disease.

  5. The longitudinal association between inflammation and incident depressive symptoms in men: the effects of hs-CRP are independent of abdominal obesity and metabolic disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J; Baumeister, Harald; Bengel, Jürgen; Jenkins, Alicia; Januszewski, Andrzej; Martin, Sean; Wittert, Gary A

    2015-02-01

    This cohort study evaluates whether the association between low-grade inflammation and incident depressive symptoms is independent of abdominal obesity and metabolic disturbances. A cohort of 1167 non-depressed men aged 35 to 80 years were followed up over 5 years to assess incident depressive symptoms measured by the Centre for Epidemiology Scale-Depression or Beck Depression Inventory-I. Venous tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were quantified at baseline and 5years. Logistic regression determined whether hsCRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with incident depressive symptoms independent of abdominal obesity and metabolic factors. Ancillary analysis utilizing depression z scores stratified participants by waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and ≥2 metabolic disturbances. Incident depressive symptoms occurred in 95 men at 5 years (8.14% of total). Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were associated with baseline hsCRP (adjusted OR=1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.07, p=.03) and annualized ΔhsCRP (adjusted OR=1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.08, p=.02). Ancillary analysis showed that the association between annualized ΔhsCRP and depression z score was only significant in men with waist circumferencesymptoms in a cohort of men. Further investigation into the role of abdominal obesity and metabolic disturbances in the inflammation-depression hypothesis is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  7. Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopoulou, Flora; Efthymiou, Vasiliki; Landis, Georgios; Rentoumis, Anastasios; Chrousos, George P

    2015-05-04

    Indices predictive of adolescent central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Such reference data are lacking for Greek adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents aged 12-17 years, to investigate possible obesity cut-offs of WHR and WHtR and to compare WC percentiles to other adolescent populations. A representative sample of 1610 high school adolescents (42.2% boys, 57.8% girls; mean age ± sd 14.4 ± 1.72 years) participated in this cross-sectional study in Attica, Greece, in 2013. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC, hip circumference (HC), WHR and WHtR were measured and percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. The relation between WHR, WHtR and general obesity, as defined by the International Obesity Task Force, was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The discriminating power of WHR and WHtR was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Greek adolescents' WC measurements at the 50th and 90th percentile were compared with their counterparts' smoothed percentiles from Norway, Turkey, Poland, South India, Germany and Kuwait. Boys had significantly higher mean in all measures than girls, except for BMI where there was no statistical difference in terms of gender. BMI, WC and HC showed an increasing trend with age. WC leveled off in both genders at the age of 17 years. WHR and WHtR showed a continuous decrease with advancing age. WHtR was a better predictor for general obesity in both boys and girls (AUC 95% CI 0.945-0.992) than the WHR (AUC 95% CI 0.758-0.870); the WHtR cut-off of 0.5 had sensitivity 91% and specificity 95% for both genders and all age groups combined. International comparisons showed that Greek adolescents had relatively high levels of abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence but this did not persist at

  8. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women : the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekelund, Ulf; Ward, Heather A.; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian'an; May, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818658; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J.; Overvad, Kim; Ostergaard, Jane Nautrup; TjOnneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Fons; Mesrine, Sylvie; Foamier, Agnes; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Ramon Quiros, J.; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Maria Huerta, Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Sand, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Soren; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Riboli, Elio

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall

  9. The interactions between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I and abdominal obesity with metabolism and blood pressure in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmond, R; Björntorp, P

    1998-12-01

    To examine potential interactions between abdominal obesity, endocrine, metabolic and hemodynamic perturbations. A subgroup of 284 men from a population sample of 1040 at the age of 51 y. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), waist/hip circumference ratio (WHR) and abdominal sagittal diameter (D). Endocrine measurements were a modified, low dose (0.5 mg) dexamethasone suppression test (Dex), testosterone (T) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Overnight fasting values of blood glucose, serum insulin, triglycerides, total, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as resting heart rate and blood pressure were also determined. Arbitrary subdivisions of the men were performed to obtain subgroups of low T and IGF-I values (lowest decile, borderlines low density lipoprotein cholesterol, were then found in subgroups with different endocrine profiles. These included men with a blunted Dex test with low T or IGF-I values, as well as men with a normal Dex test and low or normal T or IGF-I values. In addition, a group with isolated low Dex suppression, as well as another group without endocrine abnormalities, showed such relationships. These findings suggest that, in men, obesity factors are associated with metabolic and hemodynamic complications with or without the presence of perturbations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) regulation or low T or growth hormone secretion. In order to generate hypotheses concerning the nature of the impact of the endocrine perturbations in abdominal obesity and its metabolic complications, path analyses were performed, testing different models. These models included the endocrine measurements (Dex test, T and IGF-I), the WHR and D (representing abdominal distribution of fat), BMI (representing obesity), as well as insulin and triglyceride values (representing metabolic perturbations). The results showed a satisfactory fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.945 - 1.0) for the path diagrams: Dex

  10. Role of obesity and abdominal shape morphometric features to predict postoperative complications and quality of lymph node dissection of gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HasbahcecI, M; MehdI, E; Malya, F U; Kunduz, E; MemmI, N; YIgman, S; Akcakaya, A

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and abdominal shape morphometric features have been thought to be independent risk factors for surgical outcomes after gastrectomy.A total of 113 patients undergoing surgery for primary gastric adenocarcinoma from June 2011 to January 2015 were retrospectively included. Body mass index, visceral fatty area, anterior-posterior abdominal and transverse diameters and depth ratio at levels of the umbilicus, the gastroesophageal junction and the root of the celiac artery were measured or calculated. Patients were grouped according to body mass index (parameters. Surgical outcomes including postoperative complications, total and metastatic lymph node numbers and their ratio were compared.There was a significant association between body mass index and abdominal shape indexes. Body mass index and abdominal shape indexes showed no statistical significance on development of complications. But, lymph node numbers and their ratio were negatively affected by depth ratio at the root of the celiac artery.Our findings showed that gastrectomy with curative intent can be performed safely in patients with higher body mass index and abdominal shape indexes. Therefore, there is no need to perform any change in surgical strategy according to these measurements and calculations.

  11. Television viewing and abdominal obesity in young adults: is the association mediated by food and beverage consumption during viewing time or reduced leisure-time physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity J; Schmidt, Michael D; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2008-05-01

    The behavioral pathways through which television (TV) viewing leads to increased adiposity in adults are unclear. We wanted to determine whether the association between TV viewing and abdominal obesity in young adults is mediated by food and beverage consumption during TV viewing time or by a reduction in overall leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). This study involved a cross-sectional analysis of data from 2001 Australian adults aged 26-36 y. Waist circumference (WC) was measured at study clinics, and TV viewing time, frequency of food and beverage consumption during TV viewing, LTPA, and demographic characteristics were self-reported. Women watching TV > 3 h/d had a higher prevalence of severe abdominal obesity (WC: > or = 88 cm) compared with women watching obesity (WC: 94-101.9 cm) was more prevalent in men watching TV > 3 h/d than in men watching TV viewing attenuated the associations (PR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.17 for women; PR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.83 for men). The association between TV viewing and WC in young adults may be partially explained by food and beverage consumption during TV viewing but was not explained by a reduction in overall LTPA. Other behaviors likely contribute to the association between TV viewing and obesity.

  12. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Radcliffe, John D; O'Neil, Carol E; Liu, Yan

    2013-11-01

    To examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional. Three breakfast groups were identified, breakfast skippers (BS), ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers and other breakfast (OB) consumers, using a 24 h dietary recall. Risk factors were compared between the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted statistical procedures. The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA. Young adults (20–39 years of age). Among these young adults (n 5316), 23.8% were BS, 16.5% were RTEC consumers and 59.7% were OB consumers. Relative to the BS, the RTEC consumers were 31%, 39%, 37%, 28%, 23%, 40% and 42% less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol, reduced serum HDL-cholesterol or elevated serum insulin, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the BS were 1.24, 1.26 and 1.44 times more likely to have elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol or reduced serum HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the RTEC consumers were 22%, 31% and 24% less likely to be overweight/ obese or have abdominal obesity or elevated blood pressure, respectively. No difference was seen in the prevalence of the MetS by breakfast skipping or type of breakfast consumed. Results suggest that consumption of breakfast, especially that included an RTEC, was associated with an improved cardiometabolic risk profile in U.S. young adults. Additional studies are needed to determine the nature of these relationships.

  13. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Asmar, A; Nordby, P; Holst, J J; Bülow, J

    2016-05-02

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects. Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied by conducting regional measurements of arterio-venous plasma concentrations of metabolites and blood flow (adipose tissue blood flow, ATBF) across a segment of the abdominal adipose tissue in the fasting state and during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol kg(-)(1 )min(-)(1)) in combination with a hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp. After weight loss (7.5±0.8 kg), glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity increased significantly as expected. No significant differences were seen in basal ATBF before (1.3±0.4 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue(-1)) and after weight loss (2.1±0.4 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue)(-1); however, a tendency to increase was seen. After weight loss, GIP infusion increased ATBF significantly (3.2±0.1 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue(-1)) whereas there was no increase before weight loss. Triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake did not change after weight loss. Baseline free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol output increased significantly after weight loss, Pweight loss. Weight loss increased glucose uptake and decreased FFA/glycerol ratio during the clamp period, Pweight loss, induced by calorie restriction, improves the blunted effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism.

  14. Estrogen receptor protein content is different in abdominal than gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Kathleen M; Cooper, Elizabeth E; Hickner, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Premenopausal women demonstrate a distinctive gynoid body fat distribution and circulating estrogen status is associated with the maintenance of this adiposity patterning. Estrogen's role in modulation of regional adiposity may occur through estrogen receptors (ERs), which are present in human adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine regional differences in the protein content of ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) between the abdominal (AB) and gluteal (GL) subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Biopsies of the subcutaneous AB and GL adipose tissue were performed in 15 premenopausal women (7 Caucasian/8 African American, 25.1 ± 1.8 years, BMI 29.5 ± 0.5kg/m(2)). Adipose tissue protein content was measured by western blot analysis and correlation analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between ER protein content and anthropometric indices/body composition measurements. We found that ERα protein was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.0 ± 0.2 vs GL 0.67 ± 0.1 arbitrary units [AU], P=0.02), ERβ protein was higher in GL than AB (AB 0.78 ± 0.12 vs GL 1.3 ± 0.2 AU, P=0.002), ERα/ERβ ratio was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.9 ± 0.4 vs GL 0.58 ± 0.08 AU, P=0.007), and GPER protein content was similar in AB and GL (P=0.80) subcutaneous adipose tissue. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely related to gluteal ERβ (r(2)=0.315, P=0.03) and positively related to gluteal ERα/ERβ ratio (r(2)=0.406, P=0.01). These results indicate that depot specific ER content may be an important underlying determinant of regional effects of estrogen in upper and lower body adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a Multi-Disciplinary Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca L Share

    Full Text Available Young women are under-represented in cardiovascular disease research, with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factor interventions generally targeting older adults. Furthermore, appropriate study designs for young women remain uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of a 12 week multi-disciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women with abdominal obesity.Women aged 18-30 y with abdominal obesity [waist circumference (WC ≥ 80 cm] were randomised to a 12 week lifestyle intervention (n = 26 of physical activity, nutrition education and cognitive behavioural therapy, or a wait-list control group (n = 17. Both groups completed anthropometric, biochemical, nutrition and fitness testing, at pre (0 weeks and post (12 weeks, with intervention participants completed follow-up testing at 24 weeks.Results from a linear mixed model showed no between-group differences, other than increased physical activity in the intervention group, at post. In the intervention group alone, positive within-group changes were observed in WC, waist-hip-ratio (WHR, waist-height-ratio (WHtR, resting heart rate, blood pressure, predicted VO2max, and total energy intake. Most changes were maintained at 24 weeks post-intervention. Similar within-group improvements were observed in control participants in WC, WHR, WHtR, and systolic blood pressure but no changes were detected in physical activity and nutrition.Cardiometabolic risk factors were decreased as a result of a lifestyle intervention in young women with abdominal obesity. It is difficult to describe observations in the control group without greater understanding of the behaviour of wait-list participants.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001017819.

  16. Short-term effects of Mediterranean-type diet intervention on soluble cellular adhesion molecules in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallidis, Loukianos S; Kolomvotsou, Anastasia; Lekakis, John; Farajian, Paul; Vamvakou, Georgia; Dagres, Nikolaos; Zolindaki, Maria; Efstathiou, Stamatis; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria; Zampelas, Antonis

    2017-02-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and with increased production of adhesion molecules. The present work examined the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on soluble cellular adhesion molecules in individuals with AO. Ninety subjects with AO without cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group and were instructed to follow a Mediterranean-style diet for two months. Intervention group followed a specific relevant food plan with close dietetic supervision and provision of basic foods. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), sP and sE-selectin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Subjects in the intervention group increased their intake of total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamin C, and alcohol compared to controls, while decreased their intake of saturated fat. Although there was a significant decrease in CRP, sP-selectin and in sE-selectin in the intervention group, and an increase in sVCAM-1 in the control group, between-group analysis showed no statistically significant differences. There were also no significant changes in sICAM-1, and IL-6 levels after intervention. Mediterranean-type diet for two months combined with close dietetic supervision showed a beneficial tendency towards the down-regulation of some markers of vascular inflammation, although the comparison between groups after the intervention did not reach statistical significance. A longer period of dietary intervention may be required to further support these changes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Childhood poverty and abdominal obesity in adulthood: a systematic review Pobreza na infância e obesidade abdominal na vida adulta: revisão sistemática

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    David González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood can have lasting effects on health, but evidence is lacking from prospective studies concerning the effects of early poverty on abdominal obesity in adulthood. Cross-sectional studies in adults from middle and high-income countries show that current socioeconomic status is inversely related to obesity in women, but the pattern in men is not consistent. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the influence of early socioeconomic status on waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio in adulthood. Thirteen relevant articles were located (five cross-sectional and eight cohort, including only one from a middle-income country and the remainder from high-income settings. In all the studies, childhood poverty was associated with higher levels of abdominal obesity in women. In men, the associations were weaker, and no clear pattern emerged.Condições sócio-econômicas adversas na infância podem exercer efeitos duradouros sobre a saúde de adultos, mas são poucos os estudos longitudinais que avaliaram os efeitos sobre a obesidade abdominal. Estudos transversais em adultos de países de renda média e alta mostram uma associação inversa entre obesidade e posição sócio-econômica atual em mulheres, mas para os homens não se observa um padrão consistente. Entre homens e crianças de ambos os sexos não existe um padrão definido. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática dos estudos que avaliaram a posição sócio-econômica precoce e o seu efeito na circunferência da cintura, a circunferência do quadril e/ou na razão cintura-quadril em adultos. Dos 13 trabalhos incluídos (cinco transversais e oito coortes, apenas um foi realizado em um país de renda média, sendo os demais provenientes de países de renda alta. Em todos os estudos, a pobreza na infância esteve associada com maiores níveis de obesidade abdominal em mulheres. Em homens, as associações foram de menor

  18. Modified High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Abdominally Obese and Normal-Weight Rats Developed High Plasma Free Fatty Acid and Insulin Resistance

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    Li Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW rat model. Methods and Results. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. Conclusion. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  19. Modified high-sucrose diet-induced abdominally obese and normal-weight rats developed high plasma free fatty acid and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Liu, Xuehui; Cao, Hongyi; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW) rat model. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS) diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  20. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    adipose tissue in obese subjects. METHODS: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied......BACKGROUND: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal......-hyperglycemic clamp. RESULTS: After weight loss (7.5±0.8 kg), glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity increased significantly as expected. No significant differences were seen in basal ATBF before (1.3±0.4 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue(-1)) and after weight loss (2.1±0.4 ml min(-1) 100 g tissue)(-1); however, a tendency...

