WorldWideScience

Sample records for inactive systems category

  1. Inactive trials of transport systems: phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberlin, M.M.; Hardy, A.R.; Kennedy, S.T.

    1986-11-01

    Progress made during 1984-85 is reviewed in four sections: the design and installation of a stainless steel working floor in the mock-up of a crate handling and size reduction facility; the detailed evaluation of a single air pad of the type used on commercial air-transporter; an experimental programme designed to examine the problems associated with the operation of a commercial air-transporter; the design, manufacture and commissioning trials of two powered conveyor units which when combined complete a remotely operated transfer system for transporting crated waste into and within the mock-up facility. (author)

  2. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  3. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2014-12-16

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  4. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Riquelme, Angelica Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  5. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  6. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  7. On conditional residual lifetime and conditional inactivity time of k-out-of-n systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangar, Mahdi; Bairamov, Ismihan

    2015-01-01

    In designing structures of technical systems, the reliability engineers often deal with the reliability analysis of coherent systems. Coherent system has monotone structure function and all components of the system are relevant. This paper considers some particular models of coherent systems having identical components with independent lifetimes. The main purpose of the paper is to study conditional residual lifetime of coherent system, given that at a fixed time certain number of components have failed but still there are some functioning components. Different aging and stochastic properties of variables connected with the conditional residual lifetimes of the coherent systems are obtained. An expression for the parent distribution in terms of conditional mean residual lifetime is provided. The similar result is obtained for the conditional mean inactivity time of the failed components of coherent system. The conditional mean inactivity time of failed components presents an interest in many engineering applications where the reliability of system structure is important for designing and constructing of systems. Some illustrative examples with given particular distributions are also presented. - Highlights: • Comparisons of conditional residual lifetime of k-out-of-n systems are derived. • The behavior of the coherent system is explored for IHR distributions. • The parent distribution is expressed in terms of conditional MRL and MIT. • Some illustrative examples are given to clarify the results of the paper.

  8. Tank Waste Remediation System Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Program Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tank (IMUST) Program. The plan describes management, technical, and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the IMUSTs Program performance. The technical data to determine the IMUSTs status for inclusion in the Single Shell Tank Farm Controlled Clean and Stable (CCS) Program. The second is to identify and implement surveillance, characterization, stabilization, and modifications to support CCS prior to final closure

  9. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Outcome of pregnancy in patients with inactive systemic lupus erythromatosus and minimal proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshohaib Saad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease. This study was under-taken to assess the outcome of pregnancies in patients with inactive SLE. We prospectively studied 20 female patients with diagnosis of stable class IV Lupus nephritis followed up at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2008. Before each pregnancy all the patients had their blood pressure, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serology for SLE and 24-hour urine protein excretion measured and then repeated at monthly intervals during the pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Despite having negative antinuclear antibody (ANA significant complications were observed during pregnancy. The daily proteinuria during 34-36 weeks′ gestation was significantly higher (P< 0.05 than during 32 weeks. Two patients had abortions one stillbirth and 2 required termination of the pregnancy; one due to severe hypertension, and other due to renal impairment. One patient developed HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome. 14 patients had a successful preg-nancy, including 4 requiring a cesarian section. In conclusion, although no clinical evidence of lupus disease activity was demonstrated pre-conception proteinuria significantly increased during pregnancy along with maternal and fetal complications. Pregnant females with diagnosis of SLE need a multidisciplinary care during the pregnancy and post-partum period.

  11. Process and system for reducing the inactive salt concentration in waste solutions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, T.; Drozda, T.; Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.; Hanel, E.; Tilky, P.

    1987-01-01

    The method is based on a suitable combination of most modern separation measures as there are precipitation, filtration, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, evaporation and crystallization; in this method almost the total quantity of the components with radioactivity, except tritium, can be effectively separated from inactive salts. One part of the inactive salt (alkali nitrate) can be treated as industrial waste and the other part (boric acid) can be recycled. The method of the invention as well as the equipment used for its execution can considerably reduce the high costs of waste solution treatment in nuclear power stations. (orig./RB) [de

  12. Category Theory as a Formal Mathematical Foundation for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed

    2017-01-09

    In this paper, we introduce Category Theory as a formal foundation for model-based systems engineering. A generalised view of the system based on category theory is presented, where any system can be considered as a category. The objects of the category represent all the elements and components of the system and the arrows represent the relations between these components (objects). The relationship between these objects are the arrows or the morphisms in the category. The Olog is introduced as a formal language to describe a given real-world situation description and requirement writing. A simple example is provided.

  13. Modeling Reusable and Interoperable Faceted Browsing Systems with Category Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Faceted browsing has become ubiquitous with modern digital libraries and online search engines, yet the process is still difficult to abstractly model in a manner that supports the development of interoperable and reusable interfaces. We propose category theory as a theoretical foundation for faceted browsing and demonstrate how the interactive process can be mathematically abstracted. Existing efforts in facet modeling are based upon set theory, formal concept analysis, and lightweight ontol...

  14. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented

  15. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  16. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical...... leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.......67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical...

  17. Barren diets increase wakeful inactivity in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Laura E.; Engel, Bas; Reenen, van Kees; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Inactivity is a vastly understudied behavioural category, which may reflect positive or negative affective states in captive or domesticated animals. Increased inactivity in barren-housed animals, in combination with an increased or decreased interest in stimuli, e.g. novel objects, can indicate

  18. Poor muscle strength and function in physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus despite very mild disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jéssica Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare muscle strength (i.e. lower- and upper-body strength and function between physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (C-SLE and healthy controls (CTRL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the sample consisted of 19 C-SLE (age between 9 and 18 years and 15 CTRL matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity levels (assessed by accelerometry. Lower- and upper-body strength was assessed by the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM test. Isometric strength was assessed through a handgrip dynamometer. Muscle function was evaluated by the timed-stands test (TST and the timed-up-and-go test (TUG. Results: When compared with CTRL, C-SLE showed lower leg-press and bench-press 1-RM (p = 0.026 and p = 0.008, respectively, and a tendency toward lower handgrip strength (p = 0.052. C-SLE showed lower TST scores (p = 0.036 and a tendency toward higher TUG scores (p = 0.070 when compared with CTRL. Conclusion: Physically inactive C-SLE patients with very mild disease showed reduced muscle strength and functionality when compared with healthy controls matched by physical activity levels. These findings suggest C-SLE patients may greatly suffer from a physically inactive lifestyle than healthy controls do. Moreover, some sub-clinical “residual” effect of the disease or its pharmacological treatment seems to affect C-SLE patients even with a well-controlled disease.

  19. Toward A Dual-Learning Systems Model of Speech Category Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath eChandrasekaran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades of work in vision posits the existence of dual-learning systems of category learning. The reflective system uses working memory to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion, while the reflexive system operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. Dual-learning systems models hypothesize that in learning natural categories, learners initially use the reflective system and, with practice, transfer control to the reflexive system. The role of reflective and reflexive systems in auditory category learning and more specifically in speech category learning has not been systematically examined. In this article we describe a neurobiologically-constrained dual-learning systems theoretical framework that is currently being developed in speech category learning and review recent applications of this framework. Using behavioral and computational modeling approaches, we provide evidence that speech category learning is predominantly mediated by the reflexive learning system. In one application, we explore the effects of normal aging on non-speech and speech category learning. We find an age related deficit in reflective-optimal but not reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Prominently, we find a large age-related deficit in speech learning. The computational modeling suggests that older adults are less likely to transition from simple, reflective, uni-dimensional rules to more complex, reflexive, multi-dimensional rules. In a second application we summarize a recent study examining auditory category learning in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. We find a deficit in reflective-optimal and an enhancement in reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Interestingly, individuals with elevated depressive symptoms also show an advantage in learning speech categories. We end with a brief summary and description of a number of future directions.

  20. Statistically equivalent systems for the determination of dispersion categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nester, K.

    1980-01-01

    Based on the meteorological data measured at the KARLSRUHE Nuclear Research Centre (KNRC) during a five year period statistically equivalent systems for the determination of dispersion were developed. The standard deviation of the vertical wind direction was chosen as a basic parameter, because this parameter was used to classify the turbulence conditions prevailing during the tracer experiments at the KNRC. The other systems are based on the following meteorological parameters: 1) standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction; 2) temperature gradient and wind speed; 3) radiation balance and wind speed; 4) wind profile exponent; 5) synoptic data. The calculation of the correlation between the basic system and the others allows a classification of the systems according to their reliability in individual meteorological situations. As expected, the more indirect systems 3, 4 and 5 have a noticeably lower correlation coefficient than the more direct systems 1 and 2. Therefore, the application of the more indirect systems is less appropriate, if the short-term environmental impact, as for example after an accidental release, has to be calculated. Finally, the transferability of the systems to other sites is discussed

  1. ARCHITECTONICS - A SYSTEM OF EXPLORING ARCHITECTURAL FORMS IN SPATIAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Niezabitowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative researches based on visual analyses of different architectural objects enable separation of the small number of basic recurrent units defining spatial aspects of architectural form independently of when and in which cultural circle the object was created. These basic units of spatial structure can be termed spatial universals. Using them in accordance with some basic and universal rules of assembling into larger wholes makes possible creating any spatial objects as well as transforming them into different ones. At the same time words of natural languages contained in dictionaries give us important clues how people think about space. Another important clues are included in some recent theories of perception. All these findings taken together have been the basis to create the system of notions and terms regarding space in architecture. It is founded on basic and universal spatial elements (units and rules of their composing into larger wholes. The paper is the trial of presenting such a notional system which was termed architectonics (or morphotectonics. Basic notions enabling description and analysis of spatial structure of any architectural object have been introduced. Fundamental spatial units have been also distinguished based on the principle of hierarchical structure – from elementary ones, through more and more complex up to largest ones playing decisive role in defining the whole architectural object. Basic spatial morphological features called also cardinal ones have been differentiated. Primary kinds of articulation have been discussed dealing with the empty space (internal or external, line, surface and volume and their elementary units had been distinguished. Besides morphological features characterizing composing elements the rules of their assembling have been specified, which have been termed syntax or relational features, characterizing spatial wholes composed of elements. Both morphological and syntax features may be

  2. (Ingezonden en geaccepteerd) Effect of switching off unidirectional downflow systems of operating theaters during prolonged inactivity on the period before the operating theater can safely be used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, A.A.L.; Bottenheft, C.; Heumen, S.P.M. van; Goedhart, C.A.; Vos, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Switching off air handling systems in operating theaters during periods of prolonged inactivity (eg, nights, weekends) can produce a substantial reduction of energy expenditure. However, little evidence is available regarding the effect of switching off the air handling system during

  3. Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED): An Alternative System for Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. Timothy; Sysko, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), a residual category in DSM-IV, is the most commonly used eating disorder diagnosis in clinical settings. However, the features of individuals with EDNOS are heterogeneous and difficult to characterize. A diagnostic scheme, termed Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED), is proposed to diminish use of the EDNOS category markedly while preserving the existing eating disorder categories. The BCD-ED scheme consists of three broad categories, in a hierarchical relationship, consisting of: Anorexia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar disorders, Bulimia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar Disorders, Binge Eating Disorder and Behaviorally Similar Disorders, and a residual category of EDNOS. The advantages and disadvantages of adopting this scheme for DSM-V are considered, and issues relevant to BCD-ED are discussed. Specifically, we review the proportion of individuals with DSM-IV EDNOS that would be re-classified under the BCD-ED system, support for the hierarchy of the three categories, and the potential risk of “overdiagnosis.” PMID:19650083

  4. Design demonstrations for Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has conducted research in energy related fields since 1943. The facilities used to conduct the research include nuclear reactors, chemical pilot plants, research laboratories, radioisotope production laboratories, and support facilities. These facilities have produced a variety of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes. These wastes have been stored and transported through an extensive network of piping and tankage. Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B -- Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C -- Existing Tank Systems without Secondary Containment; and Category D -- Existing Tank Systems without Secondary Containment that are; Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category ''B.'' The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from the design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA (Appendix F, Subsection C)

  5. Design demonstrations for Category B tank systems piping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Demonstration of the design of the piping systems described in this report is stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 30 piping systems designated in the FFA as Category B (i.e., existing tank systems with secondary containment). Based on the findings of the Design Demonstrations for the Remaining 19 Category B Tank Systems, (DOE/OR/03-1150 ampersand D2), three tank systems originally designated as Category B have been redesignated as Category C (i.e., existing tank systems without secondary containment). The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA (Appendix F, Section C). Deficiencies or restrictions regarding the ability to demonstrate that each of the containment systems conforms to FFA requirements are noted in the discussion of each piping system and presented in Table 2.0-1

  6. Low central nervous system serotonergic responsivity is associated with the metabolic syndrome and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Matthew F; Mackey, Rachel H; Williams, Katherine V; Korytkowski, Mary T; Flory, Janine D; Manuck, Stephen B

    2004-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome, recognized by the co-occurrence of general or abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and dysglycemia, appears to involve disturbances in metabolism, autonomic function, and health-related behaviors. However, physiological processes linking the components of the metabolic syndrome remain obscure. The current study examined associations of central nervous system serotonergic function with each metabolic syndrome risk variable, the metabolic syndrome, and physical activity. The subjects were 270 adult volunteers who participated in a study of cardiovascular disease risk factors and neurobehavioral functioning. Central serotonergic responsivity was indexed as the prolactin (PRL) response evoked by the serotonin-releasing agent, fenfluramine. Across the sample, low PRL response was associated with greater body mass index, higher concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and insulin, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, greater insulin resistance, and less physical activity (P syndrome risk factors individuals possessed (P for trend = 0.002). Finally, a 1 SD decline in PRL response was associated with an odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome of 2.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.83; P = 0.002) and 5.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.69-19.25; P = 0.005), according to the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program and the World Health Organization, respectively. These findings reveal a heretofore unrecognized association between reduced central serotonergic responsivity and the metabolic syndrome.

  7. B cell signature during inactive systemic lupus is heterogeneous: toward a biological dissection of lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Garaud

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosous (SLE is an autoimmune disease with an important clinical and biological heterogeneity. B lymphocytes appear central to the development of SLE which is characterized by the production of a large variety of autoantibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia. In mice, immature B cells from spontaneous lupus prone animals are able to produce autoantibodies when transferred into immunodeficient mice, strongly suggesting the existence of intrinsic B cell defects during lupus. In order to approach these defects in humans, we compared the peripheral B cell transcriptomas of quiescent lupus patients to normal B cell transcriptomas. When the statistical analysis is performed on the entire group of patients, the differences between patients and controls appear quite weak with only 14 mRNA genes having a false discovery rate ranging between 11 and 17%, with 6 underexpressed genes (PMEPA1, TLR10, TRAF3IP2, LDOC1L, CD1C and EGR1. However, unforced hierarchical clustering of the microarrays reveals a subgroup of lupus patients distinct from both the controls and the other lupus patients. This subgroup has no detectable clinical or immunological phenotypic peculiarity compared to the other patients, but is characterized by 1/an IL-4 signature and 2/the abnormal expression of a large set of genes with an extremely low false discovery rate, mainly pointing to the biological function of the endoplasmic reticulum, and more precisely to genes implicated in the Unfolded Protein Response, suggesting that B cells entered an incomplete BLIMP1 dependent plasmacytic differentiation which was undetectable by immunophenotyping. Thus, this microarray analysis of B cells during quiescent lupus suggests that, despite a similar lupus phenotype, different biological roads can lead to human lupus.

  8. Design demonstrations for the remaining 19 Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tank systems: Category A--New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B--Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment; and Category D--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment That are Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 19 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. Three tank systems originally designated as Category B have been redesignated as Category C and one tank system originally designated as Category B has been redesignated as Category D. The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from the design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA

  9. Ecopedagogy: A Movement between Critical Dialogue and Complexity: Proposal for a Categories System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norat, María de los Ángeles Vilches; Herrería, Alfonso Fernández; Rodríguez, Francisco Miguel Martínez

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research has been undertaken with the purpose of developing an integrated system of categories based on ecopedagogy. Founded on the critical pedagogy of Paulo Freire, this movement moves towards complex thinking and holism. Its theoretical bases are set on principles of sustainability, biosensibility, ethics of care and global…

  10. 77 FR 11039 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... municipally-owned distribution system). For a summary of the source category definitions for subpart W, which..., amended data reporting requirements, clarified terms and definitions, and made technical corrections. This... separate hydrocarbons separator with oil into liquid and gas phases. Separators are throughput greater than...

  11. Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs: Identification of Job Categories Potentially Exposed throughout the Hospital Medication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Chua, Prescillia; Venners, Scott; Nakashima, Lynne

    2011-09-01

    Studies examining healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs have focused on the drug preparation or drug administration areas. However, such an approach has probably underestimated the overall exposure risk as the drugs need to be delivered to the facility, transported internally and then disposed. The objective of this study is to determine whether drug contamination occurs throughout a facility and, simultaneously, to identify those job categories that are potentially exposed. This was a multi-site study based in Vancouver, British Columbia. Interviews were conducted to determine the departments where the drugs travel. Subsequent site observations were performed to ascertain those surfaces which frequently came into contact with antineoplastic drugs and to determine the job categories which are likely to contact these surfaces. Wipe samples were collected to quantify surface contamination. Surface contamination was found in all six stages of the hospital medication system. Job categories consistently found to be at risk of exposure were nurses, pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy receivers. Up to 11 job categories per site may be at risk of exposure at some point during the hospital medication system. We found drug contamination on select surfaces at every stage of the medication system, which indicates the existence of an exposure potential throughout the facility. Our results suggest that a broader range of workers are potentially exposed than has been previously examined. These results will allow us to develop a more inclusive exposure assessment encompassing all healthcare workers that are at risk throughout the hospital medication system.

  12. Causal systems categories: differences in novice and expert categorization of causal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin M; Gentner, Dedre; Goldwater, Micah B

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories--categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content--among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative feedback vs. causal chain) and in their content domain (e.g., economics vs. biology). Our hypothesis was that there would be a shift from domain-based sorting to causal sorting with increasing expertise in the relevant domains. This prediction was borne out: the novice groups sorted primarily by domain and the expert group sorted by causal category. These results suggest that science training facilitates insight about causal structures. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Effect of switching off unidirectional downflow systems of operating theaters during prolonged inactivity on the period before the operating theater can safely be used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversari, A A L; Bottenheft, C; van Heumen, S P M; Goedhart, C A; Vos, M C

    2017-02-01

    Switching off air handling systems in operating theaters during periods of prolonged inactivity (eg, nights, weekends) can produce a substantial reduction of energy expenditure. However, little evidence is available regarding the effect of switching off the air handling system during periods of prolonged inactivity on the air quality in operating theaters during operational periods. The aim of this study is to determine the amount of time needed after restarting the ventilation system to return to a stable situation, with air quality at least equal to the situation before switching off the system. Measurements were performed in 3 operating theaters, all of them equipped with a unidirectional downflow (UDF) system. Measurements (particle counts of emitted particles with a particle size ≥0.5 µm) were taken during the start-up of the ventilation system to determine when prespecified degrees of protection were achieved. Temperature readings were taken to determine when a stable temperature difference between the periphery and the protected area was reached, signifying achievement of a stable condition. After starting up the system, the protected area achieved the required degrees of protection within 20 minutes (95% upper confidence limit). A stable temperature difference was achieved within 23 minutes (95% upper confidence limit). Both findings lie well within the period of 25 minutes normally required for preparations before the start of surgical procedures. Switching off the ventilation system during prolonged inactivity (during the night and weekend) has no negative effect on the air quality in UDF operating theaters during normal operational hours. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  15. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs

  16. Capacity-oriented curriculum system of optoelectronics in the context of large category cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Hu, Zhangfang; Zhang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    In order to cultivate the innovative talents with the comprehensive development to meet the talents demand for development of economic society, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications implements cultivation based on broadening basic education and enrolment in large category of general education. Optoelectronic information science and engineering major belongs to the electronic engineering category. The "2 +2" mode is utilized for personnel training, where students are without major in the first and second year and assigned to a major within the major categories in the end of the second year. In the context of the comprehensive cultivation, for the changes in the demand for professionals in the global competitive environment with the currently rapid development, especially the demand for the professional engineering technology personnel suitable to industry and development of local economic society, the concept of CDIO engineering ability cultivation is used for reference. Thus the curriculum system for the three-node structure optoelectronic information science and engineering major is proposed, which attaches great importance to engineering practice and innovation cultivation under the background of the comprehensive cultivation. The conformity between the curriculum system and the personnel training objectives is guaranteed effectively, and the consistency between the teaching philosophy and the teaching behavior is enhanced. Therefore, the idea of major construction is clear with specific characteristics.

  17. Design demonstrations for Category B tank system piping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Demonstration of the design of the tank systems described in this report is stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 30 piping systems listed in the FFA as Category B (i.e., existing tank systems with secondary containment). The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA (Appendix F, Section C). Deficiencies or restrictions regarding the ability to demonstrate that each of the containment systems conforms to FFA requirements are noted in the discussion of each piping system

  18. Autonomic responses to exercise: deconditioning/inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental models of physical inactivity associated with a sedentary lifestyle or extreme forms of inactivity with bed rest or spaceflight affect the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Deconditioning effects are rapidly seen in the regulation of heart rate to compensate for physical modifications in blood volume and cardiac function. Reflex regulation of cardiovascular control during exercise by metaboreflex and baroreflex is altered by bed rest and spaceflight. These models of extreme inactivity provide a reference to guide physical activity requirements for optimal cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  20. Design demonstrations for the remaining 19 Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has conducted research in energy related fields since 1943. The facilities used to conduct the research include nuclear reactors, chemical pilot plants, research laboratories, radioisotope production laboratories, and support facilities. These facilities have produced a variety of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes that have been transported and stored through an extensive network of piping and tankage. Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tank systems: Category A-New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B-Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C-Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment, and Category D-Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment That are Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 19 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA (Appendix F, Section C)

  1. Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED): An Alternative System for Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, B. Timothy; Sysko, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), a residual category in DSM-IV, is the most commonly used eating disorder diagnosis in clinical settings. However, the features of individuals with EDNOS are heterogeneous and difficult to characterize. A diagnostic scheme, termed Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED), is proposed to diminish use of the EDNOS category markedly while preserving the existing eating disorder categories. The BCD-ED scheme consists of three ...

  2. Categories of Profit and Effectiveness of Business Activity in the System of Market Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Musa ogly Ismailov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the interpretation of economic categories “profit” and “effectiveness of business activity”, studies the essence and manifestations of these concepts in business that allows us to consider their place in the system of market valuables. Due to the necessity of a broader view of the success of the business, the author discussed the basic provisions of methodological individualism in the categories of economic theory of property rights. Disclosing them the author focuses on the characteristics which show the formation of operating results in achieving its ultimate goal. Details reveal a mixed situation in respect of the appointment of the rate of profit in modern conditions, the potential motives and incentives of human activity. A list of targeted economic outcomes correlates with the solved economic issues. For example, when you build and study the business model in the form of chains of forming and maintaining value the most appropriate terms that define the goal of firms are profitability, balance and optimality. In this article, the following results are obtained: 1 terminological analysis of targeted economic results, which are put in touch in an appropriate relationship to solve economic problem; 2 conclusion on the profit’s universality and absoluteness loss in direct characterization of business activity effectiveness.

  3. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...

  4. Classification systems and selection systems: the risks of radical innovation and category spanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the relations between classification and competition, using the theoretical framework of selection system theory. In a particular competitive arena more than one classification system can be in use. The proportion of classification systems in use by consumers that are also in use

  5. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  6. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trussell, S. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Spence, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

  7. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trussell, S.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  9. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  10. Usefulness of ultrasound elastography in reducing the number of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 3 lesions on ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya; Lim, Ji He; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of ultrasound (US) elastography for non-palpable Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 lesions on ultrasonography and to determine whether US elastography is helpful in reducing the number of BI-RADS category 3 lesions on ultrasonography. Two hundred seventy-six consecutive, non-palpable BI-RADS category 3 lesions in 256 women who underwent US elastography and US-guided core biopsy, and who had at least 12 months of follow-up data, comprised our study group. The BI-RADS final assessment category and elasticity score were prospectively and independently classified. The rate of malignancy and NPV according to the elasticity score were analysed. We also investigated whether there was a subset of BI-RADS category 3 lesions that were of benign histology but negative on elastography. Of the 276 non-palpable BI-RADS category 3 lesions, three lesions (1.0%) were finally confirmed as ductal carcinomas in situ. No cancers were found in the remaining 273 lesions with benign biopsy histology at a mean follow-up of 39.4 months (range, 12 to 72 months). The NPV of a negative elasticity score (elasticity score of 1) was 99.3% (165 of 166). If BI-RADS category 3 lesions showing a negative elasticity score were downgraded to BI-RADS category 2, 60.4% (165 of 273) of them with benign histology could have been safely followed without biopsy with an increased malignancy rate from 1% (3 of 276) to 1.8% (2 of 110), which is not significantly higher (P=0.626). US elastography has the potential to reduce the number of BI-RADS category 3 lesions on ultrasonography.