  1. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Korean adults using the new International Diabetes Federation definition and the new abdominal obesity criteria for the Korean people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Man; Kim, Dae Jung; Jung, In Hyun; Park, Chanwang; Park, Jong

    2007-07-01

    This study was performed to compare the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) definitions, and abdominal obesity criteria of WHO and the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) in Korean adults. A total of 4452 adults aged > or =20 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 were analyzed. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome estimated by NCEP definition with WHO criteria, NCEP with KSSO, IDF with WHO, and IDF with KSSO were 26.7%, 23.7%, 23.8% and 17.5%, respectively. The agreement percent among the four definitions ranged from 88.7% to 100% in men, and from 85.6% to 94.9% in women. The NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome was more strongly associated with hypertension and diabetes than the IDF-defined metabolic syndrome (age-adjusted odds ratio: 5.1 versus 3.6 for hypertension and 6.4 versus 3.2 for diabetes in men, respectively; 5.4 versus 3.4-4.3 for hypertension and 11.1 versus 3.8-4.2 for diabetes in women, respectively). Both definitions of the metabolic syndrome were associated with coronary heart disease or stroke only in women. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the predictive ability of the new definition of the metabolic syndrome and the new criteria of abdominal obesity for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Korean adults.

  2. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

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    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  3. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth): a 12-wk, randomized, parallel-controlled, double-blinded, diet intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V; Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Amer, Bashar; Larsen, Mette K; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Holst, Jens J; Herrmann, Annkatrin; O'Neill, Sadhbh; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Afman, Lydia; Jensen, Erik; Christensen, Merete M; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2015-04-01

    Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) improved postprandial lipid metabolism in humans with abdominal obesity. We conducted a 12-wk, randomized, double-blinded, diet intervention study. Sixty-three adults were randomly allocated to one of 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants consumed 60 g milk protein (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (with high or low MC-SFA content) daily. Before and after the intervention, a high-fat meal test was performed. We measured changes from baseline in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48; reflecting chylomicrons of intestinal origin), free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Furthermore, changes in the expression of adipose tissue genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Two-factor ANOVA was used to examine the difference between protein types and fatty acid compositions, as well as any interaction between the two. Fifty-two participants completed the study. We found that the postprandial apoB-48 response decreased significantly after whey compared with casein (P = 0.025) independently of fatty acid composition. Furthermore, supplementation with casein resulted in a significant increase in the postprandial GLP-1 response compared with whey (P = 0.003). We found no difference in postprandial triacylglycerol, FFA, insulin, glucose, glucagon, or GIP related to protein type or MC-SFA content. We observed no interaction between milk protein and milk fat on postprandial lipemia. We found that a whey protein supplement decreased the postprandial chylomicron response compared with casein in persons with abdominal obesity, thereby indicating a

  4. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

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    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  5. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  6. Partly replacing meat protein with soy protein alters insulin resistance and blood lipids in postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nielen, Monique; Feskens, Edith J M; Rietman, Annemarie; Siebelink, Els; Mensink, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Increasing protein intake and soy consumption appear to be promising approaches to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the effect of soy consumption on insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, and other characteristics of MetS is not frequently studied in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects of a 4-wk, strictly controlled, weight-maintaining, moderately high-protein diet rich in soy on insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We performed a randomized crossover trial of 2 4-wk diet periods in 15 postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity to test diets with 22 energy percent (En%) protein, 27 En% fat, and 50 En% carbohydrate. One diet contained protein of mixed origin (mainly meat, dairy, and bread), and the other diet partly replaced meat with soy meat analogues and soy nuts containing 30 g/d soy protein. For our primary outcome, a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) was performed at the end of both periods. Plasma total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein were assessed, and blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and intrahepatic lipid content were measured at the start and end of both periods. Compared with the mixed-protein diet, the soy-protein diet resulted in greater insulin sensitivity [FSIGT: insulin sensitivity, 34 ± 29 vs. 22 ± 17 (mU/L)(-1) · min(-1), P = 0.048; disposition index, 4974 ± 2543 vs. 2899 ± 1878, P = 0.038; n = 11]. Total cholesterol was 4% lower after the soy-protein diet than after the mixed-protein diet (4.9 ± 0.7 vs. 5.1 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.001), and LDL cholesterol was 9% lower (2.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.004; n = 15). Thus, partly replacing meat with soy in a moderately high-protein diet has clear advantages regarding insulin sensitivity and total and LDL cholesterol. Therefore, partly replacing meat products with soy products could be important in preventing MetS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  7. Recommendations and interventions to decrease physical inactivity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.; Douwes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary work tasks, e.g. at an office workplace, are characterised by physical inactivity and by long periods of uninterrupted sitting. These characteristics increase the risk of several health problems, among others obesity, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer, musculoskeletal

  8. Functional activity of the adrenal glands and abdominal obesity index as markers of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олеся Вадимівна Корпачева-Зінич

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol and DHEA disbalance that appears in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 leads to certain metabolic changes especially hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, accumulation of abdominal fats, increase of proteins decay.Aim. The study of correlations between cortisol/DHEA ratio, constitutional parameters (degree of obesity, character of fat distribution, abdominal obesity index, rates of blood lipid spectrum in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM type 2.Methods. For this aim there were examined 19 patients with DM type 2. There were used general clinical (body mass, height, waist and hips size, body mass and visceral obesity indices, biochemical (glycemia level, blood serum lipid spectrum rates, hormonal (C-peptide, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and statistical (Student criterion methods of research.Results. There was established that increase of cortisol/DHEA ratio rate is followed with growth of glycemia and glycated hemoglobin ( HbA1c levels and also has a negative influence on blood serum lipid spectrum, that is favors an increase of triglycerindes, atherogenic fractions of cholesterol lipoproteins of the low density (LPLD and lipoproteins of the very low density (LPVLD concentration, decrease of anti-atherogenic lipoproteins of the high density (LPHD content at the stable C-peptide level. The aforesaid negative processes took place simultaneously with the changes of visceral obesity index (VOI that includes both the character of distribution and the function of adipose tissue.Conclusion. Calculation of VOI in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 as the marker of lipid metabolism disorder and stress/anti-stress corticosteroid disbalance is useful and reasonable

  9. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  10. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Ido

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40-82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Muscle thickness (MTH was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO and sarcopenic obesity (SO groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA.

  11. Effectiveness of nationwide screening and lifestyle intervention for abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risks in Japan: The metabolic syndrome and comprehensive lifestyle intervention study on nationwide database in Japan (MetS ACTION-J study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yoko M; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Yasuno, Shinji; Hosoda, Kiminori; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kangawa, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2018-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions can substantially improve obesity and cardiometabolic risks. However, evidence of long-term benefits of national intervention is sparse. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a nationwide program for abdominal obesity. A retrospective cohort study was performed using a longitudinal nationwide individual data in subjects aged 40-74 years who underwent checkups in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Lifestyle interventions were provided via interview in subjects with abdominal obesity and at least one cardiometabolic risk factor. Subjects who attended the lifestyle intervention (participants) were compared to those who did not attend (non-participants). Outcomes were waist circumferences (WC) and body mass index (BMI) reduction, reversal of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and changes in cardiometabolic risks. We used a three-step process with robust analytic approaches to account for selection bias that included traditional multivariate analysis, propensity-score matching and instrumental variable (IV) analyses. Of 19,969,722 subjects, 4,370,042 were eligible for analyses; 111,779 participants and 907,909 non-participants. A higher percentage of participants had ≥5% reductions in obesity profiles at year 3, compared to non-participants (WC, 21.4% vs 16.1%; BMI, 17.6% vs 13.6%; pintervention for abdominal obesity, the at-risk population achieved significant reductions in WC, BMI, and cardiometabolic risks in 3 years. This study provides evidence that the nationwide program effectively achieved long-term improvement in abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risks.

  12. The utility of dual bioelectrical impedance analysis in detecting intra-abdominal fat area in obese patients during weight reduction therapy in comparison with waist circumference and abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakage, Hajime; Ito, Ryo; Tochiya, Mayu; Muranaka, Kazuya; Tanaka, Masashi; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Odori, Shinji; Kono, Shigeo; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    An increase in intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) is an essential component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Waist circumference (WC) is not a precise measure of IAFA, and computed tomography (CT) is unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Here, we examined utility of a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis (Dual BIA) for measuring IAFA in obese patients during weight reduction. Fat distribution was measured by Dual BIA and CT in 100 obese outpatients. All fat areas including total, IAFA, and subcutaneous fat by Dual BIA were more closely correlated with those by CT than WC. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was significantly correlated with number of MetS components as well as CT, but WC was not. Furthermore, in 61 obese patients who received 6-month weight reduction therapy, estimated IAFA by Dual BIA showed an earlier and greater decrease as well as that by CT than WC and BMI. In addition, decrease in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA through weight reduction had a higher correlation with decrease in IAFA by CT, than WC. This study is the first to demonstrate that the change in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was highly correlated with that in IAFA by CT during weight reduction therapy. Our findings also indicate that estimated IAFA by Dual BIA is, potentially, a better indicator of severity of MetS, cardiovascular risk factors, and effectiveness of weight reduction than WC, and equal to IAFA by CT. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA may be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of weight reduction therapy in obese patients.

  13. The Effect of Two Acute Eccentric and Concentric Exercises on Serum Irisin Level and Insulin Resistance Index in Inactive Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Balaghi Inaloo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Recently a myokine named irisin has been discovered that effects on obesity, metabolism and glucose homeostasis through browning white adipose tissue and thermogenesis. However, the effects of type and intensity of exercises on it have remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two acute eccentric and concentric exercises on serum irisin level and insulin resistance in obese sedentary women. Materials and Methods: The study was quasi-experimental. 15 female students with a body mass index above 30 kg/m2 and mean age 24.86±2.87 years participated in the study. After measuring the maximal uptake oxygen of participants, they did two acute eccentric and concentric exercises using treadmill in a cross-over design within 10 days. After at least 8 hours- fasting, blood samples were collected before and immediately after each activity, to measure the levels of irisin, glucose and insulin. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. In addition, Pearson correlation was used to examine the relationship between variables. Results: the irisin levels increased significantly after both types of exercises (p<0.05, that this increase in concentric activity was more than eccentric activity. Insulin resistance increased immediately after both exercises as well, that this increase in concentric exercise was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: However, both eccentric and concentric exercises had no effect on improving insulin resistance in obese women, but they can be considered as a good stimulus for the secretion of Irisin.

  14. Effect of Pro197Leu Polymorphism of the Gene GPX1 on Carbohydrate Metabolism and Anthropometric Indices of Patients with Arterial Hypertension Against the Background of Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. ABRAMOVA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the dependence of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with arterial hypertension and concomitant abdominal obesity depending on Pro197Leu polymorphism of the GPX1 gene. Pro197Leu polymorphism of the gene GPX1 in 102 patients with arterial hypertension and concomitant abdominal obesity and 97 healthy individuals have been studied. Disorders of distribution of genotype frequencies comparing with the control group on account of the reduction of Pro/Pro genotype frequency have been found in the main group. Analyzing the data, the growth of risk of disorder in the GPX1 activity in patients with Pro/Leu and Leu/Leu variants of polymorphism comparing with homozygotes for the wild allele at 4.7 and 6.9 times, respectively had been revealed. Analyzing changes of carbohydrate metabolism depending on the Pro197Leu polymorphism of the gene GPX1, it was established that in patients with Leu/Leu genotype the production of immunoreactive insulin, leptin, C-peptide increased significantly, HOMA-IR and BMI was significantly higher compared with the persons with Pro/Pro genotype. Thus, Pro-allele possesses protective properties as to the reduction in the activity of glutathione peroxidase. Insulin and leptin resistance develop in the carriers of Leu-allele, which causes disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.

  15. Associations between meal and snack frequency and overweight and abdominal obesity in US children and adolescents from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-05-28

    The association between eating frequency (EF) and adiposity in young populations is inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined associations of EF, meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) with adiposity measures in US children aged 6-11 years (n 4346) and adolescents aged 12-19 years (n 6338) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012. Using data from two 24-h dietary recalls, all eating occasions providing ≥210 kJ of energy were divided into meals or snacks based on contribution to energy intake (≥15 or meals and snacks. In adolescents, after adjustment for EI:EER, positive associations were observed for EF (abdominal obesity only), SF based on energy contribution and MF based on self-report, whereas there was an inverse association between MF based on energy contribution and overweight. In conclusion, higher SF and EF, but not MF, were associated with higher risks of overweight and abdominal obesity in children, whereas associations varied in adolescents, depending on the definition of meals and snacks. Prospective studies are needed to establish the associations observed here.

  16. A case report on management of synergistic gangrene following an incisional abdominal hernia repair in an immunocompromised obese patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Merali

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case has demonstrated how a planned multidisciplinary action can produce prosperous results in a severely obese immunocompromised patient with an SSI, following an incisional hernia repair.

  17. The Combined Effects of Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and Major Depression/Anxiety on Health-Related Quality of Life : the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Jonge, Peter; van Rossum, Elisabeth; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD)/anxiety disorders often co-occur and aggravate each other resulting in adverse health-related outcomes. As little is known about the potential effects of interaction between obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on health-related quality of

  18. A systematic review of economic evaluations of local authority commissioned preventative public health interventions in overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pam; Skirrow, Helen; George, Abraham; Memon, Anjum

    2018-02-16

    Since 2013, local authorities in England have been responsible for commissioning preventative public health interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to support commissioning by collating published data on economic evaluations and modelling of local authority commissioned public health preventative interventions in the UK. Following the PRISMA protocol, we searched for economic evaluations of preventative intervention studies in four different areas: overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation. The systematic review identified studies between January 1994 and February 2015, using five databases. We synthesized the studies to identify the key methods and examined results of the economic evaluations. The majority of the evaluations related to cost-effectiveness, rather than cost-benefit analyses or cost-utility analyses. These analyses found preventative interventions to be cost effective, though the context of the interventions differed between the studies. Preventative public health interventions in general are cost-effective. There is a need for further studies to support justification of continued and/or increased funding for public health interventions. There is much variation between the types of economically evaluated preventative interventions in our review. Broader studies incorporating different contexts may help support funding for local authority-sponsored public health initiatives.

  19. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rubio; M. T. Gaztelu; A. Calvo; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría

    2005-01-01

    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  20. Prevalência e fatores associados à obesidade abdominal em indivíduos na faixa etária de 25 a 59 anos do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Prevalencia y factores asociados a la obesidad abdominal en individuos en una franja de edad de 25 a 59 años del estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Prevalence of abdominal obesity and associated factors among individuals 25 to 59 years of age in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Porto Sabino Pinho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a prevalência de obesidade abdominal e avaliar os fatores associados em adultos do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, foi realizado, em 2006, um estudo transversal, de base populacional, envolvendo 1.580 indivíduos na faixa etária de 25-59 anos. A obesidade abdominal foi determinada pela circunferência da cintura ≥ 80cm para mulheres e ≥ 94cm para homens. O modelo conceitual considerou variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas, reprodutivas e comportamentais. A prevalência de obesidade abdominal foi de 27,1% (IC95%: 23,8-30,7 no sexo masculino e 69,9% (IC95%: 66,8-72,8 no feminino (p Con el objetivo de estimar la prevalencia de obesidad abdominal y evaluar los factores asociados en adultos del estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, se realizó, en 2006, un estudio transversal, de base poblacional, involucrando a 1.580 individuos en una franja de edad de 25-59 años. La obesidad abdominal fue determinada por la circunferencia de la cintura ≥ 80cm para mujeres y ≥ 94cm para hombres. El modelo conceptual consideró variables socioeconómicas, demográficas, reproductivas y de comportamiento. La prevalencia de obesidad abdominal fue de un 27,1% (IC95%: 23,8-30,7 en el sexo masculino y un 69,9% (IC95%: 66,8-72,8 en el femenino (p In order to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and associated factors in Pernambuco State, Brazil, a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2006, including 1,580 adults 25 to 59 years of age. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference (WC ≥ 80cm in women and ≥ 94cm in men. The conceptual model included demographic, socioeconomic, reproductive, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was 27.1% (95%CI: 23.8-30.7 in males and 69.9% (95%CI: 66.8-72.8 in females (p < 0.001. Multivariate analysis showed higher prevalence in men 50 years or older in the metropolitan area and those with higher income, former smokers, and drinkers. Among women

  1. Abdominal fedme og fedmerelaterede sygdomme hos patienter i almen praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Rost, Dan; Knudsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and its relationship with these comorbidities have not previously been examined in Danish primary care patients.......Abdominal obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and its relationship with these comorbidities have not previously been examined in Danish primary care patients....

  2. Resting heart rate and its relationship with general and abdominal obesity in young male Saudi university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, T.

    2010-01-01

    An elevated resting heart rate (Rhr) has been linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obese people have altered autonomic balance that could lead to elevated Rhr and altered responses to postural changes. As no comparative data are available on Rhr in young normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) adults in Saudi Arabia, the present study was aimed at finding out the effect of adiposity on RHR and RHR response to change in posture. Methods: Second-year male students (n=231; age:19-20 years), were recruited from the Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during the period September 2008 to October 2009. Anthropometric measures were obtained and indices of obesity (body mass index [EMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-stature ratio [WSR]) were calculated. RHR in standing and supine positions were obtained from radial pulse. Pearson's correlation (r) between obesity indices and RHR as well as the differences between RHR in NW and OB groups were calculated. Results: General obesity (BMI greater or equal to 25.0 kg/m1 was found in 45.5% students. Central obesity (WC>85 cm or WSR>50.0) was found in 36.8% students. RHR was significantly correlated with BMI, WC and WSR (r=O.305, 0.300, 0.299 respectively, p< O.01) . Subjects above the obesity indices cut-off points had significantly higher values of RHR in both standing and supine positions compared to NW individuals (p<0.05). There was a greater reduction in RHR on changing the posture to supine state in OB group. Conclusion: A significantly higher RHR and a greater change in RHR on changing the posture point towards an altered autonomic balance in OB group of young adolescent males. This underscores the need to implement health education program to combat obesity at school and college levels. (author)

  3. Effect of rimonabant on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression in patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: the AUDITOR Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Daniel H; Reuwer, Anne Q; Nissen, Steven E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Deanfield, John E; Brown, Michael W; Zhou, Rong; Zabbatino, Salvatore M; Job, Bernard; Kastelein, John J P; Visseren, Frank L J

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to determine whether obese patients benefit from treatment with rimonabant in terms of progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in patients who are obese. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Atherosclerosis Underlying Development assessed by Intima-media Thickness in patients On Rimonabant (AUDITOR)) randomised 661 patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome to rimonabant or placebo for 30 months of treatment. The absolute change in the average value for six segments of far wall carotid intima-media thickness from baseline to month 30 was 0.010 ± 0.095 mm in the rimonabant group and 0.012 ± 0.091 mm in the placebo group (p=0.67). The annualised change was an increase of 0.005 ± 0.042 mm for the rimonabant-treated group and 0.007 ± 0.043 mm for the placebo-treated group (p=0.45). There was no difference in atherosclerosis progression between patients receiving rimonabant for 30 months and those receiving placebo for the primary efficacy measure (absolute change in carotid intima-media thickness). These findings are consistent with a similar study using coronary intravascular ultrasound and another study evaluating the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Our findings suggest that a 5% loss of body weight over a 30-month period with rimonabant is insufficient to modify atherosclerosis progression in the carotid artery in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Clinical trial registration information clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00228176.

  4. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya

    1995-01-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28±0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.)

  5. Change of the level of adiponectin and metabolic indices in modification of life style of the patients suffering from abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Beresina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied nutritional habits, physical loads, anthropometric and metabolic perfromances, and revealed the changes required to increase the level of adiponectine under drug-free modalities of treatment of patients suffering from abdominal obesity. A 3-year randomized lifestyle intervention trial was performed in 153 patients with AO, age 30-53 yrs, 74 patients (group 1 performed individual hypocaloric diet balanced in fat intake, 79 patients (group 2 performed diet and individual aerobic exercise All patients received individual recommendations on changing their life style. Dynamics of anthropometric, metabolic parameters, physical capacity and adiponectin level were measured. Relation between low level of adiponectin and some metabolic disorders, and sedentary life were revealed. The rate of improving anthropometric parameters, physical capacity, and nutritionassociated with increasing adiponectin was established.

  6. High prevalence of abdominal obesity increases the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Nigerian type 2 diabetes patients: using the International Diabetes Federation worldwide definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwaka, Chidum E; Okoye, Osita; Esonwune, Chibuike; Onuoha, Philip; Dioka, Chudi; Osuji, Charles; Oguejiofor, Celestine; Meludu, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Some Nigerian studies have reported cases of the metabolic syndrome in the population. This study aims to assess the prevalence of the components of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) worldwide definition. Eighty-nine T2DM patients were studied after an overnight fast. The patients' blood pressure, anthropometric indices, and biochemical parameters were measured. The components of the metabolic syndrome-raised blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides (TGs), and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)-were calculated using the IDF definition for the European ethnic group. About 25% of the patients had raised blood pressure (>130/85 mmHg), with the male patients having higher prevalence of raised systolic blood pressure (SBP>130 mmHg) than the female patients (73.3 vs. 52.3%, P0.05), abdominal obesity predominates significantly in female patients (97.7 vs. 68.9%, Prisk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We recommend that diabetes education emphasizing the risk of CVD in patients with increased abdominal fat should be intensified in the developing countries.

  7. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  8. Changing relative contribution of abdominal obesity and a family history of diabetes on prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Korean men and women aged 30-49 years from 2001 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Kim, Sang Wan; Yi, Ka Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Moon, Min Kyong

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the change in the relative impact of a family history of diabetes (FH) and abdominal obesity on diabetes mellitus (DM) over a 10-year period in Korea. We analyzed data from the 2001, 2005, and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey that were weighted to represent the entire Korean population in each year. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between DM and FH or abdominal obesity. In men aged 30-49 years, the association between FH and DM was stronger in 2010 than in 2001; the odds ratio (OR) was 1.508 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.814-2.792) in 2001, 3.351 (95% CI, 1.599-7.024) in 2005, and 7.302 (95% CI, 3.451-15.451) in 2010 (P for trend = 0.003). In contrast, the association between abdominal obesity and DM was weaker in 2010 (OR, 0.969 [95% CI, 0.465-2.018]) than in 2001 (OR, 2.532 [95% CI, 1.572-4.080]) (P for trend = 0.037). In women aged 30-49 years, there was no significant change in OR of FH or abdominal obesity during the same period. (P for trend = 0.367 and 0.401, respectively). In Korean men aged 30-49 years, the association between FH and DM has been stronger from 2001 to 2010, whereas abdominal obesity was less important in 2010 compared to 2001. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Abdominal tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... You then receive a local numbing medicine. The tap needle is inserted 1 to 2 inches (2. ...

  10. Fatores demográficos e comportamentais associados à obesidade abdominal em usuárias de centro de saúde de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Demographic and behavioral factors associated with abdominal obesity in women attending a health care unit in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edílson Ornelas Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar variáveis sócio-demográficas e comportamentais potencialmente associadas à obesidade abdominal, em mulheres usuárias de unidade básica de saúde. MÉTODOS: Foram investigadas 827 mulheres entre 12 e 65 anos, residentes na região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, utilizando-se desenho transversal. A obesidade abdominal foi definida como valores de circunferência da cintura >88cm. A associação entre obesidade abdominal e as covariáveis foi avaliada por meio da técnica de regressão logística não condicional, com modelos hierarquizados, que estimam os Odds Ratio e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: As maiores prevalências de obesidade abdominal foram encontradas em mulheres >51 anos (63,3% e em mulheres com >5 partos (53,8%. As seguintes variáveis permaneceram associadas à obesidade abdominal no modelo final: idade (Odds Ratio variando entre 2,53 e 27,64, escolaridade 5 filhos (Odds Ratio=3,20, intervalo de confiança 95%: 1,48 - 6,90 e atividade física leve no trabalho (Odds Ratio=1,63, intervalo de confiança 95%: 1,01 - 2,64. As variáveis idade e índice de massa corporal também foram incluídas no modelo final para controlar confundimento. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que a escolaridade e a paridade são potenciais preditores para o desenvolvimento da obesidade abdominal no grupo estudado e devem ser levados em consideração em estudos sobre obesidade.OBJECTIVE: To identify sociodemographic and behavioral variables potentially associated with abdominal obesity in women attending a health care unit. METHODS: A total of 827 women aging from 12 to 65 years and living in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were investigated using a cross-sectional design. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference >88cm.The association between abdominal obesity and the co-variables was assessed by unconditional logistic regression. This technique estimates the

  11. Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Kardum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45–65 with a mean body mass index (BMI of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P<0.05 polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P<0.05. Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P<0.05. The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P<0.05. Values for BMI (P<0.001, waist circumference (P<0.001, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05 were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity.

  12. Body mass index, abdominal adiposity, obesity, and cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress in a large community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C; Der, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    To examine the association between adiposity and the magnitude of cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress cross-sectionally and prospectively in a large community sample. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured at rest and in response to a brief time-pressured mental arithmetic stress in 1647 adults. At the same session and 5 years later, height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio were computed. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of > or = 30 kg/m(2). Contrary to expectations, the most robust and consistent results to emerge from cross-sectional analyses were negative associations between all three measures of adiposity and HR reactivity; those with greater BMI and waist-hip ratios and those categorized as obese displayed smaller HR reactions to stress. In prospective analyses, high HR reactivity was associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming obese in the subsequent 5 years. Our analyses suggest that it is low, not high, HR reactivity that is related to adiposity. Low HR reactivity, probably by reflecting generally blunted sympathetic nervous system reactions to challenge, may be a risk marker for developing obesity.

  13. Evidence of Reduced CBG Cleavage in Abdominal Obesity: A Potential Factor in Development of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenke, M A; Lewis, J G; Rankin, W; Torpy, D J

    2016-08-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is involved in the regulation of cortisol delivery. Neutrophil elastase-mediated cleavage of high to low affinity CBG (haCBG to laCBG) induces cortisol release at inflammatory sites. Past studies have shown reduced CBG in obesity, an inflammatory state, particularly in central adiposity/metabolic syndrome. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study of the effects of obesity, age and sex on ha/laCBG in 100 healthy volunteers. Total and haCBG levels were 11% higher in women but did not vary with age or menopausal status. Total CBG levels were lower with increased body weight and waist circumference; laCBG levels were lower with increased body weight, waist circumference, body mass index and body fat; higher haCBG levels were seen with increased body fat. The relation between CBG and adiposity appeared to be driven predominantly by the metabolic syndrome group. The results suggest reduced CBG cleavage in central obesity, possibly contributing to the characteristic inflammatory phenotype of the central obesity and metabolic syndrome. The mechanism of gender differences in CBG levels is unclear. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...

  15. Clinical usefulness of abdominal bioimpedance (ViScan) in the determination of visceral fat and its application in the diagnosis and management of obesity and its comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; González-Crespo, Ignacio; Catalán, Victoria; Rodríguez, Amaia; Moncada, Rafael; Valentí, Víctor; Romero, Sonia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J; Salvador, Javier; Benito, Alberto; Colina, Inmaculada; Frühbeck, Gema

    2018-04-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been shown to be profoundly responsible of most of the obesity-associated metabolic derangements. The measurement of VAT usually implies the use of imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography (CT). Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of the determination of VAT by means of abdominal bioimpedance (BIA) with the ViScan device in comparison with CT and its clinical usefulness in the management of obesity. We studied a sample of 140 subjects (73 males/67 females) with BMI ranging from 17.7 to 50.4 kg/m 2 to evaluate the accuracy of the ViScan in comparison to CT to determine VAT. To further analyze ViScan's clinical usefulness we studied a separate cohort (n = 2849) analyzing cardiometabolic risk factors. Furthermore, we studied the ability of the ViScan to detect changes in VAT after weight gain (n = 107) or weight loss (n = 335). The study was performed from October 2009 through June 2015. ViScan determines VAT with a good accuracy in individuals with a CT-VAT up to 200 cm 2 , and then with lower precision with increasing body mass, exhibiting a moderate-high correlation with CT-VAT (r = 0.75, P VAT determination with the ViScan exhibits better correlations with several cardiometabolic risk factors such as glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and markers of fatty liver than anthropometric measurements such as BMI or waist circumference. ViScan is able to detect VAT variations after body weight changes. Since the possibility of measuring VAT by imaging techniques is not always available, abdominal BIA represents a good alternative to estimate VAT, allowing the identification of patients with increased VAT-related cardiometabolic risk and a better management of obese patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01055626 and NCT01572090. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does stress influence sleep patterns, food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and weight loss interventions and vice versa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Astrup, Arne; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2018-01-01

    subjects. This review summarizes the scientific evidence on the role mental stress (either in or not in association with impaired sleep) may play in poor sleep, enhanced appetite, cravings and decreased motivation for physical activity. All these factors contribute to weight gain and obesity, possibly via...... decreasing the efficacy of weight loss interventions. We also review evidence for the role that lifestyle and stress management may play in achieving weight loss in stress-vulnerable individuals with overweight....

  18. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...

  19. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschpichler, M.C. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center (Germany). IFB Adiposity Diseases; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Mende, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Clinical Trial Centre Leipzig; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). University Hospital for Children and Adolescents; Kruber, D. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Oral, Craniomaxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery; Schick, F. [Univ. Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m{sup 2}). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 {+-} 0.2 % (0.32 {+-} 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p < 0.01). The lipid content obtained by {sup 1}H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 {+-} 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  20. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschpichler, M.C.; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W.; Mende, M.; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A.; Kruber, D.; Schick, F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m 2 ). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 ± 0.2 % (0.32 ± 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p 1 H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 ± 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  1. Combined use of waist and hip circumference to identify abdominally obese HIV-infected patients at increased health risk.

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    Trevor O'Neill

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine whether for a given waist circumference (WC, a larger hip circumference (HC was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD in HIV-infected patients. A second objective was to determine whether, for a given WC, the addition of HC improved upon estimates of abdominal adiposity, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT, compared to those obtained by WC alone. METHODS: HIV-infected men (N = 1481 and women (N = 841 were recruited between 2005 and 2009. WC and HC were obtained using standard techniques and abdominal adiposity was measured using computed tomography. RESULTS: After control for WC and covariates, HC was negatively associated with risk of insulin resistance (p<0.05 and T2D [Men: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96; Women: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.98]. For a given WC, HC was also negatively associated with a lower risk of hypertension (p<0.05 and CVD [OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99] in men, but not women. Although HC was negatively associated with VAT in men and women after control for WC (p<0.05, the addition of HC did not substantially improve upon the prediction of VAT compared to WC alone. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of HIV-infected individuals at increased health risk by WC alone is substantially improved by the addition of HC. Estimates of visceral adipose tissue by WC are not substantially improved by the addition of HC and thus variation in visceral adiposity may not be the conduit by which HC identifies increased health risk.