  11. Usefulness of ultrasound elastography in reducing the number of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 3 lesions on ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of ultrasound (US) elastography for non-palpable Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 lesions on ultrasonography and to determine whether US elastography is helpful in reducing the number of BI-RADS category 3 lesions on ultrasonography. Methods: Two hundred seventy-six consecutive, non-palpable BI-RADS category 3 lesions in 256 women who underwent US elastography and US-guided core biopsy, and who had at least 12 months of follow-up data, comprised our study group. The BI-RADS final assessment category and elasticity score were prospectively and independently classified. The rate of malignancy and NPV according to the elasticity score were analysed. We also investigated whether there was a subset of BI-RADS category 3 lesions that were of benign histology but negative on elastography. Results: Of the 276 non-palpable BI-RADS category 3 lesions, three lesions (1.0%) were finally confirmed as ductal carcinomas in situ. No cancers were found in the remaining 273 lesions with benign biopsy histology at a mean follow-up of 39.4 months (range, 12 to 72 months). The NPV of a negative elasticity score (elasticity score of 1) was 99.3% (165 of 166). If BI-RADS category 3 lesions showing a negative elasticity score were downgraded to BI-RADS category 2, 60.4% (165 of 273) of them with benign histology could have been safely followed without biopsy with an increased malignancy rate from 1% (3 of 276) to 1.8% (2 of 110), which is not significantly higher (P=0.626). Conclusion: US elastography has the potential to reduce the number of BI-RADS category 3 lesions on ultrasonography. PMID:24936502

  12. Proposed Staging System for Patients With HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer Based on Nasopharyngeal Cancer N Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Garden, Adam S; William, William N; Lim, Ming Yann; Sturgis, Erich M

    2016-06-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) generally present with more advanced disease but have better survival than patients with HPV-unrelated OPC. The current American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) TNM staging system for OPC was developed for HPV-unrelated OPC. A new staging system is needed to adequately predict outcomes of patients with HPV-related OPC. Patients with newly diagnosed HPV-positive OPC (by p16 immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization) treated at our institution from January 2003 through December 2012 were included. By using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), we developed new stage groupings with both traditional OPC regional lymph node (N) categories and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) N categories. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between stage and survival was examined by using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 661 patients with HPV-positive OPC met the inclusion criteria. With the traditional TNM staging system, there was no difference in survival between stages (P = .141). RPA with NPC N categories resulted in more balanced stage groups and better separation between groups for 5-year survival than RPA with traditional OPC N categories. With the stage groupings that were based in part on NPC N categories, the risk of death increased with increasing stage (P for trend HPV-positive OPC with respect to survival than does the current AJCC/UICC TNM staging system. Although confirmation of our findings in other patient populations is needed, we propose consideration of NPC N categories as an alternative to the traditional OPC N categories in the new AJCC/UICC TNM staging system that is currently being developed. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... are subject to negotiation as well as re-configuration and re-stabilization processes. Organized around the themes of biological substances and objects, personhood and the genomic body and the creation and dispersion of knowledge, each of the volume’s chapters reveals the elusive nature of fixity with regard...

  14. Strengths and limitations of the transport category in the green star South Africa rating system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathetha, Mokonyama T

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The chapter evaluates the strenghts and limitations of the Green Star South Africa's rating scheme in respect of its transport environment category. The evaluation is necessary, among other things, to guide decision makers on the interpretation...

  15. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  16. Grammatical Conception of Yuriy Shevel'ov: Nominative ↔ Vocative in the System of Substantial Categoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Zahnitko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Analysis of Yuriy Shevel'ov’s approaches to the interpretation of the morphological tier of language, as well as his examination of particular phenomena of this level – substantiality, verbality, and others – reflects not only the author's understanding itself of all the grammatical system as a whole, and morphological one in particular, but also represents the features of modification of scientific approaches in the history of linguistic thought of mid-twentieth century, its strengthening in the studies of the XX – XXI century. The researcher’s definition of nominative and vocative cases as interrelated within the categorical substantiality is of particular importance. Purpose: to determine the main components of interpretation of the status dimension of the nominative and vocative cases within morpho-substantial categoriality of Yuriy Shevel'ov with the definition of theoretical foundations and practical principles, revealing the patterns of establishing internal sentence dimension of the nominative and vocative cases. Results: In the case theory with reliance on the sequence of forms of dependencies in the internal sentence space Yuriy Shevel'ov distinguishes five cases: genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, locative. In the statement about the nominative as grammatically independent case the scientist relies on sentence. Two-dimensionality of grammatically independent case opposes to the one-dimensional grammatically dependent nominative that is traceable in syntactic positions of predicate and apposition. Yuriy Shevel'ov did not consider addressing that is not grammatically linked to the sentence with a specific expression as an individual case. The forms of vocative case show functional three-componentity, because in its functional-semantic paradigm it covers the function of the addressee – potential subject of action (primary function that is represented in formal grammar sentence structure by the main element of

  17. Categorial Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastenhof, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis constitutes an exploration into categorial type logics, attempting the reduction of natural language grammar to proof theory. Originating in Lambek's proposal for a syntactic calculus, the field has since grown to accommodate various competing extensions. For while the suitability of

  18. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Amblard, Maxime; Lecomte, Alain; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from...

  19. Radiology residents' comprehension of the breast imaging reporting and data system: The ultrasound lexicon and final assessment category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye [Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Yun Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Me [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in interpretation and comprehension of breast ultrasonographic descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to suggest the adequate duration of training in breast ultrasonography. A total of 102 radiology residents working in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. They were asked to answer 16 questions about the ultrasonographic lexicon and 11 questions about the BI-RADS category. We analyzed the proportion of correct answers according to the radiology residents’ year of training and duration of breast imaging training. With respect to the duration of breast imaging training, the proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors ranged from 77.2% to 81.3% (p = 0.368) and the proportion of correct answers for the BI-RADS category was highest after three-four months of training compared with after one month of training (p = 0.033). The proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors and BI-RADS category did not differ significantly according to the year of residency training. Radiology residents' comprehension of the BI-RADS category on breast ultrasonography was not associated with their year of residency training. Based on our findings, radiology residents' assessment of the BI-RADS category was significantly improved with three-four months of training compared with one month of training.

  20. Environmental condition and impact of inactive uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr.; Eadie, G.E.; O'Connell, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was required to provide a report to Congress identifying the location, and potential health, safety and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes together with recommendations, if any, for a program to eliminate the hazards. The approach taken to prepare this report was to develop model active and inactive mines and locate them in a typical mining area to estimate their environmental impact. The inactive mines were separated from the list and sorted into surface and underground categories. A literature search was conducted to obtain and consolidate available information concerning the environmental aspects of uranium mining and short-term field surveys and studies were conducted to augment this information base. Radioactivity emission rates were measured or estimated for each mining category and were entered into computer codes to assess population exposures and subsequent health risks. The general environmental condition of inactive uranium mines was determined by walk-through surveys in several mining areas

  1. Effect of a pager notification system on Australasian Triage Scale category 2 patients in a paediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daryl R; McCartney, Laura E; West, Adam; Craig, Simon S

    2016-08-01

    Australasian EDs have introduced innovative processes to ensure safe and timely management of patients. Our ED introduced a dedicated pager system to provide rapid assessment of Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) category 2 patients in an attempt to expedite ED care. The present paper aims to evaluate the impact of this initiative on time to clinician, ED length of stay (LOS) and clinical outcomes in a tertiary paediatric ED. Retrospective structured chart review on patients presenting in a 2 month period before the intervention (August-September 2009) and the same time 1 year later. Patients were grouped into common ATS category 2 presentations and analysed in these subcategories. Clinical indicators of appropriate and timely performance were selected from best practice performance guidelines. 779 ATS category 2 patients were seen during the two periods: 370 pre-intervention and 409 post-intervention. The overall percentage of ATS category 2 patients seen within the target time increased by 22.3%, although there was no significant change in ED LOS. The median time for patients from triage to being seen by an ED clinician improved from 10 to 6 min (P Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Category identification of changed land-use polygons in an integrated image processing/geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Sally; Stow, Douglas A.

    1992-01-01

    A framework is proposed for analyzing ancillary data and developing procedures for incorporating ancillary data to aid interactive identification of land-use categories in land-use updates. The procedures were developed for use within an integrated image processsing/geographic information systems (GIS) that permits simultaneous display of digital image data with the vector land-use data to be updated. With such systems and procedures, automated techniques are integrated with visual-based manual interpretation to exploit the capabilities of both. The procedural framework developed was applied as part of a case study to update a portion of the land-use layer in a regional scale GIS. About 75 percent of the area in the study site that experienced a change in land use was correctly labeled into 19 categories using the combination of automated and visual interpretation procedures developed in the study.

  3. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  4. Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2011-01-01

    As an optional step of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase in the ISO standards, normalization aims to express the magnitude of the impacts by comparing the characterized results against a common reference situation - the normalization references. In this study, we used inventories of two...... economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006...... for North America. The normalization references have been calculated using recommended factors as well as with interim factors, as needed. It is found that, in spite of different inventory assumptions, the normalization references fall within the same order of magnitude for both North America and Europe...

  5. Multiple category-lot quality assurance sampling: a new classification system with application to schistosomiasis control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Olives

    Full Text Available Originally a binary classifier, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS has proven to be a useful tool for classification of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni into multiple categories (≤10%, >10 and <50%, ≥50%, and semi-curtailed sampling has been shown to effectively reduce the number of observations needed to reach a decision. To date the statistical underpinnings for Multiple Category-LQAS (MC-LQAS have not received full treatment. We explore the analytical properties of MC-LQAS, and validate its use for the classification of S. mansoni prevalence in multiple settings in East Africa.We outline MC-LQAS design principles and formulae for operating characteristic curves. In addition, we derive the average sample number for MC-LQAS when utilizing semi-curtailed sampling and introduce curtailed sampling in this setting. We also assess the performance of MC-LQAS designs with maximum sample sizes of n=15 and n=25 via a weighted kappa-statistic using S. mansoni data collected in 388 schools from four studies in East Africa.Overall performance of MC-LQAS classification was high (kappa-statistic of 0.87. In three of the studies, the kappa-statistic for a design with n=15 was greater than 0.75. In the fourth study, where these designs performed poorly (kappa-statistic less than 0.50, the majority of observations fell in regions where potential error is known to be high. Employment of semi-curtailed and curtailed sampling further reduced the sample size by as many as 0.5 and 3.5 observations per school, respectively, without increasing classification error.This work provides the needed analytics to understand the properties of MC-LQAS for assessing the prevalance of S. mansoni and shows that in most settings a sample size of 15 children provides a reliable classification of schools.

  6. Breast ultrasound diagnostic performance and outcomes for mass lesions using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 0 mammogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Almazy Zanello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes and diagnostic performance of ultrasonography after a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (Bi-RADS category 0 mammogram. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed 4,384 consecutive patients who underwent a screening mammography from January 2005 to July 2006; 391 of the 4,384 exams were classified as Bi-RADS category 0. After exclusions, 241 patients received subsequent sonogram. Ultrasonography was considered diagnostic when the Bi-RADS category was changed to 2, 4, or 5, and it was considered indeterminate (Bi-RADS 3 when the results indicated that the patients should return for a mammographic follow-up. The outcomes of these patients were assessed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 53.3 years (ranging from 35 to 81. Of the 241 patients, ultrasonography was considered diagnostic in 146 (60.6% patients and indeterminate in 95 (39.4% patients. In the diagnostic group, 111 out of 146 patients (70.2% had a sonogram result of Bi-RADS category 2 after a 2-year follow-up without evidence of malignancy. Furthermore, 35 out of 146 patients (29.8% had a suspicious sonogram with a result of Bi-RADS category 4. After a tissue sampling procedure, 10 patients were confirmed to have breast cancer, and 25 had benign histopathological features without any evidence of malignancy after a 2-year follow-up. The sensitivity of ultrasonography was 100%, specificity was 89.1%, and overall accuracy was 89.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the degree of resolution and its diagnostic performance, ultrasonography was determined to be an excellent method for the subsequent evaluation of Bi-RADS 0 mammograms.

  7. Categorial Ontology of Complex Systems, Meta-Systems and Levels: The Emergence of Life, Human Consciousness and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Glazebrook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Relational structures of organisms and the human mind are naturally represented in terms of novel variable topology concepts, non-Abelian categories and Higher Dimensional Algebra{ relatively new concepts that would be defined in
    this tutorial paper. A unifying theme of local-to-global approaches to organismic development, evolution and human consciousness leads to novel patterns of relations that emerge in super- and ultra- complex systems in terms of compositions of local procedures [1]. The claim is defended in this paper that human consciousness is unique and should be viewed as an ultra-complex, global process of processes, at a meta-level not sub{summed by, but compatible with, human brain dynamics [2]-[5]. The emergence of consciousness and its existence
    are considered to be dependent upon an extremely complex structural and functional unit with an asymmetric network topology and connectivities{the human brain. However, the appearance of human consciousness is shown to be critically dependent upon societal co-evolution, elaborate language-symbolic communication and `virtual', higher dimensional, non{commutative processes involving separate space and time perceptions. Theories of the mind are approached from the theory of levels and ultra-complexity viewpoints that throw
    new light on previous semantic models in cognitive science. Anticipatory systems and complex causality at the top levels of reality are discussed in the context of psychology, sociology and ecology. A paradigm shift towards non-commutative, or more generally, non-Abelian theories of highly complex dynamics [6] is suggested to unfold now in physics, mathematics, life and cognitive sciences, thus leading to the realizations of higher dimensional algebras in neurosciences and psychology, as well as in human genomics, bioinformatics and interactomics. The presence of strange attractors in modern society dynamics gives rise to very serious concerns for the future

  8. Coronary artery disease reporting and data system (CAD-RADSTM): Inter-observer agreement for assessment categories and modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroules, Christopher D; Hamilton-Craig, Christian; Branch, Kelley; Lee, James; Cury, Roberto C; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Thomas, Dustin; Williams, Michelle; Guo, Yanshu; Cury, Ricardo C

    The Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) provides a lexicon and standardized reporting system for coronary CT angiography. To evaluate inter-observer agreement of the CAD-RADS among an panel of early career and expert readers. Four early career and four expert cardiac imaging readers prospectively and independently evaluated 50 coronary CT angiography cases using the CAD-RADS lexicon. All readers assessed image quality using a five-point Likert scale, with mean Likert score ≥4 designating high image quality, and CAD-RADS assessment categories and modifiers were assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC) and Fleiss' Kappa (κ).The impact of reader experience and image quality on inter-observer agreement was also examined. Inter-observer agreement for CAD-RADS assessment categories was excellent (ICC 0.958, 95% CI 0.938-0.974, p CAD-RADS assessment categories and modifiers is excellent, except for high-risk plaque (modifier V) which demonstrates fair agreement. These results suggest CAD-RADS is feasible for clinical implementation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  10. The pandemic of physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2012-01-01

    the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance......Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since...

  11. Level trend analysis summary report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities have produced liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that is radioactive and/or hazardous. Storage tanks have been used to collect and store these wastes. Most of the collection system, including the tanks, is located below the ground surface. Many of the systems have been removed from service (i.e., are not inactive) but contain residual amounts of waste liquid and sludges. A plan of action has been developed by DOE to ensure that environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive tanks system are minimized. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) does not require any type of testing or monitoring for the inactive LLLW tanks that are removed from service but does require waste characterization of tanks contents, risk characterization of tanks removed from service, and remediation of the inactive tanks and their contents. This report is form information only and is not required by the FFA. It includes a description of the methodology and results of level trend analyses for the Category D tanks listed in the FFA that currently belong to the Environmental Restoration Program

  12. A comparison of laser based ranging systems for AR/C category 1: Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Goode, Pleasant W., IV

    1991-01-01

    This paper will present some aspects of the effect of inherent laser effects on the performance of CW-Tone modulated and FM-CW laser ranging techniques. It will be shown that performance of these techniques is affected in different ways by inherent laser characteristics and previous comparisons of the techniques should be modified to reflect more realistic conditions. An overall survey of laser ranging will be given to place the CW and FM-CW techniques in perspective. It will be seen that the newly introduced FM-CW laser radar has potentially far superior performance to CW-Tone modulated systems now proposed for use in space rendezvous and capture systems.

  13. Conception of a heat storage system for household applications. Category: New product innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thomas [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany); Rammelberg, Holger U.; Roennebeck, Thomas [and others

    2012-07-01

    Almost 90% of the energy consumption of private households in Germany is used for heating. Thus, an efficient, sustainable and reliable heat management is one of the main challenges in the future. Heat storage will become a key technology when considering the daily, weekly, seasonal and unpredictable fluctuations of energy production with renewables. The storage of heat is much more volume- and energy-efficient as well as more economical than electricity storage. However, transport of heat over long distances is coupled with high losses, compared with electricity transport. Therefore, we propose the use of micro CHP in combination with volume-efficient and nearly loss-free heat storage to counteract electricity fluctuations. Focus of this contribution the conception of the large-scale project ''Thermal Battery'', funded by the European Union and the Federal State of Lower Saxony. The underlying principle is the utilization of reversible thermochemical reactions, such as dehydration and rehydration of salt hydrates for heat storage. The main goal is the development of a prototypical storage tank, which is capable of storing 80 kWh of heat with a system volume of less than 1 m{sup 3}. Importantly, the Vattenfall New Energy Services as a collaboration partner will support the development of an application-oriented heat storage device. This project is being carried out by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, chemists, physicists and environmental scientists.

  14. Understanding Female Inactivity in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Azzopardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study is based in Malta, a small island state with the highest rate of economically inactive women in the European Union (EU. Using a random sample of 402 inactive female homemakers, the responses to a telephone survey revealed that (a this inactive group is motivated by aspects of social and economic well-being and to a lesser extent by aspects of personal and professional development; (b work hindrances include low wages, family responsibilities, and a dependency on social security contributions/benefits; (c the intention to work in the future is significantly associated with work motives, work hindrances, and demographic variables, resulting in an overall holdout accuracy of 84.8%; and (d the respondents would be encouraged to work if there are more supportive/flexible work structures available for working mothers, equal opportunities for women at the workplace, and employment opportunities through in-work benefits that make work pay (particularly for those aged 40+, with limited skills and with low work intensity. The findings are discussed, and the study concludes by providing four policy recommendations aimed at addressing the present shortcomings of the Maltese labor market.

  15. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  16. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  17. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  18. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...

  19. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds.

  20. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds.

  1. Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

  2. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  3. The Ungraded Derived Category

    OpenAIRE

    Stai, Torkil Utvik

    2012-01-01

    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  4. System Architecture-based Design Methodology for Monitoring the Ground-based Augmentation System: Category I - Integrity Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Paulo; Saotome, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper has described a method to accomplish the Ground-Based Augmentation System signal-in-space integrity risk monitoring for a ground station specified by ICAO, Annex 10, Vol. 1 and RTCA DO-245A, which is a mandatory requirement to meet the certification aspects for a Ground-Based Augmentation System station. The proposed methodology was based on the Risk Tree Analysis technique, which is an optional way to design and develop an engineering solution named as integrity risk monit...

  5. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    limited in terms of maintaining a behavior change. The purpose of this study was to investigate individual, cognitive, social, and contextual factors influencing the adoption and maintenance of regular self-organized jogging, and how they were manifested among former inactive adults. Methods A qualitative...... to translate intention into regular behavior. TTM: Informants expressed rapid progression from the pre-contemplation to the action stage caused by an early shift in the decisional balance towards advantages overweighing disadvantages. This was followed by a continuous improvement in self-efficacy, which...... jogging-related self-efficacy, and deployment of realistic goal setting was significant in the achievement of regular jogging behavior. Cognitive factors included a positive change in both affective and instrumental beliefs about jogging. Expectations from society and social relations had limited effect...

  6. Development and Application of a Category System to Describe Pre-Service Science Teachers' Activities in the Process of Scientific Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Walzer, Christine; Hergert, Susann; Krüger, Dirk

    2017-09-01

    As part of their professional competencies, science teachers need an elaborate meta-modelling knowledge as well as modelling skills in order to guide and monitor modelling practices of their students. However, qualitative studies about (pre-service) science teachers' modelling practices are rare. This study provides a category system which is suitable to analyse and to describe pre-service science teachers' modelling activities and to infer modelling strategies. The category system was developed based on theoretical considerations and was inductively refined within the methodological frame of qualitative content analysis. For the inductive refinement, modelling practices of pre-service teachers (n = 4) have been video-taped and analysed. In this study, one case was selected to demonstrate the application of the category system to infer modelling strategies. The contribution of this study for science education research and science teacher education is discussed.

  7. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  8. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...

  9. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trussell, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

  10. The physical inactivity matrix: lessons from the classification of physical inactivity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Donaldson, Alex; Johnstone, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Physical inactivity (PI), a leading modifiable cause of disease and injury, is endemic in industrialised nations. Although considerable research has been undertaken in this field, we lack a system to synthesise the research literature to inform policy and identify research needs. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a system to classify physical inactivity intervention studies, (2) examine the distribution of PI interventions published in the peer-reviewed health literature using the system, and (3) consider implications for future research. We developed the Physical Inactivity Matrix (PIM), with 12 intervention points, created by the intersection of two dimensions: the intervention target (individual, physical environment and social/cultural environment) and the activity focus (transport, work/school, leisure and consumer). A formal search of the health research literature identified 529 eligible studies and each was classified into one of the 12 cells of the PIM. Most studies were categorised as: individual-leisure (68%), individual-work/school (12%) or social/cultural environment-leisure (13%). Only 4% targeted the physical environment. The findings of this initial application of the PIM support the call for greater investment in policies, interventions and research that focus on the relationship between the environment and PI, and transportation in particular. There would be merit in establishing the inter-rater reliability of the PIM and applying it to a wider variety of studies, including those published in the transportation and urban planning literatures. The PIM could be a useful tool for monitoring trends in research directions and funding levels over time and across countries.

  11. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  12. Sheafifiable homotopy model categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tibor

    2000-11-01

    If a Quillen model category can be specified using a certain logical syntax (intuitively, ‘is algebraic/combinatorial enough’), so that it can be defined in any category of sheaves, then the satisfaction of Quillen's axioms over any site is a purely formal consequence of their being satisfied over the category of sets. Such data give rise to a functor from the category of topoi and geometric morphisms to Quillen model categories and Quillen adjunctions.

  13. A job analysis of selected health workers in a district health system in KwaZulu Natal - Part three: Other categories of health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Groenewald

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This article described the third part of a study aimed at doing a job analysis of nurses and non-professional health workers in a district health system. This article describes the tasks of five categories of workers, their training and their work-load over an ordinary week.

  14. Administrative Inactivity: Concept and Requirements of Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Yarkovoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general concept of omission in law, as well as the concept and main features of inactivity on the part of executive bodies, other public administration agencies and their officials in their administrative law enforcement are examined, conditions of legality of such inactivity are under study

  15. 1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results.