  2. Relação entre obesidade e síndrome metabólica em adolescentes de 10 a 14 anos com obesidade abdominal = The relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents between ages 10 and 14, with abdominal obesity

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    Cristina Gomes de Oliveira Teixeira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram analisar a relação entre a obesidade e a síndrome metabólica (SM; identificar a prevalência da SM; classificar o estado nutricional e comparar as variáveis: triglicérides, HDL-c, pressão arterial e glicose em adolescentes comobesidade abdominal. A amostra foi constituída por 393 adolescentes de ambos os sexos entre dez e 14 anos de idade. Foram feitas medidas de circunferência do abdômen, aferição da pressão arterial e exames laboratoriais de glicose, colesterol HDL-c e triglicérides. Osresultados apresentaram que, na condição nutricional, o sexo masculino apresentou obesidade de 27,1%, sobrepeso de 4,3 e 68,6% de peso normal. Quanto ao sexo feminino, 29,5% estão com peso normal, 1,6%, com sobrepeso e 68,9%, com obesidade. A obesidade no sexo feminino foi estatisticamente maior do que no masculino. A prevalência de SM foi de 37%, e os meninos tiveram a prevalência maior da síndrome metabólica. Não foi encontrada diferença estatística entre os sexos nas variáveis: triglicérides, HDL-c e pressão arterial. Concluímos que a obesidade foi fator determinante para a SM em adolescentes do sexo feminino, a prevalência da SM e a de obesidade foram altas e nos parâmetros bioquímicos não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença estatística entre os sexos.The objectives of this study were: to analyze the relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS; identify the prevalence of MS; classify the nutritional condition; and compare the variables:triglycerides, HDL-c, arterial pressure and glucose in adolescents with abdominal obesity. The sample consisted of 393 adolescents of both genders between ages 10 and 14. Measurements were taken of abdominal circumference, arterial pressure, and laboratory exams of glucose, cholesterol HDL-c and triglycerides. The results showed that, in the nutritional condition, the male gender presented an obesity rate of 27.1, 4.3% overweight, and a rate of

  3. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

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    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  4. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

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    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  5. The effects of abdominal interferential current therapy on waist circumference and visceral fat distance in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m2. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Waist circumference was measured in cm using a tape measure with the participant in an upright posture, and the length of visceral fat was measured using a high-resolution, B-mode ultrasound machine. [Results] There was a statistically significant difference between the group of waist circumference and visceral fat length. The change of waist circumference and visceral fat length was larger the experimental group than the control group. [Conclusion] These results can be used as a basis for reducing the risk factors that increase mortality due to diseases and can prevent cardiovascular and other adult diseases caused by obesity. PMID:28932012

  6. The effects of abdominal interferential current therapy on waist circumference and visceral fat distance in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m 2 . The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Waist circumference was measured in cm using a tape measure with the participant in an upright posture, and the length of visceral fat was measured using a high-resolution, B-mode ultrasound machine. [Results] There was a statistically significant difference between the group of waist circumference and visceral fat length. The change of waist circumference and visceral fat length was larger the experimental group than the control group. [Conclusion] These results can be used as a basis for reducing the risk factors that increase mortality due to diseases and can prevent cardiovascular and other adult diseases caused by obesity.

  7. Sensitivity and Specificity Improvement in Abdominal Obesity Diagnosis Using Cluster Analysis during Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point Selection

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    Valmore Bermúdez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of metabolic phenotypes during the construction of ROC curves for waist circumference (WC cutpoint selection. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,902 subjects of both genders were selected from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study database. Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TSCA was applied to select metabolically healthy and sick men and women. ROC curves were constructed to determine WC cutoff points by gender. Results. Through TSCA, metabolic phenotype predictive variables were selected: HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-βcell for women and HOMA2-IR, HOMA2-βcell, and TAG for men. Subjects were classified as healthy normal weight, metabolically obese normal weight, healthy and metabolically disturbed overweight, and healthy and metabolically disturbed obese. Final WC cutpoints were 91.50 cm for women (93.4% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity and 98.15 cm for men (96% sensitivity, 99.5% specificity. Conclusions. TSCA in the selection of the groups used in ROC curves construction proved to be an important tool, aiding in the detection of MOWN and MHO which cannot be identified with WC alone. The resulting WC cutpoints were <91.00 cm for women and <98.00 cm for men. Furthermore, anthropometry is insufficient to determine healthiness, and, biochemical analysis is needed to properly filter subjects during classification.

  8. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  9. Occurrence of erectile dysfunction, testosterone deficiency syndrome and metabolic syndrome in patients with abdominal obesity. Where is a sufficient level of testosterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Juraj; Breza, Jan; Levčíkova, Michaela; Luha, Jan; Vachulova, Anna; Durdík, Štefan; Labaš, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED), testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), and metabolic syndrome in patients with abdominal obesity (AO) and the prevalence of morbidity at different levels of testosterone (TST). Male sex hormones play an important role in ED and variety of TDS and may have influence on the development of metabolic syndrome. The number of men with AO which constitutes a serious health risk is continuously growing. Currently, there are different views that TST levels are already insufficient, and the patient should benefit from treatment. This study examined the association between ED, testosterone level and metabolic syndrome in men with AO. The study was carried out in an outpatient urology center of Urology Clinic and Obesity Center of the Clinic of Internal Medicine. There were 167 participants—men with AO which were examined as part of preventive examination. Hormonal, a complete urological and internal evaluation was carried out in every patient. We found some degree of ED in 73% (122/167) in men with AO. The TST levels below 14 nmol/l had of these 122 patients 84 patients (68.9%) and 49 patients (40.2%) below 10 nmol/l. In this group of patients, we found 103/167 patients (61.7%) with metabolic syndrome. When we compared TST level and morbidity, we found significantly more patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and dyslipidemia in group with TST below 10 nmol/l. We also found difference in the levels of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the group of patients with TST 10–14 and over 14 nmol/l. Patients over 40 years of age with AO and ED should also be examined for TDS and metabolic syndrome. In this group of patients we found that 113/167 patients (67.6%) had total TST below 14 nmol/l, and sufficient level of TST seems to be above this level.

  10. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Visceral and Hepatic Fat in Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Study Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Shuyun; Chen, Zhenyan

    2017-04-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic fat deposition are the most important risk factors for women's health. Acupuncture, including electroacupuncture (EA), is used to treat obesity throughout the world. The effect of EA is evaluated mainly by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Few studies have assessed its effect in reducing VAT volume and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) based on an exact measurement method such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to resolve this issue. Thirty subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n = 15) did not receive any intervention and maintained a normal diet and their usual exercise habits. The treatment group (n = 15) received EA three times a week for 3 months. BMI and WC were measured using different devices. VAT and HFF were measured by MRI and calculated by related software before and after the intervention. A marked difference was evident in group that received EA treatment in the following tests. The differences in BMI (U = 21.00, p treatment group were distinct and significant compared with those of the control group. Three months later, the treatment group showed a lower BMI (W = 91.00, p = 0.001), WC (t = 4.755, p treatment group showed a lower VAT volume (t = 60.00, p = 0.029) after 3 months of treatment. After 3 months, the control group showed higher mean HFF (t = -2.900, p = 0.012) and VAT volume (W = 11.50, p = 0.006) compared with their initial levels. Based on MRI evaluation, this randomized controlled study proved that EA treatment reduces BMI and WC as well as VAT volume and HFF in women with abdominal obesity.

  11. Use of insulin sensitizers for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a pilot study of pioglitazone for major depression accompanied by abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David E; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Ganocy, Stephen J; Conroy, Carla; Gao, Keming; Obral, Sarah; Fein, Elizabeth; Findling, Robert L; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer, in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder. In a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose study, 23 patients with major depressive disorder received pioglitazone monotherapy or adjunctive therapy initiated at 15 mg daily. Subjects were required to meet criteria for abdominal obesity (waist circumference>35 in. in women and >40 in. in men) or metabolic syndrome. The primary efficacy measure was the change from baseline to Week 12 on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) total score. Partial responders (≥25% decrease in IDS total score) were eligible to participate in an optional extension phase for an additional three months. Pioglitazone decreased depression symptom severity from a total IDS score of 40.3±1.8 to 19.2±1.8 at Week 12 (pdepressive symptoms was maintained during an additional 3-month extension phase (total duration=24 weeks) according to IDS total scores (pdepression severity and improve several markers of cardiometabolic risk, including insulin resistance and inflammation. Larger, placebo-controlled studies are indicated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. General and Abdominal Obesity Is Related to Physical Activity, Smoking and Sleeping Behaviours and Mediated by the Educational Level: Findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

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    Ana M López-Sobaler

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of socioeconomic (SES and lifestyle factors, with the conditions of overweight (OW, general (OB and abdominal obesity (AO in Spanish adults. A representative sample of 1655 Spanish adults (18 to 65 years from the ANIBES Study was investigated. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference, demographic and SES data (region and habitant population size, educational level, family income, unemployment rate, physical activity (PA and other lifestyle factors (sleeping time and frequency of viewing television. OW, OB and AO were determined in each participant. Being male, older than 40 years, and watching television more frequently were associated with higher risk of OB and AO, whereas those with a higher level of education, smokers, and more time in sleeping and in vigorous PA, but not in moderate-vigorous PA, were associated with a lower risk. Living in the Atlantic region and stating no answer to the question regarding family income were also associated with lower risk of AO. Strategies for preventing and reducing OB and AO should consider improving sleeping habits and PA. They should also pay more attention to the most vulnerable groups such as those less educated.

  13. Abdominal obesity increases the risk of hip fracture. A population-based study of 43,000 women and men aged 60-79 years followed for 8 years. Cohort of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Holvik, K; Omsland, T K; Tell, G S; Dahl, C; Schei, B; Falch, J A; Eisman, J A; Meyer, H E

    2015-03-01

    The question as to whether abdominal obesity has an adverse effect on hip fracture remains unanswered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index with incident hip fracture. The data in this prospective study is based on Cohort of Norway, a population-based cohort established during 1994-2003. Altogether 19,918 women and 23,061 men aged 60-79 years were followed for a median of 8.1 years. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured at baseline using standard procedures. Information on covariates was collected by questionnaires. Hip fractures (n = 1,498 in women, n = 889 in men) were identified from electronic discharge registers from all general hospitals in Norway between 1994 and 2008. The risk of hip fracture decreased with increasing body mass index, plateauing in obese men. However, higher waist circumference and higher waist-hip ratio were associated with an increased risk of hip fracture after adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders. Women in the highest tertile of waist circumference had an 86% (95% CI: 51-129%) higher risk of hip fracture compared to the lowest, with a corresponding increased risk in men of 100% (95% CI 53-161%). Lower body mass index combined with abdominal obesity increased the risk of hip fracture considerably, particularly in men. Abdominal obesity was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture when body mass index was taken into account. In view of the increasing prevalence of obesity and the number of older people suffering osteoporotic fractures in Western societies, our findings have important clinical and public health implications. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. Steps in the Right Direction, against the Odds, an Evaluation of a Community-Based Programme Aiming to Reduce Inactivity and Improve Health and Morale in Overweight and Obese School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Claire; Lewis, Kiara; Manby, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The study describes an evaluation of a 48-week physical activity and nutritional education programme for overweight/obese school-age children using quantitative and qualitative methods. The majority of participants were obese or severely obese when enrolled, and while some improvements in body mass index, self-esteem and engagement in a range of…

  15. Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, and the oxidative-inflammatory loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratas-Delamarche, A; Derbré, F; Vincent, S; Cillard, J

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that physical inactivity, a main factor of global energetic imbalance, is involved in the worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Although the complex pathogenesis of insulin resistance is not fully understood, literature data accumulated during the past decades clearly indicate that the activation of the oxidative-inflammatory loop plays a major role. By activating the oxidative-inflammatory loop in insulin-sensitive tissues, fat gain and adipose tissue dysfunction likely contribute to induce insulin resistance during chronic and prolonged physical inactivity. However, in the past years, evidence has emerged showing that early insulin resistance also occurs after very short-term exposure to physical inactivity (1-7 days) without any fat gain or energetic imbalance. The possible role of liver disturbances or endothelial dysfunction is suggested, but further studies are necessary to really conclude. Inactive skeletal muscle probably constitutes the primary triggering tissue for the development of early insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss on the current knowledge about the effect of physical inactivity on whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and how local inflammation and oxidative stress arising with physical inactivity could potentially induce insulin resistance. We assume that early muscle insulin resistance allows the excess nutrients to shift in the storage tissues to withstand starvation through energy storage. We also consider when chronic and prolonged, physical inactivity over an extended period of time is an underestimated contributor to pathological insulin resistance and hence indirectly to numerous chronic diseases.

  16. Abdominal adipose tissue distribution in obese children. US versus CT measurements; Valutazione della distribuzione del tessuto adiposo addominale nei bambini obesi. Confronto tra ecografia e Tomografia Computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrozzi, F.; Zuccoli, G.; Tognini, G.; Castriota-Scanderbeg, A.; Bacchini, E. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Bernasconi, S. [Modena Univ., Modena (Italy). Clinica Pediatrica; Campani, R. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1999-12-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) and, more recently, ultrasound (US), have proved excellent tools for quantifying adipose tissue distribution. Body fat distribution is an important factor in the treatment of obesity and its complications. In this work it is investigated the correlation between CT and US measurements in pediatric obesity. Forty obese children and adolescents aged 4.1-14.8 years were submitted to CT and US. Intra-abdominal, subcutaneous and total body fat were calculated (in cm{sup 2}), with the CT image analysis software. The rectus muscle-spine and rectus muscle-aorta distances, as indicative of visceral fat thickness, were measured on US images with(out) compression. The distance between skin fat and fat-rectus muscle interfaces was measured as subcutaneous fat thickness. US-CT findings have been compared with other morphometric variables-i.e., patient's (ideal) body weight and skin fold measures. A statistically significant correlation was found between the CT measurement of visceral fat and the aorta-rectus muscle and rectus muscle-spine distances (r=0.80 and 0.74, respectively). The US measurements of subcutaneous fat were correlated with CT subcutaneous fat area (r=0.82). No correlation was found between overweight, as calculated by body mass index, and CT or US fat. In conclusions, the findings indicate that US is as useful as CT in evaluating body fat distribution in pediatric obesity. [Italian] La TC e piu' recentemente l'ecografia si sono dimostrate eccellenti tecniche di valutazione della quantita' e della distribuzione del tessuto adiposo corporeo. La compartimentazione del grasso corporeo ha, infatti, importanti implicazioni per il trattamento dell'obesita' e delle sue complicanze. Scopo dello studio e' stato quello di correlare i risultati ottenuti con la TC con quelli ecografici nella valutazione dell'obesita' del paziente pediatrico. Quaranta bambini obesi con eta' compresa tra 4,1 e 14

  17. Abdominal obesity and prolonged prone positioning increase risk of developing sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients with influenza A-associated ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weig Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary sclerosing cholangitis is a severe disease of the biliary tract. Over the last decade, several cases of sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SC-CIP were reported. Reports in the literature so far are characterized by a wide variety of underlying causes of critical illness, thereby hindering a risk-factor analysis. We report on a homogenous cohort of critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1 pneumonia and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, of whom a subgroup developed sclerosing cholangitis, allowing for probing of risk factors associated with SC-CIP. Methods Twenty-one patients (5 female, 16 male, 46.3 ± 10.8 years with severe ARDS due to H1N1 pneumonia were retrospectively divided into two groups, characterized by the presence (n = 5 and absence of SC-CIP (n = 16. A large array of clinical data, laboratory parameters, and multi-detector computed tomography-derived measures were compared. Results Both patient groups showed severe pulmonary impairment. Severity of disease on admission day and during the first 14 days of treatment showed no difference. The patients developing SC-CIP had a higher body mass index (BMI (37.4 ± 6.0 kg/m2 vs. 29.3 ± 6.8 kg/m2; P = 0.029 and a higher volume of intraperitoneal fat (8273 ± 3659 cm3 vs. 5131 ± 2268 cm3; P = 0.033 and spent a longer cumulative period in the prone position during the first 14 days (165 ± 117 h vs. 78 ± 61 h; P = 0.038. Conclusion Our results suggest that obesity, intraperitoneal fat volume, and a longer cumulative duration spent in the prone position may put patients with ARDS at risk of developing SC-CIP. These results lead us to propose that the prone position should be carefully deployed, particularly in abdominally obese patients, and that frequent checks be made for early hepatic dysfunction.

  18. INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL OBESITY ON HEART STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES AND POSSIBILITY OF THEIR PHARMACOLOGICAL CORRECTION IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Veber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study clinical and epidemiological features of arterial hypertension (HT combined with abdominal obesity (AO and pharmacological correction of left ventricle myocardium structural and functional disorders.Material and methods. Single-stage epidemiological study was conducted in Novgorod region population (n=4840. All patients with HT were revealed and analyzed depending on age and gender. Patients with HT grade 2 were split in two groups. 124 women (aged 49,36±1,2 y.o. and 126 men (aged 50,15±1,8 y.o. with HT and AO were included in the first group. 127 women (aged 50,05±1,7 y.o. and 125 men (aged 49,61±1,6 y.o. with HT and normal body mass index were included in the second group. Anthropometric and echocardiography examination was performed before and after 1, 3 and 6 months of therapy (metoprolol, nebivolol, amlodipine, lisinopril.Results. High prevalence of HT was revealed: 44,4% in men and 48,7% in women. AO was observed 5,4 times more often in women than this in men (18,5% and 3,4%, respectively, р<0,001. Combination of HT and AO was also revealed 5,3 times more often in women than this in men (14,3% and 2,7%, respectively, р<0,001. AO in patients with HT contributes to development of left ventricle concentric hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.Conclusion. Antihypertensive therapy does not prevent left ventricle hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with AO.