  16. 1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results

  17. Performance of a five category front-of-pack labelling system - the 5-colour nutrition label - to differentiate nutritional quality of breakfast cereals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge

    2015-02-25

    Breakfast cereals exhibit a wide variability in nutritional quality, and differences are not easily grasped by consumers. A simplified nutritional information system might contribute to help consumers make healthier food choices. A five-category colour label based on the Food Standards Agency Nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been proposed in France to be implemented on the front-of-pack of foods (the five-colour nutrition label - 5-CNL). Objectives were to evaluate the ability of the 5-CNL to discriminate nutritional quality between types of breakfast cereals, within a category and in equivalent products, as well as its ability to change through product reformulation. Nutritional information was collected through an Internet and supermarket research for N = 433 breakfast cereals (N = 380 complete data included in the analyses). Breakfast cereals were categorized according to common attributes in terms of processing and/or ingredients used. The FSA score and 5-CNL category allocation were computed for each cereal. Nutrient content and FSA score were compared across types of cereals. Distribution within the 5-CNL categories was assessed across types of cereals and for equivalent products. Impact of reformulation (reduction of 5 and 10% in simple sugar, saturated fat and sodium) on the 5-CNL category allocation was compared to original allocation with Bapkhar's tests of homogeneity of marginal distribution. Variability in nutritional quality of breakfast cereals was high, as reflected by the FSA score (range -7- 22 for a theoretical range of -15-40) and the 5-CNL (all five categories represented). The 5-CNL allowed for discrimination across types of cereals, within categories of breakfast cereals and for equivalent products (at least 3 categories of the 5-CNL represented). Reformulation scenarios allowed for significant change in 5-CNL allocation: 5% reduction in sugar lead to a modification of the label for 4.21% of products while a reduction of 10

  18. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  19. Are lung imaging reporting and data system categories clear to radiologists? A survey of the Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology members on ten difficult -to classify scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Hee; Ahn, Myeong Im [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chong, Se Min [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate possible variability in chest radiologists' interpretations of the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) on difficult-to-classify scenarios. Ten scenarios of difficult-to-classify imaginary lung nodules were prepared as an online survey that targeted Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology members. In each question, a description was provided of the size, consistency, and interval change (new or growing) of a lung nodule observed using annual repeat computed tomography, and the respondent was instructed to choose one answer from five choices: category 2, 3, 4A, or 4B, or 'un-categorizable.' Consensus answers were established by members of the Korean Imaging Study Group for Lung Cancer. Of the 420 answers from 42 respondents (excluding multiple submissions), 310 (73.8%) agreed with the consensus answers; eleven (26.2%) respondents agreed with the consensus answers to six or fewer questions. Assigning the imaginary nodules to categories higher than the consensus answer was more frequent (16.0%) than assigning them to lower categories (5.5%), and the agreement rate was below 50% for two scenarios. When given difficult-to-classify scenarios, chest radiologists showed large variability in their interpretations of the Lung-RADS categories, with high frequencies of disagreement in some specific scenarios.

  20. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; da Silva, Shana Ginar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares. PMID:26487291

  1. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Moraes Bielemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases.METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey. The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to.RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%, whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions. Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity.CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  2. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  3. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  4. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil Rodríguez, Eva Patrícia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  5. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Mona; Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude; Mesurolle, Benoit; Trop, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Five breast radiologists blinded to patients' medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α=0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors - shape, margins and internal enhancement - (α=0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors - distribution and internal enhancement - (α=0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α=0.71). It was however only moderate (α=0.38) for NME compared to mass (α=0.80). Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Automated breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) category 3 follow-up application: improving patient care and compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Praveena; Cook, T. S.; Boonn, W. W.; Kim, W.

    2011-03-01

    With the current emphasis on healthcare reform and cost effectiveness, methods to increase healthcare efficiency while improving outcomes are paramount. With reference to breast cancer, delay in diagnosis can cause significant morbidity and mortality, as well as increased long term health care costs. Assessment with short interval mammographic follow-up of BI-RADS category 3 lesions has been shown to increase detection of a small number of breast cancers at an early stage. Because of the importance of timely follow-up for these patients, we propose a novel computer application that identifies patients due for short-term mammographic follow-up, thus reducing costly hours spent by personnel, reducing human error, and improving patient compliance. Our web-based application mines radiology reports and scheduling information to generate lists of patients due for short-term mammographic follow-up of BI-RADS category 3 results. The results can be placed in a worklist that can be used by a staff member to contact patients to schedule follow-up appointments. Additional analytic features of the application can identify referral characteristics that may serve as potential sources for improvement of patient follow-up. We believe that an automated system can be designed to improve patient care and compliance with follow-up of BI-RADS category 3 results.

  7. Prognostic value of Prostate Imaging and Data Reporting System (PI-RADS) v. 2 assessment categories 4 and 5 compared to histopathological outcomes after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Christopher S; McInnes, Matthew D F; Lim, Robert S; Breau, Rodney H; Flood, Trevor A; Krishna, Satheesh; Morash, Christopher; Shabana, Wael M; Schieda, Nicola

    2017-07-01

    To assess Prostate Imaging and Data Reporting System (PI-RADS) v. 2 score 4/5 lesions compared to Gleason score (GS) and stage after radical prostatectomy (RP) and to validate the proposed 15-mm size threshold that differentiates category 4 versus 5 lesions. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, 140 men underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and RP between 2012-2015. Two blinded radiologists: 1) assigned PI-RADS v. 2 scores, 2) measured tumor size on axial T 2 -weighted-MRI, and 3) assessed for extraprostatic extension (EPE). Interobserver agreement was calculated and consensus diagnoses achieved through reference standard (MRI-RP maps). PI-RADS v. 2 scores and tumor size were compared to GS and stage using chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. In all, 80.7% (113/140) of tumors were category 4 (n = 45) or 5 (n = 68) lesions (κ = 0.45). Overall tumor size was 18.2 ± 7.7 mm and category 5 lesions were larger (22.6 ± 6.8 versus 11.5 ± 1.9 mm, P PI-RADS v. 2 category 5 lesions are associated with higher Gleason scores and EPE. A 15-mm size threshold is reasonably accurate for diagnosis of EPE with increased sensitivity compared to subjective assessment. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:257-266. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  9. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  10. Downgrading BIRADS 3 to BIRADS 2 category using a computer-aided microcalcification analysis and risk assessment system for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Georgia; Spyrou, George M; Antaraki, Argyro; Andreadis, Ioannis; Koulocheri, Dimitra; Zagouri, Flora; Nonni, Afroditi; Filippakis, George M; Nikita, Konstantina S; Ligomenides, Panos A; Zografos, George C

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of a computer-aided diagnosis system to discriminate the real benign microcalcifications among a specific subset of 109 patients with BIRADS 3 mammograms who had undergone biopsy, thus making it possible to downgrade them to BIRADS 2 category. The system detected and quantified critical features of microcalcifications and classified them on a risk percentage scale for malignancy. The system successfully detected all cancers. Nevertheless, it suggested biopsy for 11/15 atypical lesions. Finally, the system characterized as definitely benign (BIRADS 2) 29/88 benign lesions, previously assigned to BIRADS 3, and thus achieved a reduction of 33% in unnecessary biopsies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  12. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  13. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  14. 24 CFR 214.200 - Inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... review. (b) Agencies that seek temporary inactive status must submit a request to HUD in writing... review and notify the agency of approval or rejection, in writing. If approved, the agency's name and contact information will be temporarily removed from the HUD-approved Web list of agencies and the...

  15. Effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...

  16. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  17. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: Interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Mona, E-mail: monelkhoury@gmail.com [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Mesurolle, Benoit [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de McGill, Cedar Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H3A1A1 (Canada); Trop, Isabelle [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The use of BI-RADS lexicon in interpreting breast MRI examinations is beneficial. • Our study shows: (a) moderate to substantial agreement between observers and (b) better agreement in interpreting mass than non-mass enhancement (NME). • Careful analysis of the NME should be done to help detect cancer as early as possible. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Materials and methods: Five breast radiologists blinded to patients’ medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. Results: All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α = 0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors – shape, margins and internal enhancement – (α = 0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors – distribution and internal enhancement – (α = 0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α = 0.71). It was however only moderate (α = 0.38) for NME compared to mass (α = 0.80). Conclusion: Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME.

  18. Reflections on the grammatical category of the than element in English comparative constructions: A corpus-based systemic functional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshun He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that in comparative constructions, when the clausal element compared is the subject of the matrix clause, the personal pronoun following than can be either nominative which is usually used in formal English, where than is considered as a conjunction, or accusative which is usually used in informal English, where than is considered as a preposition. However, the data collected from the COCA corpus indicate that nominative pronouns do not tend to end a comparative construction in either formal or informal English. Based on the fundamentals of Systemic Functional Linguistics, it is improper to consider the accusative form of personal pronouns in comparative constructions as the object of than; rather they are the stressed personal pronouns. It is concluded that in comparative constructions than is always a conjunction, and the personal pronoun following than can be expanded into a finite clause. However, if the nominal group following than has no comparee in the matrix clause, it is not a comparative clause and the than-phrase is a prepositional phrase. It is further concluded that in comparative constructions than is best considered as a paratactic conjunction because comparative constructions cannot be transpositioned with the primary clauses in clause complexes.

  19. Phonetic category recalibration: What are the categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Wozny, David R.; Mitterer, Holger; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners use lexical or visual context information to recalibrate auditory speech perception. After hearing an ambiguous auditory stimulus between /aba/ and /ada/ coupled with a clear visual stimulus (e.g., lip closure in /aba/), an ambiguous auditory-only stimulus is perceived in line with the previously seen visual stimulus. What remains unclear, however, is what exactly listeners are recalibrating: phonemes, phone sequences, or acoustic cues. To address this question we tested generalization of visually-guided auditory recalibration to 1) the same phoneme contrast cued differently (i.e., /aba/-/ada/ vs. /ibi/-/idi/ where the main cues are formant transitions in the vowels vs. burst and frication of the obstruent), 2) a different phoneme contrast cued identically (/aba/-/ada/ vs. /ama/-/ana/ both cued by formant transitions in the vowels), and 3) the same phoneme contrast with the same cues in a different acoustic context (/aba/-/ada/ vs. (/ubu/-/udu/). Whereas recalibration was robust for all recalibration control trials, no generalization was found in any of the experiments. This suggests that perceptual recalibration may be more specific than previously thought as it appears to be restricted to the phoneme category experienced during exposure as well as to the specific manipulated acoustic cues. We suggest that recalibration affects context-dependent sub-lexical units. PMID:24932053

  20. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  1. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  2. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez, Karim?; Fuentes, Jorge; M?rquez, Jos? Luis

    2017-01-01

    New research into physical activity suggests that it is no longer sufficient just to meet minimum levels recommended by health guidelines in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior have their own health hazards and need to be addressed separately, in order to explore their different deleterious mechanisms. The aim of this review was to define and to characterize both concepts, and their relationship with major non-communicable chronic diseases. A P...

  3. Meromorphic tensor categories

    OpenAIRE

    Soibelman, Yan

    1997-01-01

    We introduce the notion of meromorphic tensor category and illustrate it in several examples. They include representations of quantum affine algebras, chiral algebras of Beilinson and Drinfeld, G-vertex algebras of Borcherds, and representations of GL over a local field. Hopefully the formalism will accomodate various tensor structures arising in relation to the quantized Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations and deformed CFT

  4. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  5. CATEGORIES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Poltavskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy as a frame of reference on world around and as the first science is a fundamental basis, "roots" (R. Descartes for all branches of the scientific knowledge accumulated and applied in all fields of activity of a human being person. The theory of algorithms as one of the fundamental sections of mathematics, is also based on researches of the gnoseology conducting cognition of a true picture of the world of the buman being. From gnoseology and ontology positions as fundamental sections of philosophy modern innovative projects are inconceivable without development of programs,and algorithms.

  6. Increasing and decreasing motor and cognitive output: a model of general action and inaction goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P

    2008-09-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as "action" and "rest." The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior.

  7. Introduction to Ann-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tien Quang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present new concepts of Ann-categories, Ann-functors, and a transmission of the structure of categories based on Ann-equivalences. We build Ann-category of Pic-funtors and prove that each Ann-category can be faithfully embedded into an almost strictly Ann-category.

  8. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category I systems for Palisades nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.

    1979-10-01

    The technical evaluation is presented of Consumers Power Company's Palisades nuclear power plant to determine whether the failure of any non-Category I (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might potentially adversely affect the performance of safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection as well as measures taken by Consumers Power Company to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  9. 1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved.

  10. 1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved

  11. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction

  12. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  13. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Maiorana, A.J.; O'Driscoll, G.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function

  14. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  15. Who Are the "Lazy" Ants? The Function of Inactivity in Social Insects and a Possible Role of Constraint: Inactive Ants Are Corpulent and May Be Young and/or Selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Daniel; Poff, Corey; Nguyen, Hoan; Shin, Min C; Kierstead, Karen; Dornhaus, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Social insect colonies are commonly thought of as highly organized and efficient complex systems, yet high levels of worker inactivity are common. Although consistently inactive workers have been documented across many species, very little is known about the potential function or costs associated with this behavior. Here we ask what distinguishes these "lazy" individuals from their nestmates. We obtained a large set of behavioral and morphological data about individuals, and tested for consistency with the following evolutionary hypotheses: that inactivity results from constraint caused by worker (a) immaturity or (b) senescence; that (c) inactive workers are reproducing; that inactive workers perform a cryptic task such as (d) acting as communication hubs or (e) food stores; and that (f) inactive workers represent the "slow-paced" end of inter-worker variation in "pace-of-life." We show that inactive workers walk more slowly, have small spatial fidelity zones near the nest center, are more corpulent, are isolated in colony interaction networks, have the smallest behavioral repertoires, and are more likely to have oocytes than other workers. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that inactive workers are immature and/or storing food for the colony; they suggest that workers are not inactive as a consequence of senescence, and that they are not acting as communication hubs. The hypotheses listed above are not mutually exclusive, and likely form a "syndrome" of behaviors common to inactive social insect workers. Their simultaneous contribution to inactivity may explain the difficulty in finding a simple answer to this deceptively simple question. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Pension System Methodology For Senior Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titel NEGRU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The need to reform pension systems is one of the key social challenges for policymakers in Europe. The demographic evolutions of the last 26 years, the changes in the Romanian economy and society influenced one particular category - the retired people. As population inactive, retired people represents important year category, their numbers being rather big in comparison with the population employed, the practical pensions contributors are at the bottom with their founds.

  17. Exercise ASKARI SERPENT: enabling clinical data collection during exercises and operations to support future contingency planning and assurance of category-based reporting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Iain T; Wheatley, R J; Carter, P

    2016-02-01

    Exercise ASKARI SERPENT (Ex AS) is a British Army exercise that provides primary healthcare (PHC) to Kenyan civilians in support of local health authorities. It is conducted in partnership with the Kenya Defence Force Medical Services (KDFMS). Accurate epidemiological data is critical in planning the exercise and for any future short-notice contingency operations in similar environments. This paper reports epidemiological data for Ex AS using a novel data collection system. PHC on Ex AS was delivered by trained and validated combat medical technicians (CMTs) using a set of Read-coded protocols. The CMTs were also directly supported and supervised by medical officers and nurses. A total of 3093 consultations were conducted over a 16-day period. Of these, 2707 (87.5%) consultations fell within the remit of the CMT protocols, with only 386 consultations (12.5%) being conducted exclusively by the medical officers or nurses. A Read-coded matrix built on CMT protocols is a simple and useful tool, particularly in civilian populations, for collecting morbidity data with the vast majority of conditions accounted for in the protocols. It is anticipated that such a system can better inform training, manning, medical material and pharmaceutical procurement than current category-based morbidity surveillance systems such as EPINATO (NATO epidemiological data). There is clear advantage to directly linking data capture to treatment algorithms. Accuracy, both in terms of numbers and condition, is likely improved. Data is also captured contemporaneously rather than after indeterminate time. Read coding has the added benefit of being an established electronic standard. In addition, the system would support traditional reporting methods such as EPINATO by providing increased assurance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  19. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...... of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......, which one also finds between them. The paper ends with an examination of the behavioural consequences of these institutional arrangements, which one also finds elsewehre, i.e. ion Estonia, Iceland, Norway and New Zealand (in the new electoral system currently being implemented there)....

  20. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital loads...

  1. Positive predictive values of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS® categories 3, 4 and 5 in breast lesions submitted to percutaneous biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Machado Badan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the BI-RADS as a predictive factor of suspicion for malignancy in breast lesions by correlating radiological with histological results and calculating the positive predictive value for categories 3, 4 and 5 in a breast cancer reference center in the city of São Paulo. Materials and Methods Retrospective, analytical and cross-sectional study including 725 patients with mammographic and/or sonographic findings classified as BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5 who were referred to the authors' institution to undergo percutaneous biopsy. The tests results were reviewed and the positive predictive value was calculated by means of a specific mathematical equation. Results Positive predictive values found for categories 3, 4 and 5 were respectively the following: 0.74%, 33.08% and 92.95%, for cases submitted to ultrasound-guided biopsy, and 0.00%, 14.90% and 100% for cases submitted to stereotactic biopsy. Conclusion The present study demonstrated high suspicion for malignancy in lesions classified as category 5 and low risk for category 3. As regards category 4, the need for systematic biopsies was observed.

  2. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  3. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  4. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Constraints on colour category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Y.; Wakui, E.; Decock, L.B.; Douven, I.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  6. Constraints on Colour Category Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Yasmina; Wakui, Elley; Decock, Lieven; Douven, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  7. The Cognitive Infrastructures of Markets : Empirical Studies on the Role of Categories in Valuation and Competition, and a Formal Theory of Classification Systems Based on Lattices and Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzai, M.

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how the information encoded by category labels is interpreted by agents in a market for the purpose of decision-making. To this end, we first examine the influence of categorization on economic and strategic outcomes with two empirical studies, and then

  8. SOLUTIONS FOR THE NEW TASKS IN AERODYNAMICS IN THE PROCESS OF CERTIFICATION OF AIRPLANCE OF TRASPORT CATEGORY – ANTI-ICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shevyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are considered new tasks in aerodynamics in the process of certification of airplanes of transport category. The procedure for optimal location of ice detector at the transonic airplane and means of compliance with certification requirements for automatic engagement of anti-ice protection.

  9. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h -index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  10. Altered Implicit Category Learning in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shott, Megan E.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Jappe, Leah M.; Pryor, Tamara; Maddox, W. Todd; Rollin, Michael D.H.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Frank, Guido K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent research has identified specific cognitive deficits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), including impairment in executive functioning and attention. Another such cognitive process, implicit category learning has been less studied in AN. This study examined whether implicit category learning is impaired in AN. Method Twenty-one women diagnosed with AN and 19 control women (CW) were administered an implicit category learning task in which they were asked to categorize simple perceptual stimuli (Gabor patches) into one of two categories. Category membership was based on a linear integration (i.e., an implicit task) of two stimulus dimensions (orientation and spatial frequency of the stimulus). Results AN individuals were less accurate on implicit category learning relative to age-matched CW. Model-based analyses indicated that, even when AN individuals used the appropriate (i.e., implicit) strategy they were still impaired relative to CW who also used the same strategy. In addition, task performance in AN patients was worse the higher they were in self-reported novelty seeking and the lower they were in sensitivity to punishment. Conclusions These results indicate that AN patients have implicit category learning deficits, and given this type of learning is thought to be mediated by striatal dopamine pathways, AN patients may have deficits in these neural systems. The finding of significant correlations with novelty seeking and sensitivity to punishment suggests that feedback sensitivity is related to implicit learning in AN. PMID:22201300

  11. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the

  12. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall in adults 2 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17 037 (95% uncertainty interval 11 394 - 20 407), or 3.3% (95% ...

  13. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...

  14. Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. ... Several factors were identified which may assist in programmes to promote physical activity in this population. Keywords: Physical inactivity, risk factors, chronic disease patients, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam ...

  15. Patterns and Determinants of Physical Inactivity in Rural and Urban Areas in Peru: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Avilez, Jose L; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban). Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study's baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (transport-related physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood's safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%-94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%-10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%-43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.54). Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

  16. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) US lexicon and final assessment category for solid breast masses: the rates of inter-and intraobserver agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Koh, Young Hwan; Youn, Byung Jae; Cho, Byung Jae; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the rates of inter-and intraobserver agreement of the BI-RADS US lexicon. Two radiologists reviewed 60 sonograms of solid breast masses to evaluate interobserver agreement. After four weeks, the radiologists reinterpreted the series to evaluate the intraobserver agreement. The radiologists described shape, orientation, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic features and microcalcifications. Final assessment categories and management plans were suggested for each case. The rates of inter-and intraobserver agreements were measured by the use of kappa statistics. Interobserver agreement ranged from the highest for orientation (κ = 0.65) and shape (κ = 0.61) to the lowest for posterior acoustic features (κ = 0.42). For the final assessment categories (κ = 0.46) and management (κ = 0.49), interobserver agreement were moderate. Intraobserver agreement ranged from the highest for microcalcifications in mass (κ = 0.90, 0.82) and orientation (κ 0.87, 0.83) and the lowest for echo patterns (κ = 0.62, 0.57) and posterior acoustic features (κ = 0.59, 0.65). In the final assessment category and management, intraobserver agreements were substantial or nearly complete (κ = 0.65-0.83). There were variable raged inter-and intraobserver agreements in the description of the BI-RADS US lexicon of solid breast masses. Among them, margin and lesion boundary showed lower agreements. A modification of the BI-RADS US lexicon with more detailed guidelines, followed by continuous education, are suggested

  17. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis......The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....

  18. Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, and the oxidative-inflammatory loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratas-Delamarche, A; Derbré, F; Vincent, S; Cillard, J

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that physical inactivity, a main factor of global energetic imbalance, is involved in the worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Although the complex pathogenesis of insulin resistance is not fully understood, literature data accumulated during the past decades clearly indicate that the activation of the oxidative-inflammatory loop plays a major role. By activating the oxidative-inflammatory loop in insulin-sensitive tissues, fat gain and adipose tissue dysfunction likely contribute to induce insulin resistance during chronic and prolonged physical inactivity. However, in the past years, evidence has emerged showing that early insulin resistance also occurs after very short-term exposure to physical inactivity (1-7 days) without any fat gain or energetic imbalance. The possible role of liver disturbances or endothelial dysfunction is suggested, but further studies are necessary to really conclude. Inactive skeletal muscle probably constitutes the primary triggering tissue for the development of early insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss on the current knowledge about the effect of physical inactivity on whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and how local inflammation and oxidative stress arising with physical inactivity could potentially induce insulin resistance. We assume that early muscle insulin resistance allows the excess nutrients to shift in the storage tissues to withstand starvation through energy storage. We also consider when chronic and prolonged, physical inactivity over an extended period of time is an underestimated contributor to pathological insulin resistance and hence indirectly to numerous chronic diseases.

  19. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  20. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  1. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  2. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    ’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional......-linguistic ‘coverage’ then formal or semantic categories. Finally it will be shown that functional categories have their own distinct grammatical properties (Rijkhoff 2008, 2009b, forthcoming). References Bulmer, Ralph. 1967. Why is the cassowary not a bird? A problem of zoological taxonomy among the Karam of the New...

  3. Recommendations and interventions to decrease physical inactivity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.; Douwes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary work tasks, e.g. at an office workplace, are characterised by physical inactivity and by long periods of uninterrupted sitting. These characteristics increase the risk of several health problems, among others obesity, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer, musculoskeletal

  4. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Maiorana, Andrew J; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Cable, Nigel T; Hopman, Maria T E; Green, Daniel J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is associated with enhanced vasoconstrictor tone and has profound and rapid effects on arterial remodelling in both large and smaller arteries. Evidence for an effect of deconditioning on vasodilator function is less consistent. Studies of the impact of exercise training suggest that both functional and structural remodelling adaptations occur and that the magnitude and time-course of these changes depends upon training duration and intensity and the vessel beds involved. Inactivity and exercise have direct "vascular deconditioning and conditioning" effects which likely modify cardiovascular risk.

  5. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    , weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk....... We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular...

  6. PROFILE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AS A RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay; Ram C; Abhay; Vasant

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014). AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SET...

  7. Comparison of Static Balance in Active and Inactive Adult and Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Hajinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the static balance in active and inactive adult and elderly men. Methods & Materials: 55 active adult and elderly men and 49 inactive adult and elderly men participated in this cross sectional- comparative study. Static balance was measured by stork stand test with opened and closed eye. Gait velocity (time in active subjects was measured used Rockport walk test. Independent T-test was used to compare balance with opened and closed eye between two groups. To examine correlation between static balance with age and gait velocity, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software package. Results: The results showed that balance with opened and closed eye were significantly higher in active subjects and inactive active subjects. In active subjects, there was no significant correlation between gait velocity and balance with opened and closed eye. There was significant negative correlation between static balance and age, as with increase age static balance decrease significantly. Conclusion: The results indicated that active (walking and Morning sports-based adult and elderly men have better static balance than inactive adult and elderly men, as a result of using walking training program. It is possible that walking with the overload on information transfer through Improve somatosensory systems, May improve the balance.

  8. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design....

  9. Evolution of Wikipedia’s Category Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchecki, K.; Salah, A.A.; Gao, C.; Scharnhorst, A.