  19. Age, abdominal obesity, and glycated hemoglobin are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cristina Alina; Silaghi, Horațiu; Crăciun, Anca Elena; Fărcaș, Anca; Colosi, Horațiu Alexandru; Cosma, Daniel Tudor; Pais, Raluca; Hâncu, Nicolae; Georgescu, Carmen Emanuela

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of clinical parameters and indices of body composition on the relation between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), in a type 2 diabetes mellitus population (T2DM). We retrospectively enrolled 336 T2DM outpatients who regularly attended Regina Maria Clinic in Cluj. Clinical, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Ultrasonography (US) was used to assess hepatic steatosis (HS) in all patients and cIMT in 146 subjects. Body composition was assessed by bioelectric impedance (BIA, InBody 720) in all patients. cIMT was correlated with age (r=0.25; p=0.004), systolic blood pressure (r=0.18; p=0.041), glycated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C, r=0.20; p=0.04), and with coronary artery disease (r=0.20; p=0.007). HS did not correlate with cIMT (r=0.04; p=0.64). cIMT was correlated with visceral fatty area (VFA, r=0.18; p=0.014) but not with other indices of body composition. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was not correlated with cIMT (r=0.17; p=0.086). After multivariate analysis, age, HbA1c, and VFA were good independent predictors of cIMT (r=0.45; p < 0.001). These results are suggestive that in T2DM patients, fatty liver is not a direct mediator of early carotid atherosclerosis. Our data indicate that visceral fat accumulation and HbA1C are determinant factors of cIMT sugesting that controlling abdominal obesity and hyperglicemia might reduce atherosclerotic disease risk in NAFLD-T2DM subjects.

  20. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  1. Obesity in French Inmates: Gender Differences and Relationship with Mood, Eating Behavior and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, Aude; Ajana, Soufiane; Capuron, Lucile; Féart, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Context Inmates, notably women, are at greater risk for obesity and metabolic complications than the general population according to several studies from high income countries. Data regarding French correctional institutions are lacking so far. To fill this gap, we have assessed in a sample from a French prison (33 females and 18 males) the gender-specific effect of incarceration on weight and body mass index (BMI) and examined their current metabolic status. Furthermore, to reveal the possible determinants of increased obesity, we analyzed emotional vulnerability, eating behavior and physical activity using self-reported questionnaires. Results In this sample, obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) was already frequent in women (18.2%) but rather scarce for men (11%) at prison entry. Incarceration worsened the rate of obesity in both genders (21.2% and 16.7% respectively). At the time of study, abdominal obesity estimated through waist circumference was particularly prevalent in women (69.7%) versus men (27.8%) and metabolic syndrome was detected in 33% of female against none in male inmates. Abdominal obesity was associated with female sex (peating disorder (p = 0.07) in univariate analyses. Low physical activity remained significant as an explanatory factor of higher abdominal obesity in multivariate analysis. A marked difference between genders was found for practice of physical activity with a higher proportion of women compared to men being inactive (37.9% vs. 11.8%) and fewer women being very active (17.2% vs. 41.2%). Conclusion This study revealed that a significant proportion of women of this correctional institution combined established obesity, a metabolic syndrome and very little practice of physical activity which put them at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, obesity should be better surveyed and treated in prison, especially for female inmates. Increased physical activity, adapted to obese women, would be the first mean to decrease obesity and gender

  2. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Westerterp, K R; Loos, R J F

    2012-01-01

    programming for obesity via epigenetic changes in response to a 'Western diet' results in production of lipid-poor milk and metabolically efficient pups, contributing to the perpetuation of obesity throughout generations. Evolutionary insight from comparative physiology and ecology indicates that over...... generations activity-induced energy expenditure has remained the same compared to wild mammals, that energy balance might be dependant on protein balance, while the function of taste changed from detection of poison or energy to social drinking and social behaviour. At present, the impact of assortative...

  3. Efficacy and safety comparison between liraglutide as add-on therapy to insulin and insulin dose-increase in Chinese subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-jun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of adding liraglutide to established insulin therapy in poorly controlled Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity compared with increasing insulin dose. Methods A 12-week, randomized, parallel-group study was carried out. A total of 84 patients completed the trial who had been randomly assigned to either the liraglutide-added group or the insulin-increasing group while continuing current insulin based treatment. Insulin dose was reduced by 0-30% upon the initiation of liraglutide. Insulin doses were subsequently adjusted to optimized glycemic control. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values, blood glucose, total daily insulin dose, body weight, waist circumference, and the number of hypoglycemic events and adverse events were evaluated. Results At the end of study, the mean reduction in HbA1c between the liraglutide-added group and the insulin-increasing group was not significantly different (1.9% vs. 1.77%, p>0.05. However, the percentage of subjects reaching the composite endpoint of HbA1c ≤ 7.0% with no weight gain and no hypoglycemia, was significantly higher in the liraglutide-added group than in the insulin-increasing group (67% vs. 19%, p2, p Conclusions Addition of liraglutide to abdominally obese, insulin-treated patients led to improvement in glycemic control similar to that achieved by increasing insulin dosage, but with a lower daily dose of insulin and fewer hypoglycemic events. Adding liraglutide to insulin also induced a significant reduction in body weight and waist circumference. Liraglutide combined with insulin may be the best treatment option for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity.

  4. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  5. PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST IN RELATION TO ABDOMINAL OBESITY IN ADULT MALES IN AGE GROUP OF 18 - 21 YEARS IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Impaired respiratory function is associated with morbidity and mortality. Poor respiratory function predicts overall mortality , as well as death due to cancer , pulmonary disease , cardiovascular disease and stroke. Obesity is also associated with morbidity and mortality. It is global health hazard and has been linked to numerous metabolic complications such as dyslipidemia , type II diabetes and cardio vascular diseases and is negatively associated to the pulm onary function. The mechanism for this association is still debated and the best marker of adiposity in relation to dynamic pulmonary function is still not clear. Therefore the purpose of the study is to determine pulmonary test in relation to abdominal ob esity in adult males. Aims and OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictability of Body mass index (BMI , Waist - hip ratio (WHR , and Body fat percentage for pulmonary functions in adult males with and without excess body weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Study consists of 100 males in age group of 18 - 21 years with body mass index (BMI 18 . 5 to 29 . 9 kg/m2 , physically healthy , without any symptoms. Their height , weight , body mass index (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR were measured The percentage of body fat w as estimated by measuring skin fold thickness at four sites (4SFT - biceps , triceps , subscapular and suprailiac with the help of Harpenden’s calliper. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator , manufactur ed by AD instruments , Australia. All data was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0 . 05 was considered as significant. Correlation of ventilatory lung functi on tests with body fat percentage was done by using Pearson’s correlation coefficient test . RESULTS: body fat % showed negative correlation with expiratory reserve volume (ERV , forced vital

  6. Saturated Fats from Butter but Not from Cheese Increase HDL-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity from J774 Macrophages in Men and Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Didier; Arsenault, Benoît J; Boyer, Marjorie; Bernic, Daniela; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Talbot, Denis; Tremblay, Angelo; Levy, Emile; Asztalos, Bela; Jones, Peter J H; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2018-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and coronary artery disease risk varies according to food sources. How SFAs from butter and cheese influence HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), a key process in reverse cholesterol transport, is currently unknown. In a predefined secondary analysis of a previously published trial, we have examined how diets rich in SFAs from either cheese or butter influence HDL-mediated CEC, compared with diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a randomized crossover controlled consumption trial, 46 men and women with abdominal obesity consumed 5 isocaloric diets, each for 4 wk. Two diets were rich in SFAs either from cheese (CHEESE) or butter (BUTTER) [12.4-12.6% of energy (%E) as SFAs, 32%E as fat, 52%E as carbohydrates]. In 2 other diets, SFAs (5.8%E) were replaced with either MUFAs from refined olive oil (MUFA) or PUFAs from corn oil (PUFA). Finally, a lower fat and carbohydrate diet was used as a control (5.8%E as SFAs, 25.0%E as fat, 59%E as carbohydrates; CHO). Post-diet HDL-mediated CEC was determined ex vivo using radiolabelled J774 macrophages incubated with apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from the participants. Mean (±SD) age was 41.4 ± 14.2 y, and waist circumference was 107.6 ± 11.5 cm in men and 94.3 ± 12.4 cm in women. BUTTER and MUFA increased HDL-mediated CEC compared with CHEESE (+4.3%, P = 0.026 and +4.7%, P = 0.031, respectively). Exploring the significant diet × sex interaction (P = 0.044) revealed that the increase in HDL-mediated CEC after BUTTER compared with CHEESE was significant among men (+6.0%, P = 0.047) but not women (+2.9%, P = 0.19), whereas the increase after MUFA compared with CHEESE was significant among women (+9.1%, P = 0.008) but not men (-0.6%, P = 0.99). These results provide evidence of a food matrix effect modulating the impact of dairy SFAs on HDL

  7. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordany, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  8. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  9. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincek, B.

    2002-01-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  10. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  11. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at greater risk of having anxiety as young adults [2] . Abdominal pain or bellyaches in children What ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ...

  12. Abdominal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diverticulitis ) Inflammation of the pancreas ( acute or chronic pancreatitis ) Liver abscess Pockets of infection (retroperitoneal abscess, abdominal abscess , pelvic abscess) Pregnancy outside of the uterus ( ectopic pregnancy ) Scar tissue ...

  13. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to ease your pain. For instance, eat smaller meals if your pain is accompanied by indigestion. Avoid ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/abdominal-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050728 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  14. ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Pleskovič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common cause of abdominal trauma is blunt trauma, gunshot wounds and stab wounds are rare. Most commonly injured organs in abdominal cavity are the spleen and the liver.Conclusions. Early diagnosis is very important and include precise phisical examination and all available diagnostic methods. The final decission about the method of treatmet depends on patients clinical condition, surgeon’s experience and other local conditions.

  15. The pandemic of physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2012-01-01

    the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance......Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since...

  16. Proposta de pontos de corte para indicação da obesidade abdominal entre adolescentes Propuesta de puntos de corte para indicación de la obesidad abdominal entre adolescentes Proposal of cut points for the indication of abdominal obesity among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    presión arterial (n= 334. La obesidad abdominal fue indicada mediante los valores de perímetro de cintura. RESULTADOS: Los adolescentes obesos presentaron valores más altos de circunferencia de cintura e, independientemente de género y grupo etario, se observó una relación significativa entre los valores de circunferencia de cintura y todos los indicadores de adiposidad adoptados en el estudio. Los valores críticos propuestos presentaron mayor sensibilidad en la indicación de valores elevados de presión arterial. CONCLUSIONES: Los valores críticos propuestos para la circunferencia de cintura fueron más sensibles en la indicación de valores elevados de presión arterial. No obstante, se requieren aún estudios que permitan averiguar la eficiencia de los mismos en la indicación de otros parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio.BACKGROUND: The absence of critical values for the cardiovascular risk identification among Brazilian adolescents represents an important limitation. OBJECTIVES: To prepare critical values for the waist circumference and to analyze its efficiency in indicating increased values of the arterial pressure. METHODS: Transversal study that evaluated 1,145 adolescents, from 11 to 17 years old (536 of the male sex and 609 of the female, their body weight values, stature, resistance, reactance, tricipital cutaneous fold, waist circumference and arterial pressure (n = 334 were collected. The abdominal obesity was indicated by waist circumference values. RESULTS: The obese adolescents presented higher waist circumference values and, independently of the gender and age group, there was a significant relation between the waist circumference values and all the adiposity indicators adopted in the study. The proposed critical values presented higher sensibility in indicating increased values of the arterial pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The critical values proposed for the waist circumference were more sensitive in the indication of increased values of the

  17. Abdominal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  18. Hipertensão, obesidade abdominal e baixa estatura: aspectos da transição nutricional em uma população favelada Hypertension, abdominal obesity and short stature: aspects of nutritional transition within a shantytown in the city of Maceió (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo da Silva Ferreira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar, em mulheres de muito baixa renda, a prevalência e a associação entre a baixa estatura, o sobrepeso, a obesidade abdominal e a hipertensão arterial, discutindo os achados, segundo o processo de transição nutricional e a hipótese da programação fetal (hipótese Barker. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 223 mulheres de 18 a 65 anos, por meio dos seguintes indicadores: índice de massa corporal (kg/m² >25 para sobrepeso + obesidade ou 0,8 para obesidade abdominal; pressão arterial sistólica e/ou diastólica >140/90mmHg para hipertensão; percentil 25 (1º quartil para baixa estatura. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso + obesidade (35,9% foi superior à de magreza (9,4%. A pressão diastólica associou-se com o índice de massa corporal (r=0,37; IC 95%: 0,01 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of occurrence of short stature, overweight, abdominal obesity and arterial hypertension, and the possible correlations among such factors, in women of very low income. The findings were considered in terms of nutrition transition and the Barker's programming hypothesis. METHODS: A group of 223 women, 18 to 65 years of age, were studied with respect to the following parameters: for body mass index (kg/m², values >25 indicated overweight and obesity, whilst values 0.8 indicated abdominal adiposity; for systolic/diastolic blood pressure, values >140/90 mm Hg indicated hypertension; and for height, values within the 25th percentile (1st quartile indicated short stature. RESULTS: The frequency of occurrence of overweight and obesity (present in 35.9% of the group was greater than that of underweight (9.4% of the group. The diastolic blood pressure was positively associated with body mass index (r= 0.37; CI 95,0%: 0.01

  19. Efficacy of low-calorie, partial meal replacement diet plans on weight and abdominal fat in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of two diet plans - one high in protein and one nutritionally balanced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Lee, J; Bae, W K; Choi, J K; Kim, H J; Cho, B

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the relative efficacy of high-protein vs. conventional diet plans that include partial meal replacements on body fat loss in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two low-calorie diets with partial meal replacement plans-a high-protein plan (HP) and a nutritionally balanced conventional (C) plan-on reducing obesity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week, double-blind study, we randomised 75 participants to either the HP- or the C-plan group. We recorded key metrics at 0 and 12 weeks. The overall mean weight loss was 5 kg in the HP-plan group and 4.9 kg in the C-plan group (p = 0.72). Truncal fat mass decreased 1.6 kg in the HP-plan group (p or = 70% dietary compliance, however, truncal and whole body fat mass decreased more in the HP-plan group (Delta 2.2 kg and Delta 3.5 kg respectively) than in the C-plan group (Delta 1.3 kg and Delta 2.3 [corrected] kg respectively) (p < 0.05). The HP- and C-plans had a similar effect on weight and abdominal fat reduction, but the HP-plan was more effective in reducing body fat among compliant subjects.

  20. Relação entre obesidade e síndrome metabólica em adolescentes de 10 a 14 anos com obesidade abdominal - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.6194 The relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents between ages 10 and 14, with abdominal obesity - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.6194

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martins Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram analisar a relação entre a obesidade e a síndrome metabólica (SM; identificar a prevalência da SM; classificar o estado nutricional e comparar as variáveis: triglicérides, HDL-c, pressão arterial e glicose em adolescentes com obesidade abdominal. A amostra foi constituída por 393 adolescentes de ambos os sexos entre dez e 14 anos de idade. Foram feitas medidas de circunferência do abdômen, aferição da pressão arterial e exames laboratoriais de glicose, colesterol HDL-c e triglicérides. Os resultados apresentaram que, na condição nutricional, o sexo masculino apresentou obesidade de 27,1%, sobrepeso de 4,3 e 68,6% de peso normal. Quanto ao sexo feminino, 29,5% estão com peso normal, 1,6%, com sobrepeso e 68,9%, com obesidade. A obesidade no sexo feminino foi estatisticamente maior do que no masculino. A prevalência de SM foi de 37%, e os meninos tiveram a prevalência maior da síndrome metabólica. Não foi encontrada diferença estatística entre os sexos nas variáveis: triglicérides, HDL-c e pressão arterial. Concluímos que a obesidade foi fator determinante para a SM em adolescentes do sexo feminino, a prevalência da SM e a de obesidade foram altas e nos parâmetros bioquímicos não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença estatística entre os sexos.The objectives of this study were: to analyze the relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS; identify the prevalence of MS; classify the nutritional condition; and compare the variables: triglycerides, HDL-c, arterial pressure and glucose in adolescents with abdominal obesity. The sample consisted of 393 adolescents of both genders between ages 10 and 14. Measurements were taken of abdominal circumference, arterial pressure, and laboratory exams of glucose, cholesterol HDL-c and triglycerides. The results showed that, in the nutritional condition, the male gender presented an obesity rate of 27.1, 4.3% overweight, and a rate of

  1. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  2. Abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There are numerous conditions that affect mainly or exclusively the pediatric population. These constitute true emergencies, related to patient's health. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal non-traumatic emergencies may result in rapid deterioration, peritonitis, sepsis, even death or in severe complications with subsequent morbidity. Abdominal emergencies in children mostly present with pain, tenderness, occasionally coupled by vomiting, fever, abdominal distension, and failure to pass meconium or stools. Diarrhea, blood per rectum, abnormal laboratory tests and lethargy may also be manifestations of acute abdominal conditions. Abdominal emergencies have a different aetiology, depending on age and whether the pain is acute or chronic. Symptoms have to be matched with age and gender. Newborns up to 1 months of age may have congenital diseases: atresia, low obstruction including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileus. Meconium plug is one of the commonest cause of low obstruction in newborns that may also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and mid-gut volvulus. Past the immediate postnatal period, any duodenal obstruction should be considered midgut volvulus until proven otherwise and patients should undergo ultrasonography and/or properly performed upper GI contrast study that records the exact position of the deduno-jejunal junction. Infants 6 months-2 years carry the risk of intussusception, mid-gut volvulus, perforation, acute pyelonephritis. Preschool and school-aged children 2-12 years carry the risk of appendicitis, genito-urinary abnormalities including torsion, urachal abnormalities, haemolytic uremic syndrome and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Children above 12 years suffer from the same conditions as in adults. Most conditions may affect any age despite age predilection. Abdominal solid organ ultrasonography (US) coupled with gastrointestinal ultrasonography is the principle imaging modality in radiosensitive

  3. Understanding Female Inactivity in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Azzopardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study is based in Malta, a small island state with the highest rate of economically inactive women in the European Union (EU. Using a random sample of 402 inactive female homemakers, the responses to a telephone survey revealed that (a this inactive group is motivated by aspects of social and economic well-being and to a lesser extent by aspects of personal and professional development; (b work hindrances include low wages, family responsibilities, and a dependency on social security contributions/benefits; (c the intention to work in the future is significantly associated with work motives, work hindrances, and demographic variables, resulting in an overall holdout accuracy of 84.8%; and (d the respondents would be encouraged to work if there are more supportive/flexible work structures available for working mothers, equal opportunities for women at the workplace, and employment opportunities through in-work benefits that make work pay (particularly for those aged 40+, with limited skills and with low work intensity. The findings are discussed, and the study concludes by providing four policy recommendations aimed at addressing the present shortcomings of the Maltese labor market.

  4. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  5. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  6. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  7. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...

  8. Obesity in French Inmates: Gender Differences and Relationship with Mood, Eating Behavior and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, Aude; Ajana, Soufiane; Capuron, Lucile; Féart, Catherine; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Inmates, notably women, are at greater risk for obesity and metabolic complications than the general population according to several studies from high income countries. Data regarding French correctional institutions are lacking so far. To fill this gap, we have assessed in a sample from a French prison (33 females and 18 males) the gender-specific effect of incarceration on weight and body mass index (BMI) and examined their current metabolic status. Furthermore, to reveal the possible determinants of increased obesity, we analyzed emotional vulnerability, eating behavior and physical activity using self-reported questionnaires. In this sample, obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) was already frequent in women (18.2%) but rather scarce for men (11%) at prison entry. Incarceration worsened the rate of obesity in both genders (21.2% and 16.7% respectively). At the time of study, abdominal obesity estimated through waist circumference was particularly prevalent in women (69.7%) versus men (27.8%) and metabolic syndrome was detected in 33% of female against none in male inmates. Abdominal obesity was associated with female sex (pobesity in multivariate analysis. A marked difference between genders was found for practice of physical activity with a higher proportion of women compared to men being inactive (37.9% vs. 11.8%) and fewer women being very active (17.2% vs. 41.2%). This study revealed that a significant proportion of women of this correctional institution combined established obesity, a metabolic syndrome and very little practice of physical activity which put them at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, obesity should be better surveyed and treated in prison, especially for female inmates. Increased physical activity, adapted to obese women, would be the first mean to decrease obesity and gender differences.

  9. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  10. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  11. Physical activity reduces the risk of incident type 2 diabetes in general and in abdominally lean and obese men and women: the EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekelund, U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We examined the independent and combined associations of physical activity and obesity with incident type 2 diabetes in men and women. Methods The InterAct case–cohort study consists of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a randomly selected subcohort of 16,154 individuals,

  12. [Abdominal obesity mediates the association between a low physical activity and a decline in gait speed in community-dwelling elderly people: A cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Taiki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Nakakubo, Sho; Murata, Shunsuke; Doi, Takehiko; Ono, Rei

    2016-01-01

    A low physical activity leads to obesity and a decline in the physical function. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether the association between a low physical activity and low physical function was mediated by obesity. A total of 73 community-dwelling elderly people participated in this study. The analysis included 56 participants without knee and hip osteoarthritis, low cognitive function (the Mini Mental State Examination score gait speed. Obesity was measured by the body mass index and waist circumference. To assess whether the association between the physical activity and physical function was mediated by obesity, linear regression models were fitted according to Baron and Kenny procedures for a mediation analysis. A p value gait speed, whereas the waist circumference acted as a full mediator in the association between the physical activity and gait speed. An increased waist circumference mediates the association between a low physical activity and a low physical function in community-dwelling elderly people.

  13. Effect of rimonabant on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression in patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: the AUDITOR Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Leary, D.H.; Reuwer, A.Q.; Nissen, S.E.; Després, J.P.; Deanfield, J.E.; Brown, M.W.; Zhou, R.; Zabbatino, S.M.; Job, B.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Visseren, F.L.J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to determine whether obese patients benefit from treatment with rimonabant in terms of progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in patients who

  14. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical...... leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.......67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical...

  15. Obesidade abdominal e risco cardiovascular: desempenho de indicadores antropométricos em mulheres Obesidad abdominal y riesgo cardiovascular: desempeño de indicadores antropométricos en mujeres Abdominal obesity and cardiovascular risk: performance of anthropometric indexes in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Tosta de Almeida

    2009-05-01

    écadas, hubo un aumento de la OABD en la población femenina brasileña, constituyendo un gran problema de salud pública. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el desempeño de diferentes puntos de corte del índice de conicidad (índice C, de la relación cintura-cadera (RCC, de la circunferencia de cintura (CC y de la relación cintura-estatura (RCEst para discriminar riesgo coronario elevado (RCE en mujeres. MÉTODOS: Un estudio transversal realizado en Feira de Santana, Bahía, con 270 funcionarias de una universidad pública con edades entre 30-69 años. El análisis de la sensibilidad y especificidad, realizada por medios de las curvas ROC, permitió identificar y comparar los mejores puntos de corte para discriminar el RCE, calculado en base el puntaje de riesgo de Framingham. RESULTADOS: Los puntos de corte encontrados fueron: CC = 86 cm, RCC = 0,87, índice C = 1,25 y RCEst = 0,55, siendo respectivamente, las áreas bajo la curva ROC de 0,70 (IC95% = 0,63-0,77, 0,74 (IC95% = 0,67-0,81, 0,76 (IC95% = 0,70-0,83 y 0,74 (IC95% = 0,67-0,81. Los indicadores antropométricos de OABD analizados presentaron desempeños satisfactorios y semejantes para discriminar el RCE. No obstante, índice C fue el indicador que presentó el mejor poder discriminatorio. CONCLUSIÓN: Se espera que estos resultados contribuyan para cuantificar mejor la OABD en la población femenina brasileña, proporcionando informaciones para que los profesionales de la salud actúen en la prevención de esta condición clínica multifactorial, evitando el surgimiento de las enfermedades cardiovasculares.BACKGROUND: Anthropometric indicators of abdominal obesity (AOB estimate the amount of visceral fat tissue which, in turn, is associated with a higher risk of development of cardiovascular diseases. In the past decades, there has been an increase in the frequency of AOB in the brazilian female population, and this represents a major public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of different cut-off points of

  16. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    limited in terms of maintaining a behavior change. The purpose of this study was to investigate individual, cognitive, social, and contextual factors influencing the adoption and maintenance of regular self-organized jogging, and how they were manifested among former inactive adults. Methods A qualitative...... to translate intention into regular behavior. TTM: Informants expressed rapid progression from the pre-contemplation to the action stage caused by an early shift in the decisional balance towards advantages overweighing disadvantages. This was followed by a continuous improvement in self-efficacy, which...... jogging-related self-efficacy, and deployment of realistic goal setting was significant in the achievement of regular jogging behavior. Cognitive factors included a positive change in both affective and instrumental beliefs about jogging. Expectations from society and social relations had limited effect...

  17. Differential Nongenetic Impact of Birth Weight Versus Third-Trimester Growth Velocity on Glucose Metabolism and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abdominal Obesity in Young Healthy Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, Kasper; Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Grunnet, Louise

    2011-01-01

    monozygotic twins are instrumental in determining nongenetic associations between early environment and adult metabolic phenotype.Objective: Our objective was to investigate the relationship between size at birth and third-trimester growth velocity on adult body composition and glucose metabolism using intra......-pair differences in young healthy twins.Methods: Fifty-eight healthy twins (42 monozygotic/16 dizygotic) aged 18-24 yr participated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Whole-body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, whereas abdominal visceral and sc fat...... (L1-L4) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Third-trimester growth velocity was determined by repeated ultrasound examinations.Results: Size at birth was nongenetically inversely associated with adult visceral and sc fat accumulation but unrelated to adult insulin action. In contrast, fetal...

  18. A Fully Automated Web-Based Program Improves Lifestyle Habits and HbA1c in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Abdominal Obesity: Randomized Trial of Patient E-Coaching Nutritional Support (The ANODE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Boris; Giral, Philippe; Gambotti, Laetitia; Lafourcade, Alexandre; Peres, Gilbert; Filipecki, Claude; Kadouch, Diana; Hartemann, Agnes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Bruckert, Eric; Marre, Michel; Bruneel, Arnaud; Duchene, Emilie; Roussel, Ronan

    2017-11-08

    The prevalence of abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a public health challenge. New solutions need to be developed to help patients implement lifestyle changes. The objective of the study was to evaluate a fully automated Web-based intervention designed to help users improve their dietary habits and increase their physical activity. The Accompagnement Nutritionnel de l'Obésité et du Diabète par E-coaching (ANODE) study was a 16-week, 1:1 parallel-arm, open-label randomized clinical trial. Patients with T2DM and abdominal obesity (n=120, aged 18-75 years) were recruited. Patients in the intervention arm (n=60) had access to a fully automated program (ANODE) to improve their lifestyle. Patients were asked to log on at least once per week. Human contact was limited to hotline support in cases of technical issues. The dietetic tool provided personalized menus and a shopping list for the day or the week. Stepwise physical activity was prescribed. The control arm (n=60) received general nutritional advice. The primary outcome was the change of the dietary score (International Diet Quality Index; DQI-I) between baseline and the end of the study. Secondary endpoints included changes in body weight, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and measured maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). The mean age of the participants was 57 years (standard deviation [SD] 9), mean body mass index was 33 kg/m² (SD 4), mean HbA1c was 7.2% (SD 1.1), and 66.7% (80/120) of participants were women. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, the DQI-I score (54.0, SD 5.7 in the ANODE arm; 52.8, SD 6.2 in the control arm; P=.28) increased significantly in the ANODE arm compared to the control arm (+4.55, SD 5.91 vs -1.68, SD 5.18; between arms Pimproved significantly in the intervention. Among patients with T2DM and abdominal obesity, the use of a fully automated Web-based program resulted in a significant improvement in dietary habits and favorable clinical and

  19. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...

  20. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  1. Local androgen inactivation in abdominal visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Karine; Richard, Christian; Bélanger, Chantal; Dupont, Pierre; Daris, Marleen; Laberge, Philippe; Luu-The, Van; Tchernof, André

    2003-12-01

    We examined the expression and activity of two enzymes from the aldoketoreductase (AKR) family 1C, namely type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD-5, AKR1C3) and type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD-3, AKR1C2) in female sc and omental adipose tissue and in preadipocyte primary cultures. 17beta-HSD-5 preferentially synthesizes testosterone from the inactive adrenal precursor androstenedione, whereas 3alpha-HSD-3 inactivates dihydrotestosterone. mRNAs of both enzymes were detected in adipose tissue from the omental and sc compartments. Real-time PCR quantification indicated a 3-fold higher 3alpha-HSD-3 expression compared with 17beta-HSD-5, and the expression of both enzymes tended to be higher in the sc vs. the omental depot. Accordingly, dose-response and time-course experiments performed in preadipocyte primary cultures indicated that 3alpha-HSD activity was higher than 17beta-HSD activity (13-fold maximum velocity difference). We measured 3alpha-HSD activity in omental and sc adipose tissue samples of 32 women for whom body composition and body fat distribution were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and CT, respectively. We found that androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue through 3alpha-HSD activity was significantly higher in women with elevated vs. low visceral adipose tissue accumulation (1.7-fold difference; P < 0.05). Moreover, omental adipose tissue 3alpha-HSD activity was positively and significantly associated with CT-measured visceral adipose tissue (r = 0.43; P < 0.02) and omental adipocyte diameter (r = 0.42; P < 0.02). These results indicate that local androgen inactivation is a predominant reaction in female abdominal adipose tissue, with the greatest conversion rates observed in the presence of abdominal visceral obesity. Increased androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue of abdominally obese women may impact locally on the regulation of adipocyte metabolism.

  2. Are Mothers' Working Hours Associated with General and Abdominal Obesity in Children and Adolescents? The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Young; Park, Sohee

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Despite an increase in the female work force and recent increase in childhood obesity, the association between working hours of mothers and childhood obesity as well as how such association differs according to mothers' weight and intake frequency of energy-dense, nutrition-poor (EDNP) foods remain unclear. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2012) that included samples from 3914 children in 2526 households were analyzed. Two-level (household-children) mixed-effects modeling was performed to investigate the association between mothers' working hours and childhood obesity based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Results Long working hours (h) of mothers were associated with both BMI (β = - 0.14; P = 0.324 for 1-20 h, β = 0.10; P = 0.334 for ≤ 21-40 h; β = 0.09; P = 0.429 for 41-68 h, β = 0.51; P = 0.015 for ≥ 69 h) and WC of the child (β = 0.06; P = 0.809 for 1-20 h; β = 0.46; P = 0.017 for ≤ 21-40 h; β = 0.59; P = 0.004 for 41-68 h, β = 1.35; P mothers working ≥ 69 h compared to those working 0 h. We also observed that the association between mothers' working hours and child's BMI and WC was greater for children whose mothers were either overweight or obese and frequently consumed energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods (EDNP). Conclusions for Practice Long working hours of mothers are associated with higher BMI and WC in children. Thus, it is important to improve labor welfare for mothers who work long hours, and provide interventions to promote good health behaviors in both children and working mothers.