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia, as a social phenomenon of collaborative knowledge creation, has been studied extensively from various points of view. The category system of Wikipedia, introduced in 2004, has attracted relatively little attention. In this study, we focus on the documentation of knowledge, and the

  10. Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. I. Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Regan, Michael W.; Mulchaey, John S.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2003-06-01

    The detailed morphology of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the central kiloparsec of galaxies is controlled by pressure and gravitation. The combination of these forces shapes both circumnuclear star formation and the growth of the central, supermassive black hole. We present visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images and color maps of 123 nearby galaxies that show the distribution of the cold ISM, as traced by dust, with excellent spatial resolution. These observations reveal that nuclear dust spirals are found in the majority of active and inactive galaxies and they possess a wide range in coherence, symmetry, and pitch angle. We have used this large sample to develop a classification system for circumnuclear dust structures. In spite of the heterogeneous nature of the complete sample, we only find symmetric, two-arm nuclear dust spirals in galaxies with large-scale bars, and these dust lanes clearly connect to dust lanes along the leading edges of the large-scale bars. Not all dust lanes along large-scale bars form two-arm spirals, however, and several instead end in nuclear rings. We find that tightly wound, or low pitch angle, nuclear dust spirals are more common in unbarred galaxies than barred galaxies. Finally, the extended narrow-line region in several of the active galaxies is well resolved. The connection between the ionized gas and circumnuclear dust lanes in four of these galaxies provides additional evidence that a significant fraction of their extended narrow-line region is ambient gas photoionized in situ by the active nucleus. In a future paper we will use our classification system for circumnuclear dust to identify differences between active and inactive galaxies, as well as barred and unbarred galaxies, in well-matched subsamples of these data. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in

  11. Category Accessibility as Implicit Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-06

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD j GROUP SUB-GROUP category accessibility, social cognition, social or) In categorization, memory 19 ABSTRACT...and explicit memory in a common theoretical framework. Several types of social phenomena may usefully be conceptualized as involving implicit memory ...NO ACCESSION NO 61153N 1I TITLE (Include Security Classification) Category accessibility as implicit memory 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Smith, Eliot R

  12. Algorithm for Screening Phasor Measurement Unit Data for Power System Events and Categories and Common Characteristics for Events Seen in Phasor Measurement Unit Relative Phase-Angle Differences and Frequency Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, A.; Santoso, S.; Muljadi, E.

    2013-08-01

    A network of multiple phasor measurement units (PMU) was created, set up, and maintained at the University of Texas at Austin to obtain actual power system measurements for power system analysis. Power system analysis in this report covers a variety of time ranges, such as short- term analysis for power system disturbances and their effects on power system behavior and long- term power system behavior using modal analysis. The first objective of this report is to screen the PMU data for events. The second objective of the report is to identify and describe common characteristics extracted from power system events as measured by PMUs. The numerical characteristics for each category and how these characteristics are used to create selection rules for the algorithm are also described. Trends in PMU data related to different levels and fluctuations in wind power output are also examined.

  13. Experiential versus genetic accounts of inactivity: implications for inactive individuals' self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kreutzer, Christiane; Rupert, James L

    2011-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of deterministic media reports, linking genetics to inactivity, in relation to inactive people's social cognitions concerning physical activity involvement. Sixty three inactive university students were randomly allocated to one of three experimental conditions (control, genetically-primed, experientially-primed) and completed measures of instrumental and affective attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and exercise intentions. One week later participants in the two experimental conditions were provided with a bogus newspaper report that either reflected a genetic explanation for physical inactivity or an experiential basis for inactivity. Shortly afterwards, participants in all three conditions completed the same measures as at pre-test. The results revealed that after controlling for baseline measures participants in the experientially-primed condition reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy and intentions to exercise than those in the genetically-primed condition. These findings raise a cautionary flag concerning the presentation of genetic research in the media, especially with regard to inactive populations.

  14. DETERMINANT EROSION FACTORS FOR PENSION ROMANIAN SYSTEM - A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Gabriela BABUCEA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The demographical evolutions of the last 20 years, the changes in the Romanian economy and society influenced one special category which is the retired people. As inactive population, retired people represents an important category, their numbers being rather big in comparison with the employed population, practical the contributors at the pensions fund. In 2010, the stat has serious problems with paying pensions. The evolution of this category of people is the subject of this paper. We try to identify the factors that had negative influence upon the pension Romanian system. The reference years that we considered are 1990-2009.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  16. MAR elements regulate the probability of epigenetic switching between active and inactive gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbete, José Luis; Buceta, Montserrat; Mermod, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    Gene expression often cycles between active and inactive states in eukaryotes, yielding variable or noisy gene expression in the short-term, while slow epigenetic changes may lead to silencing or variegated expression. Understanding how cells control these effects will be of paramount importance to construct biological systems with predictable behaviours. Here we find that a human matrix attachment region (MAR) genetic element controls the stability and heritability of gene expression in cell populations. Mathematical modeling indicated that the MAR controls the probability of long-term transitions between active and inactive expression, thus reducing silencing effects and increasing the reactivation of silent genes. Single-cell short-terms assays revealed persistent expression and reduced expression noise in MAR-driven genes, while stochastic burst of expression occurred without this genetic element. The MAR thus confers a more deterministic behavior to an otherwise stochastic process, providing a means towards more reliable expression of engineered genetic systems.

  17. Subject categories with scope definitions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system. This document has been prepared for use by (1) those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, (2) those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, (3) those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and (4) others who, having no access to RECON, need a printed copy

  18. Towards system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in routine practice: Developing simple, intuitive descriptions of ICF categories in the ICF Generic and Rehabilitation Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; Reinhardt, Jan D; Selb, Melissa; Stucki, Gerold; Yan, Tiebin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Jianan

    2016-06-13

    A national, multi-phase, consensus process to develop simple, intuitive descriptions of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories contained in the ICF Generic and Rehabilitation Sets, with the aim of enhancing the utility of the ICF in routine clinical practice, is presented in this study. A multi-stage, national, consensus process was conducted. The consensus process involved 3 expert groups and consisted of a preparatory phase, a consensus conference with consecutive working groups and 3 voting rounds (votes A, B and C), followed by an implementation phase. In the consensus conference, participants first voted on whether they agreed that an initially developed proposal for simple, intuitive descriptions of an ICF category was in fact simple and intuitive. The consensus conference was held in August 2014 in mainland China. Twenty-one people with a background in physical medicine and rehabilitation participated in the consensus process. Four ICF categories achieved consensus in vote A, 16 in vote B, and 8 in vote C. This process can be seen as part of a larger effort towards the system-wide implementation of the ICF in routine clinical and rehabilitation practice to allow for the regular and comprehensive evaluation of health outcomes most relevant for the monitoring of quality of care.

  19. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  20. Enumerating bone marrow blasts from nonerythroid cellularity improves outcome prediction in myelodysplastic syndromes and permits a better definition of the intermediate risk category of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Xavier; Arenillas, Leonor; Luño, Elisa; Senent, Leonor; Arnan, Montserrat; Ramos, Fernando; Pedro, Carme; Tormo, Mar; Montoro, Julia; Díez-Campelo, María; Blanco, María Laura; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Xicoy, Blanca; Bonanad, Santiago; Jerez, Andrés; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Ferrer, Ana; Sanz, Guillermo F; Florensa, Lourdes

    2017-07-01

    The Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) has been recognized as the score with the best outcome prediction capability in MDS, but this brought new concerns about the accurate prognostication of patients classified into the intermediate risk category. The correct enumeration of blasts is essential in prognostication of MDS. Recent data evidenced that considering blasts from nonerythroid cellularity (NECs) improves outcome prediction in the context of IPSS and WHO classification. We assessed the percentage of blasts from total nucleated cells (TNCs) and NECs in 3924 MDS patients from the GESMD, 498 of whom were MDS with erythroid predominance (MDS-E). We assessed if calculating IPSS-R by enumerating blasts from NECs improves prognostication of MDS. Twenty-four percent of patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk categories and showed shorter overall survival (OS) and time to AML evolution than those who remained into the intermediate one. Likewise, a better distribution of patients was observed, since lower-risk patients showed longer survivals than previously whereas higher-risk ones maintained the outcome expected in this poor prognostic group (median OS risk of dying with AML. Regarding MDS-E, 51% patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk ones and showed shorter OS and time to AML. In this subgroup of MDS, IPSS-R was capable of splitting our series in five groups with significant differences in OS only when blasts were assessed from NECs. In conclusion, our easy-applicable approach improves prognostic assessment of MDS patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  2. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  3. Assessing compliance: Active versus inactive trainees in a memory intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Bagwell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Bagwell, Robin L WestDepartment of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Extensive research on memory interventions has confirmed their success with older adults, but the individual difference factors that predict successful training outcomes remain relatively unexplored. In the current intervention, trainees were identified as active (compliant with training regimens or inactive using trainer ratings based on attendance, homework completion, and class participation. The active group showed significantly greater training-related gains than the inactive group and the control group on most measures. Compliance was predicted by health, education, and self-efficacy. Specifically, active trainees were more likely to have advanced degrees and somewhat higher self-efficacy, and to have higher vitality and fewer functional limitations than the inactive trainees. This research may assist future investigators to target interventions to those who will show the most benefit.Keywords: compliance, memory training, aging, intervention

  4. The presence of promatrix metalloproteinase-3 and its relation with different categories of coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi Altin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix formation (ECM and remodeling are critical events related to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Matrix metalloproteinases play an essential role in degrading and remodeling the ECM. In this study, we tried to show the presence and correlation of promatrix metalloproteinase-3 (proMMP-3 (the inactive form of metalloproteinase-3 levels in coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP with different categories.

  5. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  6. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  7. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  8. Comparing categories among geographic ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Marinos; Kokla, Margarita; Tomai, Eleni

    2005-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to generate semantic "mappings" between different ontologies, or create aligned/integrated ones. An essential step towards their success is the ability to compare the categories involved. This paper introduces a systematic methodology for comparing categories met in geographic ontologies. The methodology explores/extracts semantic information provided by categories' definitions. The first step towards this goal is the recognition of syntactic and lexical patterns in definitions, which help to identify (a) semantic properties such as purpose, location, cover, and (b) semantic relations such as hypernym, part of, has-parts, etc. At the second step, a similarity measure among categories is applied, in order to explore how (the) extracted properties and relations interrelate. This framework enables us to (a) better understand the impact of context in cross-ontology "mappings", (b) evaluate the "quality" of definitions as to whether they respect mere ontological aspects (such as unambiguous taxonomies), and (c) deal more effectively with the problem of semantic translation among geographic ontologies.

  9. Essays on diffusion and categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hugten, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    Essay’ derives from the French ‘to try’. Accordingly, in this book, I try three new interpretations of diffusion and categories. That is, I try to divide observations into groups in a new way. Some ways of dividing lead to confusion and frustration. For example, people’s default division seems to be

  10. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  11. Substrate Capture Assay Using Inactive Oligopeptidases to Identify Novel Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioli, Vanessa; Ferro, Emer S

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are always searching for novel biologically active molecules including peptides. With the improvement of equipment for electrospray mass spectrometry, it is now possible to identify hundreds of novel peptides in a single run. However, after identifying the peptide sequences it is expensive to synthesize all the peptides to perform biological activity assays. Here, we describe a substrate capture assay that uses inactive oligopeptidases to identify putative biologically active peptides in complexes peptide mixtures. This methodology can use any crude extracts of biological tissues or cells, with the advantage to introduce a filter (i.e., binding to an inactive oligopeptidase) as a prior step in screening to bioactive peptides.

  12. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  13. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  14. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  15. Categorial Minimalist Grammar: From Generative Syntax To Logical Form

    OpenAIRE

    Amblard, Maxime; Lecomte, Alain; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present λμ-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of λ-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of λμ calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings fr...

  16. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  17. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  18. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables

  19. Characterisation and normalisation factors for life cycle impact assessment mined abiotic resources categories in South Africa - The manufacturing of catalytic converter exhaust systems as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, K

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available levels. The normalisation factors are based on the total economic reserves of key South African minerals and world non-renewable energy resources respectively. A case study of the manufacturing of an exhaust system for a standard sedan is used to compare...

  20. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalent hypertension in physically inactive individuals and examine the association between physical activity and healthcare expenditure after controlling for confounders. Results: Hypertensive patients who were physically active accounted ...

  1. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  2. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  3. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  4. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  5. Inactive nurses: a source for alleviating the nursing shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberly A; Stotts, R Craig; Jacob, Susan R; Stegbauer, Cheryl C; Roussel, Linda; Carter, Donna

    2006-04-01

    This study seeks to provide an understanding of why inactive registered nurses chose to become inactive and what they would require for them to return to nursing. In 2000, a shortage of 110,000 (6%) registered nurses existed in the United States. If the current trends continue, the shortage is projected to grow to 29% by 2020. One solution to the nursing shortage may be attracting nurses with inactive licenses back into employment. This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. Inactive nurses (N = 428) younger than 60 years in 1 Southern state were surveyed. A major portion (27.6%) of these nurses left nursing because of a conflict between parenting duties and scheduling requirements (13.5%) at work and indicated that they would return to nursing if given the opportunity to work part-time, especially if shifts were flexible and shorter. Although the group of registered nurses younger than 60 years do not constitute a large percentage of nurses in this country, they are a potential source of alleviating, to some extent, the critical nursing shortage. Employers can encourage many of these nurses to return to work by providing more flexible work schedules, including part-time and shorter shifts, as well as decreased workloads.

  6. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...

  7. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal microbial properties of Japanese quails. Twenty-four (24) 1-day-old Japanese quails were obtained from a commercial hatchery. The birds were randomly divided into 2 groups. The dietary treatments ...

  8. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  10. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  11. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  12. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  13. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... hf ngn) = (0 ugn) = 0 and dn−1. C( fg) is an epimorphism. Thus, u = 0. This proves our assertion. D. 2.4 n-Cluster tilting subcategories. Recall that a full subcategory D of an abelian category A is cogenerating if for every object X ∈ A there exists an object Y ∈ D and a monomorphism X → Y. The concept of.

  14. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  15. GRAPES-Grounding representations in action, perception, and emotion systems: How object properties and categories are represented in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alex

    2016-08-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the latest functional neuroimaging findings on the organization of object concepts in the human brain. I argue that these data provide strong support for viewing concepts as the products of highly interactive neural circuits grounded in the action, perception, and emotion systems. The nodes of these circuits are defined by regions representing specific object properties (e.g., form, color, and motion) and thus are property-specific, rather than strictly modality-specific. How these circuits are modified by external and internal environmental demands, the distinction between representational content and format, and the grounding of abstract social concepts are also discussed.

  16. GRAPES—Grounding representations in action, perception, and emotion systems: How object properties and categories are represented in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alex

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the latest functional neuroimaging findings on the organization of object concepts in the human brain. I argue that these data provide strong support for viewing concepts as the products of highly interactive neural circuits grounded in the action, perception, and emotion systems. The nodes of these circuits are defined by regions representing specific object properties (e.g., form, color, and motion) and thus are property-specific, rather than strictly modality-specific. How these circuits are modified by external and internal environmental demands, the distinction between representational content and format, and the grounding of abstract social concepts are also discussed. PMID:25968087

  17. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    such as familiarity and visual complexity. Of the most consistent activations found, none appear to be selective for natural objects or artefacts. The findings reviewed are compatible with theories of category-specificity that assume a widely distributed conceptual system not organized by category....

  18. The size of patent categories: USPTO 1976-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafond, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Categorization is an important phenomenon in science and society, and classification systems reflect the mesoscale organization of knowledge. The Yule-Simon-Naranan model, which assumes exponential growth of the number of categories and exponential growth of individual categories predicts a power

  19. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  20. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Analysis of breast imaging reporting and data system category 4 complex cystic masses of the breast: Do all the complex cystic breast masses merit a biopsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Chang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    To investigate whether sonographic findings can predict malignancy in complex echoic breast masses using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and to demonstrate the need for biopsy recommendations for all complex breast masses. 135 pathologically proven complex echoic masses detected on sonography were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings according to the BI-RADS lexicon which include shape, margin, orientation, lesion boundary, posterior acoustic features, and vascularity. The sonographic findings were correlated with the pathology and mammographic findings. Differentiation between the sonographic appearance of benign and malignant complex cystic lesions was evaluated using the chi-square test or the Mann-Whitney U test. 59.3% (80/135) were benign lesions and 40.7% (55/135) were malignant lesions. Malignant lesions were correlated with irregular (p < 0.001), nonparallel (p = 0.023), noncircumscribed (p < 0.001), echogenic halo (p < 0.001), increased vascularity (p = 0.001) and large size (p = 0.002) compared to benign lesions. However, 12.7% (7/55) of benign looking complex cystic masses were proved to be malignant. All seven lesions had malignant microcalcifications or abnormality on mammography. Using the sonographic BI-RADS lexicon can be useful for differentiating between malignant and benign complex cystic breast masses. Notably, 12.7% of the complex cystic lesions showing a benign appearance on sonography were pathologically proven malignant. Therefore, radiologist should recommend biopsy for complex cystic lesions.

  2. Content of the safety information on the Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems (CI and C) for an Industrial Gamma Irradiator Facility (Category II); Contenido del informe de seguridad de instalaciones industriales de irradiacion (cat. II): sistemas de control criticos (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilizastigui Perez, Fidel [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    A general overview is provided concerning the kind of basic requirements imposed to the scope and content of the design safety information on the Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems (CI and C) for an industrial gamma irradiator facility (Category II). The operating organization is required to provide the National Regulatory Authority with an information of this kind as part of the preliminary safety analysis report which is formally presented to the latter before the beginning of the construction of the facility.Information requirements are divided in two groups. The first one containing requirements to the scope and content of the general information concerning the design of all CI and C, and the second containing requirements to the scope and content of the information concerning each type of CI and C-systems for preventing access to the irradiation source, radiation alarm systems, emergency shutdown systems, control room systems, critical instruments and controls and normal operating interlocks.The present paper has a limited scope, therefore, only those requirements concerning general design information and those of the section 'System Design Evaluation' have been presented in some detail. (author)

  3. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taija Finni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect

  4. Using BIRADS categories in ROC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergi, Maria; Hersh, Marla R.; Thomas, Jerry A.

    2002-04-01

    This paper investigated the use of the Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BIRADS) Lexicon in ROC mammography experiments. Analysis was based on data from parallel ROC experiments performed at two Institutions with different readers and databases to compare film to digitized mammography. Seven readers participated in the studies and read approximately 200 cases each in two formats: film and digital or softcopy. Reporting was done using BIRADS categories 1 through 5. Training was done with a separate set of cases and included detailed review of the relationship between BIRADS and a standard ROC discrete 5-point rating scale. The results from both sites showed equivalency between film and softcopy mammography. Decisions using the BIRADS categories showed no unsampled ROC regions and no degenerate data. Fits yielded smooth ROC curves that correlated to clinical practice. In a qualitative evaluation, all observers indicated preference in using the BIRADS classes instead of a discrete or continuous rating scheme. Familiarity with the rating process seems to relieve some of the bias associated with the interpretation of digitized mammograms from computer monitors (softcopy reading). Our results suggested that BIRADS categories can be used in comparative ROC studies because they represent a scale familiar to the reader that can be followed consistently and they provide a rating approach that accounts for both positive and negative cases to be evaluated and categorized.

  5. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  6. A novel five-category multimodal T1-weighted and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-based stratification system for the selection of spinal arachnoid cyst treatment: a 15-year experience of 81 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ji Qi, Jun Yang, Guihuai Wang Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: Idiopathic spinal arachnoid cysts are rare cystic masses of the spinal canal generally classified as intra- or extradural, based on anatomical presentation. However, this system may not effectively indicate treatment. Objective: To investigate the incidence, resection modality, and prognosis of spinal arachnoid cyst in a 15-year case series. Patients and methods: A retrospective study was conducted in 81 spinal arachnoid cyst patients (male:female 34:47, mean age 36.5 years, age range 6–66 years classified using a novel five-category T1-weighted and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI classification system (intramedullary, subdural extramedullary, subdural/epidural, intraspinal epidural, or intraspinal/extraspinal. Conservative treatment failed in all patients. They underwent spinal surgery between January 1995 and December 2010 and were followed up for 69 (range 3–187 months. Performance outcomes were assessed using the Fugl-Meyer (FM scale 90 days after operation. Recurrences and deaths were recorded. Results: Subdural/epidural and intraspinal epidural cysts accounted for 66.7% (54 of 81 of patients, but exhibited relatively lower rates of postsurgical improvement using FM, with only 66.7% (36 of 54 of patients showing improvements. Excellent outcomes using the FM scale were reached in 100% (eight of eight of intramedullary, intraspinal/extraspinal, and subdural extramedullary cyst patients, 86.7% (13 of 15 of subdural extramedullary cyst patients, and 66.7% (36 of 54 of epidural intraspinal cyst patients. Conclusion: The proposed five-category multimodal MRI-based stratification system for spinal arachnoid cyst patients may more effectively allow clinicians to select the appropriate surgical intervention, and may help to predict outcomes. Keywords: spinal arachnoid cyst

  7. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  8. Performance Evaluation of INACT - INDECT Advanced Image Cataloguing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Michalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the performance evaluation of INACT tool which is developed for cataloguing of high-level and low-level metadata of the evidence material. INACT tool can be used by police forces in the cases of prosecution of such crimes as as possession and distribution of child pornography (CP. In live forensic cases, the time to first hit (time when the first image containing e.g. CP is found is important, as then further legal actions are justified (such as arrest of the suspect and his hardware. The performance evaluation of first hit was performed on real data with the cooperation of Czech Police, Department of Internet Crime.

  9. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  10. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  11. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  12. Correlation of Persistence, Initiative and Career Anchors Categories of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the results of comparative empirical study of persistence, initiative and Career Anchors categories of the students on the basis of the systemic-functional approach.

  13. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  14. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  16. The Effects of Concurrent Verbal and Visual Tasks on Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Sarah J.; Minda, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Current theories of category learning posit separate verbal and nonverbal learning systems. Past research suggests that the verbal system relies on verbal working memory and executive functioning and learns rule-defined categories; the nonverbal system does not rely on verbal working memory and learns non-rule-defined categories (E. M. Waldron…

  17. Client contribution in negotiations on employability – categories revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelinen, L.; Olesen, Søren Peter; Caswell, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore how the institutional category ‘unemployed’ is specified in everyday practice when implementing an active employment policy. We illustrate the process of categorisation as an aspect of the in situ positioning and self-representation of the client by examining one social...... worker–client talk: how the category unemployed is shaped and ‘translated’ when the client negotiates her situation with the social worker. Two types of category revisions are identified. First, the employability of the client, rather than her unemployment situation, is the issue under negotiation....... Second, the client introduces new categories that are compatible with the demands of the employment system. She contributes by drawing on discursive resources related to the category of ‘active job seeker’ but does this with an own agenda of looking for a suitable job. The analysis elucidates the client...

  18. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low

  19. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  20. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  1. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low- level waste system (active tanks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    A leak testing plan for a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is provided in the two volumes that form this document. This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of this agreement was 1 January 1992. The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four different categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA's specific requirements for leak testing of the Category C systems is addressed in this plan. The plan also addresses leak testing of the Category B portions of the LLLW system. Leak testing of the Category B components was brought into the plan to supplement the secondary containment design demonstration effort that is under way for these components

  2. Valor preditivo positivo das categorias 3, 4 e 5 do Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS® Positive predictive value of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS® categories 3, 4 and 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérson Luís Medina Prado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o BI-RADS® como fator preditivo de suspeição de malignidade em lesões mamárias não palpáveis nas categorias 3, 4 e 5, correlacionando as mamografias com os resultados histopatológicos através do cálculo do valor preditivo positivo do exame mamográfico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Trezentas e setenta e uma pacientes encaminhadas a um serviço de referência em tratamento de câncer em Teresina, PI, para realização de exames histopatológicos em mama no período de julho de 2005 a março de 2008, por terem mamografia de categorias 3, 4 ou 5, tiveram seus exames revisados. Das 371 pacientes, 265 foram submetidas a biópsia por agulha grossa e 106, a marcação pré-cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: Em relação às mamografias, 11,32% foram classificadas como categoria 3, 76,28% como categoria 4 e 12,4% como categoria 5. Os resultados histológicos demonstraram 24% de exames positivos para malignidade. Os valores preditivos positivos das categorias 3, 4 e 5 foram, respectivamente, de 7,14%, 16,96% e 82,61%. Foram calculados os valores preditivos positivos, separadamente, para as biópsias percutâneas (7,14%, 15,76%, 76,47% e para as marcações pré-cirúrgicas (7,14%, 20%, 100%. CONCLUSÃO: Achados malignos foram subestimados pelo laudo radiológico e houve superestimação de achados benignos, o que resultou na realização desnecessária de alguns procedimentos invasivos.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at evaluating BI-RADS® 3, 4 and 5 categories as positive predictive value for malignancy of non-palpable breast lesions, correlating mammographic and histopathological findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from July/2005 to March/2008, 371 patients with mammograms classified as BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5 were referred to a center of reference in cancer treatment in Terezina, PI, Brazil, for histopathological investigation and had their mammograms reviewed. Among these 371 patients

  3. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  4. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category 1 systems for the San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Victor, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of Southern California Edison Company's San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1, to determine whether the failure of any non-Category 1 (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might potentially adversely affect the performance of safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection as well as measures taken by Southern California Edison Company to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  5. Constellations and their relationship with categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Victoria; Stokes, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Constellations are partial algebras that are one-sided generalisations of categories. It has previously been shown that the category of inductive constellations is isomorphic to the category of left restriction semigroups. Here we consider constellations in full generality, giving many examples. We characterise those small constellations that are isomorphic to constellations of partial functions. We examine in detail the relationship between constellations and categories, showing the latter t...