  3. Effect of long-term treatment with metformin added to hypocaloric diet on body composition, fat distribution, and androgen and insulin levels in abdominally obese women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, R; Gambineri, A; Biscotti, D; Vicennati, V; Gagliardi, L; Colitta, D; Fiorini, S; Cognigni, G E; Filicori, M; Morselli-Labate, A M

    2000-08-01

    Abdominal obesity and hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Dietary-induced weight loss and the administration of insulin-lowering drugs, such as metformin, are usually followed by improved hyperandrogenism and related clinical abnormalities. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined hypocaloric diet and metformin on body weight, fat distribution, the glucose-insulin system, and hormones in a group of 20 obese PCOS women [body mass index (BMI) > 28 kg/m2] with the abdominal phenotype (waist to hip ratio >0.80), and an appropriate control group of 20 obese women who were comparable for age and pattern of body fat distribution but without PCOS. At baseline, we measured sex hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and leptin blood concentrations and performed an oral glucose tolerance test and computerized tomography (CT) at the L4-L5 level, to measure sc adipose tissue area (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue area. All women were then given a low-calorie diet (1,200-1,400 kcal/day) alone for one month, after which anthropometric parameters and CT scan were newly measured. While continuing dietary treatment, PCOS women and obese controls were subsequently placed, in a random order, on metformin (850 mg/os, twice daily) (12 and 8, respectively) or placebo (8 and 12, respectively), according to a double-blind design, for the following 6 months. Blood tests and the CT scan were performed in each woman at the end of the study while they were still on treatment. During the treatment period, 3 women of the control group (all treated with placebo) were excluded because of noncompliance; and 2 PCOS women, both treated with metformin, were also excluded because they became pregnant. Therefore, the women cohort available for final statistical analysis included 18 PCOS (10 treated with metformin and 8 with placebo) and 17 control women (8 treated with metformin and 9 with placebo). The treatment was

  4. Laparoscopic surgery compared with open surgery decreases surgical site infection in obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel M; Sørensen, Lars T

    2012-01-01

    : To compare surgical site infections rate in obese patients after laparoscopic surgery with open general abdominal surgery.......: To compare surgical site infections rate in obese patients after laparoscopic surgery with open general abdominal surgery....

  5. The cost of physical inactivity to a nation: the role of sports medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, etc.) is not well documented in. Africa, their meteoric rise is well publicised in the ... coded for by our genome. Furthermore, by delving into early man's patterns of nutrition, it appears that cycling periods of food availability programmed the body to respond to physical inactivity in a particular.

  6. Assessment of image quality and low-contrast detectability in abdominal CT of obese patients: comparison of a novel integrated circuit with a conventional discrete circuit detector at different tube voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euler, A.; Heye, T.; Kekelidze, M.; Bongartz, G.; Schindera, Sebastian T.; Szucs-Farkas, Z.; Sommer, C.; Schmidt, B.

    2015-01-01

    To compare image quality and low-contrast detectability of an integrated circuit (IC) detector in abdominal CT of obese patients with conventional detector technology at low tube voltages. A liver phantom with 45 lesions was placed in a water container to mimic an obese patient and examined on two different CT systems at 80, 100 and 120 kVp. The systems were equipped with either the IC or conventional detector. Image noise was measured, and the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) was calculated. Low-contrast detectability was assessed independently by three radiologists. Radiation dose was estimated by the volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ). The image noise was significantly lower, and the CNR was significantly higher with the IC detector at 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively (P = 0.023). The IC detector resulted in an increased lesion detection rate at 80 kVp (38.1 % vs. 17.2 %) and 100 kVp (57.0 % vs. 41.0 %). There was no difference in the detection rate between the IC detector at 100 kVp and the conventional detector at 120 kVp (57.0 % vs. 62.2 %). The CTDI vol at 80, 100 and 120 kVp measured 4.5-5.2, 7.3-7.9 and 9.8-10.2 mGy, respectively. The IC detector at 100 kVp resulted in similar low-contrast detectability compared to the conventional detector with a 120-kVp protocol at a radiation dose reduction of 37 %. (orig.)

  7. Avaliação da força muscular respiratória e amplitudes torácicas e abdominais após a RFR em indivíduos obesos Evaluación de la fuerza muscular respiratorio y amplitud toracica y abdominal espués de la RFR en individuos obsesos Evaluation of respiratory muscle strength and thoracic and abdominal amplitudes after a functional reeducation of breathing program for obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Costa

    2003-03-01

    mechanics in obese individuals with respect to respiratory muscle strength determined by maximum respiratory pressure (PImax and PEmax and the amplitude of thoracoabdominal movements at the levels: axillary (AAX, xiphoid (AXf and abdominal (AAb.Twenty nine patients (43 ± 13 years were divided in two groups: Experimental group (E and Control group (C. All patients were submitted to an initial evaluation and determination of PImax, PEmax, AAx, AXiph and AAb. The E group was submitted to 18 sessions of a Functional Reeducation of Breathing Program that consisted of respiratory orientation, respiratory coordination exercise associated to trunk and limb movements and muscle relaxation two times a week during 9 weeks. Student t-test showed a significant increase in PImax, Axif and Aabd in the experimental group, but when authors compared the two groups, they did not find any statistical difference. The results showed that the Program increased the respiratory muscle strength and the amplitude of abdominal movements in obese patients.

  8. Barren diets increase wakeful inactivity in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Laura E.; Engel, Bas; Reenen, van Kees; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Inactivity is a vastly understudied behavioural category, which may reflect positive or negative affective states in captive or domesticated animals. Increased inactivity in barren-housed animals, in combination with an increased or decreased interest in stimuli, e.g. novel objects, can indicate

  9. Administrative Inactivity: Concept and Requirements of Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Yarkovoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general concept of omission in law, as well as the concept and main features of inactivity on the part of executive bodies, other public administration agencies and their officials in their administrative law enforcement are examined, conditions of legality of such inactivity are under study

  10. Effect of orlistat on weight regain and cardiovascular risk factors following a very-low-energy diet in abdominally obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richelsen, Bjørn; Tonstad, Serena; Rössner, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of orlistat on the maintenance of weight loss over 3 years following a major weight loss induced by very-low-energy diet (VLED) in obese patients with metabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, and diet-treated type 2 diabetes...... together with either orlistat 120 mg t.i.d. or matching placebo capsules. Primary end points were the maintenance of > or = 5% weight loss after 3 years. Additionally, differences in the development of type 2 diabetes between orlistat and placebo were analyzed. RESULTS: The VLED induced a mean weight loss...... circumference was significantly more reduced in the orlistat group (P diabetes were significantly reduced in the orlistat group (8 cases out of 153 subjects) versus placebo (17 cases...

  11. Altered Daytime Fluctuation Pattern of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Strong Association with Persistently Elevated Plasma Insulin, Increased Insulin Resistance, and Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lalić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating daily fluctuation of PAI-1 levels in relation to insulin resistance (IR and daily profile of plasma insulin and glucose levels in 26 type 2 diabetic (T2D patients with coronary artery disease (CAD (group A, 10 T2D patients without CAD (group B, 12 nondiabetics with CAD (group C, and 12 healthy controls (group D. The percentage of PAI-1 decrease was lower in group A versus group B (4.4 ± 2.7 versus 35.0 ± 5.4%; P<0.05 and in C versus D (14.0 ± 5.8 versus 44.7 ± 3.1%; P<0.001. HOMA-IR was higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01. Simultaneously, AUCs of PAI-1 and insulin were higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01, while AUC of glucose did not differ between groups. In multiple regression analysis waist-to-hip ratio and AUC of insulin were independent determinants of decrease in PAI-1. The altered diurnal fluctuation of PAI-1, especially in T2D with CAD, might be strongly influenced by a prolonged exposure to hyperinsulinemia in the settings of increased IR and abdominal obesity, facilitating altogether an accelerated atherosclerosis.

  12. Obesity in French Inmates: Gender Differences and Relationship with Mood, Eating Behavior and Physical Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Lagarrigue

    Full Text Available Inmates, notably women, are at greater risk for obesity and metabolic complications than the general population according to several studies from high income countries. Data regarding French correctional institutions are lacking so far. To fill this gap, we have assessed in a sample from a French prison (33 females and 18 males the gender-specific effect of incarceration on weight and body mass index (BMI and examined their current metabolic status. Furthermore, to reveal the possible determinants of increased obesity, we analyzed emotional vulnerability, eating behavior and physical activity using self-reported questionnaires.In this sample, obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 was already frequent in women (18.2% but rather scarce for men (11% at prison entry. Incarceration worsened the rate of obesity in both genders (21.2% and 16.7% respectively. At the time of study, abdominal obesity estimated through waist circumference was particularly prevalent in women (69.7% versus men (27.8% and metabolic syndrome was detected in 33% of female against none in male inmates. Abdominal obesity was associated with female sex (p<0.03, low physical activity (p<0.05 and eating disorder (p = 0.07 in univariate analyses. Low physical activity remained significant as an explanatory factor of higher abdominal obesity in multivariate analysis. A marked difference between genders was found for practice of physical activity with a higher proportion of women compared to men being inactive (37.9% vs. 11.8% and fewer women being very active (17.2% vs. 41.2%.This study revealed that a significant proportion of women of this correctional institution combined established obesity, a metabolic syndrome and very little practice of physical activity which put them at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, obesity should be better surveyed and treated in prison, especially for female inmates. Increased physical activity, adapted to obese women, would be the first mean to decrease

  13. A randomized, double blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effects of Candesartan on the insulin sensitivity on non diabetic, non hypertense subjects with dysglyce mia and abdominal obesity. "ARAMIA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda-Clausen Christian F

    2006-09-01

    . Hypothesis Treatment with Candesartan, could improve the HOMA index, the response to the oral glucose tolerance test and reduce the plasma levels of adipoquines, oxidative stress and prothrombotic markers, in non diabetic, non hypertense subjects with dysglycemia and abdominal obesity, recruited from a population at high risk of developing insulin resistance. These effects are independent of the changes in arterial blood pressure. Trial registration: NCT00319202

  14. Well Leg Compartment Syndrome After Abdominal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jens Krogh; Hove, Lars Dahlgaard; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby

    2017-01-01

    during surgery. Symptoms of WLCS presented within 2 h after surgery in 56 % and in only 3 cases after 24 h. Obesity was not confirmed as risk factor for WLCS. The mean diagnostic delay was 10 h. One-third of fasciotomies were insufficient. The diagnostic delay increased with duration of the abdominal...

  15. The magnitude of abdominal adiposity and atherogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemia was defined using the third report of National Cholesterol Education Panel in adult (ATP III). The data collected included basic demographic variables, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 50.8% and was the most common ...

  16. The index of abdominal obesity as a marker of disorder of blood serum triglicerides fatty-acid spectrum in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Миколаївна Кушнарьова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. To determine the possibility to use the visceral obesity index (VOI for diagnostics of lipid metabolism disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 on the base of the study of adipose tissue and triglycerides fatty acids content in the blood serum of patients.Materials and methods. There were determined the body mass, height, waist size, blood serum  lipid fraction (triglycerides, LPHD, calculated the body mass index and VOI in 19 patients with DM type 2 older then 50 years. There were determined the content of fatty acids (palmitic С16:0, stearin С18:0, oleic С18:1 and linoleic С18:2 in triglycerides using the method of liquid-gas chromatography.Results. Examined patients were separated into 3 groups according to VOI value. There was detected that the higher VOI values in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (upper tertile were associated with the most intensive unfavorable changes of the fatty-acid spectrum of triglyceride fraction in the blood serum at the expense of an increase of saturated palmitic and stearin fatty acids fraction and decrease of unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids content. There were revealed the correlations between VOI and the levels of saturated and unsaturated triglyceride fatty acids.Conclusion. The calculation of VOI in patients with DM type 2 can be the useful indicator of the lipid metabolism disorder, especially the deviations of triglyceride fatty-acid spectrum

  17. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21?24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16?18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertensio...

  18. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  19. Physical Inactivity and Mortality Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kokkinos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a plethora of epidemiologic evidence accumulated supports a strong, independent and inverse, association between physical activity and the fitness status of an individual and mortality in apparently healthy individuals and diseased populations. These health benefits are realized at relatively low fitness levels and increase with higher physical activity patterns or fitness status in a dose-response fashion. The risk reduction is at least in part attributed to the favorable effect of exercise or physical activity on the cardiovascular risk factors, namely, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and obesity. In this review, we examine evidence from epidemiologic and interventional studies in support of the association between exercise and physical activity and health. In addition, we present the exercise effects on the aforementioned risk factors. Finally, we include select dietary approaches and their impact on risk factors and overall mortality risk.

  20. Autonomic responses to exercise: deconditioning/inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental models of physical inactivity associated with a sedentary lifestyle or extreme forms of inactivity with bed rest or spaceflight affect the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Deconditioning effects are rapidly seen in the regulation of heart rate to compensate for physical modifications in blood volume and cardiac function. Reflex regulation of cardiovascular control during exercise by metaboreflex and baroreflex is altered by bed rest and spaceflight. These models of extreme inactivity provide a reference to guide physical activity requirements for optimal cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution Quantified by Ultrasound Imaging and Incident Hypertension in a General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension. However, different distributions of abdominal adipose tissue may affect hypertension risk differently. The main purpose of this study was to explore the association of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue...

  3. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight...

  4. Electrical stimulation of the abdomen preserves motor performance in the inactive elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Misa; Seki, Kazunori; Ito, Osamu; Handa, Yasunobu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    Abdominal muscle strength declines easily with the process of aging and/or disuse, and it is difficult to strengthen weak abdominal muscles in the inactive elderly. In the present study, we applied surface electrical stimulation (ES) to the abdomen of inactive elderly people to investigate its chronic effects. Twenty inactive elderly people (65-89 years) who spent most of the day in their bedroom participated in the study. The subjects were assigned to ES and non-ES groups in a random order. In addition to conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy, ES was applied to both sides of the flank of 10 subjects (ES group) for 8 weeks. For evaluation of the abdominal muscles, the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured with computed tomography and the electrical muscle activity (iEMG) was measured by electromyography. Functional examinations were performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the beginning of the study with the following parameters: grip strength; maximum walking speed (WS); movement time for sitting up (MSU); number of trunk flexions (NTF); flexibility of the trunk; sit-to-stand time (STS); and Barthel index (BI) score. In the ES group, the NTF and MSU were significantly improved at 4 weeks and thereafter. Furthermore, the STS and WS were also improved significantly after 8 weeks (p < 0.05). The CSA and iEMG both increased significantly (p < 0.05). However, the flexibility of the trunk and BI score did not change. In conclusion, ES to the abdomen has the potential to improve motor function in the inactive elderly.

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ... kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of trauma. ...

  7. [Endocrine function in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  9. Physical inactivity, TV-watching hours and body composition in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça da; Silva, Renata D'Andrada Tenório Almeida; Oliveira, Bruno Almeida Viana de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo

    2010-08-01

    Physical inactivity is a predisposing factor to the onset/worsening of other cardiovascular risk factors, particularly obesity. To determine physical activity level (PAL) and daily number of hours of TV (HTV) and the association and/or correlation of these variables with age, gender, economic class, public/private school, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Cross sectional study, school-based population, public and private education, primary and secondary education. The sample was calculated based on the minimum expected prevalence of several variables, including physical inactivity. Cluster sampling. structured questionnaire, including Physical Activity for Older Children Questionnaire (PAQ-C) measurements of weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF). Chi-square, linear correlation. Among the 1,253 students, averaging 12.4 ± 2.9 years old, of which 549 were male, there was a prevalence of inactivity in 93.5%, more commonly found in female adolescents and there was no association between PAL and excess weight or body fat, soccer and dance were the most frequent activities in boys and girls, respectively; 60% of students did not have physical education classes. Average and median HTV were respectively 3.6 and 3 hours; there was a significant association between HTV and obesity and significant correlation between PAL and age (negative) and between BMI and TSF (positive). Physical inactivity is present in 93.5% of children and adolescents from Maceió. It is more commonly found among teenagers and females, with no association or correlation of this variable with excess weight or body fat; obesity was associated with ≥ 3 HTV.

  10. 24 CFR 214.200 - Inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... review. (b) Agencies that seek temporary inactive status must submit a request to HUD in writing... review and notify the agency of approval or rejection, in writing. If approved, the agency's name and contact information will be temporarily removed from the HUD-approved Web list of agencies and the...

  11. Effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...

  12. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  13. Abdominal wall hernias: imaging with spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabile Ianora, A.A.; Midiri, M.; Vinci, R.; Rotondo, A.; Angelelli, G.

    2000-01-01

    Computed tomography is an accurate method of identifying the various types of abdominal wall hernias, especially if they are clinically occult, and of distinguishing them from other diseases such as hematomas, abscesses and neoplasia. In this study we examined the CT images of 94 patients affected by abdominal wall hernias observed over a period of 6 years. Computed tomography clearly demonstrates the anatomical site of the hernial sac, the content and any occlusive bowel complications due to incarceration or strangulation. Clinical diagnosis of external hernias is particularly difficult in obese patients or in those with laparotic scars. In these cases abdominal imaging is essential for a correct preoperative diagnosis and to determine the most effective treatment. (orig.)