  6. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  7. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  8. DNA methylation profiles of human active and inactive X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew J; Stathaki, Elisavet; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Brahmachary, Manisha; Montgomery, Stephen B; Dupre, Yann; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2011-10-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism that silences the majority of genes on one X chromosome in each female cell. To characterize epigenetic changes that accompany this process, we measured DNA methylation levels in 45,X patients carrying a single active X chromosome (X(a)), and in normal females, who carry one X(a) and one inactive X (X(i)). Methylated DNA was immunoprecipitated and hybridized to high-density oligonucleotide arrays covering the X chromosome, generating epigenetic profiles of active and inactive X chromosomes. We observed that XCI is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation specifically at CpG islands (CGIs). While the majority of CGIs show increased methylation levels on the X(i), XCI actually results in significant reductions in methylation at 7% of CGIs. Both intra- and inter-genic CGIs undergo epigenetic modification, with the biggest increase in methylation occurring at the promoters of genes silenced by XCI. In contrast, genes escaping XCI generally have low levels of promoter methylation, while genes that show inter-individual variation in silencing show intermediate increases in methylation. Thus, promoter methylation and susceptibility to XCI are correlated. We also observed a global correlation between CGI methylation and the evolutionary age of X-chromosome strata, and that genes escaping XCI show increased methylation within gene bodies. We used our epigenetic map to predict 26 novel genes escaping XCI, and searched for parent-of-origin-specific methylation differences, but found no evidence to support imprinting on the human X chromosome. Our study provides a detailed analysis of the epigenetic profile of active and inactive X chromosomes.

  9. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  10. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  11. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  12. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  13. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  14. Cultural route to the emergence of linguistic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Andrea; Baronchelli, Andrea; Loreto, Vittorio

    2008-06-01

    Categories provide a coarse-grained description of the world. A fundamental question is whether categories simply mirror an underlying structure of nature or instead come from the complex interactions of human beings among themselves and with the environment. Here, we address this question by modeling a population of individuals who co-evolve their own system of symbols and meanings by playing elementary language games. The central result is the emergence of a hierarchical category structure made of two distinct levels: a basic layer, responsible for fine discrimination of the environment, and a shared linguistic layer that groups together perceptions to guarantee communicative success. Remarkably, the number of linguistic categories turns out to be finite and small, as observed in natural languages.

  15. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Soil placed over any sealant/barrier system can provide a protective mantle if the soil is not lost by erosion. Vegetation is an attractive choice for controlling erosion because it can provide an economic self-renewing cover that serves to reduce erosion by both wind and water. Vegetation alone, however, may not adequately stabilize the surface in extremely arid areas. In those areas, a properly designed surface treatment of rock cover, perhaps in conjunction with vegetation, may be necessary to stabilize the tailings surfaces. The objective of this program is to establish guidelines for surface stabilization that are compatible with sealant/barrier systems and that are suited to soils and climates at inactive uranium mill tailings sites. These guidelines will provide the means to estimate potential vegetation cover, potential erosion, effects of surface treatments on sealant/barrier systems, and costs of vegetation and rock covers. Methods for establishing vegetation on sealed tailings will also be provided

  16. Split2 Protein-Ligation Generates Active IL-6-Type Hyper-Cytokines from Inactive Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jens M; Wehmöller, Melanie; Frank, Nils C; Homey, Lisa; Baran, Paul; Garbers, Christoph; Lamertz, Larissa; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Galun, Eithan; Mootz, Henning D; Scheller, Jürgen

    2017-12-15

    Trans-signaling of the major pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 has the unique feature to virtually activate all cells of the body and is critically involved in chronic inflammation and regeneration. Hyper-IL-6 and Hyper-IL-11 are single chain designer trans-signaling cytokines, in which the cytokine and soluble receptor units are trapped in one complex via a flexible peptide linker. Albeit, Hyper-cytokines are essential tools to study trans-signaling in vitro and in vivo, the superior potency of these designer cytokines are accompanied by undesirable stress responses. To enable tailor-made generation of Hyper-cytokines, we developed inactive split-cytokine-precursors adapted for posttranslational reassembly by split-intein mediated protein trans-splicing (PTS). We identified cutting sites within IL-6 (E 134 /S 135 ) and IL-11 (G 116 /S 117 ) and obtained inactive split-Hyper-IL-6 and split-Hyper-IL-11 cytokine precursors. After fusion with split-inteins, PTS resulted in reconstitution of active Hyper-cytokines, which were efficiently secreted from transfected cells. Our strategy comprises the development of a background-free cytokine signaling system from reversibly inactivated precursor cytokines.

  17. Detection of (Inactivity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Damas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of (inactivity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (inactivity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  18. Language is not necessary for color categories

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, O.; Shayan, S.; Liszkowski, U.; Majid, A.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of color categories is under debate. Some researchers argue that color categories are linguistically constructed, while others claim they have a pre-linguistic, and possibly even innate, basis. Although there is some evidence that 4–6-month-old infants respond categorically to color, these empirical results have been challenged in recent years. First, it has been claimed that previous demonstrations of color categories in infants may reflect color preferences instead. Second, and m...

  19. 28 CFR 25.4 - Record source categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... check has been or will be contributed voluntarily by Federal, state, local, and international criminal....4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.4 Record source categories. It is anticipated that...

  20. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra, as a connected system of notions and results, was first developed ..... monomorphism. Thus di−1. C( fg) is a weak kernel of di. C( fg) for i = 0,..., n −1 (we consider. X. −1, Y−1, Y−1, Xn+1, Yn+1, Yn+1 as 0 objects). Indeed, let. ( ui+1 vi. ) ..... Theorem 3.5 ((n + 2) × (n + 2)-lemma). Let A be a ...

  1. Guidelines for cleanup of uranium tailings from inactive mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiences in Grand Junction, Colorado, have indicated the significance of uranium tailings as sources of nonoccupational exposure and suggest that current methods for perpetual care and isolation of the large areas covered by tailings piles at inactive mill locations may be inadequate for minimizing human exposure. This paper presents the rationale and the procedures used in reviewing the adequacy of proposed criteria for remedial action at these sites. Exposures due to aquatic, terrestrial, airborne, and direct contamination pathways were compared to determine the most important radionuclides in the pile and their pathways to man. It is shown that the most hazardous components of the tailings are 226 Ra and 230 Th. The long half-lives of these radionuclides require the consideration of continuous occupancy of the vacated site at some future time, even if the immediately projected land use does not anticipate maximum exposure

  2. [Physical inactivity in Galicia (Spain): trends and the impact of changes in the definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time in Galicia (Spain) between 2007 and 2011 and to assess the impact of including non-leisure time activities in the definition of physical inactivity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the population aged 16 years and older (n=19,235). Physical activity was assessed by the Minnesota Questionnaire. In 2011, inactivity was estimated by including daily activities. Between 2007 and 2011, the prevalence of inactivity in Galicia remained stable (p=0.249) and close to 50%. This prevalence was higher among women and those who worked or were in education. Inactivity decreased from 47% to 16% when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Between 2007 and 2011 in Galicia, the prevalence of inactivity remained high and stable. This prevalence was significantly decreased when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  4. The concentration of active and inactive strontium in some Danube river samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshutich, K.; Lulich, S.

    1985-01-01

    The following fish species were investigated: Barbus barbus, Acipencer ruthenus, Abramis brama, Stizostedion lucioperca, Silurus glanis, Cyprinus caprio. The samples were collected during 1981. The inactive strontium in the water residue (after evaporation), sediment and fishes ewrw determined by nondestructive neutron activation analysis by using gamma couting system consisted of a 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) semiconductor rystal attached to a 4096-channel pulsehight analyser. The standard solution contained 5x10 -5 g of strontium per 100 lambda. Radioactive strontium was measured after several separation procedures. 90 SrCO 3 in equilibrium with its daughter 90 Y was detected in the β-low-level counting anticoincident system with gas-flow detector. The results confirmed the literature data that the sediment concentrations of the total strontium and the active 90 Sr are several times greater than those in water

  5. Differential Impact of Visuospatial Working Memory on Rule-based and Information-integration Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qiang; Sun, Hailong

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the category learning system is a mechanism with multiple processing systems, and that working memory has different effects on category learning. But how does visuospatial working memory affect perceptual category learning? As there is no definite answer to this question, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, the dual-task paradigm with sequential presentation was adopted to investigate the influence of visuospatial working memory on rule-based and information-integration category learning. The results showed that visuospatial working memory interferes with rule-based but not information-integration category learning. In Experiment 2, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was used, in which the categorization task was integrated into the visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that visuospatial working memory affects information-integration category learning but not rule-based category learning. In Experiment 3, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was employed, in which visuospatial working memory was integrated into the category learning task. The results revealed that visuospatial working memory interferes with both rule-based and information-integration category learning. Through these three experiments, we found that, regarding the rule-based category learning, working memory load is the main mechanism by which visuospatial working memory influences the discovery of the category rules. In addition, regarding the information-integration category learning, visual resources mainly operates on the category representation.

  6. Linking Geology and Microbiology: Inactive Pockmarks Affect Sediment Microbial Community Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkamp, Thomas H. A.; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined...

  7. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  8. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  9. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  10. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.5 Drug categories. Monographs promulgated pursuant to the provisions of... designated categories: (a) Antacids. (b) Laxatives. (c) Antidiarrheal products. (d) Emetics. (e) Antiemetics. (f) Antiperspirants. (g) Sunburn prevention and treatment products. (h) Vitamin-mineral products. (i...

  11. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  12. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...

  13. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  14. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  15. Procedures for checking the effectiveness of the Security System of Radiological Facilities Cyclotrons category II (IAEA); Procedimentos para verificacao da eficacia do sistema de Seguranca Radiologica de Instalacoes Ciclotrons ategoria II (AIEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videira, Heber S.; Abe, Rubens; Buchpiguel, Carlos A., E-mail: Heber.videira@hcnet.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2011-07-01

    According to the recommendation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 107, the particle accelerator facilities category II must comply with some key requirements to ensure compliance with the goals of the Radiological Safety. The IAEA recommendation is accepted by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) the regulator of the use of nuclear energy in Brazil and investigated in their audits. The aim of this paper is to present procedures to ascertain the effectiveness of the Radiological Safety Facility cyclotrons category II. (author)

  16. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  17. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  18. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  20. Impact of inactive dopants in chemical vapor deposition layers on photomodulated optical reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanowicz, Janusz [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Electrical Engineering Department, INSYS, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: Janusz.Bogdanowicz@imec.be; Dortu, Fabian [Multitel, rue Pierre et Marie Curie 2, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Clarysse, Trudo [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, Wilfried [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Shaughnessy, Derrick; Salnik, Alex; Nicolaides, Lena [KLA-Tencor Corp., 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, CA 95134 (United States)

    2008-12-05

    The ITRS roadmap stresses the electrical characterization of the active doping profiles for sub-32 nm structures as a key challenge for future CMOS technology. Earlier work has shown the promising capabilities of non-destructive photomodulated optical reflectance (PMOR) techniques, based on the localized detection of variations in the reflectivity of the sample, due to thermal and plasma (excess carrier) effects as can be generated by a modulated pump laser such as the Therma-Probe (TP) system. In this work, we study the impact of the inactive dopant atoms in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) layers both on PMOR and DC reflectance signals. In particular, with the help of numerical simulations, this work shows that, by taking into account the combined degradation of the thermal diffusivity and the recombination lifetime as well as the enhancement of the absorption coefficient, the theory may be rendered semi-quantitative.

  1. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Safety issue resolution strategy plan for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Powers, T.B.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this strategy plan is to identify, confirm, and resolve safely issues associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) using a risk-based priority approach. Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations including risk ranking and cost effectiveness. This plan specifies work scope and recommends schedules for activities related to resolving safety issues, such as collecting historical data, searching for authorization documents, performing Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening and evaluation, identifying safety issues, imposing operational controls and monitoring, characterizing waste contents, mitigating and resolving safety issues, and fulfilling other remediation requirements consistent with the overall Tank Waste Remediation System strategy. Recommendations for characterization and remediation are also recommended according to the order of importance and practical programmatic consideration

  3. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation

  4. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  5. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  6. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  7. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  8. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  9. THE EVALUATION OF SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE UNDERLYING DIFFERENT CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGainotti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the embodied cognition theory and to the sensory-motor model of semantic knowledge: (a concepts are represented in the brain in the same format in which they have been constructed by the sensory-motor system and (b various conceptual categories differ for the weight that different kinds of information play in their representation. In our study, we have tried to check the second assumption by asking normal elderly subjects to rate their subjective evaluation of the role that various perceptual, motor and language-mediated sources of knowledge could have in the construction of different semantic categories. Our first aim consisted in rating the influence that different sources of knowledge could have in the representation of animals, plant life and artifact categories, rather than in those of living and non-living beings, as many previous studies on this subject have made. We also tried to check the influence of age and stimulus modality on these evaluations of the ‘sources of knowledge’ underlying different conceptual categories. The influence of age was checked by comparing results obtained on our group of elderly subjects with those obtained in a previous study, conducted with the same methodology on a sample of young students, whereas the influence of stimulus modality was assessed by presenting the stimuli in the verbal modality to 50 subjects and in the pictorial modality to 50 other subjects.The distinction between ‘animals’ and ‘plant life’ within the ‘living’ categories was confirmed bythe analysis of their prevalent sources of knowledge and by a cluster analysis, which allowed to distinguish fruits and vegetables from animals. Furthermore, results of the study showed: (a that the visual modality was considered by our subjects as the main source of knowledge for all the categories taken into account; (b that in biological categories the next more important source of information was represented by other

  10. Six categories of ionizing radiation quantities practical in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junzheng; Zhuo Weihai

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the part of review on the evolvement of the systems for ionizing radiation quantities and units. In the paper, for better understanding and correct use of the relevant quantities of ionizing radiation, the major ionizing radiation quantities in various fields are divided into six categories. (authors)

  11. Automated Discovery of Speech Act Categories in Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Vasile; Moldovan, Cristian; Niraula, Nobal; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the important task of automated discovery of speech act categories in dialogue-based, multi-party educational games. Speech acts are important in dialogue-based educational systems because they help infer the student speaker's intentions (the task of speech act classification) which in turn is crucial to providing adequate…

  12. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  13. Physical Activity, Inactivity and Health During Youth-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Alex V

    2017-02-01

    2016 has been an exciting year for research in physical activity, inactivity and health. Recognition of the importance of all physical behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time and sleep) across the 24-hr day continues to grow. Notable advances have included: applications of recent methodological innovations that account for the codependence of the behaviors in the finite 24-hr period showing that the balance of these behaviors is associated with health; methodological innovations focusing on the classification of behaviors and/or quantification of the 24-hr diurnal activity pattern; and a series of systematic reviews that helped provide the evidence base for the release of the innovative 24-hr movement guidelines earlier this year. This commentary focuses on just two of these papers: the first by Goldsmith and colleagues who demonstrate a new statistical method that exploits the time series nature of accelerometer data facilitating new insights into time-specific determinants of children's activity patterns and associations with health; the second by Tremblay and colleagues who describe the evidence base for associations between each physical behavior and children's health, the emerging evidence base for associations between the balance of behaviors and health, and development of the world's first 24-hr movement guidelines.

  14. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  16. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Willms, J D

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the relation among children's physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI), while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Epidemiological study examining the relations among physical activity participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and television (TV)/video watching), and BMI on a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. A representative sample of Canadian children aged 7-11 (N=7216) from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used in the analysis. Physical activity and sport participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and TV/video watching), and BMI measured by parental report. Both organized and unorganized sport and physical activity are negatively associated with being overweight (10-24% reduced risk) or obese (23-43% reduced risk), while TV watching and video game use are risk factors for being overweight (17-44% increased risk) or obese (10-61% increased risk). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour partially account for the association of high socioeconomic status and two-parent family structure with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. This study provides evidence supporting the link between physical inactivity and obesity of Canadian children.

  17. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  18. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  19. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P.C.E.; van Kuppevelt, D.; Pons, C.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  20. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E.; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether

  1. In Search of Lost Springs: A Protocol for Locating Active and Inactive Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Powell, O; Habermehl, M A

    2016-05-01

    Groundwater springs are significant landscape features for humans and the biota that occupies their habitat. Many springs become inactive where groundwater exploitation by humans has lowered the water table or artesian pressure. In order to assess this impact, it is important to identify and locate active, and with more difficulty, inactive springs. Using a variety of archival, environmental and field-based data, this study presents a protocol for the determination of the location and status of springs across the Great Artesian Basin of Australia. This protocol underpins a database of springs, which is not only important for the assessment of spring ecosystems, but also contributes to understand groundwater extraction impacts and hydrogeological processes. The database indicates that 30.0% of discharge (artesian) springs in the Great Artesian Basin are entirely inactive and another 11.8% are partially inactive. For the outcrop (gravity) springs of the Basin, only 1.9% are entirely inactive and 7.4% partially inactive, and for the outcrop springs in the Tertiary sandstone overlying the Basin 30.9% are inactive and 18.2% are partially inactive. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  2. validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of engaging in physical activity, sports or play. 3,12,15,27,39, .... and recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Percentage body fat was calculated using standard equations.11. Instruments. Physical activity/inactivity over a period of 7 days was as- sessed using a ..... benefits is required, particularly in children where inactivity and the ...

  3. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  4. Partitioning heritability by functional category using GWAS summary statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finucane, Hilary K.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Gusev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that some functional categories of the genome contribute disproportionately to the heritability of complex diseases. Here we analyze a broad set of functional elements, including cell type-specific elements, to estimate their polygenic contributions to heritability in...... type-specific enrichments, including significant enrichment of central nervous system cell types in the heritability of body mass index, age at menarche, educational attainment and smoking behavior.......Recent work has demonstrated that some functional categories of the genome contribute disproportionately to the heritability of complex diseases. Here we analyze a broad set of functional elements, including cell type-specific elements, to estimate their polygenic contributions to heritability...

  5. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-Category I systems for Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.

    1979-08-01

    Three separate reviews of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 were conducted by the FPLCO between 1972 and 1975. Initially, at the request of NBC in 1972, the FPLCO reviewed several water systems as sources of flooding. Subsequently, as a result of an abnormal occurrence, the drainage system was reviewed. Finally, the facilities were again reviewed at NRC's request and both the potential sources of flooding and safety-related equipment which could be damaged by flooding were identified. The sources of flooding and the appropriate safety equipment are discussed. An evaluation is presented of measures that were taken by FPLCO to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  6. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  7. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  8. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  9. Predictors of physical inactivity among elderly malaysians: recommendations for policy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. © 2014 APJPH.

  10. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  11. Social transformation, collective categories and identity change

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Changes in collective categories of identity are at the core of social transformation. The causal linkages between identity change, institutional change and change in modes of practice are, however, complex. Developing and adapting ideas from Pierre Bourdieu’s work, this article shows the coexistence in tension of a plurality of elements – in particular oppositional and non-oppositional elements - within each collective identity category. On this basis, it proposes a typology of logically pos...

  12. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  13. Dialogue concerning the survival of the one great world system: a study of the post-war scientific and theological perception of time scales as a relevant moral category in analyzing the dilemmas of the nuclear age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, D.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis seeks to extend the search for the moral implications inherent in the development, possession, and the threatened use of physical/astrophysical processes and in current understandings of the evolution of the physical universe. The nature of normal/theological discussion will not be a primary concern although clearly some residual position that such discussion is meaningful is presupposed. Neither is the nature of science or the scientific method at issue. It is assumed that both theology and science have long since negotiated the confidence crises of adolescence, and have mustered the requisite self-esteem regarding their respective disciplines. The aim of this work is to present the concept of time scales as a relevant moral category. It investigates the use of this concept and its relationship to the other categories developed in the relevant scientific literature. The question is raised as to the validity of and the future of the concept of time scales as a common moral ground.

  14. Dialogue concerning the survival of the one great world system: a study of the post-war scientific and theological perception of time scales as a relevant moral category in analyzing the dilemmas of the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, D.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis seeks to extend the search for the moral implications inherent in the development, possession, and the threatened use of physical/astrophysical processes and in current understandings of the evolution of the physical universe. The nature of normal/theological discussion will not be a primary concern although clearly some residual position that such discussion is meaningful is presupposed. Neither is the nature of science or the scientific method at issue. It is assumed that both theology and science have long since negotiated the confidence crises of adolescence, and have mustered the requisite self-esteem regarding their respective disciplines. The aim of this work is to present the concept of time scales as a relevant moral category. It investigates the use of this concept and its relationship to the other categories developed in the relevant scientific literature. The question is raised as to the validity of and the future of the concept of time scales as a common moral ground

  15. Language is not necessary for color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ozge; Shayan, Shakila; Liszkowski, Ulf; Majid, Asifa

    2013-01-01

    The origin of color categories is under debate. Some researchers argue that color categories are linguistically constructed, while others claim they have a pre-linguistic, and possibly even innate, basis. Although there is some evidence that 4-6-month-old infants respond categorically to color, these empirical results have been challenged in recent years. First, it has been claimed that previous demonstrations of color categories in infants may reflect color preferences instead. Second, and more seriously, other labs have reported failing to replicate the basic findings at all. In the current study we used eye-tracking to test 8-month-old infants' categorical perception of a previously attested color boundary (green-blue) and an additional color boundary (blue-purple). Our results show that infants are faster and more accurate at fixating targets when they come from a different color category than when from the same category (even though the chromatic separation sizes were equated). This is the case for both blue-green and blue-purple. Our findings provide independent evidence for the existence of color categories in pre-linguistic infants, and suggest that categorical perception of color can occur without color language. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  17. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist...... and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation...... and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences...

  18. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  19. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  20. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category 1 systems for the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epps, R.C.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine whether the failure of any non-Class I (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might adversely affect the performance of the safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility, or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection system as well as measures taken by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MYAPC) to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  1. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation.

  2. Differential Impact of Visuospatial Working Memory on Rule-based and Information-integration Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Qiang; Sun, Hailong

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the category learning system is a mechanism with multiple processing systems, and that working memory has different effects on category learning. But how does visuospatial working memory affect perceptual category learning? As there is no definite answer to this question, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, the dual-task paradigm with sequential presentation was adopted to investigate the influence of visuospatial working memory on rule-based ...

  3. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  4. Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, James E.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Melanson, Edward L.; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). Purpose To quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared to sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Methods Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-minute conditions of sitting, passive cycling and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured and participants performed cognitive tests. Following each condition, a 2-hour OGTT was performed. Results EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared to sitting (1.36±0.58 and 6.50±1.73 kcal·min−1 greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and post-sitting OGTT 2-h post plasma glucose (r2=0.30, pcycling lowered 2-h post plasma glucose (7.7±1.3 vs. 6.9±1.6mmol·L−1, respectively, pcycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h post plasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Conclusion 2-h post plasma glucose was lower and WBISI following acute passive cycling was higher in non-lean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace. PMID:27054677

  5. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  6. Comprehensive Management Strategies for Physical Inactivity in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYER, GREGORY D.; FAIGENBAUM, AVERY D.; STRACCIOLINI, ANDREA; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MICHELI, LYLE J.; BEST, THOMAS M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widely recognized benefits of daily play, recreation, sports, and physical education on the physical and psychosocial well-being of children and adolescents, many contemporary children and adolescents worldwide do not meet the recommendations for daily physical activity. The decline in physical activity seems to start early in life which leads to conditions characterized by reduced levels of physical activity in the pediatric population that are inconsistent with current public health recommendations. Unlike many other diseases and disorders in pediatrics, physical inactivity in youth is unique in that it currently lacks a clinical gold standard for diagnosis. This makes the diagnosis and treatment medically challenging, though no less important, as the resultant ramifications of a missed diagnosis are of significant detriment. Exercise deficient children need to be identified early in life and treated with developmentally appropriate exercise programs designed to target movement deficiencies and physical weaknesses in a supportive environment. Without such interventions early in life, children are more likely to become resistant to our interventions later in life and consequently suffer from adverse health consequences. Integrative approaches that link health care professionals, pediatric exercise specialists, school administrators, community leaders, and policy makers, may provide the best opportunity to promote daily physical activity, reinforce desirable behaviors, and educate parents about the exercise-health link. If health care providers miss the window of opportunity to identify exercise deficit disorder in youth and promote healthy lifestyle choices, the eventual decline and disinterest in physical activity will begin to take shape and new health care concerns will continue to emerge. PMID:23851413

  7. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System - BI-RADS®: valor preditivo positivo das categorias 3, 4 e 5. revisão sistemática da literatura Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System - BI-RADS®: positive predictive value of categories 3, 4 and 5. A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Procaci Kestelman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar artigos, na literatura, que verificam o valor preditivo positivo das categorias 3, 4 e 5 do Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS®. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizada pesquisa na base de dados Medline utilizando os termos "predictive value" e "BI-RADS". Foram incluídos 11 artigos nesta revisão. RESULTADOS: O valor preditivo positivo das categorias 3, 4 e 5 variou entre 0% e 8%, 4% e 62%, 54% e 100%, respectivamente. Três artigos avaliaram, concomitantemente, os critérios morfológicos das lesões que apresentaram maior valor preditivo positivo na mamografia, sendo nódulo espiculado o critério com maior valor preditivo positivo. CONCLUSÃO: Houve grande variabilidade do valor preditivo positivo das categorias 3, 4 e 5 do BI-RADS® em todos os estudos, porém foram identificadas diferenças metodológicas que limitaram a comparação desses estudos.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about the positive predictive value of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS® categories 3, 4 and 5. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A research was performed in the online Medline database, entering the terms "predictive value" and "BI-RADS". Eleven studies were included in this review. RESULTS: The positive predictive values ranged respectively between 0% and 8%, 4% and 62%, and 54% and 100% for BI-RADS® categories 3, 4 and 5. Three studies have also evaluated morphological criteria with higher positive predictive value in mammography, mass with spiculated margins being the finding with highest positive predictive value for malignancy. CONCLUSION: A high variability was found in the reviewed literature among positive predictive values of BI-RADS® categories 3, 4 and 5, although methodological differences have been identified, limiting the comparative analysis.

  8. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low- level waste system (active tanks). Volume 1, Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2, Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3, Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D. G.; Wise, R. F.; Starr, J. W.; Maresca, Jr, J. W. [Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    A leak testing plan for a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is provided in the two volumes that form this document. This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of this agreement was 1 January 1992. The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four different categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA's specific requirements for leak testing of the Category C systems is addressed in this plan. The plan also addresses leak testing of the Category B portions of the LLLW system. Leak testing of the Category B components was brought into the plan to supplement the secondary containment design demonstration effort that is under way for these components.

  9. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student achievement index and graduation rates. Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  10. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  11. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Determining the Depth of Injury in Bioengineered Tissue Models of Cornea and Conjunctiva for the Prediction of All Three Ocular GHS Categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Zorn-Kruppa

    Full Text Available The depth of injury (DOI is a mechanistic correlate to the ocular irritation response. Attempts to quantitatively determine the DOI in alternative tests have been limited to ex vivo animal eyes by fluorescent staining for biomarkers of cell death and viability in histological cross sections. It was the purpose of this study to assess whether DOI could also be measured by means of cell viability detected by the MTT assay using 3-dimensional (3D reconstructed models of cornea and conjunctiva. The formazan-free area of metabolically inactive cells in the tissue after topical substance application is used as the visible correlate of the DOI. Areas of metabolically active or inactive cells are quantitatively analyzed on cryosection images with ImageJ software analysis tools. By incorporating the total tissue thickness, the relative MTT-DOI (rMTT-DOI was calculated. Using the rMTT-DOI and human reconstructed cornea equivalents, we developed a prediction model based on suitable viability cut-off values. We tested 25 chemicals that cover the whole range of eye irritation potential based on the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS. Principally, the MTT-DOI test method allows distinguishing between the cytotoxic effects of the different chemicals in accordance with all 3 GHS categories for eye irritation. Although the prediction model is slightly over-predictive with respect to non-irritants, it promises to be highly valuable to discriminate between severe irritants (Cat. 1, and mild to moderate irritants (Cat. 2. We also tested 3D conjunctiva models with the aim to specifically address conjunctiva-damaging substances. Using the MTT-DOI method in this model delivers comparable results as the cornea model, but does not add additional information. However, the MTT-DOI method using reconstructed cornea models already provided good predictability that was superior to the already existing established in vitro/ex vivo

  13. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

  14. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  15. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... object recognition. RACE assumes two operations: shape configuration and selection. Shape configuration refers to the binding of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts (operation 1). The output of the shape configuration operation...

  16. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  17. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  18. Steganography in inactive frames of VoIP streams encoded by source codec

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongfeng; Tang, Shanyu; Yuan, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel high capacity steganography algorithm for embedding data in the inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams encoded by G.723.1 source codec, which is used extensively in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). This study reveals that, contrary to existing thoughts, the inactive frames of VoIP streams are more suitable for data embedding than the active frames of the streams, that is, steganography in the inactive audio frames attains a larger data embedding capacit...

  19. Reclassification of ICD-9 Codes into Meaningful Categories for Oncology Survivorship Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassekh, S. R.; Lorenzi, M.; Lee, L.; Devji, S.; McBride, M.; Goddard, K.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The International Classification of Disease, ninth revision (ICD-9) is designed to code disease into categories which are placed into administrative databases. These databases have been used for epidemiological studies. However, the categories used in the ICD9-codes are not always the most effective for evaluating specific diseases or their outcomes, such as the outcomes of cancer treatment. Therefore a re-classification of the ICD-9 codes into new categories specific to cancer outcomes is needed. Methods. An expert panel comprised of two physicians created broad categories that would be most useful to researchers investigating outcomes and morbidities associated with the treatment of cancer. A Senior Data Coordinator with expertise in ICD-9 coding, then joined this panel and each code was re-classified into the new categories. Results. Consensus was achieved for the categories to go from the 17 categories in ICD-9 to 39 categories. The ICD-9 Codes were placed into new categories, and sub categories were also created for more specific outcomes. The results of this re-classification is available in tabular form. Conclusions. ICD-9 codes were re-classified by group consensus into categories that are designed for oncology survivorship research. The novel re-classification system can be used by those involved in cancer survivorship research

  20. The cost of selective attention in category learning: developmental differences between adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2013-10-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6-8months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Derived Categories and Zero-Brane Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We define a particular class of topological field theories associated to open strings and prove the resulting D-branes and open strings form the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves. This derivation is a variant of some ideas proposed recently by Douglas. We then argue that any 0-brane on any Calabi-Yau threefold must become unstable along some path in the Kahler moduli space. As a byproduct of this analysis we see how the derived category can be invariant under a birational transformation.

  2. Comparing supervised and unsupervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C

    2002-12-01

    Two unsupervised learning modes (incidental and intentional unsupervised learning) and their relation to supervised classification learning are examined. The approach allows for direct comparisons of unsupervised learning data with the Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) seminal studies in supervised classification learning. Unlike supervised classification learning, unsupervised learning (especially under incidental conditions) favors linear category structures over compact nonlinear category structures. Unsupervised learning is shown to be multifaceted in that performance varies with task conditions. In comparison with incidental unsupervised learning, intentional unsupervised learning is more rule like, but is no more accurate. The acquisition and application of knowledge is also more laborious under intentional unsupervised learning.

  3. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Richard; Leichter, Isaac; Buchbinder, Shalom; Novak, Boris; Bamberger, Philippe; Fields, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A z of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A z of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A z significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  4. The diseasome of physical inactivity--and the role of myokines in muscle--fat cross talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2009-01-01

    with the occurrence of the diseases within the diseasome. Physical inactivity appears to be an independent and strong risk factor for accumulation of visceral fat, which again is a source of systemic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis...... of exercise. The finding that muscles produce and release myokines provides a conceptual basis to understand the mechanisms whereby exercise influences metabolism and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. According to our theory, contracting skeletal muscles release myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion...

  5. Mental Health Risk Adjustment with Clinical Categories and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Akritee; Bergquist, Savannah; Montz, Ellen; Rose, Sherri

    2017-12-15

    To propose nonparametric ensemble machine learning for mental health and substance use disorders (MHSUD) spending risk adjustment formulas, including considering Clinical Classification Software (CCS) categories as diagnostic covariates over the commonly used Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC) system. 2012-2013 Truven MarketScan database. We implement 21 algorithms to predict MHSUD spending, as well as a weighted combination of these algorithms called super learning. The algorithm collection included seven unique algorithms that were supplied with three differing sets of MHSUD-related predictors alongside demographic covariates: HCC, CCS, and HCC + CCS diagnostic variables. Performance was evaluated based on cross-validated R 2 and predictive ratios. Results show that super learning had the best performance based on both metrics. The top single algorithm was random forests, which improved on ordinary least squares regression by 10 percent with respect to relative efficiency. CCS categories-based formulas were generally more predictive of MHSUD spending compared to HCC-based formulas. Literature supports the potential benefit of implementing a separate MHSUD spending risk adjustment formula. Our results suggest there is an incentive to explore machine learning for MHSUD-specific risk adjustment, as well as considering CCS categories over HCCs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  7. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people have come to…

  8. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  9. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  10. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  11. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  12. Confronting the categories: Equitable admissions without apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confronting the categories: Equitable admissions without apartheid race classification. Z Erasmus. Abstract. South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education ...

  13. Reasoning with Polarity in Categorial Type Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis follows the parsing as deduction approach to lin- guistics. We use the tools of Categorial Type Logic (CTL) to study the interface of natural language syntax and semantics. Our aim is to investigate the mathematical structure of CTL and explore the

  14. Using Two Disability Measures to Compare Physical Inactivity Among US Adults With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Dana Olzenak; Watson, Kathleen B; Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Susan A

    2018-01-18

    Prevalence of health behaviors among adults with disabilities may vary by disability measure. We used data from the 2011-2015 National Health Interview Survey to estimate prevalence of physical inactivity by disability status using 2 measures of disability: Basic Actions Difficulty questions (BADQ) and a standard 6-question measure (6Q). Disability prevalence (BADQ, 31.1%; 6Q, 17.5%) and inactivity prevalence among adults with disability (BADQ, 42.9%; 6Q, 52.5%) and without disability (BADQ, 24.3%; 6Q, 26.2%) varied by measure; however, both measures highlight inactivity disparities for adults with disability. Disability measures influence physical inactivity estimates and are important for guiding surveillance and health promotion activities for adults with disabilities.

  15. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  16. 38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.89 Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary... the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and...

  17. Inactivity Is Nycthemeral, Endogenously Generated, Homeostatically Regulated, and Melatonin Modulated in a Free-Living Platyhelminth Flatworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Shauni; Ly, Linh M T; Beaton, Russell; Storm, Jonathan J; Hale, Matthew W; Lesku, John A

    2017-10-01

    Sleep either appeared once early in the evolution of animals, or at multiple instances over evolutionary time. Understanding whether sleep is a diagnostic trait for members of the kingdom Animalia has important implications for our understanding of the evolution of sleep and sleep functions. Unfortunately, knowledge on the phylogenetic breadth of sleep is restricted to vertebrates, a few arthropods and molluscs, and one species of nematode. There is a dearth of information on the other 30 or so animal phyla. Here, we provide original data on a previously unstudied group of animals with respect to sleep: platyhelminth flatworms. These free-living animals are relatively simple, with a rudimentary central nervous system and absence of many other specialized physiological systems. Despite this simplicity, inactive flatworms appeared to be sleeping. Specifically, quiescence was organized in a circadian manner, occurring largely during the daytime. This basic rhythm persisted under constant darkness, suggesting that it was endogenously generated. Active flatworms responded more readily to stimulation, and flatworms recovered lost sleep by sleeping longer after a 3-hour period of inactivity deprivation. We were also able to increase inactivity in a dose-dependent manner with exposure to melatonin, a hormone that increases sleep in diurnal animals. Taken together, these data expand our understanding of the phylogenetic extent of sleep and reinforce the idea that sleep evolved early in the evolutionary history of animals. However, additional studies on other types of animals are required for a comprehensive understanding of the origin(s) and evolution of sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  19. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  20. Economically inactive, unemployed and employed suicides in Australia by age and sex over a 10-year period: what was the impact of the 2007 economic recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Morrell, Stephen; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is higher among economically inactive and unemployed persons than employed persons. This paper investigates differences in this relationship by sex and age over the period 2001 to 2010 in Australia. It also examines changes in suicide among employed, unemployed and economically inactive persons during the recession of 2007-09. Suicide data from the National Coroners Information System were utilised for this retrospective study. Negative binomial and Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between suicide and employment status and to investigate differences in suicide rates over the period of the recession (2007-09) compared with the year before the recession (2006). Results suggest that during 2001-10 economically inactive/unemployed males had a suicide rate ratio (RR) of 4.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.10, 5.19; Peffects of the economic recession on the working age population. Particularly, these should target unemployed and economically inactive men and women in Australia, who may be at higher risk of suicide than previously thought. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  2. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  3. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Task Action Plans for generic activities: Category A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The document contains listings of generic technical activities as identified and placed in priority categories by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). In addition, it contains definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D and copies of forty approved Task Action Plans for Category A activites. Problem Descriptions for the Category B, C and D tasks are contained in NUREG--0471. This material was developed within the context of NRR's Program for the Resolution of Generic Issues Related to Nuclear Power Plants. As part of this program, the assignment of identified issues to priority categories and the approval of Task Action Plans were made by NRR's Technical Activities Steering Committee, chaired by the Deputy Director, NRR. The original document was published in November 1977. In December 1977 it was updated to add the Task Action Plan for Task No. A-17, Systems Interactions in Nuclear Power Plants. This update adds Task Action Plans for Tasks A-13, A-18, A-21, A-22, A-32, A-37, A-38 and A-40. Task A-41 has been included in Task A-40. In addition, as part of this update, the following changes were made to each Task Action Plan (with the exception of the Task Action Plan for Task A-9): (1) a title page was added that includes information such as Lead NRR Organization, Lead Supervisor, Task Manager, Applicability, and Projected Completion Date; (2) detailed schedule information was deleted; and (3) a new Section 3 entitled Basis for Continued Plant Operation and Licensing Pending Completion of Task was added. These changes represent general reformatting and the addition or deletion of certain general types of information. Some substantive revisions were made to several of the plans, however, a general revision of all of the plans was not undertaken at this time

  5. On the stability, the periodic solutions and the resolution of certain types of non linear equations, and of non linearly coupled systems of these equations, appearing in betatronic oscillations; Sur la stabilite, les solutions periodiques et la resolution de certaines categories d'equations et systemes d'equations differentielles couplees non lineaires apparaissant dans les oscillations betatroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valat, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    Universal stability diagrams have been calculated and experimentally checked for Hill-Meissner type equations with square-wave coefficients. The study of these equations in the phase-plane has then made it possible to extend the periodic solution calculations to the case of non-linear differential equations with periodic square-wave coefficients. This theory has been checked experimentally. For non-linear coupled systems with constant coefficients, a search was first made for solutions giving an algebraic motion. The elliptical and Fuchs's functions solve such motions. The study of non-algebraic motions is more delicate, apart from the study of nonlinear Lissajous's motions. A functional analysis shows that it is possible however in certain cases to decouple the system and to find general solutions. For non-linear coupled systems with periodic square-wave coefficients it is then possible to calculate the conditions leading to periodic solutions, if the two non-linear associated systems with constant coefficients fall into one of the categories of the above paragraph. (author) [French] Pour les equations du genre de Hill-Meissner a coefficients creneles, on a calcule des diagrammes universels de stabilite et ceux-ci ont ete verifies experimentalement. L'etude de ces equations dans le plan de phase a permis ensuite d'etendre le calcul des solutions periodiques au cas des equations differentielles non lineaires a coefficients periodiques creneles. Cette theorie a ete verifiee experimentalement. Pour Jes systemes couples non lineaires a coefficients constants, on a d'abord cherche les solutions menant a des mouvements algebriques. Les fonctions elliptiques et fuchsiennes uniformisent de tels mouvements. L'etude de mouvements non algebriques est plus delicate, a part l'etude des mouvements de Lissajous non lineaires. Une analyse fonctionnelle montre qu'il est toutefois possible dans certains cas de decoupler le systeme et de

  6. The transfer of category knowledge by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories......We examined the neural correlates of visual shape configuration, the binding of local shape characteristics into wholistic object descriptions, by comparing the regional cerebral blood flow associated with recognition of outline drawings and fragmented drawings. We found no areas that responded...... more to fragmented drawings than to outline drawings even though fragmentation had a clear impact on recognition performance. Instead, a region extending from the inferior occipital gyri to the middle parts of the fusiform gyri was activated during shape configuration of both outline drawings...

  8. Questionnaire survey of customer satisfaction for product categories towards certification of ergonomic quality in design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochimaru, Masaaki; Takahashi, Miwako; Hatakenaka, Nobuko; Horiuchi, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Customer satisfaction was surveyed for 6 product categories (consumer electronics, daily commodities, home equipment, information systems, cars, and health appliances) by questionnaires based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Analyzing weight of evaluation factors, the 6 product categories were reorganized into 4 categories, those were related to 4 aspects in daily living that formed by two axes: home living - mobility life and healthy life - active communication. It was found that consumers were attracted by the actual user test by public institutes for all product categories. The certification based on the design process standard established by authorities, such as EQUID was the second best attractor for consumers.

  9. Finding Entities in Wikipedia Using Links and Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap

    In this paper we describe our participation in the INEX Entity Ranking track. We explored the relations between Wikipedia pages, categories and links. Our approach is to exploit both category and link information. Category information is used by calculating distances between document categories and target categories. Link information is used for relevance propagation and in the form of a document link prior. Both sources of information have value, but using category information leads to the biggest improvements.

  10. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  11. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  12. The Category of Value in the Corporate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvydanenko Genefa O.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines evolution of the category of value and its provisioning with economic arguments, considering the legacy of the modern school of strategic management. Analyzing, systematizing and generalizing the scientific work of the subject area of the study have led to the identification of some problematic aspects, namely: prevalence of consumerism in disclosing the essence of value and its assessment through the prism of value expression, as well as the lack of a systemic approach that would take into account the multidisciplinary nature of this category. The origins of the definition of «corporate values» have been identified. As result, a classification of the specific manifestations of the values of enterprise are presented, the notions of «values» and «value orientations» are delineated. It has been substantiated that value is the economic category that has a polysemic nature and, accordingly, its ontological essence can be systemically disclosed only in the light of the interests of all stakeholders in business.

  13. [The medical rationale category and a new epistemology in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marilene Cabral; de Barros, Nelson Filice; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2013-12-01

    This article is an analytical report on the 20-year trajectory of the 'medical rationale' category that emerged in the early 1990s in the area of Social and Human Sciences in Health in the field of Public Health. Its objective was to study complex and therapeutic medical systems and traditional, complementary and alternative medicines. Based on a critical review of the literature, it presents some aspects of the cultural, political, institutional and social context of its emergence, as well as its main contributions and developments on a theoretical level and on social policies and practices in health. The southern epistemology concept of Boaventura de Sousa Santos is used to reflect upon the contribution of the 'medical rationale' category to the critique of the post-modern scientific rationale and to the creation of a new epistemology in health.

  14. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  15. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  16. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970's and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D ampersand RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program

  17. Interconversion between active and inactive TATA-binding protein transcription complexes in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukrallah, Mohamed-Amin; Kobi, Dominique; Martianov, Igor; Pijnappel, W W M Pim; Mischerikow, Nikolai; Ye, Tao; Heck, Albert J R; Timmers, H Th Marc; Davidson, Irwin

    2012-02-01

    The TATA binding protein (TBP) plays a pivotal role in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through incorporation into the TFIID and B-TFIID complexes. The role of mammalian B-TFIID composed of TBP and B-TAF1 is poorly understood. Using a complementation system in genetically modified mouse cells where endogenous TBP can be conditionally inactivated and replaced by exogenous mutant TBP coupled to tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify two TBP mutations, R188E and K243E, that disrupt the TBP-BTAF1 interaction and B-TFIID complex formation. Transcriptome and ChIP-seq analyses show that loss of B-TFIID does not generally alter gene expression or genomic distribution of TBP, but positively or negatively affects TBP and/or Pol II recruitment to a subset of promoters. We identify promoters where wild-type TBP assembles a partial inactive preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID, TFIIB and Mediator complex, but lacking TFIID, TFIIE and Pol II. Exchange of B-TFIID in wild-type cells for TFIID in R188E and K243E mutant cells at these primed promoters completes preinitiation complex formation and recruits Pol II to activate their expression. We propose a novel regulatory mechanism involving formation of a partial preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID that primes the promoter for productive preinitiation complex formation in mammalian cells.

  18. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  19. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.

  20. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  1. Production and economic viability of feedlot beef cattle categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Batista dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized to evaluate the production and economic viability of finished beef cattle in feedlot in the Cerrado biome of Piauí State, Brazil. One hundred and fifty cattle -50 bulls (B with an body weight of 283.0 ± 20.82 kg, at 30 months of age; and 100 cull cows (CC with an body weight of 296.1 ± 17.80 kg, at 100 months of age- were used in a completely randomized design. The animal performance indicators for the evaluation of economic viability were initial age (months, slaughter age (months, was initial body weight (kg, final body weight (kg, daily feed intake (kg animal-1; kg kg-1 BW, diet cost (R$ kg-1 of diet, cost of kg produced (R$ kg-1 produced, and average price of the kg of meat for finishing (R$. The CC consumed more sorghum silage and concentrate than B (p < 0.05.There was a difference between the categories (p < 0.05 for gross revenue, balance, opportunity cost, and net revenue per animal, with higher values found for the steer category. The animal category did not affect the profitability of the system, although the bulls provided lower revenues than cull cows.

  2. Emotion words and categories: evidence from lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2014-05-01

    We examined the categorical nature of emotion word recognition. Positive, negative, and neutral words were presented in lexical decision tasks. Word frequency was additionally manipulated. In Experiment 1, "positive" and "negative" categories of words were implicitly indicated by the blocked design employed. A significant emotion-frequency interaction was obtained, replicating past research. While positive words consistently elicited faster responses than neutral words, only low frequency negative words demonstrated a similar advantage. In Experiments 2a and 2b, explicit categories ("positive," "negative," and "household" items) were specified to participants. Positive words again elicited faster responses than did neutral words. Responses to negative words, however, were no different than those to neutral words, regardless of their frequency. The overall pattern of effects indicates that positive words are always facilitated, frequency plays a greater role in the recognition of negative words, and a "negative" category represents a somewhat disparate set of emotions. These results support the notion that emotion word processing may be moderated by distinct systems.

  3. Licensing Novel Role-Governed Categories: An ERP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah B. Goldwater

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Markman & Stilwell (2001 argued that many natural categories name roles in relational systems, and so they are role-governed categories. This view predicts instantiating a novel relational structure licenses the creation of novel role-governed categories. This paper supports this claim and helps to specify the mechanisms underlying this licensing. Event-related potentials (ERP’s were recorded while participants read passages of text. Participants instantiated novel relational representations by interpreting novel verbs derived from nouns during reading. Sentences later, comprehension of novel role terms derived from the novel verb was facilitated relative to a control condition where the novel verb was paraphrased using the root noun in its familiar form. This comprehension facilitation was marked by a reduced negativity elicited from the role term in the Novel Verb condition relative to the Paraphrase from 400-500 ms post-stimulus-onset. This relative difference in negativity is consistent with both the N400, which is a marker of semantic integration, and the Nref effect, which reflects the working memory load required to resolve reference. Additionally, because this increased negativity persisted until 670 ms post-stimulus-onset, and not that the Paraphrase condition elicited an increased positivity (i.e., the P600, we ruled out that the licensing effect is rooted in morphosyntactic processes.

  4. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  5. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning of Multidimensional Acoustic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Swingley, Daniel; Smits, Roel

    2009-01-01

    Learning to recognize the contrasts of a language-specific phonemic repertoire can be viewed as forming categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research on the learning of distributionally defined visual categories has shown that categories defined over 1 dimension are easy to learn and that learning multidimensional categories is…

  6. Waste management plan for inactive LLLW tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This Project Waste Management Plan identifies the waste that is expected to be generated in connection with the removal and disposition of inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30, and grouting of tank 3013 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the isolation of these tanks' associated piping systems. The plan also identifies the organization, responsibilities, and administrative controls that will be followed to ensure proper handling of the waste

  7. Duality as a category-theoretic concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, David

    2017-08-01

    In a paper published in 1939, Ernest Nagel described the role that projective duality had played in the reformulation of mathematical understanding through the turn of the nineteenth century, claiming that the discovery of the principle of duality had freed mathematicians from the belief that their task was to describe intuitive elements. While instances of duality in mathematics have increased enormously through the twentieth century, philosophers since Nagel have paid little attention to the phenomenon. In this paper I will argue that a reassessment is overdue. Something beyond doubt is that category theory has an enormous amount to say on the subject, for example, in terms of arrow reversal, dualising objects and adjunctions. These developments have coincided with changes in our understanding of identity and structure within mathematics. While it transpires that physicists have employed the term 'duality' in ways which do not always coincide with those of mathematicians, analysis of the latter should still prove very useful to philosophers of physics. Consequently, category theory presents itself as an extremely important language for the philosophy of physics.

  8. Testing the role of action and inaction anticipated regret on intentions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Tracy; Hutter, Russell; Richetin, Juliette; Conner, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Anticipated regret (AR) has been suggested as a useful addition to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that captures affective influences. However, previous research has generally (1) assessed the impact of AR in relation to one behaviour (action or inaction) when considering TPB variables in relation to the alternative behaviour, (2) not controlled for affective attitudes or past behaviour, and (3) examined only one or two behaviours. In two studies across several behaviours, the present research showed that even when controlling for affective attitudes, past behaviour, and other TPB variables towards action, action and inaction AR each added to the prediction of intentions across multiple behaviours. The two studies also showed that inaction regret was generally the stronger predictor, although action regret was important for some types of behaviour. Implications and issues for further research are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    In this paper I estimate a discrete time hazard model for the exits from the different labour market states - unemployment, employment and inactivity (or OLF) - in the Danish labour market. I find that women and individuals over fifty are more likely to experience the long-term unemployment...... and inactivity. The less educated and unskilled workers are found to be another risk group to face the marginalisation from the labour market. Being previously employed reduces the risk of OLF, and increases the re-entry to employment probability, while living in the biggest Danish cities makes persons...... disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...

  10. CEUS Helps to Rerate Small Breast Tumors of BI-RADS Category 3 and Category 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-xing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The primary aim of this study was to explore if classification, whether using the BI-RADS categories based on CEUS or conventional ultrasound, was conducive to the identification of benign and malignant category 3 or 4 small breast lesions. Material and Methods. We evaluated 30 malignant and 77 benign small breast lesions using CEUS. The range of enhancement, type of enhancement strength, intensity of enhancement, and enhancement patterns were independent factors included to assess the BI-RADS categories. Results. Of the nonenhanced breast lesions, 97.8% (44/45 were malignant, while, of the hyperplasic nodules, 96.8% (30/31 showed no enhancement in our study. Category changes of the lesions were made according to the features determined using CEUS. The results showed that these features could improve diagnostic sensitivity (from 70.0 to 80.0, 80.0, 90.0, and 90.0%, reduce the negative likelihood ratio (from 0.33 to 0.22, 0.25, 0.11, and 0.12, and improve the NPV (from 88.8 to 92.2, 91.2, 96.2, and 95.5%. However, this was not conducive to improve diagnostic specificity or the PPV. Conclusion. The vast majority of nonenhanced small breast lesions were malignant and most of the hyperplasic nodules showed no contrast enhancement. As a reference, CEUS was helpful in identifying BI-RADS category 3 or 4 small breast lesions.

  11. Magnitude and determinants of physical inactivity in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Internet file streaming system (IFSS) software. IFSS is an application that connects to and exchanges data with the server component. Supervisors managed tablets supported by the third generation (3G) wireless internet technology and run the IFSS icon (IfssClientPC.exe) located in their desktop to send all the updated ...

  12. NEET, Unemployed, Inactive or Unknown--Why Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background: The UK, like most countries across Europe and other advanced economies, has experienced an alarming rise in the levels of young people (aged between 16 and 24 years) who are detached from both the labour market and the education and training system. In the UK, there are nearly a million 16-24-year-olds who are recorded as being not in…

  13. Surveying Situation of Active and Inactive Elder Men Nutrition Health in Shiraz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaleh Zar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toady with growth of different sciences, amount of dies decrease and life hope is going to increase, so world population tends to old ages. In old ages physiologic changes effect on nutrition needs, therefore nutrition cares have the most important role in their health improvement. The goal of this study is the surveying situation of active and inactive elder men nutrition health in shiraz city. Methods & Materials: This study has a descriptive method and for these purpose, we randomly selected 156 elder men upper than 60 years old from 4 main park's of shiraz as statistical sample. They divided into two elder groups by their physical activities' active elder' and 'inactive elder'. We use of investigate health situation questioner as our instrument in this study. Results: Findings show that 34.61% of 156 elder men (35 active and 19 inactive elder have a suitable nutrition situation and 37.81% of them (28 active and 31 inactive elder are in average danger of malnutrition and 27.56% (15 active and 28 inactive elder of them are in high danger of malnutrition. Conclusion: Results of this study show that generally old ages don't have a satisfy nutrition situation, although active old age have a better level rather than inactive ones. Therefore physical activities could have a positive role in old age healthy nutrition. It is necessary to plan suitable strategies for protecting and educating old age nutrition in order to improve and correct their diet. Also propagation of physical activities by organization and vast media is suggested.

  14. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Geiss

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48. APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  15. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  16. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  17. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. New Method for Determination of Electrically Inactive Phosphorus in n-type Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...

  19. Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Michael D.; Company, Joseph M.; Brown, Jacob D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Booth, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6–11 yr old fail to obtain the reco...

  20. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole

    2017-01-01

    -sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...

  1. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded....... It was hypothesized that active subjects had more efficient pain inhibition compared with inactive subjects. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study with 2 days of data collection. METHODS: Fifty-six (28 females) subjects participated in this study. Subjects were subgrouped into active (n = 30) and inactive (n = 26...

  2. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect.

  3. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process

  4. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  5. Fundamental phenomenological categories of garden and landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zgarbová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current scientific methods describing gardens and landscapes all over the world are not always sufficient for the purpose of deep understanding of specific and close relations between landscape/garden and its inhabitants/visitors. A new dimension of qualitative investigation of these phenomena and relations between humans and the environment, as distinguished from the common mechanistic methods, has to be acquired. While a systematic anti-mechanistic research on the interaction of humans and living space is carried out especially in the United Kingdom and the United States, Continental Europe persist mechanistic in its core.In Continental Europe phenomenology as well as hermeneutics are regarded mostly as the particular areas of abstract philosophical studies that do not refer enough to practical sciences such as, for example, garden and landscape architecture. However, there are some especially transatlantic centres of applied phenomenological research. This article examines the phenomenological and hermeneutical approach as it might be used to explore the specific field of garden and landscape issues. In the first step, the nature of hermeneutics and phenomenology as compared to the common mechanistic scientific methods is discussed and the parallels between hermeneutics and phenomenology are outlined. Then, using the phenomenological method helps we give evidence on the fundamental categories of garden and landscape. These categories, in contrast to mechanistic constructions, represent garden and landscape as they are intimately experienced by humans. The focus of this research is both methodological (it is an effort to articulate a method alternative to the objectivity and abstraction of strict science, to be used in the field of garden and landscape architecture and related areas and hermeneutical (it is an effort to achieve a deeper and profound understanding of garden and landscape as the irreplaceable base for every responsible

  6. Changes in physical activity among adults with diabetes: a longitudinal cohort study of inactive patients with Type 2 diabetes who become physically active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakodeti, S; Uratsu, C S; Schmittdiel, J A; Grant, R W

    2015-08-01

    To identify the predictors and clinical effects among inactive patients with diabetes who become physically active, in the setting of a large integrated health system. We studied adults with Type 2 diabetes with at least two clinic visits between December 2011 and November 2012 who reported being inactive at their first visit. The mean (±sd) interval between their first and last visit was 6.2 (±2.3) months. We analysed self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity data collected using a structured intake form during routine clinical care. The study cohort (N = 6853) had a mean age of 60.2 years; 51.4% were women and 53.6% were non-white. Nearly two-thirds (62.5%, n = 4280) reported remaining physically inactive, while 16.0% reported achieving the recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (≥ 150 min/week) by the last visit of the study period. Female gender (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.67, 0.88), obesity (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m(2) : odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.60, 0.97; BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) : odds ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.42, 0.70), chronic kidney disease (odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.65, 0.94) and depression (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.62, 0.96) were each independently associated with not achieving the recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity level, while physician referral to lifestyle education was a positive predictor (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.09, 1.85). Controlling for baseline differences, patients achieving the recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity target lost 1.0 kg more weight compared with patients remaining inactive (P diabetes in a real-world clinical setting lost weight after becoming physically active; however, nearly two-thirds of patients remained inactive. Novel interventions to address physical inactivity in primary care should address barriers faced by older patients with medically complex disease. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  7. Effects of Long-Term Acupuncture Treatment on Resting-State Brain Activity in Migraine Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Active Acupoints and Inactive Acupoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Fuwen; Dong, Xilin; Peng, Yulin; Qin, Wei; Wu, Fumei; Li, Ying; Yuan, Kai; von Deneen, Karen M.; Gong, Qiyong; Tang, Zili; Liang, Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture has been commonly used for preventing migraine attacks and relieving pain during a migraine, although there is limited knowledge on the physiological mechanism behind this method. The objectives of this study were to compare the differences in brain activities evoked by active acupoints and inactive acupoints and to investigate the possible correlation between clinical variables and brain responses. Methods and Results A randomized controlled trial and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were conducted. A total of eighty migraineurs without aura were enrolled to receive either active acupoint acupuncture or inactive acupoint acupuncture treatment for 8 weeks, and twenty patients in each group were randomly selected for the fMRI scan at the end of baseline and at the end of treatment. The neuroimaging data indicated that long-term active acupoint therapy elicited a more extensive and remarkable cerebral response compared with acupuncture at inactive acupoints. Most of the regions were involved in the pain matrix, lateral pain system, medial pain system, default mode network, and cognitive components of pain processing. Correlation analysis showed that the decrease in the visual analogue scale (VAS) was significantly related to the increased average Regional homogeneity (ReHo) values in the anterior cingulate cortex in the two groups. Moreover, the decrease in the VAS was associated with increased average ReHo values in the insula which could be detected in the active acupoint group. Conclusions Long-term active acupoint therapy and inactive acupoint therapy have different brain activities. We postulate that acupuncture at the active acupoint might have the potential effect of regulating some disease-affected key regions and the pain circuitry for migraine, and promote establishing psychophysical pain homeostasis. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003635 PMID:24915066

  8. Category Theoretic Analysis of Hierarchical Protein Materials and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, David I.; Giesa, Tristan; Wood, Elizabeth; Buehler, Markus J.

    2011-01-01

    Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a “concept web” or “semantic network” except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine. PMID:21931622

  9. Accuracy of the mammographic report category according to BIRADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunpat, Siriporn; Tanomkiat, Wiwatana; Khojarern, Rungrat; Arpakupakul, Nualta

    2005-01-01

    To determine the accuracy and predictive value of the mammographic report according to the BIRADS categories in Songklanagarind University Hospital. Mammograms of 1000 women who came to Songklanagarind University Hospital from June 1998 to September 1999 were reported and placed in category 1 for negative results, category 2 for benign lesions, category 3 for probably benign lesions, category 4 for suspicious lesions and category 5 for highly suspicious lesions. Accuracy was determined by either histology or by unchanged follow-up mammography within 24 months. The total accuracy was 97.8%, sensitivity 62.5% and specificity 98.1%.

  10. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...... category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories....

  11. Fitness, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Symptoms of Depression, and Cognition in Inactive Overweight Children: Mediation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika M K; Montoya, Amanda K; Drescher, Christopher F; Newberry, Andrew; Sultan, Zain; Williams, Celestine F; Pollock, Norman K; Davis, Catherine L

    We used mediation models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationships among physical fitness, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), symptoms of depression, and cognitive functioning. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the cohorts involved in the 2003-2006 project PLAY (a trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on health and cognition) and the 2008-2011 SMART study (a trial of the effects of exercise on cognition). A total of 397 inactive overweight children aged 7-11 received a fitness test, standardized cognitive test (Cognitive Assessment System, yielding Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, and Full Scale scores), and depression questionnaire. Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. We used bootstrapped mediation analyses to test whether SDB mediated the relationship between fitness and depression and whether SDB and depression mediated the relationship between fitness and cognition. Fitness was negatively associated with depression ( B = -0.041; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02) and SDB ( B = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.001). SDB was positively associated with depression ( B = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.67) after controlling for fitness. The relationship between fitness and depression was mediated by SDB (indirect effect = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.0004). The relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition was independently mediated by SDB (indirect effect = 0.058; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.13) and depression (indirect effect = -0.071; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.17). SDB mediates the relationship between fitness and depression, and SDB and depression separately mediate the relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition.

  12. An initial report of sleep disturbance in inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie; Stepanski, Edward J; Ranjbaran, Ziba; Benson, Laura M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2006-10-15

    There is an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, peptic ulcer disease, and colon cancer in night-shiftworkers, whose sleep is commonly disrupted. Sleep complaints are an extrapyramidal symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Sleep disruption may contribute to increased medical morbidity by weakening the ability of the immune system to protect against endotoxins-this pathway could be of potential importance to the pathogenesis and/or clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic immunoinflammatory gastrointestinal disorder associated with marked reductions in quality of life. This is the first study to comprehensively examine sleep concerns in patients with IBD. Sixteen patients with biopsy-proven inactive IBD (8 with Crohn disease and 8 with ulcerative colitis), 9 patients with IBS, and 7 healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, SF-12, and a single overnight polysomnogram. Polysomnography and arousals were scored according to standard criteria. Multivariate analyses were used to compare subjective and objective sleep parameters between groups and to identify associations between sleep complaints and quality of life. Patients with IBD did not seem to significantly differ from patients with IBS, who have established sleep complaints. On polysomnography, total sleep time differentiated the 3 groups well, with the IBS and IBD groups appearing numerically similar. Whereas IBS and IBD groups were similar with respect to observed sleep parameters, IBS patients did report the most concerns, consistent with earlier research suggesting that hyperarousal and perceptual differences may contribute to symptom reporting. Sleep parameters greatly influenced quality of life in both groups and highlight the need to address sleep concerns as part of IBD management.

  13. Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone L Reynolds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics.

  14. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-The-Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C.; Ferreira, Mário B.; Semin, Gün R.; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment…

  15. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1 and... subject to production-line testing. (c) For each engine that fails to meet emission standards, test two... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all your...

  16. 37 CFR 11.19 - Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status. 11.19 Section 11.19 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction...

  17. The cost of physical inactivity to a nation: the role of sports medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, etc.) is not well documented in. Africa, their meteoric rise is well publicised in the ... coded for by our genome. Furthermore, by delving into early man's patterns of nutrition, it appears that cycling periods of food availability programmed the body to respond to physical inactivity in a particular.

  18. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  19. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity and m...

  20. The cost of policy inaction : the case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.C.; Brink, ten P.; Klok, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    The COPI methodology and valuation database. Change in land use, climate, pollution, water use; change in biodiversity; change in ecosystem functions; change in ecosystem services contributes to change in economic value. The Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI) is described in monitory terms. The outcome

  1. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    J. Genet. 82, 13–16]. Introduction. The hypothesis that methylation of cytosine residues in. DNA is a key step in the maintenance of the inactive state of the mammalian X chromosome (Holliday and. Pugh 1975; Riggs 1975) has found support from several types of experiment (Liskay and Evans 1980; Mohandas et al. 1981).

  2. 17 CFR 210.3-11 - Financial statements of an inactive registrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inactive entity as defined below, the financial statements required by this regulation for purposes of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements of an... COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES...

  3. 2014 consensus statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) conference (Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M

    2014-06-01

    This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Sexual inactivity and occurrence of STIs in relation to weight status in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunge, Vibeke B; Juul, Kirsten E; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sexual inactivity and occurrence of selected sexually transmitted infections in relation to body mass index. We used data from two large Danish population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in 1991-1995 (HPV study: 6869 women, aged 22-32 years) and in 200...

  5. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  6. The association of physical inactivity with Type 2 diabetes among different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W. M.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; L de Munter, J. S.; Stronks, K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Holleman, F.

    2011-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 28, 668-672 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims  To study differences in the association between physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes among subjects from different ethnic groups. Methods  We analysed data on 508 Caucasian, 596 African-Surinamese and 339 Hindustani-Surinamese participants, aged

  7. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is ina...

  8. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Gobets, David; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  9. Validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of a self-report physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) measuring physical activity/inactivity in South African schoolgirls of different ethnic origins. Methods. Construct validity of the PAQ was tested against physical activity energy expenditure estimated from an ...

  10. Living near the port area is associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The impact of the port of Santos, Brazil, on the population’s health is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between living near the port area and physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 553 healthy adults were selected and their level of physical activity in daily life was assessed using accelerometers. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed using physical inactivity and sedentary behavior as the outcomes and living near the port area as the main risk factor, with adjustments for the main confounders. RESULTS: Among all the participants, 15% were resident near the port area. They took 699 steps/day and presented, weekly, 2.4% more sedentary physical activity, 2.0% less time in standing position and 0.9% more time lying down than residents of other regions. Additionally, living near the port area increased the risk of physical inactivity by 2.50 times and the risk of higher amounts of sedentary behavior (≥ 10 hours/day by 1.32 times. CONCLUSION: Living near the port of Santos is associated with physical inactivity and higher sedentary behavior among adults, regardless of confounders. The reasons for this association should be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  11. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J.; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on

  12. Artist-Teachers' In-Action Mental Models While Teaching Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…

  13. Contaminant transport, revegetation, and trace element studies at inactive uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables

  14. Supporting healthcare professionals to encourage patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Barbara Sassen

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of cardiovascular diseases are substantial and include increasing numbers of morbidity and mortality. With a population getting more and more inactive and having a sedentary lifestyle, the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes rises. This dissertation reports on people

  15. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity

  16. Emotional Outlook on Life Predicts Increases in Physical Activity among Initially Inactive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…

  17. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  18. Past-Year Sexual Inactivity among Older Married Persons and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Amelia; DeLamater, John

    2013-01-01

    Family scholars have focused on the onset of sexual activity early in the life course, but little is known about the cessation of sexual activity in relationships in later life. We use event-history analysis techniques and logistic regression to identify the correlates of sexual inactivity among older married men and women. We analyze data for…

  19. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 82; Issue 1-2. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5-methylcytosine to an unusual degree and appears to contain more of this modified nucleotide than the remainder of the genome. Deepti D. Deobagkar H. Sharat Chandra. Volume 82 Issue 1-2 ...

  20. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  1. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  2. Wheelchair-Specific Fitness of Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; de Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  3. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.; Woldring, F.; Valent, L.; Slootman, H.; Faber, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  4. Inactive Tanks Remediation Program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Remediation Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed fimn service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA and CERCLA requirements. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) will be addressed in choosing a remediation alternative. Preference will be given to remedies that are highly reliable and provide long-term protection. Efforts will be directed toward permanently and significantly reducing the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants associated with the tank systems. Where indicated by operational or other restraints, interim measures short of full and complete remediation may be taken to maintain human health and ecological risks at acceptable levels until full remediation can be accomplished

  5. Maintenance Action Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 1 inactive tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This Maintenance Action Work Plan has been prepared to document the activities and procedures for the remediation of four inactive, low-level radioactive tanks at Waste Area Grouping 1, from the Category D list of tanks in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (EPA et al. 1994). The four tanks to remediated are tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. Three of the tanks (3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30) will be physically removed from the ground. Because of logistical issues associted with excavation and site access, the fourth tank (3013) will be grouted in place and permanently closed

  6. Maintenance Action Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 1 inactive tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This Maintenance Action Work Plan has been prepared to document the activities and procedures for the remediation of four inactive, low-level radioactive tanks at Waste Area Grouping 1, from the Category D list of tanks in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (EPA et al. 1994). The four tanks to remediated are tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. Three of the tanks (3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30) will be physically removed from the ground. Because of logistical issues associted with excavation and site access, the fourth tank (3013) will be grouted in place and permanently closed.

  7. [Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in school children from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.

  9. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Johnsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.

  10. A national survey of 'inactive' physicians in the United States of America: enticements to reentry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brotherton Sarah E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians leaving and reentering clinical practice can have significant medical workforce implications. We surveyed inactive physicians younger than typical retirement age to determine their reasons for clinical inactivity and what barriers, real or perceived, there were to reentry into the medical workforce. Methods A random sample of 4975 inactive physicians aged under 65 years was drawn from the Physician Masterfile of the American Medical Association in 2008. Physicians were mailed a survey about activity in medicine and perceived barriers to reentry. Chi-square statistics were used for significance tests of the association between categorical variables and t-tests were used to test differences between means. Results Our adjusted response rate was 36.1%. Respondents were fully retired (37.5%, not currently active in medicine (43.0% or now active (reentered, 19.4%. Nearly half (49.5% were in or had practiced primary care. Personal health was the top reason for leaving for fully retired physicians (37.8% or those not currently active in medicine (37.8% and the second highest reason for physicians who had reentered (28.8%. For reentered (47.8% and inactive (51.5% physicians, the primary reason for returning or considering returning to practice was the availability of part-time work or flexible scheduling. Retired and currently inactive physicians used similar strategies to explore reentry, and 83% of both groups thought it would be difficult; among those who had reentered practice, 35.9% reported it was difficult to reenter. Retraining was uncommon for this group (37.5%. Conclusion Availability of part-time work and flexible scheduling have a strong influence on decisions to leave or reenter clinical practice. Lack of retraining before reentry raises questions about patient safety and the clinical competence of reentered physicians.

  11. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.

  12. Comparison of the Histological and Serological Parameters of Patients with Hepatitis Delta Virus in Active and Inactive Hepatitis B Virus Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Ram, D. B.; Talpur, A.; Tanveer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the histological and serological parameters of patients with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) in active HBV versus inactive HBV carriers. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit IV at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Sindh, from June 2008 to September 2011. Methodology: This study included 49 consecutive inactive HBV carriers who were HBsAg-positive, HBV DNA-negative, anti-D antibody-positive, and HDV RNA-positive, as well as 277 patients with active HBV who were HBsAg-positive, anti- HDV antibody-positive, HDV RNA-positive, and demonstrated > 20,000 IU/mL HBV DNA and > 2 (ULN) serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Informed consent was obtained from each patient. Liver biopsies were obtained and the staging of fibrosis was performed according to the METAVIR scoring system. Continuous variables such as age, SGPT, platelet count, and the HBV DNA level were computed as the mean A +- standard deviation. Categorical variables such as gender and stage of fibrosis are expressed as percentages. All data were processed using SPSS version 16. Results: This study included 49 patients in an inactive HBV group. Fibrosis stage 0 was observed in 37 (75.5%) patients and 12 (24.5%) were stage 1. Among the 277 patients with active disease, fibrosis stage 0 was present in 7 (2.5%) patients, stage 1 in 31 (11.2%) patients, stage 2 in 172 (62.1%) patients, stage 3 in 44 (15.9%) patients and stage 4 in 23 (8.3%) patients. Conclusion: HDV in active HBV carriers is severe on its initial presentation and requires prompt treatment whereas in inactive HBV carriers demonstrates an indolent course. (author)

  13. Radiomic modeling of BI-RADS density categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir

    2017-03-01

    Screening mammography is the most effective and low-cost method to date for early cancer detection. Mammographic breast density has been shown to be highly correlated with breast cancer risk. We are developing a radiomic model for BI-RADS density categorization on digital mammography (FFDM) with a supervised machine learning approach. With IRB approval, we retrospectively collected 478 FFDMs from 478 women. As a gold standard, breast density was assessed by an MQSA radiologist based on BI-RADS categories. The raw FFDMs were used for computerized density assessment. The raw FFDM first underwent log-transform to approximate the x-ray sensitometric response, followed by multiscale processing to enhance the fibroglandular densities and parenchymal patterns. Three ROIs were automatically identified based on the keypoint distribution, where the keypoints were obtained as the extrema in the image Gaussian scale-space. A total of 73 features, including intensity and texture features that describe the density and the parenchymal pattern, were extracted from each breast. Our BI-RADS density estimator was constructed by using a random forest classifier. We used a 10-fold cross validation resampling approach to estimate the errors. With the random forest classifier, computerized density categories for 412 of the 478 cases agree with radiologist's assessment (weighted kappa = 0.93). The machine learning method with radiomic features as predictors demonstrated a high accuracy in classifying FFDMs into BI-RADS density categories. Further work is underway to improve our system performance as well as to perform an independent testing using a large unseen FFDM set.

  14. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition of the source category. (a) The industrial gas supplier source category consists of any facility that... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98...

  15. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1) Facilities... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98...

  16. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...

  17. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot...

  18. 40 CFR 98.400 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... Definition of the source category. This supplier category consists of natural gas liquids fractionators and local natural gas distribution companies. (a) Natural gas liquids fractionators are installations that...

  19. The Linguistic Construction of Social Categories in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendruck, Gil; Deblinger-Tangi, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarteners treat certain social categories as natural kinds. This study addressed how children pick out social categories. Ninety-one 19-and 26-month-olds were familiarized to exemplars of categories of people (e.g., Blacks-Whites, men-women) and animals (e.g., cows-horses). Participants then saw a picture matching the familiarization…

  20. 76 FR 12141 - New Postal Product and New Price Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Product and New Price Category AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... competitive product list. The Postal Service also states that it has established a new price category under... to the competitive product list and concurrently establish a new price category under that product...

  1. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... separating property associated with special services, circuit equipment included in Categories 4.12 (other... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment-Category 4. 36.126 Section 36...

  2. 22 CFR 124.15 - Special Export Controls for Defense Articles and Defense Services Controlled under Category XV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation, integration of the satellite with the launch vehicle, testing and checkout prior to launch... and Defense Services Controlled under Category XV: Space Systems and Space Launches. 124.15 Section... Defense Services Controlled under Category XV: Space Systems and Space Launches. (a) The export of any...

  3. Prior knowledge of category size impacts visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rachel; McGee, Brianna; Echiverri, Chelsea; Zinszer, Benjamin D

    2018-03-30

    Prior research has shown that category search can be similar to one-item search (as measured by the N2pc ERP marker of attentional selection) for highly familiar, smaller categories (e.g., letters and numbers) because the finite set of items in a category can be grouped into one unit to guide search. Other studies have shown that larger, more broadly defined categories (e.g., healthy food) also can elicit N2pc components during category search, but the amplitude of these components is typically attenuated. Two experiments investigated whether the perceived size of a familiar category impacts category and exemplar search. We presented participants with 16 familiar company logos: 8 from a smaller category (social media companies) and 8 from a larger category (entertainment/recreation manufacturing companies). The ERP results from Experiment 1 revealed that, in a two-item search array, search was more efficient for the smaller category of logos compared to the larger category. In a four-item search array (Experiment 2), where two of the four items were placeholders, search was largely similar between the category types, but there was more attentional capture by nontarget members from the same category as the target for smaller rather than larger categories. These results support a growing literature on how prior knowledge of categories affects attentional selection and capture during visual search. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to assessing cognitive abilities across the lifespan, given that prior knowledge typically increases with age. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. THE MAN CATEGORY IN PUBLIC POLICIES AND BRAZILIAN LAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Alflen Banin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the view of man as a gender category in public policies and national laws, especially those focused on violence against women. With this objective, it contextualizes the studies of feminisms and masculinities as theories and epistemology that guide the analysis of 17 official Brazilian documents selected for this study. This analysis seeks to clarify how the gendered man has been understood in various documents over the years. It discusses how the formulation of laws can provide a new accountability approach beyond the punishment of these men. It also investigates the regulation of some of the existing groups of men who have used violence against women in the country. It finalizes claiming the importance of these reflections for the debate on gender and masculinities in pursuit of a more effective system of prevention and eradication of violence against women. It discusses and argues in favor of both changing the way this category is addressed in official documents, and formalizing spaces for reflection for men who have used violence against women.

  5. 12 CFR 208.43 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category definitions. 208.43 Section 208.43 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H...

  6. Acute exercise is associated with reduced exhaled nitric oxide in physically inactive adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hayley A; Latham, Jennifer R; Callister, Robin; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Baines, Katherine; Saltos, Nick; Upham, John W; Wood, Lisa G

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise has multiple health benefits, relatively little attention has been paid to its potential therapeutic effects in those with asthma. To examine the effects of acute exercise on inflammation in physically inactive and active adults with asthma. Fourteen adults with asthma (n = 6 physically inactive, n = 8 physically active) completed (1) 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a treadmill and (2) 30 minutes of rest in random order, with 4 weeks between sessions. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured before and after the intervention (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours). Blood inflammatory mediators were measured before and after the intervention (0, 2, and 24 hours). Physically inactive participants had a significant decrease in eNO 4 hours after exercise (-4.8 ppb, -6.4 to -0.5 ppb, P = .028), which was not observed in physically active participants (P = .362). Interluekin-1 receptor antagonist increased in the physically inactive group 2 hours after exercise, with this increase strongly correlated with the decrease in eNO at 4 hours (R = -0.685, P = .007) and 24 hours (R = -0.659, P = .014) after exercise. Interleukin-6 was increased significantly 2 hours after exercise in physically inactive participants. Blood neutrophils and nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 gene expression were increased 2 hours after exercise in the overall cohort. This study demonstrates that acute moderate-intensity exercise is associated with decreased eNO in physically inactive adults with asthma and suggests that interluekin-1 receptor antagonist could have a role in mediating this effect. The attenuated response in physically active participants might be due to the sustained anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training. Future studies should investigate the impact of exercise intensity and exercise training on airway inflammation in those with asthma. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au), registration number ACTRN

  7. A recombinant fusion toxin based on enzymatic inactive C3bot1 selectively targets macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Dmochewitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The C3bot1 protein (~23 kDa from Clostridium botulinum ADP-ribosylates and thereby inactivates Rho. C3bot1 is selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages but not of other cell types such as epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Most likely, the internalization occurs by a specific endocytotic pathway via acidified endosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested whether enzymatic inactive C3bot1E174Q serves as a macrophage-selective transport system for delivery of enzymatic active proteins into the cytosol of such cells. Having confirmed that C3bot1E174Q does not induce macrophage activation, we used the actin ADP-ribosylating C2I (∼50 kDa from Clostridium botulinum as a reporter enzyme for C3bot1E174Q-mediated delivery into macrophages. The recombinant C3bot1E174Q-C2I fusion toxin was cloned and expressed as GST-protein in Escherichia coli. Purified C3bot1E174Q-C2I was recognized by antibodies against C2I and C3bot and showed C2I-specific enzyme activity in vitro. When applied to cultured cells C3bot1E174Q-C2I ADP-ribosylated actin in the cytosol of macrophages including J774A.1 and RAW264.7 cell lines as well as primary cultured human macrophages but not of epithelial cells. Together with confocal fluorescence microscopy experiments, the biochemical data indicate the selective uptake of a recombinant C3-fusion toxin into the cytosol of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrated that C3bot1E174Q can be used as a delivery system for fast, selective and specific transport of enzymes into the cytosol of living macrophages. Therefore, C3-based fusion toxins can represent valuable molecular tools in experimental macrophage pharmacology and cell biology as well as attractive candidates to develop new therapeutic approaches against macrophage-associated diseases.

  8. An introduction to the language of category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to elementary category theory, with the aim of making what can be a confusing and sometimes overwhelming subject more accessible. In writing about this challenging subject, the author has brought to bear all of the experience he has gained in authoring over 30 books in university-level mathematics. The goal of this book is to present the five major ideas of category theory: categories, functors, natural transformations, universality, and adjoints in as friendly and relaxed a manner as possible while at the same time not sacrificing rigor. These topics are developed in a straightforward, step-by-step manner and are accompanied by numerous examples and exercises, most of which are drawn from abstract algebra. The first chapter of the book introduces the definitions of category and functor and discusses diagrams, duality, initial and terminal objects, special types of morphisms, and some special types of categories, particularly comma categories and hom-set categories. Chap...

  9. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  10. Dose mapping in category I irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Sandip; Shinde, S.H.; Mhatre, S.G.V.

    2012-01-01

    Category I irradiators such as Gamma Chambers and Blood Irradiators are compact self shielded, dry source storage gamma irradiators offering irradiation volume of few hundred cubic centimeters. In the present work, dose distribution profiles along the central vertical plane of the irradiation volume of Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000 were measured using Fricke, FBX, and alanine dosimeters. Measured dose distribution profiles in Gamma Chamber 900 differed from the typical generic dose distribution pattern whereas that in Blood Irradiator 2000 was in agreement with the typical pattern. All reagents used were of analytical reagent grade and were used without further purification. Preparation and dose estimations of Fricke and FBX were carried out as recommended. Alanine pellets were directly placed in precleaned polystyrene container having dimensions 6.5 mm o.d., 32 mm height and 3 mm wall thickness. For these dosimeters, dose measurements were made using e-scan Bruker BioSpin alanine dedicated ESR spectrometer. Specially designed perspex jigs were used during irradiation in Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000. These jigs provided the reproducible geometry during irradiation, Absorbance measurements were made using a spectrophotometer calibrated as per the recommended procedure. In Gamma Chamber 900, there is a dose distribution variation of about 34% from top to the center, 18% from center to the bottom, and 15% from center to the periphery. Such a dose distribution profile is largely deviating from the typical profile wherein 15% variation is observed from center to the periphery on all sides. Further investigation showed that there was a nonalignment in the source and sample chamber. However, in Blood Irradiator 2000, there is a dose distribution variation of about 20% from top to the center, 15% from center to the bottom, and 12% from center to the periphery. This pattern is very much similar to the typical profile. Hence it is recommended

  11. Physical inactivity among college students is associated with living in hostels: a study from Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity figures as an important modifiable factor for non-communicable diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess physical activity among college students in East Delhi region of Delhi, India. Of a total 297 students, 58.2% had high physical activity, 27.9% had moderate while 13.8% had low activity level. Low physical activity was significantly more among the students aged <20 years (p=0.002 and among those residing in hostel (p<0.001. There was no significant difference by gender (p=0.40. Residing in hostel emerged as significant factor in multivariate analysis. Hostellers had significantly lesser physical activity compared to the day scholars in the transport domain (p=0.048 and recreational domain (p<0.001. Hostel residents emerged as a specific at-risk group for physical inactivity.

  12. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  13. Dynamic characteristics of heat exchanger tubes vibrating in a tube support plate inactive mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contact all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimetnal quantities

  14. An optimization on strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, K.; Setayeshi, S.; Maragheh, M.Gh.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Kardan, M.R.; Banaem, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an experimental design using artificial neural networks for an optimization on the strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) is investigated. The goal is to optimize the separation parameters to achieve maximum amount of strontium that is separated from the fission products. The result of the optimization method causes a proper purity of Strontium-89 that was separated from the fission products. It is also shown that ANN may be establish a method to optimize the separation model.

  15. Screen time by different devices in adolescents: association with physical inactivity domains and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Leandro D; Dos Santos Silva, Diego A; Tebar, William R; Zanuto, Edner F; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Christofaro, Diego G

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behaviors in adolescents are associated with using screen devices, analyzed as the total daily time in television viewing, using the computer and video game. However, an independent and clustered analysis of devices allows greater understanding of associations with physical inactivity domains and eating habits in adolescents. Sample of adolescents aged 10-17 years (N.=1011) from public and private schools, randomly selected. The use of screen devices was measured by hours per week spent in each device: TV, computer, videogames and mobile phone/tablet. Physical inactivity domains (school, leisure and sports), eating habits (weekly food consumption frequency) and socioeconomic status were assessed by questionnaire. The prevalence of high use of mobile phone/tablet was 70% among adolescents, 63% showed high use of TV or computer and 24% reported high use of videogames. High use of videogames was greater among boys and high use of mobile phone/tablet was higher among girls. Significant associations of high use of TV (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.99), computer (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.02), videogames (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.13-2.69) and consumption of snacks were observed. High use of computer was associated with fried foods consumption (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75) and physical inactivity (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). Mobile phone was associated with consumption of sweets (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.80). Cluster using screen devices showed associations with high consumption of snacks, fried foods and sweets, even after controlling for confounding variables. The high use of screen devices was associated with high consumption of snacks, fried foods, sweets and physical inactivity in adolescents.

  16. The use of periodization in exercise prescriptions for inactive adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Strohacker

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although it is premature to conclude that periodized exercise is superior to non-periodized exercise for improving health outcomes, periodization appears to be a feasible means of prescribing exercise to inactive adults within an intervention setting. Further research is necessary to understand the effectiveness of periodizing aerobic exercise, the psychological effects of periodization, and the feasibility of implementing flexible non-linear methods.

  17. Physical inactivity, TV-watching hours and body composition in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça da; Silva, Renata D'Andrada Tenório Almeida; Oliveira, Bruno Almeida Viana de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo

    2010-08-01

    Physical inactivity is a predisposing factor to the onset/worsening of other cardiovascular risk factors, particularly obesity. To determine physical activity level (PAL) and daily number of hours of TV (HTV) and the association and/or correlation of these variables with age, gender, economic class, public/private school, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Cross sectional study, school-based population, public and private education, primary and secondary education. The sample was calculated based on the minimum expected prevalence of several variables, including physical inactivity. Cluster sampling. structured questionnaire, including Physical Activity for Older Children Questionnaire (PAQ-C) measurements of weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF). Chi-square, linear correlation. Among the 1,253 students, averaging 12.4 ± 2.9 years old, of which 549 were male, there was a prevalence of inactivity in 93.5%, more commonly found in female adolescents and there was no association between PAL and excess weight or body fat, soccer and dance were the most frequent activities in boys and girls, respectively; 60% of students did not have physical education classes. Average and median HTV were respectively 3.6 and 3 hours; there was a significant association between HTV and obesity and significant correlation between PAL and age (negative) and between BMI and TSF (positive). Physical inactivity is present in 93.5% of children and adolescents from Maceió. It is more commonly found among teenagers and females, with no association or correlation of this variable with excess weight or body fat; obesity was associated with ≥ 3 HTV.

  18. Radiation pathways and potential health impacts from inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    Radiation exposure pathways and potential health impacts were estimated as part of the evaluation of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the sites of inactive mills in eight western states. The purpose of this report is to describe in detail the methodology used in performing the pathway analysis and health effects estimations. In addition, specific parameters are presented for each of the 22 uranium mill sites that were evaluated. A computer program, RADAD, developed as part of this program, is described and listed

  19. LLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.

  20. Electrical stimulation of the abdomen preserves motor performance in the inactive elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Misa; Seki, Kazunori; Ito, Osamu; Handa, Yasunobu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    Abdominal muscle strength declines easily with the process of aging and/or disuse, and it is difficult to strengthen weak abdominal muscles in the inactive elderly. In the present study, we applied surface electrical stimulation (ES) to the abdomen of inactive elderly people to investigate its chronic effects. Twenty inactive elderly people (65-89 years) who spent most of the day in their bedroom participated in the study. The subjects were assigned to ES and non-ES groups in a random order. In addition to conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy, ES was applied to both sides of the flank of 10 subjects (ES group) for 8 weeks. For evaluation of the abdominal muscles, the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured with computed tomography and the electrical muscle activity (iEMG) was measured by electromyography. Functional examinations were performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the beginning of the study with the following parameters: grip strength; maximum walking speed (WS); movement time for sitting up (MSU); number of trunk flexions (NTF); flexibility of the trunk; sit-to-stand time (STS); and Barthel index (BI) score. In the ES group, the NTF and MSU were significantly improved at 4 weeks and thereafter. Furthermore, the STS and WS were also improved significantly after 8 weeks (p < 0.05). The CSA and iEMG both increased significantly (p < 0.05). However, the flexibility of the trunk and BI score did not change. In conclusion, ES to the abdomen has the potential to improve motor function in the inactive elderly.

  1. Arctic Ground Squirrels Limit Bone Loss during the Prolonged Physical Inactivity Associated with Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo.

  2. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynda, W.J.; Lobner, P.R.; Powell, R.W.; Straker, E.A.

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems

  3. Antimicrobial and conformational studies of the active and inactive analogues of the protegrin-1 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Sylwia; Mickiewicz, Beata; Greber, Katarzyna; Sikorska, Emilia; Szultka, Lukasz; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Kamysz, Wojciech

    2010-02-01

    The natural antimicrobial cationic peptide protegrin-1 displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and rapidly kills pathogens by interacting with their cell membrane. We investigated the structure-activity relationships of three protegrin-1 analogues: IB-367 (RGGLCYCRGRFCVCVGR-NH(2)), BM-1 (RGLCYCRGRFCVCVG-NH(2)) and BM-2 (RGLCYRPRFVCVG-NH(2)). Our antimicrobial and antifungal activity studies of these peptides showed that BM-1 was much more active than IB-367 against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas BM-2 was inactive. The BM-1 peptide showed fourfold reduced haemolysis relative to IB-367, an additional advantage of this peptide. In addition, BM-1 was about 15% cheaper than IB-367 to synthesize. The absence of two cysteine residues in the BM-2 sequence could be the main reason for its unstable conformation and antimicrobial inactivity. The solution structures of these peptides were determined in dimethyl sulphoxide using two-dimensional NMR and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. IB-367 and BM-1 formed short, antiparallel, beta-hairpin structures connected by a type II' beta-turn. The shorter, inactive BM-2 analogue exhibited major and minor conformations (predominantly unordered) in the NMR spectra and was much more flexible.

  4. Inactive and active states and supramolecular organization of GPCRs: insights from computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Francesca; De Benedetti, Pier G.

    2006-08-01

    Herein we make an overview of the results of our computational experiments aimed at gaining insight into the molecular mechanisms of GPCR functioning either in their normal conditions or when hit by gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutations. Molecular simulations of a number of GPCRs in their wild type and mutated as well as free and ligand-bound forms were instrumental in inferring the structural features, which differentiate the mutation- and ligand-induced active from the inactive states. These features essentially reside in the interaction pattern of the E/DRY arginine and in the degree of solvent exposure of selected cytosolic domains. Indeed, the active states differ from the inactive ones in the weakening of the interactions made by the highly conserved arginine and in the increase in solvent accessibility of the cytosolic interface between helices 3 and 6. Where possible, the structural hallmarks of the active and inactive receptor states are translated into molecular descriptors useful for in silico functional screening of novel receptor mutants or ligands. Computational modeling of the supramolecular organization of GPCRs and their intracellular partners is the current challenge toward a deep understanding of their functioning mechanisms.

  5. A mononuclear non-heme manganese(IV)-oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N; Nam, Wonwoo

    2013-05-01

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal-oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc(3+) ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C-H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal-oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  6. CHANGES IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DURING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Dimec Časar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated weightlessness by bed rest model represents an important method to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity on psychological distress, depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life of healthy male adults. Participants were ten volunteers, aged between 21 and 28 years who were subjected to a 35-day head-down bed rest. Psychological state of the participants was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Participants completed psychological inventories before, during and after the experiment. The results revealed no significant differences in mental health and satisfaction with life of participants following the head-down bed rest, however there was a tendency towards an increase in neurotic and depressive symptoms at the end of the experiment. The obtained results are interpreted in the light of stimulative living conditions in which the experiment was carried out, as well as the amount and quality of social interactions during the period of extended physical inactivity.

  7. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  8. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements

  9. Childhood and contemporaneous correlates of adolescent leisure time physical inactivity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila

    2009-03-01

    Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family "active-recreation" orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence, and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, body mass index, predicted VO(2 max), general health, television viewing, smoking, and alcohol use) and "persistent inactivity," "declining participation," or "persistent activity" during adolescence. In multivariate models, persistent inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watching less television during adolescence. This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with persistent inactivity, persistent activity and declining participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity.

  10. A Mononuclear Non-Heme Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Binding Redox-Inactive Metal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M.; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N.; Nam, Wonwoo [Ewha; (Purdue); (Osaka)

    2013-05-29

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal–oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)–oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)–oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc3+ ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C–H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal–oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  11. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 Europ...... interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.......Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years...

  12. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  13. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  14. Effects of exercise and inactivity on intravascular volume and cardiovascular control mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    Exercise, inactivity and confinement have been used as effective tools to assess the contributions of vascular volume and baroreflexes to orthostatic hypotension associated with exposure to microgravity. Prolonged exposure to bedrest, physical inactivity, or wheelchair confinement removes baroreceptor unloading caused by regular upright standing and induces attenuation of cardiovascular baroreflex responses. The magnitude of reduced baroreflex sensitivity following bedrest or wheelchair confinement is related to the degree of orthostatic hypotension. Reduction in vascular volume caused by bedrest or progressive hypovolemia does not affect carotid-cardiac baroreflex function. In contrast, intense exercise that increases arterial baroreceptor loading causes an acute increase in carotid baroreceptor sensitivity and has been associated with enhanced orthostatic stability following exposure to simulated microgravity. Endurance exercise training designed to enhance orthostatic stability was associated with increased blood volume and vasoconstrictive reserve, but no change in the carotid baroreflex response. Therefore, using models of exercise, inactivity and confinement, integrated and redundant roles for vascular volume and cardiovascular baroreflexes have been demonstrated as probable underlying mechanisms that contribute independently to the development of orthostatic hypotension following spaceflight. These data suggest that loading of arterial baroreceptors may be necessary to maintain baroreflex function.

  15. A life-long learning vector quantization approach for interactive learning of multiple categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Stephan; Wersing, Heiko; Gross, Horst-Michael; Körner, Edgar

    2012-04-01

    We present a new method capable of learning multiple categories in an interactive and life-long learning fashion to approach the "stability-plasticity dilemma". The problem of incremental learning of multiple categories is still largely unsolved. This is especially true for the domain of cognitive robotics, requiring real-time and interactive learning. To achieve the life-long learning ability for a cognitive system, we propose a new learning vector quantization approach combined with a category-specific feature selection method to allow several metrical "views" on the representation space of each individual vector quantization node. These category-specific features are incrementally collected during the learning process, so that a balance between the correction of wrong representations and the stability of acquired knowledge is achieved. We demonstrate our approach for a difficult visual categorization task, where the learning is applied for several complex-shaped objects rotated in depth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Administrative circular n°11 (REV. 2) – Categories of members of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 11 (Rev. 2) entitled “Categories of members of the personnel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 11 May 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. This circular is applicable to all members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 11 (Rev. 1) entitled “Categories of members of the personnel” of January 1997 as regards all contracts of members of the personnel issued on or after 1 January 2013. The circular was revised in order to take into account developments since the last revision of the categories of personnel in 1997 as well as the needs of the Organization and collaborating institutes. In particular, it introduces a new system for distinguishing categories of associated members of the personnel, namely with regard to the purpo...

  17. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  18. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  19. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  20. Preferential binding of allosteric modulators to active and inactive conformational states of metabotropic glutamate receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein-Seetharaman Judith

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are G protein coupled receptors that play important roles in synaptic plasticity and other neuro-physiological and pathological processes. Allosteric mGluR ligands are particularly promising drug targets because of their modulatory effects – enhancing or suppressing the response of mGluRs to glutamate. The mechanism by which this modulation occurs is not known. Here, we propose the hypothesis that positive and negative modulators will differentially stabilize the active and inactive conformations of the receptors, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we have generated computational models of the transmembrane regions of different mGluR subtypes in two different conformations. The inactive conformation was modeled using the crystal structure of the inactive, dark state of rhodopsin as template and the active conformation was created based on a recent model of the light-activated state of rhodopsin. Ligands for which the nature of their allosteric effects on mGluRs is experimentally known were docked to the modeled mGluR structures using ArgusLab and Autodock softwares. We find that the allosteric ligand binding pockets of mGluRs are overlapping with the retinal binding pocket of rhodopsin, and that ligands have strong preferences for the active and inactive states depending on their modulatory nature. In 8 out of 14 cases (57%, the negative modulators bound the inactive conformations with significant preference using both docking programs, and 6 out of 9 cases (67%, the positive modulators bound the active conformations. Considering results by the individual programs only, even higher correlations were observed: 12/14 (86% and 8/9 (89% for ArgusLab and 10/14 (71% and 7/9 (78% for AutoDock. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that mGluR allosteric modulation occurs via stabilization of different conformations analogous to those identified in rhodopsin where they are induced by