  14. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  15. Levels and correlates of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office jobs in Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2016-06-20

    Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.

  16. Obesity in bipolar disorder: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Keck, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with obesity, overweight, and abdominal obesity, and BD individuals with obesity have a greater illness burden. Factors related to BD, its treatment, and the individual may all contribute to BD's association with obesity. Management strategies for the obese BD patient include use of medications with better metabolic profiles, lifestyle interventions, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy for weight loss. Obesity-related psychiatric and medical comorbidities should also be assessed and managed. Bariatric surgery may be an option for carefully selected patients. Greater research into the theoretical underpinnings and clinical management of the BD-obesity connection is needed.

  17. Obesity-related non-communicable diseases: South Asians vs White Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A; Khurana, L

    2011-02-01

    South Asians are at higher risk than White Caucasians for the development of obesity and obesity-related non-communicable diseases (OR-NCDs), including insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Rapid nutrition and lifestyle transitions have contributed to acceleration of OR-NCDs in South Asians. Differences in determinants and associated factors for OR-NCDs between South Asians and White Caucasians include body phenotype (high body fat, high truncal, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, and low muscle mass), biochemical parameters (hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, low levels of adiponectin and high levels of C-reactive protein), procoagulant state and endothelial dysfunction. Higher prevalence, earlier onset and increased complications of T2DM and CHD are often seen at lower levels of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in South Asians than White Caucasians. In view of these data, lower cut-offs for obesity and abdominal obesity have been advocated for Asian Indians (BMI; overweight >23 to 24.9 kg m(-2) and obesity ≥ 25 kg m(-2); and WC; men ≥ 90 cm and women ≥ 80 cm, respectively). Imbalanced nutrition, physical inactivity, perinatal adverse events and genetic differences are also important contributory factors. Other differences between South Asians and White Caucasians include lower disease awareness and health-seeking behavior, delayed diagnosis due to atypical presentation and language barriers, and religious and sociocultural factors. All these factors result in poorer prevention, less aggressive therapy, poorer response to medical and surgical interventions, and higher morbidity and mortality in the former. Finally, differences in response to pharmacological agents may exist between South Asians and White Caucasians, although these have been inadequately studied. In view of these data, prevention and management strategies should be more

  18. Is obesity a disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumarac-Dumanović Mirjana 0000-0002-6216-6650

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a complex entity that can have many causes, such as endocrine (like thyroid dysfunction or hyperfunctioning of the suprarenall gland-Cushing’s syndrome but often obesity is from a combination of inactivity and overeating. On the other side, there are genetic factors that produce a tendency to overweight even with the consumption of what would be for most people an appropriate number of calories. Whether the causes are hormonal, genetic or reside in the brain (its reward system or the circuitry that underlies habit, perception of portion size, the choice of food... is often difficult to sort out. Proponents contend that obesity is a disease because it meets the definition of disease. Obesity decreases life expectancy and impairs the normal body functions, also it can be caused by genetic factors. Opponents contend that obesity is not a disease because it is a preventable risk factor for other diseases. Obesity is the result of eating too much as well as it is caused by exercising too little. Formaly disease or condition obesity is associated with a variety of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, and may also be responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding the pathophysiology of obesity has grown significantly over the last few decades. Pathogenetic mechanisms in obesity and in the development of comorbidities that accompany obesity exhibit many of the characteristics of inflammatory processes. A key role in the pathogenesis of obesity could play the immune system. Despite identifying many critical players in these processes and finding new therapeutic modalities in the fight against obesity, treatment of obesity is still a great challenge and mostly with not-so-successful outcomes.

  19. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez, Karim?; Fuentes, Jorge; M?rquez, Jos? Luis

    2017-01-01

    New research into physical activity suggests that it is no longer sufficient just to meet minimum levels recommended by health guidelines in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior have their own health hazards and need to be addressed separately, in order to explore their different deleterious mechanisms. The aim of this review was to define and to characterize both concepts, and their relationship with major non-communicable chronic diseases. A P...

  20. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  1. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  2. [Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in school children from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...... subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity....

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ...

  5. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction

  6. Abdominal fat quantity and distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and extent of its relation to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, Enrico; Bucchieri, Salvo; Esposito, Antonella; Del Puente, Antonio; Mansueto, Pasquale; Orio, Francesco; Di Fede, Gaetana; Rini, Giovambattista

    2007-07-01

    Increased abdominal fat has been linked to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk. Because many patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) present abdominal obesity, it may be the cause of insulin resistance in this disorder. Fat quantity and distribution were evaluated by dual x-ray absorptiometry at the Departments of Clinical Medicine at the University of Palermo and the University of Naples, Italy. A total of 110 patients with PCOS and 112 weight-matched controls were studied. Anthropometric data, blood glucose, serum insulin, and testosterone were evaluated. Total, trunk, and central abdominal fat quantity were measured by total-body dual x-ray absorptiometry. Compared with weight-matched controls, patients with PCOS had similar quantity of total and trunk fat but higher quantity of central abdominal fat. This difference was not observed when comparing obese PCOS and obese controls but depended on differences between overweight and normoweight patients and controls. All obese subjects, independently of having PCOS or not, had increased central abdominal fat. The same parameter was increased in 71% of overweight PCOS, 50% of overweight controls, and 30% of normoweight PCOS patients. PCOS patients with increased central abdominal fat had significantly higher (P fat. Overweight PCOS patients with normal abdominal fat had significantly higher (P fat. Most obese subjects, independent of being affected by PCOS, have an abdominal form of obesity. However, abdominal fat excess may not be the only determinant of insulin resistance in PCOS.

  7. [Abdomen specific bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Midori; Hirata, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-02-01

    Two novel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods have been developed recently for evaluation of intra-abdominal fat accumulation. Both methods use electrodes that are placed on abdominal wall and allow evaluation of intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) easily without radiation exposure. Of these, "abdominal BIA" method measures impedance distribution along abdominal anterior-posterior axis, and IAFA by BIA method(BIA-IAFA) is calculated from waist circumference and the voltage occurring at the flank. Dual BIA method measures impedance of trunk and body surface at the abdominal level and calculates BIA-IAFA from transverse and antero-posterior diameters of the abdomen and the impedance of trunk and abdominal surface. BIA-IAFA by these two BIA methods correlated well with IAFA measured by abdominal CT (CT-IAFA) with correlatipn coefficient of 0.88 (n = 91, p obesity.

  8. Associations of −308G/A Polymorphism of Tumor Necrosis Factor(TNF–α Gene and Serum TNF-α Levels with Measures of Obesity, Intra-Abdominal and Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat, Subclinical Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Asian Indians in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval K. Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obesity is associated with high levels proinflammatory cytokines like tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, which may play an important role in the genesis of insulin resistance. We evaluated the relationship of −308G/A polymorphism of TNF-α gene with obesity and insulin resistance in Asian Indians in north India.

  9. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  10. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Maiorana, A.J.; O'Driscoll, G.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function

  11. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  12. Abdominal tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablin, D.S.; Jain, K.A.; Azouz, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Four boys with abdominal tuberculosis, one of whom had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, are presented. Abdominal imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasonography, computer tomography, and gastrointestinal contrast studies included tuberculous peritonitis and ascites in all patients, tuberculous adenopathy in two, gastrointestinal tuberculosis in two, and omental tuberculosis in two. The radiographic features particularly characteristic of abdominal tuberculosis were: (1) Low attenuating adenopathy with rim enhancement, (2) omental or ileocecal inflammatory mass, (3) high density ascites, and (4) gastrointestinal enteritis involving the ileocecal region. (orig./MG)

  13. Endometrioma de parede abdominal Abdominal wall endometrioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Accetta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A incidência exata da endometriose na população geral é desconhecida. A confirmação desta doença só é possível através da análise histopatológica de um fragmento obtido por algum procedimento invasivo, pois não existe até o momento, nenhum marcador clínico seguro. OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência com as manifestações clínicas e o tratamento cirúrgico em pacientes com endometrioma de parede abdominal. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva das pacientes operadas por endometrioma de parede abdominal, dando ênfase aos dados relativos à idade, sintomas, cesariana prévia, relação dos sintomas com o ciclo menstrual, exames físicos e complementares, tratamento cirúrgico, evolução pósoperatória e resultado histopatológico dos espécimes. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 14 pacientes no período estudado, com idade entre 28 e 40 anos. A presença de massa e dor local que piorava durante a menstruação foram as queixas principais. Ultrassonografia e tomografia computadorizada foram exames importantes em localizar precisamente a doença. O tratamento cirúrgico foi exérese ampla da tumoração e dos tecidos comprometidos. As pacientes evoluíram satisfatoriamente e o histopatológico confirmou a suspeita de endometrioma de parede abdominal em todos os casos. CONCLUSÂO: Foi nítida a relação entre cesariana prévia e endometrioma de parede abdominal e estudos ultrassonográficos e tomográficos auxiliaram a planejar a abordagem cirúrgica permitindo a exérese da tumoração e de todos os tecidos adjacentes comprometidos.BACKGROND: The exact incidence of endometriosis in the general population is unknown. Confirmation of this disease is only possible by histopathological analysis of a fragment obtained by some invasive procedure, because there is so far, no clinical secure marker. AIM: To report the experience with the clinical manifestations and surgical treatment in patients with abdominal wall endometrioma. METHODS

  14. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose M.; Madureira, Antonio J.; Vieira, Alberto; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page How should I prepare? You ... of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras ... can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster ...

  17. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  18. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experienced radiologist can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster treatment and often eliminating the need for additional, more ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... GI) contrast exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as ...

  1. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a clear idea about the cause of pain. Sometimes a diagnosis is made and treatment can be started. In ... tests. Treatment What treatments are available for abdominal pain? Once a diagnosis is made, treatment can proceed for that condition. ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs and is often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, ... procedure is typically used to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, ... exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the technologist verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. The CT examination ... abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster treatment and often eliminating the ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including but not limited to some liver, kidney, pancreatic, uterine or ... Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic ... and properly administer radiation treatments for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page ...

  8. Obesity, fat distribution and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Renato

    2006-07-20

    In both sexes, obesity, particularly the abdominal obesity phenotype, may impair fertility. This adverse effect appears to be mainly related to disorders of sex hormone secretion and/or metabolism, leading in turn to a condition of relative hyperandrogenism in obese women and of hypotestosteronemia (and, in some cases, a true hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) in obese men. In women, obesity can also play a relevant role in the pathophysiology of hyperandrogenism and metabolic abnormalities which characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome. These hormonal alterations may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of different obesity phenotypes and associated metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities. Weight loss can improve hormonal abnormalities and fertility rates in both women and men. Erectile dysfunction, which is very common in obese males, can also be improved by lifestyle intervention strategies favouring weight loss.

  9. Imaging in Tuberculosis abdominal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Tatiana; Garcia, Vanessa; Tamara, Estrada; Acosta, Federico

    2010-01-01

    In this article we illustrate and discuss imaging features resulting from Tuberculosis abdominal affectation. We present patients evaluated with several imaging modalities who had abdominal symptoms and findings suggestive of granulomatous disease. Diagnosis was confirm including hystopatology and clinical outgoing. Cases involved presented many affected organs such as lymphatic system, peritoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands and pelvic organs Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis renal, Tuberculosis hepatic, Tuberculosis splenic Tomography, x-ray, computed

  10. Physical activity, eating patterns, and insulin resistance in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Emy Huriyati; Perdana Samekto Nugroho; Rina Susilowaty; Madarina Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background Unhealthy eating patterns and physical inactivity are associated with obesity. Insulin resistance, an early sign of type 2 diabetes mellitus, is common in obese individuals. Objective To assess for an association between physical activity and eating patterns to insulin resistance in obese female adolescents. Methods Subjects were 77 obese female adolescents aged 13-15 years. Peripheral blood specimens were obtained for measurements of fasting blood glucose, insulin, and the...

  11. Depression, obesity, and smoking were independently associated with inadequate glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Eva O; Thunander, Maria; Svensson, Ralph; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Thulesius, Hans O

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the associations between inadequate glycemic control of diabetes and psychological, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetes patients. Cross-sectional study. In this study, 292 patients with type 1 diabetes, aged 1859 years, participated. psychological data were assessed by self-report instruments: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Anthropometrics, blood analyses, data from medical records, and data from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry were collected. Self-reported depression (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.8), obesity (AOR 4.3), and smoking (AOR 3.0) were independently associated with inadequate glycemic control of diabetes (HbA1c>8.6%). Gender-stratified analyses showed that self-reported depression (AOR 19.8) and obesity (AOR 7.0) in women and smoking in men (AOR 4.2) were associated with HbA1c>8.6%. Alexithymia, antidepressant medication, and physical inactivity were associated with HbA1c>8.6% only in bivariate analyses. Alexithymia, self-rated anxiety, physical inactivity, and absence of abdominal obesity were associated with self-reported depression. Depression was the only psychological factor independently associated with HbA1c>8.6%. The association was of comparable importance as obesity and smoking, well-known risk factors for inadequate glycemic control and diabetes complications. The association between depression and HbA1c>8.6% was particularly strong for women. Alexithymia, which is a relatively stable personality trait, was associated with depression. In the future care of patients with diabetes, psychological aspects should be considered alongside anthropometrics and lifestyle factors in order to achieve the goals for HbA1c.

  12. Effects of Different Types of Contraction in Abdominal Bracing on the Asymmetry of Left and Right Abdominal Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Min-Young; Park, Hyeon-Ji; Park, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Hyun-Young; Lim, Da-Som

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective strength levels of abdominal muscle contraction using the bracing contraction method. [Subjects] The experiment was conducted with 31 healthy male (M=15) and female (F=16) adults attending D University in Busan; all participants had less than obesity level BMI (BMI

  13. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflammatory characteristics of distinct abdominal adipose tissue depots relate differently to metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease Distinct fat depots and vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Mariette E. G.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Stupkova, Tereza; de Jager, Wilco; Vink, Aryan; Moll, Frans L.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    Objective: Abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, specific contributions of distinct adipose tissue (AT) depots to metabolic complications of obesity are still unclear. In this study, the inflammatory profile of four distinct abdominal AT-depots and

  15. Obesity in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Penny Montenegro, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Older people are not exempt of being overweight or obese; in Peru this occurs respectively in 21.4% and 11.9% of the elderly, less than in people of younger age. Overweight and obesity are associated to noncommunicable chronic diseases, and to increase in morbidity and mortality. There is no trustworthy data on the optimum body-mass index in the elderly, but we use both the body-mass index and measurement of the abdominal circumference. Best efforts should be done to prevent this problem befo...

  16. Changes of overweight and obesity prevalence among school children in North West of Iran after 3 years follow-up (2009-2011: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in children has increased. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the relationship between obesity and overweight and risk factors such as dietary pattern and physical inactivity.

  17. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  18. Determinants of Obesity in an Urban Township of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ³ 25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women), and their relationship with factors previously found to increase the risk of obesity, such as age, gender, marital status, educational level, employment status, immigrant status from rural to ...

  19. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba (Israel); Dlugy, Elena [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Schneider Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Freud, Enrique [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sapir Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Kessler, Ada [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Schneider Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2002-02-01

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two

  20. Ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risi, D.; Alessi, G.; Meli, C.; Marzano, M.; Fiori, E.; Caterino, S.

    1989-01-01

    From February 1986 to March 1988 113 abdominal US exams were performed in emergency situation to evaluate the accuracy of this methodology: 13 were blunt traumas, 18 post-operative complications. A real-time scanner with a linear probe of 5 MHz was employed. The results were confirmed by surgical and/or clinical and instrumental evaluation. In 81% of the examinations, ultrasonography allowed a diagnosis to be made. Gallbladder and biliary pathologies were the most common findings. The results (sensibility 96%, specificity 88%, accuracy 95%) confirm the affidability of ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies, as shown in literature

  1. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    in particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies...... examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise...

  2. An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal tuberculosis is rare in childhood. It may be difficult to diagnose as it mimics various disorders. We present a 12-year-old child with an unusual clinical presentation who was diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis on