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Sample records for inactive systems category

  1. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation

  2. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (Uses) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus I that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank's total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less

  3. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (USTs) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Pregrain, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus 1 that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank's total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less

  4. Inactive trials of transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberlin, M.M.; Hardy, A.R.

    1985-06-01

    The design and manufacture of a mock-up of a crate handling and size reduction (CHSR) facility, an experimental programme on the evaluation of a commercial air-transporter, and the selection, manufacture and commissioning trials of an integrated conveyor system for transporting crated waste into and within the mock-up facility, are considered. The mock-up facility was used for the test programme on the air-transporter and conveyor system. The air-transporter was considered suitable for transporting waste on the metal floor in the main dismantling area of the CHSR facility because it can tolerate asymmetric loading, the exhaust air flow liberated from the air-pads is low and it has excellent manoeuvrability. Commissioning trials were carried out on a commercial conveyor system consisting of unpowered rollers in the reception area, a powered slatted conveyor in the air-lock and an unpowered roller table placed on the air-transporter in the working area. It was demonstrated that a large asymmetrically loaded wooden crate can be transported into and within the facility by this method. Further design and experimental work necessary before the system can be used for remote operation is discussed. (author)

  5. American College of Rheumatology provisional criteria for defining clinical inactive disease in select categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carol A; Giannini, Edward H; Huang, Bin; Itert, Lukasz; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2011-07-01

    To prospectively validate the preliminary criteria for clinical inactive disease (CID) in patients with select categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We used the process for development of classification and response criteria recommended by the American College of Rheumatology Quality of Care Committee. Patient-visit profiles were extracted from the phase III randomized controlled trial of infliximab in polyarticular-course JIA (i.e., patients considered to resemble those with select categories of JIA) and sent to an international group of expert physician raters. Using the physician ratings as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the preliminary criteria. Modifications to the criteria were made, and these were sent to a larger group of pediatric rheumatologists to determine quantitative, face, and content validity. Variables weighted heaviest by physicians when making their judgment were the number of joints with active arthritis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), physician's global assessment, and duration of morning stiffness. Three modifications were made: the definition of uveitis, the definition of abnormal ESR, and the addition of morning stiffness. These changes did not alter the accuracy of the preliminary set. The modified criteria, termed the "criteria for CID in select categories of JIA," have excellent feasibility and face, content, criterion, and discriminant validity to detect CID in select categories of JIA. The small changes made to the preliminary criteria set did not alter the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.954) or accuracy (91%), but have increased face and content validity. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Inactive trials of transport systems: phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberlin, M.M.; Hardy, A.R.; Kennedy, S.T.

    1986-11-01

    Progress made during 1984-85 is reviewed in four sections: the design and installation of a stainless steel working floor in the mock-up of a crate handling and size reduction facility; the detailed evaluation of a single air pad of the type used on commercial air-transporter; an experimental programme designed to examine the problems associated with the operation of a commercial air-transporter; the design, manufacture and commissioning trials of two powered conveyor units which when combined complete a remotely operated transfer system for transporting crated waste into and within the mock-up facility. (author)

  7. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  8. Accumulation of Domain-Specific Physical Inactivity and Presence of Hypertension in Brazilian Public Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Bruna Camilo; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Romulo A; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and physical inactivity is a risk factor predisposing to its occurrence and complications. However, it is still unclear the association between physical inactivity domains and hypertension, especially in public healthcare systems. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between physical inactivity aggregation in different domains and prevalence of hypertension among users of Brazilian public health system. 963 participants composed the sample. Subjects were divided into quartiles groups according to 3 different domains of physical activity (occupational; physical exercises; and leisure-time and transportation). Hypertension was based on physician diagnosis. Physical inactivity in occupational domain was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (OR = 1.52 [1.05 to 2.21]). The same pattern occurred for physical inactivity in leisure-time (OR = 1.63 [1.11 to 2.39]) and aggregation of physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.46 [1.14 to 5.32]). However, the multivariate-adjusted model showed significant association between hypertension and physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.57 [1.14 to 5.79]). The results suggest an unequal prevalence of hypertension according to physical inactivity across different domains and increasing the promotion of physical activity in the healthcare system is needed.

  9. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Riquelme, Angelica Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  10. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Binken, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect theory tells us. Systems are composed of complementary and interdependent products, such as hardware and software. For instance, a video game system is composed of the video game console, on the one han...

  11. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  12. Peripheral aneurysm rupture in a patient with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelke, Christoph; Sabharwal, Tarun; Reidy, John F. [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, St. Thomas' Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Mohan, Aarthi R. [Department of Chest Medicine, Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, St. Thomas' Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-01

    We describe a patient with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting with sudden haemothorax, due to a ruptured internal mammary artery (IMA) aneurysm 7 years after the corticosteroid treatment was terminated. The unusual imaging findings and the treatment with embolization are discussed with a view to the role of a regular vascular screening in this patient group. (orig.)

  13. Inaction inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, M.; Zeelenberg, M.; van Dijk, E.; Tykocinski, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Inaction inertia occurs when bypassing an initial action opportunity has the effect of decreasing the likelihood that subsequent similar action opportunities will be taken. This overview of the inaction inertia literature demonstrates the impact of inaction inertia on decision making. Based on

  14. The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-04-01

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  16. On conditional residual lifetime and conditional inactivity time of k-out-of-n systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangar, Mahdi; Bairamov, Ismihan

    2015-01-01

    In designing structures of technical systems, the reliability engineers often deal with the reliability analysis of coherent systems. Coherent system has monotone structure function and all components of the system are relevant. This paper considers some particular models of coherent systems having identical components with independent lifetimes. The main purpose of the paper is to study conditional residual lifetime of coherent system, given that at a fixed time certain number of components have failed but still there are some functioning components. Different aging and stochastic properties of variables connected with the conditional residual lifetimes of the coherent systems are obtained. An expression for the parent distribution in terms of conditional mean residual lifetime is provided. The similar result is obtained for the conditional mean inactivity time of the failed components of coherent system. The conditional mean inactivity time of failed components presents an interest in many engineering applications where the reliability of system structure is important for designing and constructing of systems. Some illustrative examples with given particular distributions are also presented. - Highlights: • Comparisons of conditional residual lifetime of k-out-of-n systems are derived. • The behavior of the coherent system is explored for IHR distributions. • The parent distribution is expressed in terms of conditional MRL and MIT. • Some illustrative examples are given to clarify the results of the paper.

  17. Tank Waste Remediation System Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Program Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tank (IMUST) Program. The plan describes management, technical, and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the IMUSTs Program performance. The technical data to determine the IMUSTs status for inclusion in the Single Shell Tank Farm Controlled Clean and Stable (CCS) Program. The second is to identify and implement surveillance, characterization, stabilization, and modifications to support CCS prior to final closure

  18. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Category of Metabolic-Replication Systems in Biology and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    I. C. Baianu

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic-repair models, or (M,R)-systems were introduced in Relational Biology by Robert Rosen. Subsequently, Rosen represented such (M,R)-systems (or simply MRs)in terms of categories of sets, deliberately selected without any structure other than the discrete topology of sets. Theoreticians of life's origins postulated that Life on Earth has begun with the simplest possible organism, called the primordial. Mathematicians interested in biology attempted to answer this important questio...

  20. Category Theory as a Formal Mathematical Foundation for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed; Ryan, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce Category Theory as a formal foundation for model-based systems engineering. A generalised view of the system based on category theory is presented, where any system can be considered as a category. The objects

  1. Category-theoretic models of algebraic computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer system is said to be algebraic if it contains nodes that implement unconventional computation paradigms based on universal algebra. A category-based approach to modeling such systems that provides a theoretical basis for mapping tasks to these systems' architecture is proposed. The construction of algebraic models of general-purpose computations involving conditional statements and overflow control is formally described by a reflector in an appropriate category of algebras. It is proved that this reflector takes the modulo ring whose operations are implemented in the conventional arithmetic processors to the Łukasiewicz logic matrix. Enrichments of the set of ring operations that form bases in the Łukasiewicz logic matrix are found.

  2. Skew category algebras associated with partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundström, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce partially defined dynamical systems defined on a topological space. To each such system we associate a functor s from a category G to Topop and show that it defines what we call a skew category algebra A ⋊σ G. We study the connection between topological freeness of s and, on the one...... hand, ideal properties of A ⋊σ G and, on the other hand, maximal commutativity of A in A ⋊σ G. In particular, we show that if G is a groupoid and for each e ∈ ob(G) the group of all morphisms e → e is countable and the topological space s(e) is Tychonoff and Baire. Then the following assertions...... are equivalent: (i) s is topologically free; (ii) A has the ideal intersection property, i.e. if I is a nonzero ideal of A ⋊σ G, then I ∩ A ≠ {0}; (iii) the ring A is a maximal abelian complex subalgebra of A ⋊σ G. Thereby, we generalize a result by Svensson, Silvestrov and de Jeu from the additive group...

  3. Outcome of pregnancy in patients with inactive systemic lupus erythromatosus and minimal proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshohaib Saad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease. This study was under-taken to assess the outcome of pregnancies in patients with inactive SLE. We prospectively studied 20 female patients with diagnosis of stable class IV Lupus nephritis followed up at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2008. Before each pregnancy all the patients had their blood pressure, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serology for SLE and 24-hour urine protein excretion measured and then repeated at monthly intervals during the pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Despite having negative antinuclear antibody (ANA significant complications were observed during pregnancy. The daily proteinuria during 34-36 weeks′ gestation was significantly higher (P< 0.05 than during 32 weeks. Two patients had abortions one stillbirth and 2 required termination of the pregnancy; one due to severe hypertension, and other due to renal impairment. One patient developed HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome. 14 patients had a successful preg-nancy, including 4 requiring a cesarian section. In conclusion, although no clinical evidence of lupus disease activity was demonstrated pre-conception proteinuria significantly increased during pregnancy along with maternal and fetal complications. Pregnant females with diagnosis of SLE need a multidisciplinary care during the pregnancy and post-partum period.

  4. Simple skew category algebras associated with minimal partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystedt, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we continue our study of category dynamical systems, that is functors s from a category G to Topop, and their corresponding skew category algebras. Suppose that the spaces s(e), for e∈ob(G), are compact Hausdorff. We show that if (i) the skew category algebra is simple, then (ii) G...

  5. Category Theory as a Formal Mathematical Foundation for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed

    2017-01-09

    In this paper, we introduce Category Theory as a formal foundation for model-based systems engineering. A generalised view of the system based on category theory is presented, where any system can be considered as a category. The objects of the category represent all the elements and components of the system and the arrows represent the relations between these components (objects). The relationship between these objects are the arrows or the morphisms in the category. The Olog is introduced as a formal language to describe a given real-world situation description and requirement writing. A simple example is provided.

  6. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  7. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented

  8. Dissociation of Category-Learning Systems via Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Morrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence has suggested that categories can often be learned via either an explicit rule-based mechanism critically dependent on medial temporal and prefrontal brain regions, or via an implicit information-integration mechanism relying on the basal ganglia. In this study, participants viewed sine-wave gratings (i.e., Gabor patches that varied on two dimensions and learned to categorize them via trial-by-trial feedback. Two different stimulus distributions were used; one was intended to encourage an explicit rule-based process and the other an implicit information-integration process. We monitored brain activity with scalp electroencephalography (EEG while each participant (1 passively observed stimuli represented of both distributions, (2 categorized stimuli from one distribution, and, one week later, (3 categorized stimuli from the other distribution. Categorization accuracy was similar for the two distributions. Subtractions of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs for correct and incorrect trials were used to identify neural differences in rule-based and information-integration categorization processes. We identified an occipital brain potential that was differentially modulated by categorization condition accuracy at an early latency (150 - 250 ms, likely reflecting the degree of holistic processing. A stimulus-locked late positive complex associated with explicit memory updating was modulated by accuracy in the rule-based, but not the information-integration task. Likewise, a feedback-locked P300 ERP associated with expectancy was correlated with performance only in the rule-based, but not the information-integration condition. These results provide additional evidence for distinct brain mechanisms supporting rule-based versus implicit information-integration category learning and use.

  9. Poor muscle strength and function in physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus despite very mild disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jéssica Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare muscle strength (i.e. lower- and upper-body strength and function between physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (C-SLE and healthy controls (CTRL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the sample consisted of 19 C-SLE (age between 9 and 18 years and 15 CTRL matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity levels (assessed by accelerometry. Lower- and upper-body strength was assessed by the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM test. Isometric strength was assessed through a handgrip dynamometer. Muscle function was evaluated by the timed-stands test (TST and the timed-up-and-go test (TUG. Results: When compared with CTRL, C-SLE showed lower leg-press and bench-press 1-RM (p = 0.026 and p = 0.008, respectively, and a tendency toward lower handgrip strength (p = 0.052. C-SLE showed lower TST scores (p = 0.036 and a tendency toward higher TUG scores (p = 0.070 when compared with CTRL. Conclusion: Physically inactive C-SLE patients with very mild disease showed reduced muscle strength and functionality when compared with healthy controls matched by physical activity levels. These findings suggest C-SLE patients may greatly suffer from a physically inactive lifestyle than healthy controls do. Moreover, some sub-clinical “residual” effect of the disease or its pharmacological treatment seems to affect C-SLE patients even with a well-controlled disease.

  10. Toward A Dual-Learning Systems Model of Speech Category Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath eChandrasekaran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades of work in vision posits the existence of dual-learning systems of category learning. The reflective system uses working memory to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion, while the reflexive system operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. Dual-learning systems models hypothesize that in learning natural categories, learners initially use the reflective system and, with practice, transfer control to the reflexive system. The role of reflective and reflexive systems in auditory category learning and more specifically in speech category learning has not been systematically examined. In this article we describe a neurobiologically-constrained dual-learning systems theoretical framework that is currently being developed in speech category learning and review recent applications of this framework. Using behavioral and computational modeling approaches, we provide evidence that speech category learning is predominantly mediated by the reflexive learning system. In one application, we explore the effects of normal aging on non-speech and speech category learning. We find an age related deficit in reflective-optimal but not reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Prominently, we find a large age-related deficit in speech learning. The computational modeling suggests that older adults are less likely to transition from simple, reflective, uni-dimensional rules to more complex, reflexive, multi-dimensional rules. In a second application we summarize a recent study examining auditory category learning in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. We find a deficit in reflective-optimal and an enhancement in reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Interestingly, individuals with elevated depressive symptoms also show an advantage in learning speech categories. We end with a brief summary and description of a number of future directions.

  11. Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED): An Alternative System for Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. Timothy; Sysko, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), a residual category in DSM-IV, is the most commonly used eating disorder diagnosis in clinical settings. However, the features of individuals with EDNOS are heterogeneous and difficult to characterize. A diagnostic scheme, termed Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED), is proposed to diminish use of the EDNOS category markedly while preserving the existing eating disorder categories. The BCD-ED scheme consists of three broad categories, in a hierarchical relationship, consisting of: Anorexia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar disorders, Bulimia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar Disorders, Binge Eating Disorder and Behaviorally Similar Disorders, and a residual category of EDNOS. The advantages and disadvantages of adopting this scheme for DSM-V are considered, and issues relevant to BCD-ED are discussed. Specifically, we review the proportion of individuals with DSM-IV EDNOS that would be re-classified under the BCD-ED system, support for the hierarchy of the three categories, and the potential risk of “overdiagnosis.” PMID:19650083

  12. Design demonstrations for Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has conducted research in energy related fields since 1943. The facilities used to conduct the research include nuclear reactors, chemical pilot plants, research laboratories, radioisotope production laboratories, and support facilities. These facilities have produced a variety of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes. These wastes have been stored and transported through an extensive network of piping and tankage. Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B -- Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C -- Existing Tank Systems without Secondary Containment; and Category D -- Existing Tank Systems without Secondary Containment that are; Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category ''B.'' The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from the design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA (Appendix F, Subsection C)

  13. Human parvovirus B19 infection during the inactive stage of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashiro; Saito, Shinichiro; Hirabayashi, Yasuhiko; Harigae, Hideo; Ishii, Tomonori; Kodera, Takao; Fujii, Hiroshi; Munakata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2003-06-01

    A 42-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had an episode of fever, arthralgia and anemia. In order to treat the suspected activation of SLE, the daily dose of steroid was increased, however, the anemia progressed and pancytopenia developed. Both IgM anti-B19 antibodies to human parvovirus B19 (B19) and B19 DNA were positive, and bone marrow analysis revealed pure red cell aplasia with giant proerythroblasts. High dose gamma globulin was administered and the daily dose of steroid was tapered, resulting in the improvement of her condition. B19 infection should be ruled out in cases with reactivation of autoimmune diseases.

  14. Design demonstrations for Category B tank systems piping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Demonstration of the design of the piping systems described in this report is stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 30 piping systems designated in the FFA as Category B (i.e., existing tank systems with secondary containment). Based on the findings of the Design Demonstrations for the Remaining 19 Category B Tank Systems, (DOE/OR/03-1150 ampersand D2), three tank systems originally designated as Category B have been redesignated as Category C (i.e., existing tank systems without secondary containment). The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA (Appendix F, Section C). Deficiencies or restrictions regarding the ability to demonstrate that each of the containment systems conforms to FFA requirements are noted in the discussion of each piping system and presented in Table 2.0-1

  15. B cell signature during inactive systemic lupus is heterogeneous: toward a biological dissection of lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Garaud

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosous (SLE is an autoimmune disease with an important clinical and biological heterogeneity. B lymphocytes appear central to the development of SLE which is characterized by the production of a large variety of autoantibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia. In mice, immature B cells from spontaneous lupus prone animals are able to produce autoantibodies when transferred into immunodeficient mice, strongly suggesting the existence of intrinsic B cell defects during lupus. In order to approach these defects in humans, we compared the peripheral B cell transcriptomas of quiescent lupus patients to normal B cell transcriptomas. When the statistical analysis is performed on the entire group of patients, the differences between patients and controls appear quite weak with only 14 mRNA genes having a false discovery rate ranging between 11 and 17%, with 6 underexpressed genes (PMEPA1, TLR10, TRAF3IP2, LDOC1L, CD1C and EGR1. However, unforced hierarchical clustering of the microarrays reveals a subgroup of lupus patients distinct from both the controls and the other lupus patients. This subgroup has no detectable clinical or immunological phenotypic peculiarity compared to the other patients, but is characterized by 1/an IL-4 signature and 2/the abnormal expression of a large set of genes with an extremely low false discovery rate, mainly pointing to the biological function of the endoplasmic reticulum, and more precisely to genes implicated in the Unfolded Protein Response, suggesting that B cells entered an incomplete BLIMP1 dependent plasmacytic differentiation which was undetectable by immunophenotyping. Thus, this microarray analysis of B cells during quiescent lupus suggests that, despite a similar lupus phenotype, different biological roads can lead to human lupus.

  16. Paired-Associate and Feedback-Based Weather Prediction Tasks Support Multiple Category Learning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kaiyun; Fu, Qiufang; Sun, Xunwei; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear whether probabilistic category learning in the feedback-based weather prediction task (FB-WPT) can be mediated by a non-declarative or procedural learning system. To address this issue, we compared the effects of training time and verbal working memory, which influence the declarative learning system but not the non-declarative learning system, in the FB and paired-associate (PA) WPTs, as the PA task recruits a declarative learning system. The results of Experiment 1 showed...

  17. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1...... inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition...

  18. Design demonstrations for the remaining 19 Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tank systems: Category A--New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B--Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment; and Category D--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment That are Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 19 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. Three tank systems originally designated as Category B have been redesignated as Category C and one tank system originally designated as Category B has been redesignated as Category D. The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from the design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA

  19. Metabolic, Replication and Genomic Category of Systems in Biology, Bioinformatics and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    I. C. Baianu

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic-repair models, or (M,R)-systems were introduced in Relational Biology by Robert Rosen. Subsequently, Rosen represented such (M,R)-systems (or simply MRs)in terms of categories of sets, deliberately selected without any structure other than the discrete topology of sets. Theoreticians of life’s origins postulated that Life on Earth has begun with the simplest possible organism, called the primordial. Mathematicians interested in biology attempted to answer this important quest...

  20. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs

  1. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. Capacity-oriented curriculum system of optoelectronics in the context of large category cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Hu, Zhangfang; Zhang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    In order to cultivate the innovative talents with the comprehensive development to meet the talents demand for development of economic society, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications implements cultivation based on broadening basic education and enrolment in large category of general education. Optoelectronic information science and engineering major belongs to the electronic engineering category. The "2 +2" mode is utilized for personnel training, where students are without major in the first and second year and assigned to a major within the major categories in the end of the second year. In the context of the comprehensive cultivation, for the changes in the demand for professionals in the global competitive environment with the currently rapid development, especially the demand for the professional engineering technology personnel suitable to industry and development of local economic society, the concept of CDIO engineering ability cultivation is used for reference. Thus the curriculum system for the three-node structure optoelectronic information science and engineering major is proposed, which attaches great importance to engineering practice and innovation cultivation under the background of the comprehensive cultivation. The conformity between the curriculum system and the personnel training objectives is guaranteed effectively, and the consistency between the teaching philosophy and the teaching behavior is enhanced. Therefore, the idea of major construction is clear with specific characteristics.

  3. Paired-Associate and Feedback-Based Weather Prediction Tasks Support Multiple Category Learning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiyun; Fu, Qiufang; Sun, Xunwei; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear whether probabilistic category learning in the feedback-based weather prediction task (FB-WPT) can be mediated by a non-declarative or procedural learning system. To address this issue, we compared the effects of training time and verbal working memory, which influence the declarative learning system but not the non-declarative learning system, in the FB and paired-associate (PA) WPTs, as the PA task recruits a declarative learning system. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the optimal accuracy in the PA condition was significantly decreased when the training time was reduced from 7 to 3 s, but this did not occur in the FB condition, although shortened training time impaired the acquisition of explicit knowledge in both conditions. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the concurrent working memory task impaired the optimal accuracy and the acquisition of explicit knowledge in the PA condition but did not influence the optimal accuracy or the acquisition of self-insight knowledge in the FB condition. The apparent dissociation results between the FB and PA conditions suggested that a non-declarative or procedural learning system is involved in the FB-WPT and provided new evidence for the multiple-systems theory of human category learning.

  4. Design demonstrations for Category B tank system piping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Demonstration of the design of the tank systems described in this report is stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 30 piping systems listed in the FFA as Category B (i.e., existing tank systems with secondary containment). The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA (Appendix F, Section C). Deficiencies or restrictions regarding the ability to demonstrate that each of the containment systems conforms to FFA requirements are noted in the discussion of each piping system

  5. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Category (CAT) IIIb Level 1 Test Plan for Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    applications. CAT 11Tb is defined in Advisory Circular ( AC ) 120-28C [1] as "a precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height (DH), or...2) FAA AC 20-57A (Automatic Landing Systems) [31, AC 120-28C (Criteria for Approval of CAT III Landing Weather Minima) [I] and the FAA tunnel-in...AD-A274 098I I~II l~iiUIRII 11111ilIII2 DOT/FAA/RD-93/21 Category ( CAT ) IIb Level 1 MTR 93W0000102 Research and Test Plan for Global Development

  7. Design demonstrations for the remaining 19 Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL has conducted research in energy related fields since 1943. The facilities used to conduct the research include nuclear reactors, chemical pilot plants, research laboratories, radioisotope production laboratories, and support facilities. These facilities have produced a variety of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes that have been transported and stored through an extensive network of piping and tankage. Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tank systems: Category A-New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B-Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C-Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment, and Category D-Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment That are Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 19 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA (Appendix F, Section C)

  8. Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED): An Alternative System for Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, B. Timothy; Sysko, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), a residual category in DSM-IV, is the most commonly used eating disorder diagnosis in clinical settings. However, the features of individuals with EDNOS are heterogeneous and difficult to characterize. A diagnostic scheme, termed Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED), is proposed to diminish use of the EDNOS category markedly while preserving the existing eating disorder categories. The BCD-ED scheme consists of three ...

  9. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  10. Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2011-01-01

    economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006...... coverage of organics in both the inventory and the CF databases. With respect to the intended global character of the USEtoxTM model, different approaches to determine normalization references of other economic systems (e.g. Asia or world) are discussed in relation to these findings. Overall, we thus...... recommend the use of the provided set of normalization references for USEtoxTM, but we also advocate 1) to perform an update as soon as a more comprehensive inventory can be obtained and as soon as characterization factors for metals are revised; 2) to consider extension to other economic systems in order...

  11. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations; Sistema de licenciamiento de instalciones radiactivas de primera categoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Riquelme, Angelica Beatriz

    1998-12-31

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission`s Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population`s health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system`s elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author) Dissertation to obtain the degree of Computing and Informatics Engineer; 10 refs., 48 figs., 34 tabs.

  12. Categories of Profit and Effectiveness of Business Activity in the System of Market Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Musa ogly Ismailov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the interpretation of economic categories “profit” and “effectiveness of business activity”, studies the essence and manifestations of these concepts in business that allows us to consider their place in the system of market valuables. Due to the necessity of a broader view of the success of the business, the author discussed the basic provisions of methodological individualism in the categories of economic theory of property rights. Disclosing them the author focuses on the characteristics which show the formation of operating results in achieving its ultimate goal. Details reveal a mixed situation in respect of the appointment of the rate of profit in modern conditions, the potential motives and incentives of human activity. A list of targeted economic outcomes correlates with the solved economic issues. For example, when you build and study the business model in the form of chains of forming and maintaining value the most appropriate terms that define the goal of firms are profitability, balance and optimality. In this article, the following results are obtained: 1 terminological analysis of targeted economic results, which are put in touch in an appropriate relationship to solve economic problem; 2 conclusion on the profit’s universality and absoluteness loss in direct characterization of business activity effectiveness.

  13. Characterization of the Nencki Affective Picture System by discrete emotional categories (NAPS BE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Monika; Żurawski, Łukasz; Wierzba, Małgorzata; Moslehi, Abnoss; Klocek, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Grabowska, Anna; Michałowski, Jarosław; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2016-06-01

    The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS; Marchewka, Żurawski, Jednoróg, & Grabowska, Behavior Research Methods, 2014) is a standardized set of 1,356 realistic, high-quality photographs divided into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes). NAPS has been primarily standardized along the affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and approach-avoidance, yet the characteristics of discrete emotions expressed by the images have not been investigated thus far. The aim of the present study was to collect normative ratings according to categorical models of emotions. A subset of 510 images from the original NAPS set was selected in order to proportionally cover the whole dimensional affective space. Among these, using three available classification methods, we identified images eliciting distinguishable discrete emotions. We introduce the basic-emotion normative ratings for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS BE), which will allow researchers to control and manipulate stimulus properties specifically for their experimental questions of interest. The NAPS BE system is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use as supplementary materials to this article.

  14. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  15. The classification, cost categories and the system of accounting for uranium resources in the Russian Federation and CIS countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, S.S.; Shumilin, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    In 1992 the uranium resource classification systems of Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Uzbekistan are the same as the system used in the former Soviet Union. The Soviet Union adopted this system as a state law in 1981. Under this system resources are reported as ''in situ'' with no allowance for mining or milling losses and resource depletion. The resources are subdivided according to the degree of exploration and economic value. The classification system divides resources into 7 categories. This includes 3 categories of explored resources (A, B, and C); one of preliminary assessment (C2); and 3 as prognosticated or speculative (P1, P2 and P3). Further analyses and classification is used to determine the readiness for production. This system is used to define the inventory of ''State Balance''. Examples are given for classifying vein-type and rollfront-type sandstone hosted deposits. A discussion of how resources are classified by cost category is given. It is stated, however, that any coincidence between the cost categories used in the former Soviet Union and the cost categories of the IAEA system are ''purely accidental''. (author)

  16. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  17. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trussell, S.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds

  18. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  19. IL-6 blockade in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis - achievement of inactive disease and remission (data from the German AID-registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, M; Husmann, E; Weyandt, N; Haas, J-P; Hügle, B; Horneff, G; Neudorf, U; Lutz, T; Lilienthal, E; Kallinich, T; Tenbrock, K; Berendes, R; Niehues, T; Wittkowski, H; Weißbarth-Riedel, E; Heubner, G; Oommen, P; Klotsche, J; Foell, Dirk; Lainka, E

    2018-04-05

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a complex disease with an autoinflammatory component of unknown etiology related to the innate immune system. A major role in the pathogenesis has been ascribed to proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6), and effective drugs inhibiting their signaling are being developed. This study evaluates sJIA patients treated with the IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab (TCZ) concerning clinical response rate, disease course and adverse effects in a real-life clinical setting. In 2009 a clinical and research consortium was established, including an online registry for autoinflammatory diseases (AID) ( https://aid-register.de ). Data for this retrospective TCZ study were documented by 13 centers. From 7/2009 to 4/2014, 200 patients with sJIA were recorded in the AID-registry. Out of these, 46 (19 m, 27 f, age 1-18 years) received therapy with TCZ. Long term treatment (median 23 months) has been documented in 24/46 patients who were evaluated according to Wallace criteria (active disease 6/24, inactive disease 5/24, remission 13/24 cases). Under observation co-medication were used in 40/46 cases. Adverse events were reported in 11/46 patients. The clinical response rate (no clinical manifestation, no increased inflammation parameters) within the first 12 weeks of treatment was calculated to be 35%. Out of 200 sJIA children reported in the German AID-registry, 46 were treated with TCZ, showing a clinical response rate of 35% during the first 12 weeks, and inactive disease and/or remission under medication in 75% after one year. Adverse events were seen in 24% and severe adverse events in 4%. The AID-Registry is funded by the BMBF (01GM08104, 01GM1112D, 01GM1512D).

  20. Usefulness of ultrasound elastography in reducing the number of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 3 lesions on ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya; Lim, Ji He; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of ultrasound (US) elastography for non-palpable Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 lesions on ultrasonography and to determine whether US elastography is helpful in reducing the number of BI-RADS category 3 lesions on ultrasonography. Two hundred seventy-six consecutive, non-palpable BI-RADS category 3 lesions in 256 women who underwent US elastography and US-guided core biopsy, and who had at least 12 months of follow-up data, comprised our study group. The BI-RADS final assessment category and elasticity score were prospectively and independently classified. The rate of malignancy and NPV according to the elasticity score were analysed. We also investigated whether there was a subset of BI-RADS category 3 lesions that were of benign histology but negative on elastography. Of the 276 non-palpable BI-RADS category 3 lesions, three lesions (1.0%) were finally confirmed as ductal carcinomas in situ. No cancers were found in the remaining 273 lesions with benign biopsy histology at a mean follow-up of 39.4 months (range, 12 to 72 months). The NPV of a negative elasticity score (elasticity score of 1) was 99.3% (165 of 166). If BI-RADS category 3 lesions showing a negative elasticity score were downgraded to BI-RADS category 2, 60.4% (165 of 273) of them with benign histology could have been safely followed without biopsy with an increased malignancy rate from 1% (3 of 276) to 1.8% (2 of 110), which is not significantly higher (P=0.626). US elastography has the potential to reduce the number of BI-RADS category 3 lesions on ultrasonography.

  1. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. These tanks are defined as Category D tanks because they are existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues (i.e., contents after tank has been emptied) and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  2. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  3. Experimental Evaluation of the Failure of a Seismic Design Category - B Precast Concrete Beam-Column Connection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Precast Concrete Beam - Column Connection ...ERDC TR-14-12 December 2014 Experimental Evaluation of the Failure of a Seismic Design Category – B Precast Concrete Beam - Column Connection ...systems in order to develop a methodology and obtain basic insight for predicting the brittle failure of precast beam - column connections under

  4. Grammatical Conception of Yuriy Shevel'ov: Nominative ↔ Vocative in the System of Substantial Categoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Zahnitko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Analysis of Yuriy Shevel'ov’s approaches to the interpretation of the morphological tier of language, as well as his examination of particular phenomena of this level – substantiality, verbality, and others – reflects not only the author's understanding itself of all the grammatical system as a whole, and morphological one in particular, but also represents the features of modification of scientific approaches in the history of linguistic thought of mid-twentieth century, its strengthening in the studies of the XX – XXI century. The researcher’s definition of nominative and vocative cases as interrelated within the categorical substantiality is of particular importance. Purpose: to determine the main components of interpretation of the status dimension of the nominative and vocative cases within morpho-substantial categoriality of Yuriy Shevel'ov with the definition of theoretical foundations and practical principles, revealing the patterns of establishing internal sentence dimension of the nominative and vocative cases. Results: In the case theory with reliance on the sequence of forms of dependencies in the internal sentence space Yuriy Shevel'ov distinguishes five cases: genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, locative. In the statement about the nominative as grammatically independent case the scientist relies on sentence. Two-dimensionality of grammatically independent case opposes to the one-dimensional grammatically dependent nominative that is traceable in syntactic positions of predicate and apposition. Yuriy Shevel'ov did not consider addressing that is not grammatically linked to the sentence with a specific expression as an individual case. The forms of vocative case show functional three-componentity, because in its functional-semantic paradigm it covers the function of the addressee – potential subject of action (primary function that is represented in formal grammar sentence structure by the main element of

  5. Radiology residents' comprehension of the breast imaging reporting and data system: The ultrasound lexicon and final assessment category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye; Roh, Yun Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, You Me

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in interpretation and comprehension of breast ultrasonographic descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to suggest the adequate duration of training in breast ultrasonography. A total of 102 radiology residents working in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. They were asked to answer 16 questions about the ultrasonographic lexicon and 11 questions about the BI-RADS category. We analyzed the proportion of correct answers according to the radiology residents’ year of training and duration of breast imaging training. With respect to the duration of breast imaging training, the proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors ranged from 77.2% to 81.3% (p = 0.368) and the proportion of correct answers for the BI-RADS category was highest after three-four months of training compared with after one month of training (p = 0.033). The proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors and BI-RADS category did not differ significantly according to the year of residency training. Radiology residents' comprehension of the BI-RADS category on breast ultrasonography was not associated with their year of residency training. Based on our findings, radiology residents' assessment of the BI-RADS category was significantly improved with three-four months of training compared with one month of training

  6. Radiology residents' comprehension of the breast imaging reporting and data system: The ultrasound lexicon and final assessment category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye [Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Yun Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Me [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in interpretation and comprehension of breast ultrasonographic descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to suggest the adequate duration of training in breast ultrasonography. A total of 102 radiology residents working in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. They were asked to answer 16 questions about the ultrasonographic lexicon and 11 questions about the BI-RADS category. We analyzed the proportion of correct answers according to the radiology residents’ year of training and duration of breast imaging training. With respect to the duration of breast imaging training, the proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors ranged from 77.2% to 81.3% (p = 0.368) and the proportion of correct answers for the BI-RADS category was highest after three-four months of training compared with after one month of training (p = 0.033). The proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors and BI-RADS category did not differ significantly according to the year of residency training. Radiology residents' comprehension of the BI-RADS category on breast ultrasonography was not associated with their year of residency training. Based on our findings, radiology residents' assessment of the BI-RADS category was significantly improved with three-four months of training compared with one month of training.

  7. Effects of category-specific costs on neural systems for perceptual decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Whiteley, Louise; Hulme, Oliver J; Sahani, Maneesh; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-06-01

    Perceptual judgments are often biased by prospective losses, leading to changes in decision criteria. Little is known about how and where sensory evidence and cost information interact in the brain to influence perceptual categorization. Here we show that prospective losses systematically bias the perception of noisy face-house images. Asymmetries in category-specific cost were associated with enhanced blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal in a frontoparietal network. We observed selective activation of parahippocampal gyrus for changes in category-specific cost in keeping with the hypothesis that loss functions enact a particular task set that is communicated to visual regions. Across subjects, greater shifts in decision criteria were associated with greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our results support a hypothesis that costs bias an intermediate representation between perception and action, expressed via general effects on frontal cortex, and selective effects on extrastriate cortex. These findings indicate that asymmetric costs may affect a neural implementation of perceptual decision making in a similar manner to changes in category expectation, constituting a step toward accounting for how prospective losses are flexibly integrated with sensory evidence in the brain.

  8. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  9. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002?2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n?=?196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. ...

  10. Shifting the Physical Inactivity Curve Worldwide by Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; da Silva, Inacio Crochemore M; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Brown, Wendy J

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) examine gender differences in physical inactivity in countries with different levels of Human Development Index (HDI); and (ii) assess whether small changes in the prevalence of inactivity in women could achieve the World Health Organization's (WHO) global inactivity target. Data on inactivity were extracted for 142 countries for the year 2010 from the WHO Data Repository. Data for HDI were obtained for the year 2010 from the United Nations Development Program. Absolute and relative gender differences were calculated for countries according to four HDI categories. The potential effects of increasing women's activity levels on achievement of the WHO physical inactivity target were computed. Overall inactivity prevalence was higher in women (27%) than in men (20%). Women were more inactive than men in all except eight countries. Absolute gender differences [median 7.5% (range -10.1 to 33.2)] did not vary by HDI category, but there was a small negative correlation between relative gender difference in inactivity and HDI (rho -0.19; p = 0.02), which was mostly influenced by three outlier countries with low HDI. A decrease in inactivity levels of 4.8% points among women across the world would achieve the WHO target of reducing global levels of inactivity by 10%. Gender differences in the prevalence of physical inactivity were highly variable, both within and across categories of HDI. Interventions which result in small changes in inactivity prevalence in women would achieve the 2025 WHO global target for inactivity, without any change to the prevalence in men.

  11. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  12. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  13. Effects of category-specific costs on neural systems for perceptual decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Hulme, Oliver James

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual judgments are often biased by prospective losses, leading to changes in decision criteria. Little is known about how and where sensory evidence and cost information interact in the brain to influence perceptual categorization. Here we show that prospective losses systematically bias...... functions enact a particular task set that is communicated to visual regions. Across subjects, greater shifts in decision criteria were associated with greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our results support a hypothesis that costs bias an intermediate representation between...... perception and action, expressed via general effects on frontal cortex, and selective effects on extrastriate cortex. These findings indicate that asymmetric costs may affect a neural implementation of perceptual decision making in a similar manner to changes in category expectation, constituting a step...

  14. Multiple category-lot quality assurance sampling: a new classification system with application to schistosomiasis control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Olives

    Full Text Available Originally a binary classifier, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS has proven to be a useful tool for classification of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni into multiple categories (≤10%, >10 and <50%, ≥50%, and semi-curtailed sampling has been shown to effectively reduce the number of observations needed to reach a decision. To date the statistical underpinnings for Multiple Category-LQAS (MC-LQAS have not received full treatment. We explore the analytical properties of MC-LQAS, and validate its use for the classification of S. mansoni prevalence in multiple settings in East Africa.We outline MC-LQAS design principles and formulae for operating characteristic curves. In addition, we derive the average sample number for MC-LQAS when utilizing semi-curtailed sampling and introduce curtailed sampling in this setting. We also assess the performance of MC-LQAS designs with maximum sample sizes of n=15 and n=25 via a weighted kappa-statistic using S. mansoni data collected in 388 schools from four studies in East Africa.Overall performance of MC-LQAS classification was high (kappa-statistic of 0.87. In three of the studies, the kappa-statistic for a design with n=15 was greater than 0.75. In the fourth study, where these designs performed poorly (kappa-statistic less than 0.50, the majority of observations fell in regions where potential error is known to be high. Employment of semi-curtailed and curtailed sampling further reduced the sample size by as many as 0.5 and 3.5 observations per school, respectively, without increasing classification error.This work provides the needed analytics to understand the properties of MC-LQAS for assessing the prevalance of S. mansoni and shows that in most settings a sample size of 15 children provides a reliable classification of schools.

  15. Detrimental effects of physical inactivity on neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton Lippert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with neurological disorders exhibit a variety of physical and psychiatric symptoms, including muscle atrophy, general immobility, and depression. Patients who participate in physical rehabilitation at times show unexpected clinical improvement, which includes diminished depression and other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS disorders, transplantation of exogenous stem cells, and enhancing the endogenous neurogenesis. The latter therapy utilizes a natural method of re-innervating the injured brain, which may mend neurological impairments. In this study, we examine how inactivity-induced atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, alters neurogenesis in rats. The hypothesis is that inactivity inhibits neurogenesis by decreasing circulation growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth or neurotrophic factors. The restriction modifies neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS, the stem cell microenvironment is examined by the trophic and growth factors, including stress-related proteins. Despite growing evidence revealing the benefits of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the opposing theory involving "physical inactivity," which simulates pathological states, continues to be neglected. This novel theory will allow us to explore the effects on neurogenesis by an intransigent stem cell microenvironment likely generated by inactivity. 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are suggested identifiers of neurogenesis, while evaluation of spontaneous movements will give insight into the psychomotor effects of inactivity. Investigations devised to show how in vivo stimulation, or lack thereof, affects the stem cell microenvironment are necessary to establish

  16. Decreasing Physical Inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration Employee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Schmunk, Sandra K; Awosika, Ebi R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee population. The approach included (1) initiatives to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace; (2) two operational surveys to assess system-wide service provision; and (3) two national employee surveys. From 2010 to 2012, 86 employee fitness centers were completed in VA medical centers. A grants program (2010 to 2015) funded smaller projects designed to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace. Projects involved the provision of equipment to decrease sedentary behaviors, including stability balls, treadmill and sit-to-stand desks, stairwell projects, and funding for on-site fitness classes, bicycle racks, and outdoor par courses and walking paths among others. A comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in VHA employees was successful. Overall, self-reported, age-adjusted physical inactivity in VHA employees decreased from 25.3% in 2010 to 16.1% in 2015.

  17. Categorial Ontology of Complex Systems, Meta-Systems and Levels: The Emergence of Life, Human Consciousness and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Glazebrook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Relational structures of organisms and the human mind are naturally represented in terms of novel variable topology concepts, non-Abelian categories and Higher Dimensional Algebra{ relatively new concepts that would be defined in
    this tutorial paper. A unifying theme of local-to-global approaches to organismic development, evolution and human consciousness leads to novel patterns of relations that emerge in super- and ultra- complex systems in terms of compositions of local procedures [1]. The claim is defended in this paper that human consciousness is unique and should be viewed as an ultra-complex, global process of processes, at a meta-level not sub{summed by, but compatible with, human brain dynamics [2]-[5]. The emergence of consciousness and its existence
    are considered to be dependent upon an extremely complex structural and functional unit with an asymmetric network topology and connectivities{the human brain. However, the appearance of human consciousness is shown to be critically dependent upon societal co-evolution, elaborate language-symbolic communication and `virtual', higher dimensional, non{commutative processes involving separate space and time perceptions. Theories of the mind are approached from the theory of levels and ultra-complexity viewpoints that throw
    new light on previous semantic models in cognitive science. Anticipatory systems and complex causality at the top levels of reality are discussed in the context of psychology, sociology and ecology. A paradigm shift towards non-commutative, or more generally, non-Abelian theories of highly complex dynamics [6] is suggested to unfold now in physics, mathematics, life and cognitive sciences, thus leading to the realizations of higher dimensional algebras in neurosciences and psychology, as well as in human genomics, bioinformatics and interactomics. The presence of strange attractors in modern society dynamics gives rise to very serious concerns for the future

  18. Coronary artery disease reporting and data system (CAD-RADSTM): Inter-observer agreement for assessment categories and modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroules, Christopher D; Hamilton-Craig, Christian; Branch, Kelley; Lee, James; Cury, Roberto C; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Thomas, Dustin; Williams, Michelle; Guo, Yanshu; Cury, Ricardo C

    The Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) provides a lexicon and standardized reporting system for coronary CT angiography. To evaluate inter-observer agreement of the CAD-RADS among an panel of early career and expert readers. Four early career and four expert cardiac imaging readers prospectively and independently evaluated 50 coronary CT angiography cases using the CAD-RADS lexicon. All readers assessed image quality using a five-point Likert scale, with mean Likert score ≥4 designating high image quality, and CAD-RADS assessment categories and modifiers were assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC) and Fleiss' Kappa (κ).The impact of reader experience and image quality on inter-observer agreement was also examined. Inter-observer agreement for CAD-RADS assessment categories was excellent (ICC 0.958, 95% CI 0.938-0.974, p CAD-RADS assessment categories and modifiers is excellent, except for high-risk plaque (modifier V) which demonstrates fair agreement. These results suggest CAD-RADS is feasible for clinical implementation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The Effect of Feedback Delay on Perceptual Category Learning and Item Memory: Further Limits of Multiple Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Rachel G; Kalish, Michael L

    2018-02-01

    Delayed feedback during categorization training has been hypothesized to differentially affect 2 systems that underlie learning for rule-based (RB) or information-integration (II) structures. We tested an alternative possibility: that II learning requires more precise item representations than RB learning, and so is harmed more by a delay interval filled with a confusable mask. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of feedback delay on memory for RB and II exemplars, both without and with concurrent categorization training. Without the training, II items were indeed more difficult to recognize than RB items, but there was no detectable effect of delay on item memory. In contrast, with concurrent categorization training, there were effects of both category structure and delayed feedback on item memory, which were related to corresponding changes in category learning. However, we did not observe the critical selective impact of delay on II classification performance that has been shown previously. Our own results were also confirmed in a follow-up study (Experiment 3) involving only categorization training. The selective influence of feedback delay on II learning appears to be contingent on the relative size of subgroups of high-performing participants, and in fact does not support that RB and II category learning are qualitatively different. We conclude that a key part of successfully solving perceptual categorization problems is developing more precise item representations, which can be impaired by delayed feedback during training. More important, the evidence for multiple systems of category learning is even weaker than previously proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Cost of Policy Inaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkes, J.A.; Brauer, I.; Ten Brink, P.; Gorlach, B.; Kuik, O.J.; Medhurst, J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to lay out reasonable expectations of COPI as an assessment instrument. This includes aspects such as potential messages; important technical issues; limitations; issues of focus, direction and process; key information gaps; added value. The scope of this study is environment policy at the EU level, touching on policy areas that are not labelled 'environment' but are nevertheless relevant to the issue of cost of policy non-action regarding the environment. The study reflects on methods to assess COPI in money terms but also considers non-monetary endpoints, such as the number of premature deaths. The study aims to illuminate which stages of the policy making process the concept of COPI can best support. Our interpretation of what DG ENV seeks, in relation to COPI, is: economic thinking, but not too narrow, as an element of a communication strategy. This led us to consider inter alia the possibilities to apply the COPI concept to environmental-related policy as a whole - next to, or contrasted with, other EU priorities. Realism has been an important consideration: this study tries to provide ideas to DG ENV for pragmatic use of the COPI concept. That requires a balance between, or a proper combination and sequencing of, the quick-and-simple and the thorough-but-costly. The study reflects on both and eventually recommends a combination of mostly smaller studies in four distinct categories. In view of this we included in this scoping study elements of COPI methodology that can be of practical use in designing and committing follow-up work. This includes a two-page methodological summary, a section on important design choices, a framework for a COPI program, populated with some examples of good topics for COPI studies that seem double. Although the production of this scoping study has been a small project, it was nevertheless undertaken by five organizations in order to connect with as much practical experience as possible. GHK experience

  1. Seismic simulation and functional performance evaluation of a safety related, seismic category I control room emergency air cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, D.K.; Porco, R.D.; Choi, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Under a nuclear contract MSA was required to design, manufacture, seismically test and functionally test a complete Safety Related, Seismic Category I, Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System before shipment to the Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Station in Rowe, Massachusetts. The installation of this system was required to satisfy the NRC requirements of NUREG-0737, Section III, D.3.4, ''Control Room Habitability''. The filter system tested was approximately 3 ft. wide by 8 ft. high by 18 ft. long and weighed an estimated 8300 pounds. It had a design flow rate of 3000 SCFM and contained four stages of filtration - prefilters, upstream and downstream HEPA filters and Type II sideload charcoal adsorber cells. The filter train design followed the guidelines set forth by ANSI/ASME N509-1980. Seismic Category I Qualification Testing consisted of resonance search testing and triaxial random multifrequency testing. In addition to ANSI/ASME N510-1980 testing, triaxial response accelerometers were placed at specific locations on designated prefilters, HEPA filters, charcoal adsorbers and test canisters along with accelerometers at the corresponding filter seal face locations. The purpose of this test was to demonstrate the integrity of the filters, filter seals, and monitor seismic response levels which is directly related to the system's ability to function during a seismic occurrence. The Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System demonstrated the ability to withstand the maximum postulated earthquake for the plant site by remaining structurally sound and functional

  2. Multiple category-lot quality assurance sampling: a new classification system with application to schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Valadez, Joseph J; Brooker, Simon J; Pagano, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Originally a binary classifier, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) has proven to be a useful tool for classification of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni into multiple categories (≤10%, >10 and LQAS (MC-LQAS) have not received full treatment. We explore the analytical properties of MC-LQAS, and validate its use for the classification of S. mansoni prevalence in multiple settings in East Africa. We outline MC-LQAS design principles and formulae for operating characteristic curves. In addition, we derive the average sample number for MC-LQAS when utilizing semi-curtailed sampling and introduce curtailed sampling in this setting. We also assess the performance of MC-LQAS designs with maximum sample sizes of n=15 and n=25 via a weighted kappa-statistic using S. mansoni data collected in 388 schools from four studies in East Africa. Overall performance of MC-LQAS classification was high (kappa-statistic of 0.87). In three of the studies, the kappa-statistic for a design with n=15 was greater than 0.75. In the fourth study, where these designs performed poorly (kappa-statistic less than 0.50), the majority of observations fell in regions where potential error is known to be high. Employment of semi-curtailed and curtailed sampling further reduced the sample size by as many as 0.5 and 3.5 observations per school, respectively, without increasing classification error. This work provides the needed analytics to understand the properties of MC-LQAS for assessing the prevalance of S. mansoni and shows that in most settings a sample size of 15 children provides a reliable classification of schools.

  3. Level trend analysis summary report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities have produced liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that is radioactive and/or hazardous. Storage tanks have been used to collect and store these wastes. Most of the collection system, including the tanks, is located below the ground surface. Many of the systems have been removed from service (i.e., are not inactive) but contain residual amounts of waste liquid and sludges. A plan of action has been developed by DOE to ensure that environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive tanks system are minimized. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) does not require any type of testing or monitoring for the inactive LLLW tanks that are removed from service but does require waste characterization of tanks contents, risk characterization of tanks removed from service, and remediation of the inactive tanks and their contents. This report is form information only and is not required by the FFA. It includes a description of the methodology and results of level trend analyses for the Category D tanks listed in the FFA that currently belong to the Environmental Restoration Program

  4. Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs: Identification of Job Categories Potentially Exposed throughout the Hospital Medication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yip Hon

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: We found drug contamination on select surfaces at every stage of the medication system, which indicates the existence of an exposure potential throughout the facility. Our results suggest that a broader range of workers are potentially exposed than has been previously examined. These results will allow us to develop a more inclusive exposure assessment encompassing all healthcare workers that are at risk throughout the hospital medication system.

  5. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002-2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n = 196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. Economic development (GDP/c), degree of urbanization, and the Human Development Index (HDI) were used to measure country-level variables and physical inactivity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association among country-level factors, individual occupational status, and physical inactivity. Overall, the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity in 2002-2003 was 23.7%. Individuals working in the white-collar industry compared to agriculture were 84% more likely to be physically inactive (OR: 1.84, CI: 1.73-1.95). Among low- and middle-income countries increased HDI values were associated with decreased levels of physical inactivity (OR: 0.98, CI: 0.97-0.99). This study is one of the first to adjust for within-country differences, specifically occupation while analyzing physical inactivity. As countries experience economic development, changes are also seen in their occupational structure, which result in increased countrywide physical inactivity levels.

  7. Average inactivity time model, associated orderings and reliability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayid, M.; Izadkhah, S.; Abouammoh, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study a new model called 'average inactivity time model'. This new model is specifically applicable to handle the heterogeneity of the time of the failure of a system in which some inactive items exist. We provide some bounds for the mean average inactivity time of a lifespan unit. In addition, we discuss some dependence structures between the average variable and the mixing variable in the model when original random variable possesses some aging behaviors. Based on the conception of the new model, we introduce and study a new stochastic order. Finally, to illustrate the concept of the model, some interesting reliability problems are reserved.

  8. Napping-Ultra Flash Profile as a Tool for Category Identification and Subsequent Model System Formulation of Caramel Corn Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Emily; Schmidt, Shelly; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-07-01

    In a novel approach to formulation, the flash descriptive profiling technique Napping-Ultra Flash Profile (Napping-UFP) was used to characterize a wide range of commercial caramel corn products. The objectives were to identify product categories, develop model systems based on product categories, and correlate analytical parameters with sensory terms generated through the Napping-UFP exercise. In one 2 h session, 12 panelists participated in 4 Napping-UFP exercises, describing and grouping, on a 43×56 cm paper sheet, 12 commercial caramel corn samples by degree of similarity, globally and in terms of aroma-by-mouth, texture, and taste. The coordinates of each sample's placement on the paper sheet and descriptive terms generated by the panelists were used to conduct Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) and hierarchical clustering of the samples. Strong trends in the clustering of samples across the 4 Napping-UFP exercises resulted in the determination of 3 overarching types of commercial caramel corn: "small-scale dark" (typified by burnt, rich caramel corn), "large-scale light" (typified by light and buttery caramel corn), and "large-scale dark" (typified by sweet and molasses-like caramel corn). Representative samples that best exemplified the properties of each category were used as guides in the formulation of 3 model systems that represent the spread of commercial caramel corn products. Analytical testing of the commercial products, including aw measurement, moisture content determination, and thermal characterization via differential scanning calorimetry, were conducted and results related to sensory descriptors using Spearman's correlation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. MUSICOLOGY AS AN EVOLUTIONARY SYSTEM OF THE MUSICAL THINKING CATEGORIES (PROPOSED FORAMETHODOLOGICAL-HERMENEUTICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARAZ OLEG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of musicology as a science is due yo Guido Adler’s foundation act of 1885. The dialectical formulation of musicology as an interaction between systematic and historical disciplines were to confer it sufficien methodological force so that the newly invented science could become practicable as soon as possible. Historically being a descendant of the German historical method (Leopold von Ranke and the one contemporary with positivism (Auguste Comte, musicology affirms itself quickly as an academic discipline (begun by Wilhelm von Humboldt and takes in both sociology (Max Weber and hermeneutics (Hermann Kretzschmar as constituent disciplines. In one sense, musicology presented itself as an open conceptual system, permeable to the evolutionary changes of the thinking field and musical practices and, in a second sense, the methodology of systematic conceptual organization was oriented towards the university teaching field as an offer for pedagogical and research activities. In our text, we propose a hipothesis of approaching the conceptual system of musicology as a cosubstantional system of botn the constituent parts — the systematic and the historical ones, in such a way motivating and explaining its dialectical-evolutionary nature.

  10. Conception of a heat storage system for household applications. Category: New product innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thomas [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany); Rammelberg, Holger U.; Roennebeck, Thomas [and others

    2012-07-01

    Almost 90% of the energy consumption of private households in Germany is used for heating. Thus, an efficient, sustainable and reliable heat management is one of the main challenges in the future. Heat storage will become a key technology when considering the daily, weekly, seasonal and unpredictable fluctuations of energy production with renewables. The storage of heat is much more volume- and energy-efficient as well as more economical than electricity storage. However, transport of heat over long distances is coupled with high losses, compared with electricity transport. Therefore, we propose the use of micro CHP in combination with volume-efficient and nearly loss-free heat storage to counteract electricity fluctuations. Focus of this contribution the conception of the large-scale project ''Thermal Battery'', funded by the European Union and the Federal State of Lower Saxony. The underlying principle is the utilization of reversible thermochemical reactions, such as dehydration and rehydration of salt hydrates for heat storage. The main goal is the development of a prototypical storage tank, which is capable of storing 80 kWh of heat with a system volume of less than 1 m{sup 3}. Importantly, the Vattenfall New Energy Services as a collaboration partner will support the development of an application-oriented heat storage device. This project is being carried out by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, chemists, physicists and environmental scientists.

  11. Does the high nucleic acid content of individual bacterial cells allow us to discriminate between active cells and inactive cells in aquatic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron, P; Servais, P; Agogué, H; Courties, C; Joux, F

    2001-04-01

    The nucleic acid contents of individual bacterial cells as determined with three different nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes (SYBR I, SYBR II, and SYTO 13) and flow cytometry were compared for different seawater samples. Similar fluorescence patterns were observed, and bacteria with high apparent nucleic acid contents (HNA) could be discriminated from bacteria with low nucleic acid contents (LNA). The best discrimination between HNA and LNA cells was found when cells were stained with SYBR II. Bacteria in different water samples collected from seven freshwater, brackish water, and seawater ecosystems were prelabeled with tritiated leucine and then stained with SYBR II. After labeling and staining, HNA, LNA, and total cells were sorted by flow cytometry, and the specific activity of each cellular category was determined from leucine incorporation rates. The HNA cells were responsible for most of the total bacterial production, and the specific activities of cells in the HNA population varied between samples by a factor of seven. We suggest that nucleic acid content alone can be a better indicator of the fraction of growing cells than total counts and that this approach should be combined with other fluorescent physiological probes to improve detection of the most active cells in aquatic systems.

  12. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  13. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  14. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive lifestyle ... By not getting regular exercise, you raise your risk of Obesity Heart diseases, including coronary artery disease ...

  15. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds

  16. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds.

  17. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds.

  18. Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

  19. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Djalalinia, Shirin; Mirarefin, Mojdeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samami, Elham; Mansourian, Morteza; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year. Quality assessment and data extraction has been conducted independently by two independent research experts. There were no limitations for time and language. Results: We analyzed data for prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian population. According to our search strategy we found 254 records; of them 185 were from international databases and the remaining 69 were obtained from national databases after refining the data, 34 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction. From them respectively; 9, 20, 2 and 3 studies were at national, provincial, regional and local levels. The estimates for inactivity ranged from approximately 30% to almost 70% and had considerable variation between sexes and studied sub-groups. Conclusion: In Iran, most of studies reported high prevalence of physical inactivity. Our findings reveal a heterogeneity of reported values, often from differences in study design, measurement tools and methods, different target groups and sub-population sampling. These data do not provide the possibility of aggregation of data for a comprehensive inference.

  20. Recommendation for incorporation of a different lymph node scoring system in future AJCC N category for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Chen, Po-Chun; Huang, Chung-I; Huang, Wei-Lun; Lin, Yu-Wei; Yang, Ching-Chieh

    2017-10-26

    To compare the prognostic value of 3 different lymph node scoring systems " log odds of positive nodes (LODDS), lymph node ratio (rN), and lymph node yield " in an effort to improve the staging of oral cancer. We identified 3958 oral cancer patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 2007 to 2013. In univariate analysis, LODDS, pN, rN, and lymph node yield were prognostic factors for 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis indicated that patients with LODDS 4 had worst 5-year DSS and OS. Stage migration occurred in pN1 and pN2 patients with LODDS 4. In pN1 patients, those with LODDS 4 had the worst 5-year DSS (41.2%) and OS (31.6%) than patients with pN1 and LODDS 2-3. In pN2 patients, those with LODDS4 had the worst 5-year DSS (34.5%) and OS (27.4%) than patients with pN2 and LODDS 2-3. The proposed staging system, which incorporates LODDS with AJCC pN, had better discriminability and prediction accuracy for predicting survival. We also noted that patients with LODDS 4 given adjuvant radiotherapy had better 5-year DSS and OS. The LODDS should be considered as a future candidate measurement for N category in oral cancer.

  1. Amplitude mediated chimera states with active and inactive oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rupak; Sen, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    The emergence and nature of amplitude mediated chimera states, spatio-temporal patterns of co-existing coherent and incoherent regions, are investigated for a globally coupled system of active and inactive Ginzburg-Landau oscillators. The existence domain of such states is found to shrink and shift in parametric space with the increase in the fraction of inactive oscillators. The role of inactive oscillators is found to be twofold—they get activated to form a separate region of coherent oscillations and, in addition, decrease the common collective frequency of the coherent regions by their presence. The dynamical origin of these effects is delineated through a bifurcation analysis of a reduced model system that is based on a mean field approximation. Our results may have practical implications for the robustness of such states in biological or physical systems where age related deterioration in the functionality of components can occur.

  2. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  3. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  4. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  5. Development and Application of a Category System to Describe Pre-Service Science Teachers' Activities in the Process of Scientific Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Walzer, Christine; Hergert, Susann; Krüger, Dirk

    2017-09-01

    As part of their professional competencies, science teachers need an elaborate meta-modelling knowledge as well as modelling skills in order to guide and monitor modelling practices of their students. However, qualitative studies about (pre-service) science teachers' modelling practices are rare. This study provides a category system which is suitable to analyse and to describe pre-service science teachers' modelling activities and to infer modelling strategies. The category system was developed based on theoretical considerations and was inductively refined within the methodological frame of qualitative content analysis. For the inductive refinement, modelling practices of pre-service teachers (n = 4) have been video-taped and analysed. In this study, one case was selected to demonstrate the application of the category system to infer modelling strategies. The contribution of this study for science education research and science teacher education is discussed.

  6. Progression of Treated versus Untreated Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System Category 4 Masses after Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, James; Gupta, Rajan T; Marin, Daniele; Wang, Qi; Durocher, Nicholas S; Suhocki, Paul V; Kim, Charles Y

    2018-05-01

    To compare outcomes of treated vs untreated Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 4 (LR-4) masses after transcatheter arterial embolization. In 167 patients undergoing embolization for HCC from January 2005 to December 2012, LR-4 masses were retrospectively identified on CT and MR imaging examinations performed before embolization. In 149 patients undergoing embolization from January 2013 to December 2016, masses prospectively classified as LR-4 were identified. In total, there were 81 LR-4 masses in 62 patients (16 women; mean age 62 y; range 29-83 y). Procedures were reviewed to determine whether LR-4 masses were within or outside the liver volume that received embolization during treatment of dominant masses. Time to progression to LR-5 and by modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) was estimated for treated vs untreated LR-4 masses using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log rank test. LR-4 masses averaged 1.8 cm; 88%, 60%, 14%, and 14% demonstrated arterial phase hyperenhancement, washout, a capsule, and growth. Of LR-4 masses, 62 were within the liver volume that received embolization and considered treated, and 19 were outside and considered untreated. Response rates according to mRECIST were 37% vs 21% for treated vs untreated masses (P = .27). The 6- and 12-month rates of progression to LR-5 were 7% and 26% for treated masses vs 27% and 75% for untreated masses (P = .001). According to mRECIST, 7% and 27% of treated masses progressed vs 30% and 65% of untreated masses (P = .001). LR-4 masses that receive embolization in the setting of dominant masses elsewhere show lower rates of progression compared with untreated masses. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  8. A study of malignancy rates in different diagnostic categories of the Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology: An institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arul

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our study validated the efficacy of TBSRTC. In conclusion, the malignancy rate of AUS/FLUS in this study was higher than the risk mentioned in TBSRTC and other published studies. Hence, AUS/FLUS category patients in our setup warrant further workup including ultrasound and/or thyroid scan in addition to immediate repeat FNAC.

  9. Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Paul Daniel; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.; Shinogle, Judith Ann

    2004-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Obesity and physical inactivity are common in the United States, but few studies examine this issue within rural populations. The present study uses nationally representative data to study obesity and physical inactivity in rural populations. Methods: Data came from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult and…

  10. Documentation and Analysis of the ’Miscellaneous’ Account Category within the DoD Instruction 7220.29-H Depot Level Maintenance Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    34MISCELLANEOUS" ACCOUNT CATEGORY WITHIN THE DOD INSTRUCTION 7220.29-H DEPOT LEVEL MAINTENANCE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM by a. Steven Eugene Lehr CDecember 1984...PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER Maintenance Cost Accounting System 7. AUTHOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) Steven Eugene Lehr 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Availability Codes IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse *ids It necessary and Identify by block number) Dvi Special Uniform Cost Accounting System DoD

  11. A job analysis of selected health workers in a district health system in KwaZulu Natal - Part three: Other categories of health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Groenewald

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This article described the third part of a study aimed at doing a job analysis of nurses and non-professional health workers in a district health system. This article describes the tasks of five categories of workers, their training and their work-load over an ordinary week.

  12. 1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results

  13. 1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results.

  14. Performance of a five category front-of-pack labelling system - the 5-colour nutrition label - to differentiate nutritional quality of breakfast cereals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge

    2015-02-25

    Breakfast cereals exhibit a wide variability in nutritional quality, and differences are not easily grasped by consumers. A simplified nutritional information system might contribute to help consumers make healthier food choices. A five-category colour label based on the Food Standards Agency Nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been proposed in France to be implemented on the front-of-pack of foods (the five-colour nutrition label - 5-CNL). Objectives were to evaluate the ability of the 5-CNL to discriminate nutritional quality between types of breakfast cereals, within a category and in equivalent products, as well as its ability to change through product reformulation. Nutritional information was collected through an Internet and supermarket research for N = 433 breakfast cereals (N = 380 complete data included in the analyses). Breakfast cereals were categorized according to common attributes in terms of processing and/or ingredients used. The FSA score and 5-CNL category allocation were computed for each cereal. Nutrient content and FSA score were compared across types of cereals. Distribution within the 5-CNL categories was assessed across types of cereals and for equivalent products. Impact of reformulation (reduction of 5 and 10% in simple sugar, saturated fat and sodium) on the 5-CNL category allocation was compared to original allocation with Bapkhar's tests of homogeneity of marginal distribution. Variability in nutritional quality of breakfast cereals was high, as reflected by the FSA score (range -7- 22 for a theoretical range of -15-40) and the 5-CNL (all five categories represented). The 5-CNL allowed for discrimination across types of cereals, within categories of breakfast cereals and for equivalent products (at least 3 categories of the 5-CNL represented). Reformulation scenarios allowed for significant change in 5-CNL allocation: 5% reduction in sugar lead to a modification of the label for 4.21% of products while a reduction of 10

  15. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  16. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Silva, Shana Ginar da

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  17. Are lung imaging reporting and data system categories clear to radiologists? A survey of the Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology members on ten difficult -to classify scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Hee; Ahn, Myeong Im [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chong, Se Min [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate possible variability in chest radiologists' interpretations of the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) on difficult-to-classify scenarios. Ten scenarios of difficult-to-classify imaginary lung nodules were prepared as an online survey that targeted Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology members. In each question, a description was provided of the size, consistency, and interval change (new or growing) of a lung nodule observed using annual repeat computed tomography, and the respondent was instructed to choose one answer from five choices: category 2, 3, 4A, or 4B, or 'un-categorizable.' Consensus answers were established by members of the Korean Imaging Study Group for Lung Cancer. Of the 420 answers from 42 respondents (excluding multiple submissions), 310 (73.8%) agreed with the consensus answers; eleven (26.2%) respondents agreed with the consensus answers to six or fewer questions. Assigning the imaginary nodules to categories higher than the consensus answer was more frequent (16.0%) than assigning them to lower categories (5.5%), and the agreement rate was below 50% for two scenarios. When given difficult-to-classify scenarios, chest radiologists showed large variability in their interpretations of the Lung-RADS categories, with high frequencies of disagreement in some specific scenarios.

  18. Hypoxia Aggravates Inactivity-Related Muscle Wasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor musculoskeletal state is commonly observed in numerous clinical populations such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and heart failure patients. It, however, remains unresolved whether systemic hypoxemia, typically associated with such clinical conditions, directly contributes to muscle deterioration. We aimed to experimentally elucidate the effects of systemic environmental hypoxia upon inactivity-related muscle wasting. For this purpose, fourteen healthy, male participants underwent three 21-day long interventions in a randomized, cross-over designed manner: (i bed rest in normoxia (NBR; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg, (ii bed rest in normobaric hypoxia (HBR; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg and ambulatory confinement in normobaric hypoxia (HAmb; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and after the interventions to obtain thigh and calf muscle cross-sectional areas and muscle fiber phenotype changes, respectively. A significant reduction of thigh muscle size following NBR (-6.9%, SE 0.8%; P < 0.001 was further aggravated following HBR (-9.7%, SE 1.2%; P = 0.027. Bed rest-induced muscle wasting in the calf was, by contrast, not exacerbated by hypoxic conditions (P = 0.47. Reductions in both thigh (-2.7%, SE 1.1%, P = 0.017 and calf (-3.3%, SE 0.7%, P < 0.001 muscle size were noted following HAmb. A significant and comparable increase in type 2× fiber percentage of the vastus lateralis muscle was noted following both bed rest interventions (NBR = +3.1%, SE 2.6%, HBR = +3.9%, SE 2.7%, P < 0.05. Collectively, these data indicate that hypoxia can exacerbate inactivity-related muscle wasting in healthy active participants and moreover suggest that the combination of both, hypoxemia and lack of activity, as seen in COPD patients, might be particularly harmful for muscle tissue.

  19. The Cognitive Infrastructures of Markets: Empirical Studies on the Role of Categories in Valuation and Competition, and a Formal Theory of Classification Systems Based on Lattices and Order

    OpenAIRE

    Piazzai, M.

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how the information encoded by category labels is interpreted by agents in a market for the purpose of decision-making. To this end, we first examine the influence of categorization on economic and strategic outcomes with two empirical studies, and then use the insights provided by these studies to develop a formal theory of classification systems. Consistently with Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), this theory builds on the fundamental mathematical no...

  20. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  1. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  2. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  3. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of inactive creatine kinase B protein in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnam, M H; Shell, W E [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). School of Medicine

    1981-08-27

    The authors describe a rapid, sensitive radioimmunoassay for enzymatically inactive creatine kinase B protein (CK-Bi) in plasma. /sup 125/I-CK-Bi of high specific activity and good stability was prepared by oxidant-based iodination. A 12-minute first antibody incubation was used. Bound and free antigen were separated by a second antibody system. Large excesses of purified CK-MM from human skeletal muscle did not react in the assay. Cross reactivity to CK-MB purified from the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction was negligible. The 95th percentile of plasma CK-Bi in 150 adults was 145 ..mu..g equivalents/ml. Within-assay and between-assay precision ranged from 5% to 9% and 6% to 10%, respectively. Evidence is presented indicating that the assay measures inactive creatine kinase B protein, a protein not measured by current assay systems dependent on biological activity.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of inactive creatine kinase B protein in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnam, M.H.; Shell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a rapid, sensitive radioimmunoassay for enzymatically inactive creatine kinase B protein (CK-Bi) in plasma. 125 I-CK-Bi of high specific activity and good stability was prepared by oxidant-based iodination. A 12-minute first antibody incubation was used. Bound and free antigen were separated by a second antibody system. Large excesses of purified CK-MM from human skeletal muscle did not react in the assay. Cross reactivity to CK-MB purified from the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction was negligible. The 95th percentile of plasma CK-Bi in 150 adults was 145 μg equivalents/ml. Within-assay and between-assay precision ranged from 5% to 9% and 6% to 10%, respectively. Evidence is presented indicating that the assay measures inactive creatine kinase B protein, a protein not measured by current assay systems dependent on biological activity. (Auth.)

  6. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  7. Physical inactivity and obesity: relation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2009-12-01

    Physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and depression. Both physical inactivity and obesity are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation that may contribute to the inflammatory processes present in many chronic diseases. In asthma, almost no studies are available in which physical inactivity has been studied using performance-based instruments. In contrast, the association between obesity and a higher prevalence of asthma has often been suggested in a large number of studies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) physical inactivity has been demonstrated in a few studies that used performance-based instruments; this was associated with the higher COPD Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages and a higher degree of systemic inflammation, independent of body mass index. In contrast to physical inactivity, obesity in COPD is associated with the lower GOLD stages. Additionally, obesity is associated with the chronic obstructive phenotype and features of the metabolic syndrome. To elucidate the independent relation of physical inactivity and obesity with systemic inflammation, performance-based studies of physical inactivity in asthma and COPD are highly needed.

  8. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  9. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  10. Mapping the Prevalence of Physical Inactivity in U.S. States, 1984-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Xiang, Xiaoling; Yang, Yan; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of morbidity, disability and premature mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. This study aimed to map the prevalence of physical inactivity across U.S. states over the past three decades, and estimate the over-time adjusted changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity in each state. Individual-level data (N = 6,701,954) were taken from the 1984-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annually repeated cross-sectional survey of state-representative adult population. Prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical inactivity was estimated by state and survey year, accounting for the BRFSS sampling design. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate the changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity over the study period for each state, adjusting for individual characteristics including sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity varied substantially across states and survey years. In general, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity gradually declined over the past three decades in a majority of states. However, a substantial proportion of American adults remain physically inactive. Among the 50 states and District of Columbia, 45 had over a fifth of their adult population without any leisure-time physical activity, and 8 had over 30% without physical activity in 2015. Moreover, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity in several states (Arizona, North Carolina, North Dakota, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming) remained largely unchanged or even increased (Minnesota and Ohio) over the study period. Although the prevalence of physical inactivity declined over the past three decades in a majority of states, the rates remain substantially high and vary considerably across states. Closely monitoring and tracking physical activity level using the state physical activity maps can help guide policy and program

  11. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Li, Xiao; Staudt, Amanda

    2017-11-03

    Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009). An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  12. Birth of an Abstraction: A Dynamical Systems Account of the Discovery of an Elsewhere Principle in a Category Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Whitney; Cho, Pyeong W.; Dankowicz, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Human participants and recurrent ("connectionist") neural networks were both trained on a categorization system abstractly similar to natural language systems involving irregular ("strong") classes and a default class. Both the humans and the networks exhibited staged learning and a generalization pattern reminiscent of the…

  13. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  14. Maize and soybeans production in integrated system under no-tillage with different pasture combinations and animal categories

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Hernani Alves da; Moraes,Anibal de; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio; Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Dias,Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of no-till system (NTS) combined with crop-livestock integration (CLI) has been a strategy promoted in Brazil, aiming to maximize areas yield and increase agribusiness profitability. This study aimed to evaluate grains yield and phytotechnical attributes from maize and soybean culture by CLI system under NTS after winter annual pure and diversified pastures with the absence or presence of grazing animals. The experiment was installed in Castro (Paraná State, Brazil) on in a dystr...

  15. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  16. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  17. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  18. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  19. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: Interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Mona, E-mail: monelkhoury@gmail.com [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Mesurolle, Benoit [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de McGill, Cedar Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H3A1A1 (Canada); Trop, Isabelle [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The use of BI-RADS lexicon in interpreting breast MRI examinations is beneficial. • Our study shows: (a) moderate to substantial agreement between observers and (b) better agreement in interpreting mass than non-mass enhancement (NME). • Careful analysis of the NME should be done to help detect cancer as early as possible. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Materials and methods: Five breast radiologists blinded to patients’ medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. Results: All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α = 0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors – shape, margins and internal enhancement – (α = 0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors – distribution and internal enhancement – (α = 0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α = 0.71). It was however only moderate (α = 0.38) for NME compared to mass (α = 0.80). Conclusion: Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME.

  20. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: Interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khoury, Mona; Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude; Mesurolle, Benoit; Trop, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of BI-RADS lexicon in interpreting breast MRI examinations is beneficial. • Our study shows: (a) moderate to substantial agreement between observers and (b) better agreement in interpreting mass than non-mass enhancement (NME). • Careful analysis of the NME should be done to help detect cancer as early as possible. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Materials and methods: Five breast radiologists blinded to patients’ medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. Results: All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α = 0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors – shape, margins and internal enhancement – (α = 0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors – distribution and internal enhancement – (α = 0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α = 0.71). It was however only moderate (α = 0.38) for NME compared to mass (α = 0.80). Conclusion: Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME

  1. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  2. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  3. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  4. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  5. CATEGORIES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Poltavskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy as a frame of reference on world around and as the first science is a fundamental basis, "roots" (R. Descartes for all branches of the scientific knowledge accumulated and applied in all fields of activity of a human being person. The theory of algorithms as one of the fundamental sections of mathematics, is also based on researches of the gnoseology conducting cognition of a true picture of the world of the buman being. From gnoseology and ontology positions as fundamental sections of philosophy modern innovative projects are inconceivable without development of programs,and algorithms.

  6. Socioeconomic Determinants of Physical Inactivity among Japanese Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, Narimasa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Half of Japanese workers are physically inactive, but there are no studies on the relation between the leisure-time physical inactivity of Japanese workers and their socioeconomic status. The proportion of female workers who are physically inactive has been larger than that of male workers. Objectives: Using micro-data from nationwide surveys in Japan, this study explored the gender differences in socioeconomic determinants of leisure-time physical inactivity. Methods: We first es...

  7. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  8. 1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved.

  9. 1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved

  10. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category I systems for Palisades nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.

    1979-10-01

    The technical evaluation is presented of Consumers Power Company's Palisades nuclear power plant to determine whether the failure of any non-Category I (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might potentially adversely affect the performance of safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection as well as measures taken by Consumers Power Company to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  11. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  12. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  13. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  14. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  15. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  16. Pension System Methodology For Senior Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titel NEGRU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The need to reform pension systems is one of the key social challenges for policymakers in Europe. The demographic evolutions of the last 26 years, the changes in the Romanian economy and society influenced one particular category - the retired people. As population inactive, retired people represents important year category, their numbers being rather big in comparison with the population employed, the practical pensions contributors are at the bottom with their founds.

  17. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Lawson, Kenny D; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; van Mechelen, Willem; Pratt, Michael

    2016-09-24

    The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world's population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is

  18. Career transitions of inactive nurses: a registration database analysis (1993-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Baumann, Andrea; Onate, Kanecy; Deber, Raisa

    2011-02-01

    One important strategy to address nursing shortages is to tap into the pool of licensed nurses who are not currently working in nursing and induce them to return to the nursing labour market. However, there is a paucity of research examining their likelihood of return to the active labour market. Analyze the career transitions of nurses registered with the College of Nurses Ontario but not working in the province's nursing labour market to determine the proportion of these nurses rejoining the active nursing workforce and examine the variation by inactive sub-category and age group. Quantitative analysis of a linked longitudinal database for all those registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario for the years 1993-2006. Registration records of all 215,687 nurses registered at any time in those years were merged by their unique registration number. Each nurse was placed for each year into an employment category. Two groups of nurses were defined: active (registered, working in nursing in Ontario) and inactive (registered, not working in nursing in Ontario). Inactive nurses were then sub-categorized into five mutually exclusive sub-categories: 'not working and seeking nursing employment', 'working in non-nursing and seeking nursing employment', 'not working and not seeking nursing employment', 'working in non-nursing and not seeking nursing employment' and 'working outside Ontario'. One-year career movements of nurses were tracked by generating 13 year-to-year transition matrixes. In the short-term, inactive nurses seeking a nursing job had the highest average rate of return to the active workforce (27.3-30.8%), though they might become high risk of leaving the profession if they do not find employment in a timely manner. Inactive nurses not seeking nursing employment are a heterogeneous group, and include nurses on leave who are likely to subsequently rejoin the active workforce should appropriate opportunities arise. The proportion of nurses rejoining the

  19. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  20. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  1. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  2. Abdominal obesity and physical inactivity are associated with erectile dysfunction independent of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Peter M; Janssen, Ian; Ross, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common among men with an elevated body mass index (BMI). However, a high waist circumference (WC) and low levels of physical activity may predict ED independently of BMI. We investigated the independent relationships between BMI, WC, and physical activity with ED. Subjects consisted of 3,941 adult men (age > or = 20 years) with no history of prostate cancer from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relative odds of ED association with categories of BMI, WC, and physical activity. Established thresholds were used to divide subjects into three WC and BMI categories. Physical activity level was divided into active (> or =150 min/week), moderately active (30-149 min/week), and inactive (inactive men had an approximately 40-60% greater odds of ED compared with active men. When all three predictors (WC, BMI, and physical activity level) were entered into the same logistic regression model, both a high WC and low physical activity level (moderately active and inactive) were independently associated with a greater odds of ED, whereas BMI level was not. Maintaining a WC level below 102 cm and achieving the recommended amount of moderate-intensity physical activity (>or =150 min/week) is associated with the maintenance of proper erectile function, regardless of BMI level. These findings suggest that the clinical screening for ED risk should include the assessment of WC and physical activity level in addition to BMI.

  3. Exercise ASKARI SERPENT: enabling clinical data collection during exercises and operations to support future contingency planning and assurance of category-based reporting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Iain T; Wheatley, R J; Carter, P

    2016-02-01

    Exercise ASKARI SERPENT (Ex AS) is a British Army exercise that provides primary healthcare (PHC) to Kenyan civilians in support of local health authorities. It is conducted in partnership with the Kenya Defence Force Medical Services (KDFMS). Accurate epidemiological data is critical in planning the exercise and for any future short-notice contingency operations in similar environments. This paper reports epidemiological data for Ex AS using a novel data collection system. PHC on Ex AS was delivered by trained and validated combat medical technicians (CMTs) using a set of Read-coded protocols. The CMTs were also directly supported and supervised by medical officers and nurses. A total of 3093 consultations were conducted over a 16-day period. Of these, 2707 (87.5%) consultations fell within the remit of the CMT protocols, with only 386 consultations (12.5%) being conducted exclusively by the medical officers or nurses. A Read-coded matrix built on CMT protocols is a simple and useful tool, particularly in civilian populations, for collecting morbidity data with the vast majority of conditions accounted for in the protocols. It is anticipated that such a system can better inform training, manning, medical material and pharmaceutical procurement than current category-based morbidity surveillance systems such as EPINATO (NATO epidemiological data). There is clear advantage to directly linking data capture to treatment algorithms. Accuracy, both in terms of numbers and condition, is likely improved. Data is also captured contemporaneously rather than after indeterminate time. Read coding has the added benefit of being an established electronic standard. In addition, the system would support traditional reporting methods such as EPINATO by providing increased assurance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  5. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  6. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  7. Patterns and Determinants of Physical Inactivity in Rural and Urban Areas in Peru: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Avilez, Jose L; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban). Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study's baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood's safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%-94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%-10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%-43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P physical inactivity relative to highly urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.54). Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

  8. Identification of inactivity behavior in smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujaud, J; Noury, N; Lundy, J-E

    2008-01-01

    To help elderly people live independently at home, the TIMC-IMAG laboratory developed Health Smart Homes called 'HIS'. These smart Homes are composed of several sensors to monitor the activities of daily living of the patients. Volunteers have accepted to be monitored during 2 years in their own flats. During one year, we carried out our survey on one elderly patient. Thanks to this experimentation, we will access to relevant information like physiological, environmental and activity. This paper focuses on daily living activity. We will introduce an original data splitting method based on the relationship between the frame of time and the location in the flat. Moreover we will present two different methods to determine a threshold of critical inactivity and eventually we will discuss their possible utilities.

  9. A retraining program for inactive physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Sakai, F J; Selzer, A

    1969-11-01

    During the past two years a pilot project was conducted in which 19 inactive physicians were retrained in preparation for resumption of active practice. The initial program consisted of a flexible training program of six months to one year patterned after conventional internship-residency concepts. During the second year the program was modified by providing an initial condensed indoctrination period of two months' duration especially designed for this purpose, followed by a preceptorship type of training. The project was considered successful in permitting trainees to enter some form of active medical work, or to enroll in formal specialty training. The observations made by the faculty of the program and its accomplishments are discussed in the light of the effort expended and the cost of the project.

  10. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  12. Experience during the monitoring of inactive scrap for the detection of inadvertent presence of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ranjit; Anoj Kumar; Vikas; Singh, Rajvir; Patra, R.P.; Vikas Kumar; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes about the experience gained during the radiation monitoring of inactive scrap generated at various nuclear facilities. This type surveillance is carried out to prevent the spread of radioactivity in public domain and also as requirement by regulatory authorities. The inspection and certification of scrap material from nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement to ensure that no radioactive material reaches public domain. This paper describes the methodology and experience in detection of radioactivity at inactive Scrap monitoring facility. Inactive scraps (metallic and non metallic) generated from various nuclear facilities of BARC, Trombay is dispatched to Trombay Village Store (TVS) for temporary storage before auction to the public. The monitoring at the facility includes visual inspection and radiation measurement before loading the scrap in the truck. An online PC based monitoring system and portable monitoring instruments in the range (nSv/h-µSv/h) are used to carry out radiation monitoring of inactive scrap loaded in a vehicle. Radioactive source of high activity with potential for serious environmental hazard has not been detected, but few cases of presence of radioactive/contaminated material (MS plate/equipments with low level of 137 Cs contamination) have been detected and identified using portable gamma spectrometer. Implementation of strict regulatory measures and radiation monitoring at nuclear facilities can minimize the probability of radioactive material reaching the public domain. The methodology followed for monitoring of inactive scrap is found to be effective even for detection of presence of radioactivity in scrap if any. (author)

  13. Decomposing socio-economic inequalities in leisure-time physical inactivity: the case of Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Almorox, Eduardo; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M

    2016-07-12

    Physical inactivity is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and entails a substantial economic burden for health systems. Also, the analysis of inequality in lifestyles for young populations may contribute to reduce health inequalities during adulthood. This paper examines the income-related inequality regarding leisure-time physical inactivity in Spanish children. In this cross-sectional study based on the Spanish National Health Survey for 2011-12, concentration indices are estimated to measure socioeconomic inequalities in leisure-time physical inactivity. A decomposition analysis is performed to determine the factors that explain income-related inequalities. There is a significant socioeconomic gradient favouring the better-off associated with leisure-time physical inactivity amongst Spanish children, which is more pronounced in the case of girls. Income shows the highest contribution to total inequality, followed by education of the head of the household. The contribution of several factors (education, place of residence, age) significantly differs by gender. There is an important inequity in the distribution of leisure-time physical inactivity. Public policies aimed at promoting physical activity for children should prioritize the action into the most disadvantaged subgroups of the population. As the influence of determinants of health styles significantly differ by gender, this study points out the need of addressing the research on income-related inequalities in health habits from a gender perspective.

  14. The association of lifetime physical inactivity with head and neck cancer: a hospital-based case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Alexis J; Cannioto, Rikki A; Etter, John Lewis; Kim, Jae; Joseph, Janine M; Gulati, Nicholas R; Schmitt, Kristina L; Callahan, Emily; Khachatryan, Edgar; Nagy, Ryan; Minlikeeva, Albina; Brian Szender, J; Singh, Anurag K; Danziger, Iris; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-10-01

    Despite mounting epidemiological evidence suggesting an inverse association between recreational physical activity and cancer risk, evidence associated with head and neck cancer is scant. We conducted a case-control analysis to examine the associations of lifetime physical inactivity with the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We utilized data from the Patient Epidemiology Data System at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI). Participants included 246 patients with HNSCC and 504 cancer-free controls who received medical services at RPCI between 1990 and 1998. Participants were considered physically inactive if they did not participate in any regular, weekly recreational physical activity throughout their lifetime, prior to diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) representing the association between lifetime physical inactivity and HNSCC risk. We observed a significant positive association between recreational physical inactivity and HNSCC risk (OR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.87-3.99, p physical inactivity associates with HNSCC independent of BMI. In addition, physical inactivity may be a modifiable risk factor among never smokers. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity may be an independent risk factor for cancer.

  15. The Cognitive Infrastructures of Markets : Empirical Studies on the Role of Categories in Valuation and Competition, and a Formal Theory of Classification Systems Based on Lattices and Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzai, M.

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how the information encoded by category labels is interpreted by agents in a market for the purpose of decision-making. To this end, we first examine the influence of categorization on economic and strategic outcomes with two empirical studies, and then

  16. Characterisation and normalisation factors for life cycle impact assessment mined abiotic resources categories in South Africa - The manufacturing of catalytic converter exhaust systems as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, K

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available of the most commonly produced minerals in South Africa is used as basis to determine characterisation factors for a non-renewable mineral resources category. The average production of these minerals from 1991 to 2000 is compared to economically Demonstrated...

  17. SOLUTIONS FOR THE NEW TASKS IN AERODYNAMICS IN THE PROCESS OF CERTIFICATION OF AIRPLANCE OF TRASPORT CATEGORY – ANTI-ICE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Shevyakov

    2014-01-01

    There are considered new tasks in aerodynamics in the process of certification of airplanes of transport category. The procedure for optimal location of ice detector at the transonic airplane and means of compliance with certification requirements for automatic engagement of anti-ice protection.

  18. SOLUTIONS FOR THE NEW TASKS IN AERODYNAMICS IN THE PROCESS OF CERTIFICATION OF AIRPLANCE OF TRASPORT CATEGORY – ANTI-ICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shevyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are considered new tasks in aerodynamics in the process of certification of airplanes of transport category. The procedure for optimal location of ice detector at the transonic airplane and means of compliance with certification requirements for automatic engagement of anti-ice protection.

  19. Inactive Publics: The Forgotten Publics in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Notes that recent public relations theory has largely ignored inactive publics, stakeholder groups that demonstrate low levels of knowledge and involvement in the organization or its products, services, candidates, or causes, but are important to an organization. Examines the nature of inactive publics and proposes a model that locates inactive…

  20. The inaction effect in the psychology of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; van de Bos, Kees; van Dijk, Eric; Pieters, Rik

    2002-03-01

    Previous research showed that decisions to act (i.e., actions) produce more regret than decisions not to act (i.e., inactions). This previous research focused on decisions made in isolation and ignored that decisions are often made in response to earlier outcomes. The authors show in 4 experiments that these prior outcomes may promote action and hence make inaction more abnormal. They manipulated information about a prior outcome. As hypothesized, when prior outcomes were positive or absent, people attributed more regret to action than to inaction. However, as predicted and counter to previous research, following negative prior outcomes, more regret was attributed to inaction, a finding that the authors label the inaction effect. Experiment 4, showing differential effects for regret and disappointment, demonstrates the need for emotion-specific predictions.

  1. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and is an independent predictor of mortality. It is possible that the detrimental effects of physical inactivity are mediated through a lack of adequate muscle oxidative capacity. This short review will cover the present...... literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...... of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated...

  2. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) US lexicon and final assessment category for solid breast masses: the rates of inter-and intraobserver agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Koh, Young Hwan; Youn, Byung Jae; Cho, Byung Jae; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the rates of inter-and intraobserver agreement of the BI-RADS US lexicon. Two radiologists reviewed 60 sonograms of solid breast masses to evaluate interobserver agreement. After four weeks, the radiologists reinterpreted the series to evaluate the intraobserver agreement. The radiologists described shape, orientation, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic features and microcalcifications. Final assessment categories and management plans were suggested for each case. The rates of inter-and intraobserver agreements were measured by the use of kappa statistics. Interobserver agreement ranged from the highest for orientation (κ = 0.65) and shape (κ = 0.61) to the lowest for posterior acoustic features (κ = 0.42). For the final assessment categories (κ = 0.46) and management (κ = 0.49), interobserver agreement were moderate. Intraobserver agreement ranged from the highest for microcalcifications in mass (κ = 0.90, 0.82) and orientation (κ 0.87, 0.83) and the lowest for echo patterns (κ = 0.62, 0.57) and posterior acoustic features (κ = 0.59, 0.65). In the final assessment category and management, intraobserver agreements were substantial or nearly complete (κ = 0.65-0.83). There were variable raged inter-and intraobserver agreements in the description of the BI-RADS US lexicon of solid breast masses. Among them, margin and lesion boundary showed lower agreements. A modification of the BI-RADS US lexicon with more detailed guidelines, followed by continuous education, are suggested

  3. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and is an independent predictor of mortality. It is possible that the detrimental effects of physical inactivity are mediated through a lack of adequate muscle oxidative capacity. This short review will cover the present literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated in humans, and further studies are required to substantiate this hypothesis, which could expand our knowledge of the potential link between lifestyle-related diseases and muscle oxidative capacity. Furthermore, even though a large body of literature reports the effect of physical training on muscle oxidative capacity, the adaptations that occur with physical inactivity may not always be opposite to that of physical training. Thus, it is concluded that studies on the effect of physical inactivity per se on muscle oxidative capacity in functional human skeletal muscle are warranted.

  4. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  5. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  6. Energy expenditure while playing active and inactive video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Woodruff, Sarah J; Manske, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    To examine energy expenditure (EE) when playing active and inactive videogames (VG). Predicted EE was measured among 51 undergraduate students while playing active and inactive VG (Ontario, Canada). Predicted EE was significantly higher playing the active VG compared to the inactive VG according to heart rate monitor (97.4 kcal vs 64.7 kcal) and SenseWear armband (192.4 kcal vs 42.3 kcal) estimates. Active VG may be a viable intervention tool for increasing EE among students who would otherwise be spending time in sedentary screen-based behaviors.

  7. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  8. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  9. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  10. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    . We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk......, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass...

  11. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  12. Lifetime physical inactivity is associated with increased risk for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, John Lewis; Cannioto, Rikki; Soh, Kah Teong; Alquassim, Emad; Almohanna, Hani; Dunbar, Zachary; Joseph, Janine M; Balderman, Sophia; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-03-27

    Although physical activity is a well-established risk factor for several cancer types, studies evaluating its association with lymphoma have yielded inconclusive results. In such cases where physical activity is not clearly associated with cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner, investigators have begun examining physical inactivity as an independent exposure of interest. Associations of self-reported, lifetime physical inactivity with risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were evaluated in a hospital-based case control study using data from the Patient Epidemiology Data System at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center. Participants included 87 patients with HL and 236 patients with NHL as well as 348 and 952 cancer-free controls, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimating the association between physical inactivity and lymphoma risk. We observed significant, positive associations between lifetime recreational physical inactivity and risk of both HL (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.15-3.15) and NHL (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.82). The current analysis provides evidence for a positive association between physical inactivity and risk of both HL and NHL. These results add to a growing body of research suggesting that lifetime physical inactivity may be an important independent, modifiable behavioral risk factor for cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  14. Completion report for the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the results of the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work performed is compared with that proposed in the statement of work and the service contract specification for the maintenance action to remediate tanks 3013, 3004-B, T-30, and 3001-B. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all tanks, which have been removed from service and are designated in the FFA as Category D, must be remediated in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. The Environmental Restoration Program's inactive tank removal program strategy and plans for remediating the inactive LLLW tanks were documented in a report issued in January 1995 (Inactive Tanks Remediation Program Strategy and Plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL/ER-297). The inactive (Category D) tanks were initially screened for remediation according to risk, remediation technology required, level of instrumentation available, interferences with other piping and equipment, location, and available sludge removal techniques and storage requirements. On the basis of this preliminary screening, the tanks were assigned to one of five batches (I through V) for consideration of remedial action alternatives, and these batches were tentatively scheduled for remedial actions. The eight links tentatively assigned to Batch I were divided into two groups (Series I and Series II)

  15. Can neighborhoods explain racial/ethnic differences in adolescent inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Field, Alison E; Rich, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To determine if neighborhoods and their attributes contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 17,007), a nationally representative school-based study in the United States. Stratifying by gender, we used multivariate linear regression and multi-level modeling to determine whether neighborhood of residence may partially explain racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical inactivity, defined as hours viewing television or videos/DVDs and/or playing computer/video games each week. Participants lived in largely segregated communities. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported higher levels of inactivity than White adolescent girls (21 vs. 15 vs. 13 hours/week, respectively, p violent crime in the neighborhood was associated with inactivity, despite the individual's perception of his/her neighborhood as safe not being predictive. Although inactivity varies by race/ethnicity and gender, only in Hispanic adolescent girls does neighborhood fully explain the differential use. Our findings suggest that approaches other than changing neighborhood characteristics are needed to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity.

  16. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this rule. (b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25...

  17. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  18. Relation between body mass index, physical inactivity and use of prescription drugs: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, I E J; Klungel, O H; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Verschuren, W M M; Bemelmans, W J E

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are associated with several diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal complaints, osteoporosis, certain types of cancer and depression. However, few data are available on the specific types of medication associated with obesity and physical inactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the independent association of body mass index (BMI) and physical inactivity with use of specific classes of prescription drugs, and the interaction between BMI and physical inactivity. The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a population-based longitudinal study. We analyzed cross-sectional data of 1703 men and 1841 women, examined between 1998 and 2002, for whom drug-dispending data were available from the PHARMO database. Drugs were coded according to the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. Body weight was measured during the physical examination. Physical activity was assessed using an extensive questionnaire. Persons were defined as a user of a certain drug class if they filed at least one prescription in the year around (+/-6 months) the examination. Compared with normal weight persons (BMI 18.5-25 kg m(-2)), obese persons (BMI>30 kg m(-2)) had a higher use of prescription drugs of several drug classes, especially cardiovascular drugs (OR (95% CI): 3.83 (2.61-5.64) in men and 2.80 (2.03-3.86) in women) and diabetes drugs (OR (95% CI): 5.72 (2.32-14.14) in men and 3.92 (1.80-8.54) in women). In women, physical inactivity was also associated with higher use of certain drug classes, such as drugs for blood and blood-forming organs (OR (95% CI): 2.11 (1.22-3.65)) and musculoskeletal drugs (OR (95% CI): 2.07 (1.45-2.97)), whereas in men this was not the case. We found no interaction between BMI and physical inactivity with respect to use of prescription drugs. In both men and women, obesity was associated with a higher use of several types of prescription drugs, whereas physical inactivity was only

  19. DETERMINANT EROSION FACTORS FOR PENSION ROMANIAN SYSTEM - A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Gabriela BABUCEA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The demographical evolutions of the last 20 years, the changes in the Romanian economy and society influenced one special category which is the retired people. As inactive population, retired people represents an important category, their numbers being rather big in comparison with the employed population, practical the contributors at the pensions fund. In 2010, the stat has serious problems with paying pensions. The evolution of this category of people is the subject of this paper. We try to identify the factors that had negative influence upon the pension Romanian system. The reference years that we considered are 1990-2009.

  20. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Leisure Physical Inactivity among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys and to determine to what extent those associations are mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use), the daily consumption of fresh fruit, and sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire combining 3 instruments measured leisure physical activity level (Godin and Shephard), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (IES-revised), lifetime traumatic experiences, sense of coherence (SOC-13, from Antonovsky), and behavioral and dietary patterns in a representative sample of eighth grade boys from a number of Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N = 885; response rate 88.6%). Fifty-six point eight percent of boys had experienced at least 1 lifetime traumatic event, with a 20.5% prevalence of PTS symptoms, and 5.4% were inactive during leisure time. In the logistic regression models, leisure physical inactivity was associated with lifetime traumatic experiences (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.09-4.98). Sense of coherence and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not mediate those associations. Less-than-daily consumption of fresh fruit showed an independent effect, while smoking and weekly consumption of alcohol did not. Consistent associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys indicate that the presence of lifetime traumatic events should be taken into account when employing intervention and prevention programs on unhealthy lifestyles (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol).

  1. Subject categories with scope definitions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system. This document has been prepared for use by (1) those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, (2) those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, (3) those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and (4) others who, having no access to RECON, need a printed copy

  2. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  3. Towards system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in routine practice: Developing simple, intuitive descriptions of ICF categories in the ICF Generic and Rehabilitation Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; Reinhardt, Jan D; Selb, Melissa; Stucki, Gerold; Yan, Tiebin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Jianan

    2016-06-13

    A national, multi-phase, consensus process to develop simple, intuitive descriptions of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories contained in the ICF Generic and Rehabilitation Sets, with the aim of enhancing the utility of the ICF in routine clinical practice, is presented in this study. A multi-stage, national, consensus process was conducted. The consensus process involved 3 expert groups and consisted of a preparatory phase, a consensus conference with consecutive working groups and 3 voting rounds (votes A, B and C), followed by an implementation phase. In the consensus conference, participants first voted on whether they agreed that an initially developed proposal for simple, intuitive descriptions of an ICF category was in fact simple and intuitive. The consensus conference was held in August 2014 in mainland China. Twenty-one people with a background in physical medicine and rehabilitation participated in the consensus process. Four ICF categories achieved consensus in vote A, 16 in vote B, and 8 in vote C. This process can be seen as part of a larger effort towards the system-wide implementation of the ICF in routine clinical and rehabilitation practice to allow for the regular and comprehensive evaluation of health outcomes most relevant for the monitoring of quality of care.

  4. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  5. Enumerating bone marrow blasts from nonerythroid cellularity improves outcome prediction in myelodysplastic syndromes and permits a better definition of the intermediate risk category of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Xavier; Arenillas, Leonor; Luño, Elisa; Senent, Leonor; Arnan, Montserrat; Ramos, Fernando; Pedro, Carme; Tormo, Mar; Montoro, Julia; Díez-Campelo, María; Blanco, María Laura; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Xicoy, Blanca; Bonanad, Santiago; Jerez, Andrés; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Ferrer, Ana; Sanz, Guillermo F; Florensa, Lourdes

    2017-07-01

    The Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) has been recognized as the score with the best outcome prediction capability in MDS, but this brought new concerns about the accurate prognostication of patients classified into the intermediate risk category. The correct enumeration of blasts is essential in prognostication of MDS. Recent data evidenced that considering blasts from nonerythroid cellularity (NECs) improves outcome prediction in the context of IPSS and WHO classification. We assessed the percentage of blasts from total nucleated cells (TNCs) and NECs in 3924 MDS patients from the GESMD, 498 of whom were MDS with erythroid predominance (MDS-E). We assessed if calculating IPSS-R by enumerating blasts from NECs improves prognostication of MDS. Twenty-four percent of patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk categories and showed shorter overall survival (OS) and time to AML evolution than those who remained into the intermediate one. Likewise, a better distribution of patients was observed, since lower-risk patients showed longer survivals than previously whereas higher-risk ones maintained the outcome expected in this poor prognostic group (median OS < 20 months). Furthermore, our approach was particularly useful for detecting patients at risk of dying with AML. Regarding MDS-E, 51% patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk ones and showed shorter OS and time to AML. In this subgroup of MDS, IPSS-R was capable of splitting our series in five groups with significant differences in OS only when blasts were assessed from NECs. In conclusion, our easy-applicable approach improves prognostic assessment of MDS patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The presence of promatrix metalloproteinase-3 and its relation with different categories of coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi Altin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix formation (ECM and remodeling are critical events related to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Matrix metalloproteinases play an essential role in degrading and remodeling the ECM. In this study, we tried to show the presence and correlation of promatrix metalloproteinase-3 (proMMP-3 (the inactive form of metalloproteinase-3 levels in coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP with different categories.

  7. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is less clear. Despite extensive research, including several epidemiological studies and 2 systematic reviews, insufficient and inconsistent evidence is available to support an independent association between recreational physical activity and risk......It is estimated that 5% of women in the United States and 10% to 50% of women worldwide are physically inactive. Previous studies have demonstrated that recreational physical activity is associated with decreased risks of developing breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. The association between...... of EOC. This is largely due to use of common methodology in most studies that overlooks recreational physical inactivity as an independent risk factor for EOC. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-reported, chronic, recreational physical inactivity is an independent risk factor...

  8. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  9. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  10. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  11. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  12. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  13. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  14. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  15. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  16. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  17. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  18. Remedial action standards for inactive uranium processing sites (40 cfr 192). Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is proposing standards for disposing of uranium mill tailings from inactive processing sites and for cleaning up contaminated open land and buildings. These standards were developed pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-604). This Act requires EPA to promulgate standards to protect the environment and public health and safety from radioactive and nonradioactive hazards posed by uranium mill tailings at designated inactive processing sites. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement examines health, technical, cost, and other factors relevant to determining standards. The proposed standards for disposal of the tailings piles cover radon emissions from the tailings to the air, protection of surface and ground water from radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and the length of time the disposal system should provide a reasonable expectation of meeting these standards. The proposed cleanup standards limit indoor radon decay product concentrations and gamma radiation levels and the residual radium concentration of contaminated land after cleanup

  19. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables

  20. [The comparative study of specificity of test-systems in diagnostic of HIV-infection on categories of samples of blood serum of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, I N; Khodak, N M; Puzirev, V F; Burkov, A N; Ulanova, T I

    2015-03-01

    The detection of false positive serological reactions (FPSR) on HIV-infection under screening examination of pregnant women is an actual problem of practical health care. The original observations testify that under analysis of the same samples of blood serum of pregnant women using screening immune enzyme test-systems of various manufacturers the unmatched data concerning FPSR can be obtained. The purpose of this study was to implement comparative evaluation of specificity of immune enzyme test-systems of three different manufacturers: "DS-IFA-HIV-AGAT-SCREEN" ("Diagnostic Systems"), "Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab" "Bio Rad" France) and "The CombiBest HIV-1,2 AG/AT" ("Vector-Best" Novosibirsk). The sampling of 440 samples of blood serums of pregnant women from various medical institutions of Nizhnii Novgorod was analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that FPSR were detected in all test-systems and at that spectrum of samples differed. The identical specificity of compared test-systems amounted to 98.64%. The alternative approach to FPSR to HIV issue under screening examinations of pregnant women was proposed. The proposed mode consisted of consistent application of two test-systems of fourth generation with different format of setup of reaction.

  1. Watch and Wait Management of Inactive Cystic Echinococcosis - Does the Path to Inactivity Matter - Analysis of a Prospective Patient Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Stojkovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are rarely discussed in the context of NTDs despite their relevance for patients under the care of health services with limited resources where the risks of therapy induced complications are often disproportionate to the benefit. The advantages of cyst staging-based management of patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE are not yet fully explored. Questions are: Do inactive cysts (CE 4 and CE 5 need treatment and is there a difference between cysts which reach CE4 and CE5 naturally or by benzimidazole therapy?Analysis of long-term follow-up data from a prospective CE patient cohort of 223 patients of a national clinical center for echinococcosis. The event of interest "relapse" was defined as the reversal of a cyst from an inactive stage (CE4, CE5 back to an active stage. The watch &wait (ww group included 30 patients with 46 inactive cysts who never received medical treatment. The benzimidazole-treated (med group included 15 patients with 17 cysts. There was no relapse in the ww-group whereas 8/17 cysts showed relapse within 18 months after treatment in the med-group. Loss to follow-up was 15.5%.Data from the watch & wait group impressively show how stable naturally inactivated cysts are in contrast to cysts which reach inactivity through treatment with benzimidazoles. A substantial proportion of patients can be spared from treatment through cyst staging. Cysts which inactivated through a natural course do not relapse with very high likelihood. We recommend follow up of 5 years to confirm the stability of the inactive stage. Cysts driven into inactivity through benzimidazole therapy instead need careful monitoring to identify those which reactivate (around 50% within 18 months. 5 years follow-up appears safe to make a final decision on the need for further monitoring.

  2. Career redevelopment programmes for inactive nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko; Serizawa, Takako; Sakaguchi, Chizuru

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges and problems in using career redevelopment programmes and individual hospital programmes to prepare inactive nurses to re-enter into the workforce in Japan. It is critical to supply sufficient skilled health human resources for medical care. Although, Japan has a mandatory retraining programme for supporting nurses to return to the workplace after a career break, it is unclear to what extent there are benefits to nurses from these programmes. The research of career redevelopment programme was undertaken in three administrative divisions' nurse centres in local prefecture A, B and C. A survey of nurses participating in the programme running in T Hospital was also conducted. The issues examined were the background and motivations of participants, the length of career break, the percentages returning to work and the effectiveness of each programme. The average age of participants was 40 years, ranging widely from the 20-60 years. Local prefecture A tended to have narrower age range than others, namely from the 30-50 years. The average period of career break was around eight years at two of three. Length of experience was quite varied from entry level to 20 or 30 years in nursing. Feedback from nurses in the case study T Hospital suggests that the most effective ways of providing support through the programme was to meet the need for continuing support, including working styles after return to work and using the resources programme in their own area of domicile. In the potential return of the nurse, the following are important: (i) job support system by using social resources effectively in the community level; and (ii) introduction of diverse working styles that take account of varying work-life balance, as well as childcare support, by using existing facilities or human resources.

  3. Category mistakes: A barrier to effective environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ken J; Jago, Mark

    2017-09-01

    How entities, the things that exist, are defined and categorised affects all aspects of environmental management including technical descriptions, quantitative analyses, participatory processes, planning, and decisions. Consequently, ambiguous definitions and wrongly assigning entities to categories, referred to as category mistakes, are barriers to effective management. Confusion caused by treating the term 'biodiversity' variously as the property of an area, the biota of an area, and a preferred end state (a value) - quite different categories of entities - is one example. To overcome such difficulties, we develop and define four entity categories - elements, processes, properties, and values - and two derived categories - states and systems. We argue that adoption of these categories and definitions will significantly improve environmental communication and analysis, and thus strengthen planning and decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...

  5. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size...

  6. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  7. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  8. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  9. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  10. Basal Ganglia Dysfunction Contributes to Physical Inactivity in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Danielle M; Devarakonda, Kavya; O'Neal, Timothy J; Skirzewski, Miguel; Papazoglou, Ioannis; Kaplan, Alanna R; Liow, Jeih-San; Guo, Juen; Rane, Sushil G; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Alvarez, Veronica A; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-07

    Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the health consequences of weight gain. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association are unknown. We hypothesized that deficits in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity. To investigate this, we quantified multiple aspects of dopamine signaling in lean and obese mice. We found that D2-type receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum, but not D1-type receptor binding or dopamine levels, was reduced in obese mice. Genetically removing D2Rs from striatal medium spiny neurons was sufficient to reduce motor activity in lean mice, whereas restoring G i signaling in these neurons increased activity in obese mice. Surprisingly, although mice with low D2Rs were less active, they were not more vulnerable to diet-induced weight gain than control mice. We conclude that deficits in striatal D2R signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity, but inactivity is more a consequence than a cause of obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Inaction inertia, regret, and valuation : A closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Putten, Marijke; van Dijk, Eric

    Inaction inertia is the phenomenon that one is not likely to act on an attractive opportunity after having bypassed an even more attractive opportunity. So far, all published work has assumed a causal role for the emotion regret in this effect. In a series of 5 experiments we found no support for

  12. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  14. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  15. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  16. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  17. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  18. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  19. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  20. The size of patent categories: USPTO 1976-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafond, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Categorization is an important phenomenon in science and society, and classification systems reflect the mesoscale organization of knowledge. The Yule-Simon-Naranan model, which assumes exponential growth of the number of categories and exponential growth of individual categories predicts a power

  1. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    such as familiarity and visual complexity. Of the most consistent activations found, none appear to be selective for natural objects or artefacts. The findings reviewed are compatible with theories of category-specificity that assume a widely distributed conceptual system not organized by category....

  2. Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy in Active and Inactive Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Woo Jin; Chung, Soo Kyo; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1988-01-01

    To Appreciate the value of bone scintigraphy in determination of the bony infection, we performed three phase bone scintigraphy in 34 cases of osteomyelitis of extremities prospectively. They were clinically inactive in 11 and active in 23 cases. We confirmed the active osteomyelitis by operation or aspiration within one week after scintigraphy. Perfusion, blood pool and delayed images were analyzed respectively and compared with the plain roentgenograms. All 23 active lesions showed diffusely increased perfusion in affected limbs. The areas of the increased activities on blood pool images were larger than or similar to those on delayed images in 17 cases (73.9%) with active osteomyelitis and smaller in 6 cases (26.1%). 5 of the latter 6 cases showed definite soft tissue activities on blood pool images. In inactive cases bone scintigrams were completely normal in 4 cases. Two of those were normal on plain films and remaining two showed mild focal bony sclerosis. Among 7 inactive lesions, perfusion was normal in 2 cases, diffusely increased in 4 cases and diffusely decreased in 1 case. 6 of these 7 cases showed increased activities both on blood pool and delayed images and the areas of increased activities on blood pool images didn't exceed those on delayed images. Bony sclerosis was noted on plain films in those 7 inactive lesions and the extent of the sclerosis correlated well to delayed images. Large blood pool activity was characteristics of active osteomyelitis. Normal three phase bone scintigram may indicate the time to terminate the treatment, but increased activity on perfusion and blood pool scans is not absolute indication of active lesion if the extent of the lesion on the blood pool image is smaller than that on delayed image and if no definite soft tissue activity is noted on perfusion and blood pool images in clinically inactive patient.

  3. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  4. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  5. Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2015-12-01

    There is mounting evidence documenting the adverse health effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, but population-based evidence linking PM2.5 and health behaviour remains lacking. This study examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults 18 years of age and above. Retrospective data analysis. Participant-level data (n = 2,381,292) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2011 surveys were linked with Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research air quality data by participants' residential county and interview month/year. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the effect of ambient PM2.5 air pollution on participants' leisure-time physical inactivity, accounting for various individual and county-level characteristics. Regressions were estimated on the overall sample and subsamples stratified by sex, age cohort, race/ethnicity and body weight status. One unit (μg/m(3)) increase in county monthly average PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 0.46% (95% confidence interval = 0.34%-0.59%). The effect was similar between the sexes but to some extent (although not always statistically significant) larger for younger adults, Hispanics, and overweight/obese individuals compared with older adults, non-Hispanic whites or African Americans, and normal weight individuals, respectively. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution is found to be associated with a modest but measurable increase in individuals' leisure-time physical inactivity, and the relationship tends to differ across population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical cost of type 2 diabetes attributable to physical inactivity in the United States in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Priyank; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh; Kohl, Harold W

    Type 2 diabetes has grown to epidemic proportions in the U.S. and physical activity levels in the population continues to remain low, although it is one of the primary preventive strategies for diabetes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the direct medical costs of type 2 diabetes attributable to not meeting physical activity Guidelines and to physical inactivity in the U.S. in 2012. This was a cross sectional study that used physical activity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate the population attributable risk percentage for type 2 diabetes. These data were combined with the prevalence and cost data of type 2 diabetes to estimate the cost of type 2 diabetes attributable to not meeting physical activity Guidelines and to inactivity in 2012. The cost of type 2 diabetes in the U.S. in 2012, attributable to not meeting physical activity guidelines was estimated to be $18.3 billion, and that attributable to physical inactivity was estimated to be $4.65 billion. Based on sensitivity analyses, these estimates ranged from $10.19 billion to $27.43 billion for not meeting physical activity guidelines and $2.59 billion-$6.98 billion for physical inactivity in the year 2012. This study shows that billions of dollars could be saved annually just in terms of type 2 diabetes cost in the U.S., if the entire adult population met physical activity guidelines. Physical activity promotion, particularly at the environmental and policy level should be a priority in the population. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  9. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  10. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  11. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  12. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  13. Inactive Mineral Filler as a Stiffness Modulus Regulator in Foamed Bitumen-Modified Recycled Base Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyński, Przemyslaw; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of a cold recycled mix test with a foam bitumen including the addition of the inactive mineral filler as a dust of basalt. Basalt dust was derived from dedusting system by extraction of aggregates in the mine. Assessment of the impact of a basalt dust on the properties of a recycled base layer was carried out in terms of the amount of mineral filler (basalt) in the composition of the mineral mixture. This experiment involved a dosing of mineral filler in range from 5 to 20% with steps of 7.5% in the mineral mixture composition. The foamed bitumen was performed at optimum foaming process settings (ie. bitumen temperature, air pressure) and at 2.5% of the water content. The amount of a hydraulic binder as a Portland cement was 2.0%. The evaluation of rheological properties allowed to determine whether the addition of inactive mineral fillers can act as a stiffness modulus controller in the recycled base layer. The analysis of the rheological properties of a recycled base layer in terms of the amount of inactive fillers was performed in accordance with given standard EN 12697-26 Annex D. The study was carried out according to the direct tension-compression test methodology on cylindrical samples. The sample was subjected to the oscillatory sinusoidal strain ε0 < 25με. Studies carried out at a specific temperature set-points: - 7°C, 5°C, 13°C, 25°C and 40°C and at the frequency 0.1 Hz, 0.3 Hz, 1 Hz, 3 Hz, 10 Hz and 20 Hz. The obtained results allow to conclude that the use of an inactive filler can reduce the stiffness of an appropriate designed mixes of the cold recycled foundation. In addition, the analysis of the relation E‧-E″ showed a similar behaviour of a recycled base, regardless of the amount of inactive fillers in the mix composition, at high temperatures/high frequency of induced load.

  14. Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sedentary behaviour and physical activity and their role in the development of health conditions is an ongoing topic of research. This debate paper presents arguments in favour and against the statement: “Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?” The paper finishes with recommendations for future research in the field of sedentary behaviour, physical activity and public health.

  15. Physical inactivity: the "Cinderella" risk factor for noncommunicable disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian E

    2011-08-01

    There is strong evidence demonstrating the direct and indirect pathways by which physical activity prevents many of the major noncommunicable diseases (NCD) responsible for premature death and disability. Physical inactivity was identified as the 4th leading risk factor for the prevention of NCD, preceded only by tobacco use, hypertension, and high blood glucose levels, and accounting for more than 3 million preventable deaths globally in 2010. Physical inactivity is a global public health priority but, in most countries, this has not yet resulted in widespread recognition nor specific physical activity-related policy action at the necessary scale. Instead, physical inactivity could be described as the Cinderella of NCD risk factors, defined as "poverty of policy attention and resourcing proportionate to its importance." The pressing question is "Why is this so?" The authors identify and discuss 8 possible explanations and the need for more effective communication on the importance of physical activity in the NCD prevention context. Although not all of the issues identified will be relevant for any 1 country, it is likely that at different times and in different combinations these 8 problems continue to delay national-level progress on addressing physical inactivity in many countries. The authors confirm that there is sufficient evidence to act, and that much better use of well-planned, coherent communication strategies are needed in most countries and at the international level. Significant opportunities exist. The Toronto Charter on Physical Activity and the Seven Investments that Work are 2 useful tools to support increased advocacy on physical activity within and beyond the context of the crucial 2011 UN High-Level Meeting on NCDs.

  16. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurrin Lyle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001 and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity of participants from each of the 13 regions compared to the Australian-born population. Results There was a greater prevalence of physical inactivity for female immigrants from most regions compared to male immigrants from a like region. Immigrants from South East Asia (OR 2.04% 95% CI 1.63, 2.56, Other Asia (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.10, 2.13, Other Oceania (1.81 95% CI 1.11, 2.95, the Middle East (OR 1.42 95% CI 0.97, 2.06 [note: border line significance] and Southern & Eastern Europe are at a significantly higher risk of being physically inactive compared to those born in Australian. In contrast, immigrants from New Zealand (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.62, 0.94, the UK & Ireland (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.73, 0.92, and other Africa (OR 0.69 95% CI 0.51, 0.94 are at a significantly lower risk of being physically inactive compared to the Australian born population. Conclusion Future research identifying potential barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity will inform culturally sensitive physical activity programs that aim to encourage members of specific regional ethnic sub-groups to undertake physical activity.

  17. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  18. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  19. Correlation of Persistence, Initiative and Career Anchors Categories of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the results of comparative empirical study of persistence, initiative and Career Anchors categories of the students on the basis of the systemic-functional approach.

  20. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  1. Multimodality Molecular Imaging (FDG-PET/CT, US Elastography, and DWI-MRI) as Complimentary Adjunct for Enhancing Diagnostic Confidence in Reported Intermediate Risk Category Thyroid Nodules on Bethesda Thyroid Cytopathology Reporting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sandip; Mahajan, Abhishek; Arya, Supreeta

    2016-01-01

    The potential complimentary role of various molecular imaging modalities [fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), ultrasound (US)-elastography, and diffusion weighted imaging-magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI)] in characterizing thyroid nodules, which have been designated as “intermediate risk category” on the Bethesda thyroid cytopathology reporting system (BTCRS), is illustrated in this communication. The clinical cases described (category III thyroid nodules on BTCRS) show the imaging features and the final diagnostic impressions rendered by the interpreting physicians with the modalities that have been independently compared in a tabular format at the end; of particular note is the high negative predictive value of these (specifically FDG-PET/CT), which could aid in enhancing the diagnostic confidence in the reported “intermediate risk category” thyroid nodules, a “gray zone” from the patient management viewpoint

  2. Physical inactivity of adults and 1-year health care expenditures in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codogno, J.S.; Turi, B.C.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Fernandes, R.A.; Christofaro, D.G.D.; Monteiro, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between physical inactivity in different domains and direct public healthcare expenditures in adults and to identify whether the clustering of physical inactivity in different domains would contribute to increased public healthcare. Methods: The sample composed

  3. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  4. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  6. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  7. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  8. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low- level waste system (active tanks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    A leak testing plan for a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is provided in the two volumes that form this document. This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of this agreement was 1 January 1992. The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four different categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA's specific requirements for leak testing of the Category C systems is addressed in this plan. The plan also addresses leak testing of the Category B portions of the LLLW system. Leak testing of the Category B components was brought into the plan to supplement the secondary containment design demonstration effort that is under way for these components

  9. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  10. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  11. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  12. Individual differences in attention during category learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.

    2010-01-01

    A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning

  13. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  14. Inactive Tanks Remediation Program Batch I, Series I tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30 technical memorandum. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This technical memorandum provides information that can be used to make decisions concerning the disposition of four inactive tank systems that have been designated Batch 1, Series 1, by the Inactive Tanks Remediation Program team. The Batch I, Series 1, tanks are 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30. The report offers viable alternatives for tank system disposition. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by DOE's Oak Ridge Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems are evaluated and, if appropriate, remediated through the CERCLA process. The Inactive Tanks Remediation Program and the Gunite and Associated Tanks Project (GAAT) are the two efforts that will meet this FFA objective. This memorandum addresses tank systems within the Inactive Tanks Remediation Program. Separate CERCLA documentation addresses the tank systems within the GAAT Project

  15. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category 1 systems for the San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Victor, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of Southern California Edison Company's San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1, to determine whether the failure of any non-Category 1 (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might potentially adversely affect the performance of safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection as well as measures taken by Southern California Edison Company to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  16. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  17. Spinal atypical protein kinase C activity is necessary to stabilize inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strey, K.A.; Nichols, N.L.; Baertsch, N.A.; Broytman, O.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    The neural network controlling breathing must establish rhythmic motor output at a level adequate to sustain life. Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a novel form of plasticity in circuits driving the diaphragm known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), a rebound increase in phrenic inspiratory output observed once respiratory neural drive is restored. The mechanisms underlying iPMF are unknown. Here, we demonstrate in anesthetized rats that spinal mechanisms give rise to iPMF, and that iPMF consists of at least two mechanistically distinct phases: 1) an early, labile phase that requires atypical PKC (PKCζ and/or PKCΙ/λ) activity to transition to a 2) late, stable phase. Early (but not late) iPMF is associated with increased interactions between PKCζ/Ι and the scaffolding protein ZIP/p62 in spinal regions associated with the phrenic motor pool. Although PKCζ/Ι activity is necessary for iPMF, spinal aPKC activity is not necessary for phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia, an activity-independent form of spinal respiratory plasticity. Thus, while iPMF and pLTF both manifest as prolonged increases in phrenic burst amplitude, they arise from distinct spinal cellular pathways. Our data are consistent with the hypotheses that: 1) local mechanisms sense and respond to reduced respiratory-related activity in the phrenic motor pool, and 2) inactivity-induced increases in phrenic inspiratory output require local PKCζ/Ι activity to stabilize into a long-lasting iPMF. Although the physiological role of iPMF is unknown, we suspect that iPMF represents a compensatory mechanism, assuring adequate motor output in a physiological system where prolonged inactivity ends life. PMID:23152633

  18. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  19. Associations of Smoking, Physical Inactivity, Heavy Drinking, and Obesity with Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy among US Adults with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Zack, Matthew M; Gottesman, Irving I; Thompson, William W

    2018-03-01

    To examine associations between four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity) and three health indices (health-related quality of life, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE)) among US adults with depression. Data were obtained from the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) health preference scores were estimated on the basis of extrapolations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's healthy days measures. Depression scores were estimated using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Life expectancy estimates were obtained from US life tables, and QALE was estimated from a weighted combination of the EQ-5D scores and the life expectancy estimates. Outcomes were summarized by depression status for the four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity). For depressed adults, current smokers and the physically inactive had significantly lower EQ-5D scores (0.040 and 0.171, respectively), shorter life expectancy (12.9 and 10.8 years, respectively), and substantially less QALE (8.6 and 10.9 years, respectively). For nondepressed adults, estimated effects were similar but smaller. Heavy alcohol drinking among depressed adults, paradoxically, was associated with higher EQ-5D scores but shorter life expectancy. Obesity was strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores but only weakly associated with shorter life expectancy. Among depressed adults, physical inactivity and smoking were strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, life expectancy, and QALE, whereas obesity and heavy drinking were only weakly associated with these indices. These results suggest that reducing physical inactivity and smoking would improve health more among depressed adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts.Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry.Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann–Whitney, p = 0.153, as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354. The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F(24, 264 = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer (p < 0.05 in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects.Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years. However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fitness.

  1. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Burton, Samantha; Gordon, Christopher; Mack, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts. Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old) participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry. Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann-Whitney, p = 0.153), as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively) and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354). The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F (24, 264) = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer ( p < 0.05) in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years). However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fitness.

  2. An Inactive Geminin Mutant That Binds Cdt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Suchyta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiation of DNA replication is tightly regulated in order to ensure that the genome duplicates only once per cell cycle. In vertebrate cells, the unstable regulatory protein Geminin prevents a second round of DNA replication by inhibiting the essential replication factor Cdt1. Cdt1 recruits mini-chromosome maintenance complex (MCM2-7, the replication helicase, into the pre-replication complex (pre-RC at origins of DNA replication. The mechanism by which Geminin inhibits MCM2-7 loading by Cdt1 is incompletely understood. The conventional model is that Geminin sterically hinders a direct physical interaction between Cdt1 and MCM2-7. Here, we describe an inactive missense mutant of Geminin, GemininAWA, which binds to Cdt1 with normal affinity yet is completely inactive as a replication inhibitor even when added in vast excess. In fact, GemininAWA can compete with GemininWT for binding to Cdt1 and prevent it from inhibiting DNA replication. GemininAWA does not inhibit the loading of MCM2-7 onto DNA in vivo, and in the presence of GemininAWA, nuclear DNA is massively over-replicated within a single S phase. We conclude that Geminin does not inhibit MCM loading by simple steric interference with a Cdt1-MCM2-7 interaction but instead works by a non-steric mechanism, possibly by inhibiting the histone acetyltransferase HBO1.

  3. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  4. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  5. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  6. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Soil placed over any sealant/barrier system can provide a protective mantle if the soil is not lost by erosion. Vegetation is an attractive choice for controlling erosion because it can provide an economic self-renewing cover that serves to reduce erosion by both wind and water. Vegetation alone, however, may not adequately stabilize the surface in extremely arid areas. In those areas, a properly designed surface treatment of rock cover, perhaps in conjunction with vegetation, may be necessary to stabilize the tailings surfaces. The objective of this program is to establish guidelines for surface stabilization that are compatible with sealant/barrier systems and that are suited to soils and climates at inactive uranium mill tailings sites. These guidelines will provide the means to estimate potential vegetation cover, potential erosion, effects of surface treatments on sealant/barrier systems, and costs of vegetation and rock covers. Methods for establishing vegetation on sealed tailings will also be provided

  7. Physical inactivity at leisure and work: a 12-month study of cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Michelle C; Murphy, Barbara M; Le Grande, Michael R; Worcester, Marian U C

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been identified as a distinct health risk. However, little is known about how this can vary at leisure and work in cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of inactivity during leisure and work in the 12 months following a cardiac event in Australian cardiac patients. A total of 346 patients consecutively admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome or to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery were interviewed in hospital, and 4 and 12 months later. Leisure and occupational physical activity was measured using the Stanford Brief Activity Survey. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical data were also collected. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity declined over time, with 52% inactive preevent and 29% inactive at 12 months. Approximately 50% of participants were physically inactive in their work, regardless of whether this was measured before or after the cardiac event. Logistic regression revealed that the significant predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity at 12 months were non-home ownership (OR = 2.19; P = .007) and physical inactivity in leisure-time prior to the event (OR = 2.44; P = .001). The significant predictors of occupational physical inactivity at 12 months were white-collar occupation (OR = 3.10; P physical inactivity at work prior to the event (OR = 12.99; P physical inactivity, socioeconomic, and clinical factors predicted both leisure and work inactivity after an acute cardiac event. Effective interventions could be designed and implemented to target those most at risk of being physically inactive at work or leisure.

  8. Split2 Protein-Ligation Generates Active IL-6-Type Hyper-Cytokines from Inactive Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jens M; Wehmöller, Melanie; Frank, Nils C; Homey, Lisa; Baran, Paul; Garbers, Christoph; Lamertz, Larissa; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Galun, Eithan; Mootz, Henning D; Scheller, Jürgen

    2017-12-15

    Trans-signaling of the major pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 has the unique feature to virtually activate all cells of the body and is critically involved in chronic inflammation and regeneration. Hyper-IL-6 and Hyper-IL-11 are single chain designer trans-signaling cytokines, in which the cytokine and soluble receptor units are trapped in one complex via a flexible peptide linker. Albeit, Hyper-cytokines are essential tools to study trans-signaling in vitro and in vivo, the superior potency of these designer cytokines are accompanied by undesirable stress responses. To enable tailor-made generation of Hyper-cytokines, we developed inactive split-cytokine-precursors adapted for posttranslational reassembly by split-intein mediated protein trans-splicing (PTS). We identified cutting sites within IL-6 (E 134 /S 135 ) and IL-11 (G 116 /S 117 ) and obtained inactive split-Hyper-IL-6 and split-Hyper-IL-11 cytokine precursors. After fusion with split-inteins, PTS resulted in reconstitution of active Hyper-cytokines, which were efficiently secreted from transfected cells. Our strategy comprises the development of a background-free cytokine signaling system from reversibly inactivated precursor cytokines.

  9. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  10. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ; Dorian – Laurențiu FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning a...

  11. Guidelines for cleanup of uranium tailings from inactive mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiences in Grand Junction, Colorado, have indicated the significance of uranium tailings as sources of nonoccupational exposure and suggest that current methods for perpetual care and isolation of the large areas covered by tailings piles at inactive mill locations may be inadequate for minimizing human exposure. This paper presents the rationale and the procedures used in reviewing the adequacy of proposed criteria for remedial action at these sites. Exposures due to aquatic, terrestrial, airborne, and direct contamination pathways were compared to determine the most important radionuclides in the pile and their pathways to man. It is shown that the most hazardous components of the tailings are 226 Ra and 230 Th. The long half-lives of these radionuclides require the consideration of continuous occupancy of the vacated site at some future time, even if the immediately projected land use does not anticipate maximum exposure

  12. A case of primary hormonally inactive suprarenal corticosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, A.; Petkov, R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present announcement is to focus the clinician s attention to the diagnosis of a rare tumor - the hormonally inactive suprarenal corticosterome. Corticosteromes cause from 0.05 to 0.2% of deaths related to this kind of tumour. We show a patient who was diagnosed late, as a result, her chances of successful outcome were significantly diminished. The most reliable/conclusive diagnostic methods are sonography (ultrasound), CT of the abdomen and selective or non-selective renovasography. Despite the late diagnosis surgical treatment in many cases is possible. Radical surgical treatment includes suprarenalectomy, very often combined with nephrectomy because the kidney is often affected. The removal of both organs makes it possible to perform a thorough periaortic or pericaval lymphatic dissection

  13. The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nien-Chih; Chen, Jong-Dar; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    To examine the correlations between long working hours, physical activity, and burnout. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1560 full-time employees, who underwent periodic health examinations in the year 2013. The subjects were divided into upper, middle, and lower tertiles according to the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) score. The comparison of the high- and low-burnout groups revealed that long working hours were significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner. Long working hours were more significantly associated with burnout among individuals younger than 50 years, females, and physically inactive employees. Long working hours are correlated with burnout when working over 40 hours per week and is even stronger when working over 60 hours per week. Limiting working hours to 40 weekly may be beneficial for the prevention of burnout. Physical activity helps reduce the risk of burnout.

  14. Long Term Inactive Well Program requirements : interim directive ID 97-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and the petroleum industry have agreed that industry must take proactive measures to reduce the number of long term inactive wells in Alberta. This interim directive outlines the requirements of the Long Term Inactive Well Program, and provides a schedule for industry to reduce the number of inactive wells. EUB estimates that there are currently 35,000 inactive wells in Alberta, 10,000 of which have been inactive for more than 10 consecutive years. These wells pose a financial risk to the Abandonment Fund which was established to help fund the abandonment of orphan wells. The Long Term Inactive Well Program was created based on the recommendations of a joint government/industry committee, and will operate for five years. 5 tabs

  15. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hebb, Leslie, E-mail: slhawley@uw.edu [Department of Physics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E{sub K{sub p}}> 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate.

  16. Physical inactivity post-stroke: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Burnett, Malcolm; Ashburn, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To explore change in activity levels post-stroke. We measured activity levels using the activPAL™ in hospital and at 1, 2 and 3 years' post-stroke onset. Of the 74 participants (mean age 76 (SD 11), 39 men), 61 were assessed in hospital: 94% of time was spent in sitting/lying, 4% standing and 2% walking. Activity levels improved over time (complete cases n = 15); time spent sitting/lying decreased (p = 0.001); time spent standing, walking and number of steps increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.028 and p = 0.03, respectively). At year 3, 18% of time was spent in standing and 9% walking. Time spent upright correlated significantly with Barthel (r = 0.69 on admission, r = 0.68 on discharge, both p inactive for the majority of time. Time spent upright improved significantly by 1 year post-stroke; improvements slowed down thereafter. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify predictors of activity levels. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity levels (measured using activPAL™ activity monitor), increased significantly by 1 year post-stroke but improvements slowed down at 2 and 3 years. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of their day in hospital and in the community. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify the most important predictors of activity levels.

  17. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J.; Hebb, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E K p > 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate

  18. The concentration of active and inactive strontium in some Danube river samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshutich, K.; Lulich, S.

    1985-01-01

    The following fish species were investigated: Barbus barbus, Acipencer ruthenus, Abramis brama, Stizostedion lucioperca, Silurus glanis, Cyprinus caprio. The samples were collected during 1981. The inactive strontium in the water residue (after evaporation), sediment and fishes ewrw determined by nondestructive neutron activation analysis by using gamma couting system consisted of a 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) semiconductor rystal attached to a 4096-channel pulsehight analyser. The standard solution contained 5x10 -5 g of strontium per 100 lambda. Radioactive strontium was measured after several separation procedures. 90 SrCO 3 in equilibrium with its daughter 90 Y was detected in the β-low-level counting anticoincident system with gas-flow detector. The results confirmed the literature data that the sediment concentrations of the total strontium and the active 90 Sr are several times greater than those in water

  19. Worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with human development index in 76 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho; Hallal, Pedro Rodrigues Curi; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Kohl, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and to analyze its association with development level of each country. Methods. Pooled analysis of three multicenter studies, conducted between 2002 and 2004, which investigated the prevalence of physical inactivity in 76 countries, and comprised almost 300,000 individuals aged 15 years or older. Each study used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical inactivity. The level of development of ...

  20. Computational dosimetry in the development of a category-III irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Jain R.; Parmar, Y.D.; Kohli, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Preservation of food by radiation processing has been widely accepted and yielding tremendous industrial and societal benefits. It is a challenge to meet the vast range of dose requirements for the radiation processing of food items in the most economical way. The Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, a unit of the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India is developing a Co 60 irradiator of Category-III for the radiation processing of food commodities for commercial application. In this irradiator water is the only shielding material and unlike other irradiators this does not have any concrete or lead shielding above ground and no electrical interlock systems. The radiation source never leaves underwater shielded position. A computational method has been developed for the dose and throughput estimations which is used for the optimization of various parameters of this irradiator. Co 60 source pencils of total strength 18.5 P Bq arranged in two tiers in a rectangular source frame is considered ideal for this irradiator. Food items in the density range 0.15 x 10 3 kg.m -3 to 1.0 x 10 3 kg.m -3 were considered for processing. Product enclosed in a box of dimensions 1.2 m x 0.6 m x 1.2 m moves and occupies four positions around the source. The product is kept dry by proper leak tighteners. The double side irradiation provides a good dose distribution within the product. Parametric analysis has been carried out for various possible inactive gap lengths between the two tiers of the source and for various distances between the source and the product in order to optimize them for the acceptable dose uniformity within the product as well as for the best source utilization efficiency. This has been done for different density products. (author)

  1. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population...... is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....

  2. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  3. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  4. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  5. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  6. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  7. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  8. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  9. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  10. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  11. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  12. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  13. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  14. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  15. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  16. Educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity: a descriptive and explanatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droomers, M; Schrijvers, C T; van de Mheen, H; Mackenbach, J P

    1998-12-01

    In this study we aim to explain educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity in terms of psychosocial and material factors. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the baseline of the Dutch GLOBE study in 1991, including 2598 men and women, aged 15-74 years. Physical inactivity during leisure time was defined as not participating in any activity, such as sports, gardening, walking or cycling. Psychosocial factors included in the study were coping resources, personality, and stressors. Material factors were financial situation, employment status, and living conditions. Logistic regression models were used to calculate educational differences in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was more prevalent in lower educational groups. Psychosocial factors related to physical inactivity were locus of control, parochialism, neuroticism, emotional social support, active problem focussing, optimistic and palliative coping styles. Material factors associated with physical inactivity were income, employment status and financial problems. All correlates of physical inactivity were unequally distributed over educational groups, except optimistic and palliative coping. Personality and coping style were the main contributors to the observed educational differences in physical inactivity. That is to say, parochialism, locus of control, neuroticism and active problem focussing explained about half of elevated odds ratios of physical inactivity in the lower educational groups. The material factors, equivalent income and employment status explained about 40% of the elevated odds ratios. Psychosocial and material correlates together reduced the odds ratios of lower educational groups by on average 75%. These results have practical consequences for the design of more effective interventions to promote physical activity. In particular, personality and coping style of risk groups, such as lower educational groups, should be taken into consideration at the future

  17. Clustering of physical inactivity in leisure, work, commuting and household domains among Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, G F; Nahas, M V; de Sousa, T F; Mota, J; Hallal, P C; Peres, K G

    2013-06-01

    To identify the clustering of physical inactivity in leisure, work, commuting and household contexts, and the sociodemographic factors associated with the clustering of inactive behaviour in different domains among Brazilian adults. Cross-sectional population-based study. The study was performed in Florianopolis, capital of Santa Catarina, one of the southern states of Brazil, from September 2009 to January 2010. Adults aged 20-59 years were interviewed. Physical inactivity in each domain was defined as non-participation in specific physical activities, using a validated Brazilian questionnaire. Clustering of physical inactivity was identified by the ratio between observed prevalence and expected prevalence of 16 different combinations. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the analysis of sociodemographic factors associated with clustering of physical inactivity. Of the 1720 interviewees, the greatest differences between the observed and expected proportions were observed in simultaneous physical inactivity in the leisure and household domains for men, and physical inactivity in the leisure domain alone for women (59% and 88%, respectively); these differences were higher than expected if the behaviours were independent. Physical inactivity in two or more domains was observed more frequently in men and in individuals with a higher per-capita family income. Ageing was associated with physical inactivity in three or four domains. Physical inactivity was observed in different domains according to gender. Men and older individuals with a higher per-capita family income were more likely to exhibit physical inactivity when all domains were considered together. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. A study on development of Pyro process integrated inactive demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, I.; Lee, E.; Choung, W.; You, G.; Kim, H.

    2010-10-01

    Since 2007, the Pride (Pyro process integrated inactive demonstration facility) has been developed to demonstrate the integrated engineering-scale pyro processing using natural uranium with surrogate materials. In this paper, safety evaluation on hypothetical accident case is carried out to ensure the release of radioactivity being negligible to the environment and the performance of indoor argon flow for the argon cell has been investigated by means of CFD analysis. The worst accident case, even in the firing of the all uranium metal in argon cell, cause dose rate are negligible comparing to 0.25 Sv of effective dose rate to whole body or 3 Sv of equivalent dose rate to the thyroid preliminary CFD analyses show the temperature and velocity distribution of argon cell, and give the information to change the argon exchange rate and displace the argon supply or exhaust duct. CFD will allow design change and improvements in ventilation systems at lower cost. (Author)

  20. Safety issue resolution strategy plan for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Powers, T.B.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this strategy plan is to identify, confirm, and resolve safely issues associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) using a risk-based priority approach. Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations including risk ranking and cost effectiveness. This plan specifies work scope and recommends schedules for activities related to resolving safety issues, such as collecting historical data, searching for authorization documents, performing Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening and evaluation, identifying safety issues, imposing operational controls and monitoring, characterizing waste contents, mitigating and resolving safety issues, and fulfilling other remediation requirements consistent with the overall Tank Waste Remediation System strategy. Recommendations for characterization and remediation are also recommended according to the order of importance and practical programmatic consideration

  1. High-Throughput Screening of a Luciferase Reporter of Gene Silencing on the Inactive X Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Alissa; Plath, Kathrin; Damoiseaux, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Assays of luciferase gene activity are a sensitive and quantitative reporter system suited to high-throughput screening. We adapted a luciferase assay to a screening strategy for identifying factors that reactivate epigenetically silenced genes. This epigenetic luciferase reporter is subject to endogenous gene silencing mechanisms on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in primary mouse cells and thus captures the multilayered nature of chromatin silencing in development. Here, we describe the optimization of an Xi-linked luciferase reactivation assay in 384-well format and adaptation of the assay for high-throughput siRNA and chemical screening. Xi-luciferase reactivation screening has applications in stem cell biology and cancer therapy. We have used the approach described here to identify chromatin-modifying proteins and to identify drug combinations that enhance the gene reactivation activity of the DNA demethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

  2. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation

  3. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  4. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  5. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  6. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  7. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  8. Automated Discovery of Speech Act Categories in Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Vasile; Moldovan, Cristian; Niraula, Nobal; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the important task of automated discovery of speech act categories in dialogue-based, multi-party educational games. Speech acts are important in dialogue-based educational systems because they help infer the student speaker's intentions (the task of speech act classification) which in turn is crucial to providing adequate…

  9. Beknopte literatuurstudie inzake categorie-indeling van wegen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This literature study describes the road categorization from the road user point of view. The study describes the following subjects: (1) the mental load of road users; (2) road categories in relation to road safety; (3) a model for the traffic and transport system; (4) recognition of road types;

  10. Six categories of ionizing radiation quantities practical in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junzheng; Zhuo Weihai

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the part of review on the evolvement of the systems for ionizing radiation quantities and units. In the paper, for better understanding and correct use of the relevant quantities of ionizing radiation, the major ionizing radiation quantities in various fields are divided into six categories. (authors)

  11. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section 40.2a... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission..., if the site is covered by the remedial action program of title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings...

  12. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  13. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  14. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  15. Hepatic steatosis development with four weeks of physical inactivity in previously active, hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Meers, Grace M; Ruebel, Meghan L; Jenkins, Nathan T; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity-induced prevention of hepatic steatosis is maintained during short-term (7-day) transitions to an inactive state; however, whether these protective effects are present under a longer duration of physical inactivity is largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether previous physical activity had protective effects on hepatic steatosis and metabolic health following 4 wk of physical inactivity. Four-week old, hyperphagic, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were randomly assigned to either a sedentary group for 16 wk (OLETF-SED), given access to running wheels for 16 wk with wheels locked 5 h (OLETF-WL5hr) or given access to running wheels for 12 wk with wheels locked 4 wk (OLETF-WL4wk) prior to death. Four weeks of physical inactivity caused hepatic steatosis development, but liver triglycerides remained 60% lower than OLETF-SED (P inactivity, whereas markers of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis remained relatively suppressed following 4 wk of inactivity. In addition, 4 wk of inactivity caused a complete loss of activity-induced increases in serum IL-6 and reductions in regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and a partial loss in reductions in leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α. In conclusion, 4 wk of physical inactivity does not result in a complete loss in physical activity-induced benefits but does cause deterioration in the liver phenotype and overall metabolic health in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

  16. Setting-related influences on physical inactivity of older adults in residential care settings : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Johanna G.; Volkers, Karin M.; Engels, Gwenda; Sonneveld, Marieke H.; Goossens, Richard H. M.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the detrimental effects of physical inactivity for older adults, especially aged residents of residential care settings may spend much time in inactive behavior. This may be partly due to their poorer physical condition; however, there may also be other, setting-related factors

  17. Barrier-beliefs about physical activity in active and inactive adults : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Adrie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Perceived barriers are often a reason why people do not start physical activity or relapse to inactivity. From a psychological perspective, barriers can be seen as beliefs about what is obstructing people’s behavior. To understand inactivity and relapse from physical activity, this study

  18. Inactive fibrotic lesions versus pulmonary tuberculosis with negative bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solsona Peiró, Jordi; de Souza Galvão, Maria Luiza; Altet Gómez, Maria Neus

    2014-11-01

    This article analyzes the concept of inactive fibrotic lesions of presumed tuberculous origin (old healed tuberculosis), defined by radiological characteristics and a positive tuberculin skin test (TST), and we examine the evidence-based foundation for the indication of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in these cases. We explore the risk of reactivation in older and recent literature, and the problems raised by the differential diagnosis with active tuberculosis with negative bacteriology. We also analyze data on the prevalence of fibrotic lesions in the recent literature. We examine the possible role of Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) versus TST and other molecular antigen detection techniques in sputum that can aid in establishing the diagnosis and we discuss the current indications for chemoprophylaxis and the different options available. We propose diagnostic guidelines and therapeutic algorithms based on risk stratification by age and other factors in the management of radiological lesions that raise a differential diagnosis between fibrotic lesions and active pulmonary tuberculosis with negative bacteriology. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  20. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  1. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Leisure-time physical inactivity among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Saulo Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Araújo, Tania Maria

    2018-01-15

    To estimate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI) and associated factors among healthcare workers. The cross-sectional study carried out with 2684 healthcare workers from 4 municipalities from the northeast region, Brazil. The LTPI was assessed by dichotomous question. The association between LTPI and the various independent variables was examined through the multinomial logistic regression analysis (crude and adjusted). The prevalence of LTPI was 47.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 46.01-48.80). The adjusted analysis (sociodemographic and occupational characteristics) showed that women and individuals with higher levels of education were more LTPI (p = 0.05). The prevalence of LTPI was high among the population investigated, especially among women and individuals with higher education. These results show the importance of developing actions to encourage adherence to physical activity during leisure time among workers, especially among the most vulnerable groups (people with higher education and women), given the benefits of this behavior to health. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(3):251-260. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. The representation of grammatical categories in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Kevin; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2003-05-01

    Language relies on the rule-based combination of words with different grammatical properties, such as nouns and verbs. Yet most research on the problem of word retrieval has focused on the production of concrete nouns, leaving open a crucial question: how is knowledge about different grammatical categories represented in the brain, and what components of the language production system make use of it? Drawing on evidence from neuropsychology, electrophysiology and neuroimaging, we argue that information about a word's grammatical category might be represented independently of its meaning at the levels of word form and morphological computation.

  4. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.; Ellingson, D.; Scott, M.; Schade, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy orders and guidance. In particular, the Hanford Site approach to designating a suitable facility open-quotes Usage Category,close quotes is presented. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on the consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components

  5. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  6. Examination of race disparities in physical inactivity among adults of similar social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M; Thorpe, Roland J; Bell, Caryn N; Bleich, Sara N; Ford, Jean G; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether race disparities in physical inactivity are present among urban low-income Blacks and Whites living in similar social context. This analysis included Black and White respondents ( > or = 18 years) from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB; N=1350) Study and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; N = 67790). Respondents who reported no levels of moderate or vigorous physical activity, during leisure time, over a usual week were considered physically inactive. After controlling for confounders, Blacks had higher adjusted odds of physical inactivity compared to Whites in the national sample (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30-1.51). In EHDIC-SWB, Blacks and Whites had a similar odds of physical inactivity (OR = 1.09; 95% CI .86-1.40). Social context contributes to our understanding of racial disparities in physical inactivity.

  7. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  8. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  9. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  10. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  11. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  12. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  13. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  14. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  15. LIFETIME PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LUNG CANCER RISK AND MORTALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; Etter, John Lewis; LaMonte, Michael J; Ray, Andrew D; Joseph, Janine M; Al Qassim, Emad; Eng, Kevin H; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-01-01

    Investigations of the independent associations of physical inactivity with cancer endpoints have been mounting in the epidemiological literature, in part due to the high prevalence of physical inactivity among cancer patients and to evidence that inactivity associates with carcinogenesis via pathways independent of obesity. Yet, physical inactivity is not currently recognized as a well-established risk or prognostic factor for lung cancer. As such, we examined the associations of lifetime physical inactivity with lung cancer risk and mortality in a hospital-based, case-control study. Materials and Methods: The analyses included data from 660 lung cancer patients and 1335 matched cancer-free controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk, and Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the association between lifetime physical inactivity and mortality among lung cancer cases. Results: We observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk: [Odds ratio (OR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-2.81]; the association remained significant among never smokers (OR=3.00, 95% CI:1.33-6.78) and non-smokers (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.79-3.02). We also observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer mortality [Hazard ratio (HR)=1.40, 95% CI: 1.14-1.71]; the association remained significant in non-smokers (HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.16-1.95). These data add to the body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity is an independent risk and prognostic factor for cancer. Additional research utilizing prospectively collected data is needed to substantiate the current findings.

  16. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  17. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  18. Decreased spinal synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons elicit localized inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, K.A.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Phrenic motor neurons receive rhythmic synaptic inputs throughout life. Since even brief disruption in phrenic neural activity is detrimental to life, on-going neural activity may play a key role in shaping phrenic motor output. To test the hypothesis that spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced phrenic activity, anesthetized, ventilated rats received micro-injections of procaine in the C2 ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) to transiently (~30 min) block axon conduction in bulbospinal axons from medullary respiratory neurons that innervate one phrenic motor pool; during procaine injections, contralateral phrenic neural activity was maintained. Once axon conduction resumed, a prolonged increase in phrenic burst amplitude was observed in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve, demonstrating inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and atypical PKC (aPKC) activity in spinal segments containing the phrenic motor nucleus impaired ipsilateral iPMF, suggesting a key role for spinal TNFα and aPKC in iPMF following unilateral axon conduction block. A small phrenic burst amplitude facilitation was also observed contralateral to axon conduction block, indicating crossed spinal phrenic motor facilitation (csPMF). csPMF was independent of spinal TNFα and aPKC. Ipsilateral iPMF and csPMF following unilateral withdrawal of phrenic synaptic inputs were associated with proportional increases in phrenic responses to chemoreceptor stimulation (hypercapnia), suggesting iPMF and csPMF increase phrenic dynamic range. These data suggest that local, spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons. We hypothesize that iPMF and csPMF may represent compensatory mechanisms that assure adequate motor output is maintained in a physiological system in which prolonged inactivity ends life. PMID:24681155

  19. Decreased spinal synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons elicit localized inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, K A; Baker-Herman, T L

    2014-06-01

    Phrenic motor neurons receive rhythmic synaptic inputs throughout life. Since even brief disruption in phrenic neural activity is detrimental to life, on-going neural activity may play a key role in shaping phrenic motor output. To test the hypothesis that spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced phrenic activity, anesthetized, ventilated rats received micro-injections of procaine in the C2 ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) to transiently (~30min) block axon conduction in bulbospinal axons from medullary respiratory neurons that innervate one phrenic motor pool; during procaine injections, contralateral phrenic neural activity was maintained. Once axon conduction resumed, a prolonged increase in phrenic burst amplitude was observed in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve, demonstrating inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and atypical PKC (aPKC) activity in spinal segments containing the phrenic motor nucleus impaired ipsilateral iPMF, suggesting a key role for spinal TNFα and aPKC in iPMF following unilateral axon conduction block. A small phrenic burst amplitude facilitation was also observed contralateral to axon conduction block, indicating crossed spinal phrenic motor facilitation (csPMF). csPMF was independent of spinal TNFα and aPKC. Ipsilateral iPMF and csPMF following unilateral withdrawal of phrenic synaptic inputs were associated with proportional increases in phrenic responses to chemoreceptor stimulation (hypercapnia), suggesting iPMF and csPMF increase phrenic dynamic range. These data suggest that local, spinal mechanisms sense and respond to reduced synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons. We hypothesize that iPMF and csPMF may represent compensatory mechanisms that assure adequate motor output is maintained in a physiological system in which prolonged inactivity ends life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-Category I systems for Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.

    1979-08-01

    Three separate reviews of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 were conducted by the FPLCO between 1972 and 1975. Initially, at the request of NBC in 1972, the FPLCO reviewed several water systems as sources of flooding. Subsequently, as a result of an abnormal occurrence, the drainage system was reviewed. Finally, the facilities were again reviewed at NRC's request and both the potential sources of flooding and safety-related equipment which could be damaged by flooding were identified. The sources of flooding and the appropriate safety equipment are discussed. An evaluation is presented of measures that were taken by FPLCO to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  1. Dialogue concerning the survival of the one great world system: a study of the post-war scientific and theological perception of time scales as a relevant moral category in analyzing the dilemmas of the nuclear age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, D.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis seeks to extend the search for the moral implications inherent in the development, possession, and the threatened use of physical/astrophysical processes and in current understandings of the evolution of the physical universe. The nature of normal/theological discussion will not be a primary concern although clearly some residual position that such discussion is meaningful is presupposed. Neither is the nature of science or the scientific method at issue. It is assumed that both theology and science have long since negotiated the confidence crises of adolescence, and have mustered the requisite self-esteem regarding their respective disciplines. The aim of this work is to present the concept of time scales as a relevant moral category. It investigates the use of this concept and its relationship to the other categories developed in the relevant scientific literature. The question is raised as to the validity of and the future of the concept of time scales as a common moral ground.

  2. Dialogue concerning the survival of the one great world system: a study of the post-war scientific and theological perception of time scales as a relevant moral category in analyzing the dilemmas of the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, D.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis seeks to extend the search for the moral implications inherent in the development, possession, and the threatened use of physical/astrophysical processes and in current understandings of the evolution of the physical universe. The nature of normal/theological discussion will not be a primary concern although clearly some residual position that such discussion is meaningful is presupposed. Neither is the nature of science or the scientific method at issue. It is assumed that both theology and science have long since negotiated the confidence crises of adolescence, and have mustered the requisite self-esteem regarding their respective disciplines. The aim of this work is to present the concept of time scales as a relevant moral category. It investigates the use of this concept and its relationship to the other categories developed in the relevant scientific literature. The question is raised as to the validity of and the future of the concept of time scales as a common moral ground

  3. Accelerometer profiles of physical activity and inactivity in normal weight, overweight, and obese U.S. men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Brashear, Meghan M; Johnson, William D; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-08-03

    The 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is used to describe an accelerometer-derived physical activity/inactivity profile in normal weight (BMI /= 30 kg/m2) U.S. adults. We computed physical activity volume indicators (activity counts/day, uncensored and censored steps/day), rate indicators (e.g., steps/minute), time indicators (employing NHANES activity counts/minute cut points to infer time in non-wear, sedentary, low, light, moderate, and vigorous intensities), the number of breaks in sedentary time (occasions when activity counts rose from /= 100 activity counts in the subsequent minute), achievement of public health guidelines, and classification by step-defined physical activity levels. Data were examined for evidence of consistent and significant gradients across BMI-defined categories. In 2005-2006, U.S adults averaged 6,564 +/- SE 107 censored steps/day, and after considering non-wear time, they spent approximately 56.8% of the rest of the waking day in sedentary time, 23.7% in low intensity, 16.7% in light intensity, 2.6% in moderate intensity, and 0.2% in vigorous intensity. Overall, approximately 3.2% of U.S. adults achieved public health guidelines. The normal weight category took 7,190 +/- SE 157 steps/day, and spent 25.7 +/- 0.9 minutes/day in moderate intensity and 7.3 +/- 0.4 minutes/day in vigorous intensity physical activity. The corresponding numbers for the overweight category were 6,879 +/- 140 steps/day, 25.3 +/- 0.9 minutes/day, and 5.3 +/- 0.5 minutes/day and for the obese category 5,784 +/- 124 steps/day, 17.3 +/- 0.7 minutes/day and 3.2 +/- 0.4 minutes/day. Across BMI categories, increasing gradients and significant trends were apparent in males for sedentary time and decreasing gradients and significant trends were evident in time spent in light intensity, moderate intensity, and vigorous intensity. For females, there were only consistent gradients and significant trends apparent for decreasing amounts of

  4. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category 1 systems for the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epps, R.C.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine whether the failure of any non-Class I (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might adversely affect the performance of the safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility, or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection system as well as measures taken by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MYAPC) to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  5. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  6. Correlates of Leisure Time Physical Inactivity in a Scandinavian Population: A Basis for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Alfredsson, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Schelin, Maria E C

    2016-11-01

    Effective interventions are needed to increase physical activity in the general population. To target interventions, we need knowledge of insufficiently active groups in society. This study aims to identify demographic and health-related correlates of leisure-time physical inactivity in a general Scandinavian population. Study participants comprised 5734 control subjects, age 18 to 70 years, from 2 ongoing Swedish case-control studies. Participants self-reported their leisure-time physical activity level. The odds of being physically inactive were calculated using logistic regression. A total of 42% of participants were classified as physically inactive during leisure time. A lower prevalence of inactivity was associated with middle age, higher education, having previous experience of sports participation, following a low glycemic index/Mediterranean diet and having a light physical workload. A high prevalence of inactivity was associated with greater age, high body mass index, smoking, never drinking alcohol, having children, having a weak social network or lower levels of emotional support, and a low vegetable intake. Several factors were associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Directing interventions to target groups defined by specific factors associated with physical inactivity could be an efficient way to increase activity and improve health in the general population.

  7. Physical inactivity and associated factors among women from a municipality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Cristiano; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa; Bressan, Ana Weigert; Paniz, Vera Maria; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors that is raising the global burden of chronic diseases. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study of 790 women aged 20 years or older living in the urban area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. The level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short form. Inactivity was defined as fewer than 150 min/wk-1 spent in moderate or vigorous physical activities. Prevalence ratios were calculated by robust Poisson regression. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3%-54.1%). After adjusting for confounders, we found a linear trend for increasing prevalence of physical inactivity with increasing body mass index (P = .008). Women who were married or in a domestic partnership were 29% less physically active than single women (P = .044). A borderline association was detected between the presence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) and physical inactivity (P = .058). There was a high prevalence of inactivity. Obese women, those married or in domestic partnerships and those with MPD were more likely to lead an inactive lifestyle. These results suggest that strategies are required for breaking down barriers to physical activity in this demographic group.

  8. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. When does fading enhance perceptual category learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, observers discriminated stimuli based on a single sensory continuum (time duration and line length, respectively). Adaptive fading dramatically improved performance in training (unsurprisingly) but did not enhance learning as assessed in a final test. The same was true for nonadaptive linear fading (Experiment 3). However, when variation in length (predicting category membership) was embedded among other (category-irrelevant) variation, fading dramatically enhanced not only performance in training but also learning as assessed in a final test (Experiments 4 and 5). Fading also helped learners to acquire a color saturation discrimination amid category-irrelevant variation in hue and brightness, although this learning proved transitory after feedback was withdrawn (Experiment 7). Theoretical implications are discussed, and we argue that fading should have practical utility in naturalistic category learning tasks, which involve extremely high dimensional stimuli and many irrelevant dimensions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  11. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  12. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student achievement index and graduation rates. Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  13. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  14. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in South Africa in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jané; Norman, Rosana; Lambert, Estelle V; Groenewald, Pam; Schneider, Michelle; Bull, Fiona; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2007-08-01

    To quantify the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in persons 15 years or older, by age group and sex, in South Africa for 2000. The global comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology of the World Health Organization was followed to estimate the disease burden attributable to physical inactivity. Levels of physical activity for South Africa were obtained from the World Health Survey 2003. A theoretical minimum risk exposure of zero, associated outcomes, relative risks, and revised burden of disease estimates were used to calculate population-attributable fractions and the burden attributed to physical inactivity. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. South Africa. Adults >or= 15 years. Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, breast cancer, colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Overall in adults >or= 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17,037 (95% uncertainty interval 11,394 - 20,407), or 3.3% (95% uncertainty interval 2.2 - 3.9%) of all deaths in 2000, and 176,252 (95% uncertainty interval 133,733 - 203,628) DALYs, or 1.1% (95% uncertainty interval 0.8 - 1.3%) of all DALYs in 2000. Compared with other regions and the global average, South African adults have a particularly high prevalence of physical inactivity. In terms of attributable deaths, physical inactivity ranked 9th compared with other risk factors, and 12th in terms of DALYs. There is a clear need to assess why South Africans are particularly inactive, and to ensure that physical activity/inactivity is addressed as a national health priority.

  15. The metabolite beta-aminoisobutyric acid and physical inactivity among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Ammann, Thomas; Farcomeni, Alessio; Lionetto, Luana; Simmaco, Maurizio; Lai, Silvia; Laviano, Alessandro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Chiappini, Maria Grazia; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity is frequent in patients on hemodialysis (HD), and represents a reliable predictor of morbidity and mortality. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a contraction-induced myokine, the plasma levels of which increase with exercise and are inversely associated with metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether physical inactivity and clinical parameters relate to plasma BAIBA levels in this patient population. Adult patients on HD were included, and the presence of physical inactivity was assessed. BAIBA levels were measured in these patients and in healthy individuals. We assessed barriers to physical activity, including 23 items regarding psychophysical and financial barriers. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance and muscle strength by handgrip dynamometer. Nonparametric tests and logistic regression analyses were performed. Forty-nine patients on HD were studied; 49% were physically active and 51% were inactive. Of the patients, 43 reported barriers to physical activity and 61% of inactive patients reported three or more barriers. BAIBA levels were lower in patients on HD with respect to controls (P HD patients as active and inactive, both groups showed significantly lower BAIBA levels versus controls (P = 0.0005, P HD showed increased BAIBA levels compared with diabetic patients (P HD endorsing the two most frequent barriers showed lower BAIBA levels than those not reporting these barriers (P = 0.006). Active patients showed higher intracellular water (%) (P = 0.008), and active and inactive patients showed significant correlation between total body muscle mass and handgrip strength (P = 0.04, P = 0.005, respectively). Physical inactivity is highly prevalent among patients on HD and BAIBA correlates with barriers to physical activity reported by inactive patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J; Risch, Harvey A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Eng, Kevin H; Brian Szender, J; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N; Zirpoli, Gary R; Bandera, Elisa V; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert P; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Catherine M; Olson, Sara H; Leigh Pearce, Celeste; Pike, Malcolm C; Anne Rossing, Mary; Szamreta, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Pamela J; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A; Webb, Penelope M; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G; Winham, Stacey J; Wu, Anna H; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Kelemen, Linda E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2016-07-01

    Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass index. The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57), and similar associations were observed for each histotype. In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1114-24. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Eng, Kevin H.; Szender, J. Brian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N.; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B.; Olsen, Catherine M.; Olson, Sara H.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Szamreta, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Winham, Stacey J.; Wu, Anna H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Moysich, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race and body mass index (BMI). Results The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) and similar associations were observed for each histotype. Conclusions In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. Impact These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. PMID:27197285

  18. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

  19. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  20. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  1. Lectures on tensor categories and modular functors

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2000-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors (which naturally arise in 2-dimensional conformal field theory). The following examples are discussed in detail: the category of representations of a quantum group at a root of unity and the Wess-Zumino-Witten modular functor. The idea that these topics are related first appeared in the physics literature in the study of quantum field theory. Pioneering works of Witten and Moore-Seiberg triggered an avalanche of papers, both physical and mathematical, exploring various aspects of these relations. Upon preparing to lecture on the topic at MIT, however, the authors discovered that the existing literature was difficult and that there were gaps to fill. The text is wholly expository and finely succinct. It gathers results, fills existing gaps, and simplifies some pro...

  2. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  3. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  4. The cost of selective attention in category learning: developmental differences between adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2013-10-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6-8months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The cost of selective attention in category learning: Developmental differences between adults and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A.; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6–8 months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. PMID:23773914

  6. Implications of an assessment of potential organic contamination of ground water at an inactive uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Laws and regulations concerning remedial actions at inactive uranium mills explicitly recognize radiological and nonradiological hazards and may implicitly recognize the potential presence of hazardous wastes at these mill sites. Ground-water studies at the sites have placed an increasing emphasis on screening for priority pollutants. The Grand Junction, Colorado, mill site was deemed to have a high potential for the presence of organic compounds in ground water, and was chosen as a prototype for assessing the presence of organic compounds in ground water at inactive sites. Lessons learned from the assessment of organics at the Grand Junction site were used to develop a screening procedure for other inactive mill sites

  7. Differential CT Attenuation of Metabolically Active and Inactive Adipose Tissues — Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Chung, Sandra A.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates differences in CT Hounsfield units (HUs) between metabolically active (brown fat) and inactive adipose tissues (white fat) due to variations in their densities. PET/CT data from 101 pediatric and adolescent patients were analyzed. Regions of metabolically active and inactive adipose tissues were identified and standard uptake values (SUVs) and HUs were measured. HUs of active brown fat were more positive (p<0.001) than inactive fat (−62.4±5.3 versus −86.7±7.0) and the difference was observed in both males and females. PMID:21245691

  8. Functional categories in agrammatism: evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Kouvava, Sofia

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, to investigate the use of functional categories by two Greek agrammatic aphasics. Second, to discuss the implications of our findings for the characterization of the deficit in agrammatism. The functional categories under investigation were the following: definite and indefinite articles, personal pronouns, aspect, tense, subject-verb agreement, wh-pronouns, complementizers and the mood marker na (=to). Based on data collected through different methods, it is argued that the deficit in agrammatism cannot be described in terms of a structural account but rather by means of difficulties in the implementation of grammatical knowledge.

  9. How to Do Things with Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Consumers and other audiences draw upon cognitive categories when evaluating technological products (Clark, 1985; Kaplan and Tripsas, 2008). Categories such as “mini-van” or “computer” provide labels and conceptual meaning structures that consumers and other market actors draw upon in making sense...... the majority of archival data was collected. Finally, to trace consumer reception of innovations in the design of products and technological innovations, I constructed a data set based on posts from an online hearing aid consumer forum. The initial analysis each spawned into three distinct trajectories...

  10. Maternal inactivity: 45-year trends in mothers' use of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Edward; Lavie, Carl J; McDonald, Samantha M; Thomas, Diana M; Hébert, James R; Taverno Ross, Sharon E; McIver, Kerry L; Malina, Robert M; Blair, Steven N

    2013-12-01

    To examine 45-year trends in time use and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in a nationally representative sample of US mothers. We quantified time allocation to physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SED), and PAEE from 1965 to 2010 in mothers with older children (MOC) (>5 to ≤18 years) and mothers with younger children (MYC) (≤5 years). Physical activity was the sum of time allocated to housework, child care, laundry, food preparation, postmeal cleanup, and exercise. Sedentary behavior was the sum of time spent in a vehicle and using screen-based media. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. From 1965 to 2010, the time allocated to PA decreased by 11.1 h/wk (from 32.0 to 20.9 h/wk) in MOC and by 13.9 h/wk (from 43.6 to 29.7 h/wk) in MYC. The time spent in SED increased by 7.0 h/wk in MOC (from 17.7 to 24.7 h/wk) and increased by 5.7 h/wk in MYC (from 17.0 to 22.7 h/wk). Physical activity energy expenditure decreased by 1237.6 kcal/wk (176.8 kcal/d) in MOC (from 5835.3 to 4597.7 kcal/wk), and in MYC, PAEE decreased by 1572.5 kcal/wk (224.6 kcal/d), from 7690.5 to 6118.0 kcal/wk. There was a significant reallocation of time by mothers from PA (eg, housework) to SED (eg, watching television) between 1965 and 2010. Given the essential role of PA for health and the potential for the intergenerational transmission of obesity and obesogenic behaviors, these results suggest that maternal inactivity may be an important target for the primary prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, Richard [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Leichter, Isaac [Department of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, Shalom [Department of Radiology of The Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Novak, Boris [Department of Applied Mathematics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel); Bamberger, Philippe [Department of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, POB 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Fields, Scott [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A{sub z}of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A {sub z}of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A {sub z}significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  12. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Richard; Leichter, Isaac; Buchbinder, Shalom; Novak, Boris; Bamberger, Philippe; Fields, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A z of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A z of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A z significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  13. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodrich, D.D.; Ellingson, D.R.; Scott, M.A.; Schade, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy Orders and guidance. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on teh consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  14. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  15. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  16. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Coecke, B.; Panangaden, P.; Selinger, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  17. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  18. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  19. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mandatory disclosure requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552(a): (1)(i) Specifically authorized under... enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...

  20. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  1. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  2. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN...) Stimulants. (r) Antitussives. (s) Allergy treatment products. (t) Cold remedies. (u) Antirheumatic products...

  3. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  4. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  5. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  6. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  7. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  8. 38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.89 Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary... the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and...

  9. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  10. Using a novel environmental quality measure to understand population-level physical inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Understanding the role of the overall ambient environment in population inactivi...

  11. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution.

  12. Government inaction on ratings and government subsidies to the US film industry help promote youth smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Millett; Jonathan R Polansky; Stanton A Glantz

    2011-01-01

    Christopher Millett and colleagues examine government inaction on the WHO recommendation for adult content ratings in films with smoking, and highlight the generous film industry subsidies these countries provide.

  13. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity...... and mortality. Methods: Participants included 6806 women with a primary diagnosis of invasive EOC. In accordance with the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. We utilised Cox proportional hazard models...... to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) representing the associations of inactivity with mortality censored at 5 years. Results: In multivariate analysis, inactive women had significantly higher mortality risks, with (HR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.18-1.52) and without (HR=1.22, 95% CI: 1...

  14. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  15. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  16. Selection of liquid-level monitoring method for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks, remedial investigation/feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Several of the inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain residual wastes in liquid or solid (sludge) form or both. A plan of action has been developed to ensure that potential environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive LLLW tank systems are minimized. This document describes the evaluation and selection of a methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in inactive LLLW tanks. Criteria are established for comparison of existing level monitoring and leak testing methods; a preferred method is selected and a decision methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in the tanks is presented for implementation. The methodology selected can be used to continuously monitor the tanks pending disposition of the wastes for treatment and disposal. Tanks that are empty, are scheduled to be emptied in the near future, or have liquid contents that are very low risk to the environment were not considered to be candidates for installing level monitoring. Tanks requiring new monitoring equipment were provided with conductivity probes; tanks with existing level monitoring instrumentation were not modified. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine inactive LLLW tank liquid level trends as a function of time

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  18. Setting-related influences on physical inactivity of older adults in residential care settings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Johanna G; Volkers, Karin M; Engels, Gwenda; Sonneveld, Marieke H; Goossens, Richard H M; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-04-28

    Despite the detrimental effects of physical inactivity for older adults, especially aged residents of residential care settings may spend much time in inactive behavior. This may be partly due to their poorer physical condition; however, there may also be other, setting-related factors that influence the amount of inactivity. The aim of this review was to review setting-related factors (including the social and physical environment) that may contribute to the amount of older adults' physical inactivity in a wide range of residential care settings (e.g., nursing homes, assisted care facilities). Five databases were systematically searched for eligible studies, using the key words 'inactivity', 'care facilities', and 'older adults', including their synonyms and MeSH terms. Additional studies were selected from references used in articles included from the search. Based on specific eligibility criteria, a total of 12 studies were included. Quality of the included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Based on studies using different methodologies (e.g., interviews and observations), and of different quality (assessed quality range: 25-100%), we report several aspects related to the physical environment and caregivers. Factors of the physical environment that may be related to physical inactivity included, among others, the environment's compatibility with the abilities of a resident, the presence of equipment, the accessibility, security, comfort, and aesthetics of the environment/corridors, and possibly the presence of some specific areas. Caregiver-related factors included staffing levels, the available time, and the amount and type of care being provided. Inactivity levels in residential care settings may be reduced by improving several features of the physical environment and with the help of caregivers. Intervention studies could be performed in order to gain more insight into causal effects of improving setting-related factors on

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Elaine M.; Murphy, Marie H.; Murphy, Niamh M.; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Aoife

    2015-01-01

    The public health challenges associated with rapid population ageing are likely to be exacerbated by poor physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical inactivity in a population-representative sample of older adults in Ireland. This paper reports a secondary analysis of data from 4892 adults aged 60+ from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA includes an assessment of the mental and physical health, and social and financial circumstances of participants assessed in a home interview and self-completion questionnaire. Chi squared statistics and forced entry logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with physical inactivity. Females were over twice as likely to be inactive as their male counterparts (Odds Ratio 2.2). Increasing old age was associated with inactivity among males and females. Those who reported above secondary level education, no reported falls in the last year and no fear of falling were less likely to be physically inactive. While older adults who noted poor/fair self-reported health, that they did not look after grandchildren, did not own a car or did not attend a course were also more likely to be inactive than those who reported positively for these items. Gender displayed a strong but often contrasting influence on factors that affect physical activity among older adults. Among females, living alone or in a rural area, retirement, fair/poor emotional health and activity being limited by illness were all significantly associated with inactivity. While cohabiting, being employed and residing in an urban area were related to low levels of activity in males. Our findings identify specific groups of the older Irish population who may be at particular risk of physical inactivity and thereby the associated physiological and psychological hazards. These results can support the development of tailored interventions to promote healthy ageing. PMID:25671621

  20. Population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to physical inactivity in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tunaiji, Hashel; Davis, Jennifer C; Mackey, Dawn C; Khan, Karim M

    2014-05-18

    Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 3% to 40%. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the best estimate of PAF for T2DM attributable to physical inactivity and absence of sport participation or exercise for men and women. We conducted a systematic review that included a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SportDiscus, and CINAHL (1946 to April 30 2013) limited by the terms adults and English. Two reviewers screened studies, extracted PAF related data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. We reconstructed 95% CIs for studies missing these data using a substitution method. Of the eight studies reporting PAF in T2DM, two studies included prospective cohort studies (3 total) and six were reviews. There were distinct variations in quality of defining and measuring physical inactivity, T2DM and adjusting for confounders. In the US, PAFs for absence of playing sport ranged from 13% (95% CI: 3, 22) in men and 29% (95% CI: 17, 41) in women. In Finland, PAFs for absence of exercise ranged from 3% (95% CI: -11, 16) in men to 7% (95% CI: -9, 20) in women. The PAF of physical inactivity due to T2DM is substantial. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for T2DM. The contribution of physical inactivity to T2DM differs by sex; PAF also differs if physical inactivity is defined as the absence of 'sport' or absence of 'exercise'.

  1. Time trends in absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilcz, Máté; Mosquera, Paola A; Sebastián, Miguel San; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the time trends in educational, occupational, and income-related inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in northern Swedish women and men. This study was based on data obtained from the repeated cross-sectional Health on Equal Terms survey of 2006, 2010, and 2014. The analytical sample consisted of 20,667 (2006), 31,787 (2010), and 21,613 (2014) individuals, aged 16-84. Logistic regressions were used to model the probability of physical inactivity given a set of explanatory variables. Slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used as summary measures of the social gradient in physical inactivity. The linear trend in inequalities and difference between gender and years were estimated by interaction analyses. The year 2010 displayed the highest physical inactivity inequalities for all socioeconomic position indicators, but educational and occupational inequalities decreased in 2014. However, significant positive linear trends were found in absolute and relative income inequalities. Moreover, women had significantly higher RII of education in physical inactivity in 2014 and significantly higher SII and RII of income in physical inactivity in 2010, than did men in the same years. The recent reduction in educational and occupational inequalities following the high inequalities around the time of the great recession in 2010 suggests that the current policies might be fairly effective. However, to eventually alleviate inequities in physical inactivity, the focus of the researchers and policymakers should be directed toward the widening trends of income inequalities in physical inactivity.

  2. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  3. How semantic category modulates preschool children's visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giganti, Fiorenza; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic interplay between perception and memory has been explored in preschool children by presenting filtered stimuli regarding animals and artifacts. The identification of filtered images was markedly influenced by both prior exposure and the semantic nature of the stimuli. The identification of animals required less physical information than artifacts did. Our results corroborate the notion that the human attention system evolves to reliably develop definite category-specific selection criteria by which living entities are monitored in different ways.

  4. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical inactivity, gender and culture in Arab countries: a systematic assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Eman; Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla

    2018-05-18

    Physical inactivity is associated with excess weight and adverse health outcomes. We synthesize the evidence on physical inactivity and its social determinants in Arab countries, with special attention to gender and cultural context. We searched MEDLINE, Popline, and SSCI for articles published between 2000 and 2016, assessing the prevalence of physical inactivity and its social determinants. We also included national survey reports on physical activity, and searched for analyses of the social context of physical activity. We found 172 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Standardized data are available from surveys by the World Health Organization for almost all countries, but journal articles show great variability in definitions, measurements and methodology. Prevalence of inactivity among adults and children/adolescents is high across countries, and is higher among women. Some determinants of physical inactivity in the region (age, gender, low education) are shared with other regions, but specific aspects of the cultural context of the region seem particularly discouraging of physical activity. We draw on social science studies to gain insights into why this is so. Physical inactivity among Arab adults and children/adolescents is high. Studies using harmonized approaches, rigorous analytic techniques and a deeper examination of context are needed to design appropriate interventions.

  6. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  7. Association of physical inactivity with hypertension and low educational level in people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Santos, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira; Cardoso, Rodrigo de Castro; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus. Physical inactivity was defined as a score below 600 metabolic equivalent minutes/week according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version. Poisson multiple regression was applied in the multivariate analysis with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 44.1%. Education of ≤4 years of study (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.71) and HT (PR: 1.49) were associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent in PLWHA and associated with low educational level and HT. We highlight the simultaneous association between two cardiometabolic risk factors, HT and physical inactivity.

  8. The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaligné, Ronan; Popova, Tatiana; Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Saleem, Mohamed-Ashick M; Gentien, David; Ban, Kristen; Piolot, Tristan; Leroy, Olivier; Mariani, Odette; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stern, Marc-Henri; Heard, Edith

    2015-04-01

    Disappearance of the Barr body is considered a hallmark of cancer, although whether this corresponds to genetic loss or to epigenetic instability and transcriptional reactivation is unclear. Here we show that breast tumors and cell lines frequently display major epigenetic instability of the inactive X chromosome, with highly abnormal 3D nuclear organization and global perturbations of heterochromatin, including gain of euchromatic marks and aberrant distributions of repressive marks such as H3K27me3 and promoter DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of chromatin and transcription reveal modified epigenomic landscapes in cancer cells and a significant degree of aberrant gene activity from the inactive X chromosome, including several genes involved in cancer promotion. We demonstrate that many of these genes are aberrantly reactivated in primary breast tumors, and we further demonstrate that epigenetic instability of the inactive X can lead to perturbed dosage of X-linked factors. Taken together, our study provides the first integrated analysis of the inactive X chromosome in the context of breast cancer and establishes that epigenetic erosion of the inactive X can lead to the disappearance of the Barr body in breast cancer cells. This work offers new insights and opens up the possibility of exploiting the inactive X chromosome as an epigenetic biomarker at the molecular and cytological levels in cancer. © 2015 Chaligné et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Task Action Plans for generic activities: Category A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The document contains listings of generic technical activities as identified and placed in priority categories by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). In addition, it contains definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D and copies of forty approved Task Action Plans for Category A activites. Problem Descriptions for the Category B, C and D tasks are contained in NUREG--0471. This material was developed within the context of NRR's Program for the Resolution of Generic Issues Related to Nuclear Power Plants. As part of this program, the assignment of identified issues to priority categories and the approval of Task Action Plans were made by NRR's Technical Activities Steering Committee, chaired by the Deputy Director, NRR. The original document was published in November 1977. In December 1977 it was updated to add the Task Action Plan for Task No. A-17, Systems Interactions in Nuclear Power Plants. This update adds Task Action Plans for Tasks A-13, A-18, A-21, A-22, A-32, A-37, A-38 and A-40. Task A-41 has been included in Task A-40. In addition, as part of this update, the following changes were made to each Task Action Plan (with the exception of the Task Action Plan for Task A-9): (1) a title page was added that includes information such as Lead NRR Organization, Lead Supervisor, Task Manager, Applicability, and Projected Completion Date; (2) detailed schedule information was deleted; and (3) a new Section 3 entitled Basis for Continued Plant Operation and Licensing Pending Completion of Task was added. These changes represent general reformatting and the addition or deletion of certain general types of information. Some substantive revisions were made to several of the plans, however, a general revision of all of the plans was not undertaken at this time

  10. A deep learning method for classifying mammographic breast density categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Aly A; Berg, Wendie A; Peng, Hong; Luo, Yahong; Jankowitz, Rachel C; Wu, Shandong

    2018-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is an established risk marker for breast cancer and is visually assessed by radiologists in routine mammogram image reading, using four qualitative Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories. It is particularly difficult for radiologists to consistently distinguish the two most common and most variably assigned BI-RADS categories, i.e., "scattered density" and "heterogeneously dense". The aim of this work was to investigate a deep learning-based breast density classifier to consistently distinguish these two categories, aiming at providing a potential computerized tool to assist radiologists in assigning a BI-RADS category in current clinical workflow. In this study, we constructed a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based model coupled with a large (i.e., 22,000 images) digital mammogram imaging dataset to evaluate the classification performance between the two aforementioned breast density categories. All images were collected from a cohort of 1,427 women who underwent standard digital mammography screening from 2005 to 2016 at our institution. The truths of the density categories were based on standard clinical assessment made by board-certified breast imaging radiologists. Effects of direct training from scratch solely using digital mammogram images and transfer learning of a pretrained model on a large nonmedical imaging dataset were evaluated for the specific task of breast density classification. In order to measure the classification performance, the CNN classifier was also tested on a refined version of the mammogram image dataset by removing some potentially inaccurately labeled images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to measure the accuracy of the classifier. The AUC was 0.9421 when the CNN-model was trained from scratch on our own mammogram images, and the accuracy increased gradually along with an increased size of training samples

  11. The transfer of category knowledge by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Correspondence between Grammatical Categories and Grammatical Functions in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fu

    1993-01-01

    A correspondence is shown between grammatical categories and grammatical functions in Chinese. Some syntactic properties distinguish finite verbs from nonfinite verbs, nominals from other categories, and verbs from other categories. (Contains seven references.) (LB)

  13. Questionnaire survey of customer satisfaction for product categories towards certification of ergonomic quality in design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochimaru, Masaaki; Takahashi, Miwako; Hatakenaka, Nobuko; Horiuchi, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Customer satisfaction was surveyed for 6 product categories (consumer electronics, daily commodities, home equipment, information systems, cars, and health appliances) by questionnaires based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Analyzing weight of evaluation factors, the 6 product categories were reorganized into 4 categories, those were related to 4 aspects in daily living that formed by two axes: home living - mobility life and healthy life - active communication. It was found that consumers were attracted by the actual user test by public institutes for all product categories. The certification based on the design process standard established by authorities, such as EQUID was the second best attractor for consumers.

  14. On the stability, the periodic solutions and the resolution of certain types of non linear equations, and of non linearly coupled systems of these equations, appearing in betatronic oscillations; Sur la stabilite, les solutions periodiques et la resolution de certaines categories d'equations et systemes d'equations differentielles couplees non lineaires apparaissant dans les oscillations betatroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valat, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    Universal stability diagrams have been calculated and experimentally checked for Hill-Meissner type equations with square-wave coefficients. The study of these equations in the phase-plane has then made it possible to extend the periodic solution calculations to the case of non-linear differential equations with periodic square-wave coefficients. This theory has been checked experimentally. For non-linear coupled systems with constant coefficients, a search was first made for solutions giving an algebraic motion. The elliptical and Fuchs's functions solve such motions. The study of non-algebraic motions is more delicate, apart from the study of nonlinear Lissajous's motions. A functional analysis shows that it is possible however in certain cases to decouple the system and to find general solutions. For non-linear coupled systems with periodic square-wave coefficients it is then possible to calculate the conditions leading to periodic solutions, if the two non-linear associated systems with constant coefficients fall into one of the categories of the above paragraph. (author) [French] Pour les equations du genre de Hill-Meissner a coefficients creneles, on a calcule des diagrammes universels de stabilite et ceux-ci ont ete verifies experimentalement. L'etude de ces equations dans le plan de phase a permis ensuite d'etendre le calcul des solutions periodiques au cas des equations differentielles non lineaires a coefficients periodiques creneles. Cette theorie a ete verifiee experimentalement. Pour Jes systemes couples non lineaires a coefficients constants, on a d'abord cherche les solutions menant a des mouvements algebriques. Les fonctions elliptiques et fuchsiennes uniformisent de tels mouvements. L'etude de mouvements non algebriques est plus delicate, a part l'etude des mouvements de Lissajous non lineaires. Une analyse fonctionnelle montre qu'il est toutefois possible dans certains cas de decoupler le systeme et de trouver des solutions generales. Pour les

  15. Category-length and category-strength effects using images of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Vromen, Joyce M G; Boddy, Adam C; Crawshaw, Eloise; Humphreys, Michael S

    2018-06-21

    Global matching models have provided an important theoretical framework for recognition memory. Key predictions of this class of models are that (1) increasing the number of occurrences in a study list of some items affects the performance on other items (list-strength effect) and that (2) adding new items results in a deterioration of performance on the other items (list-length effect). Experimental confirmation of these predictions has been difficult, and the results have been inconsistent. A review of the existing literature, however, suggests that robust length and strength effects do occur when sufficiently similar hard-to-label items are used. In an effort to investigate this further, we had participants study lists containing one or more members of visual scene categories (bathrooms, beaches, etc.). Experiments 1 and 2 replicated and extended previous findings showing that the study of additional category members decreased accuracy, providing confirmation of the category-length effect. Experiment 3 showed that repeating some category members decreased the accuracy of nonrepeated members, providing evidence for a category-strength effect. Experiment 4 eliminated a potential challenge to these results. Taken together, these findings provide robust support for global matching models of recognition memory. The overall list lengths, the category sizes, and the number of repetitions used demonstrated that scene categories are well-suited to testing the fundamental assumptions of global matching models. These include (A) interference from memories for similar items and contexts, (B) nondestructive interference, and (C) that conjunctive information is made available through a matching operation.

  16. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  17. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has ...

  18. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products Hazard Indicators I II III IV Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg >50 thru 500 mg/kg >500 thru 5,000 mg/kg >5,000 mg/kg Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg >200 thru 2000 mg/kg >2000 thru 20,000 mg/kg >20,000 mg/kg Inhalation LC50 Up to and including...

  19. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  20. Physical inactivity is associated with decreased growth differentiation factor 11 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka R

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rie Tanaka,1 Hisatoshi Sugiura,1 Mitsuhiro Yamada,1 Tomohiro Ichikawa,1 Akira Koarai,1 Naoya Fujino,1 Satoru Yanagisawa,1 Katsuhiro Onodera,1 Tadahisa Numakura,1 Kei Sato,1 Yorihiko Kyogoku,1 Hirohito Sano,1 Shun Yamanaka,1 Tatsuma Okazaki,1 Tsutomu Tamada,1 Motohiko Miura,2 Tsuneyuki Takahashi,3 Masakazu Ichinose1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University Wakabayashi Hospital, Wakabayashi-ku, Sendai, Japan Background: Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11 is reported to possess anti-aging and rejuvenating effects, including muscle regeneration and to be highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Recently, we demonstrated that the levels of plasma GDF11 were decreased in COPD. However, the effect of decreased circulating GDF11 in the pathophysiology of COPD remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the plasma GDF11 levels and various clinical parameters in patients with COPD. Patients and methods: Eighteen ex-smokers as control subjects and 70 COPD patients participated in the current study. We measured the levels of plasma GDF11 using immunoblotting, lung function, physical activity using a triaxial accelerometer, quadriceps strength, exercise capacity, and systemic inflammatory markers. We investigated the association between the levels of plasma GDF11 and these clinical parameters. Results: The levels of plasma GDF11 in the COPD patients had significant positive correlations with the data of lung function. Furthermore, the levels of plasma GDF11 were significantly correlated with the physical activity, quadriceps strength, and exercise capacity. Moreover, the levels of plasma GDF11 were significantly correlated with the data of inflammatory markers. Although various factors were

  1. The Category of Value in the Corporate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvydanenko Genefa O.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines evolution of the category of value and its provisioning with economic arguments, considering the legacy of the modern school of strategic management. Analyzing, systematizing and generalizing the scientific work of the subject area of the study have led to the identification of some problematic aspects, namely: prevalence of consumerism in disclosing the essence of value and its assessment through the prism of value expression, as well as the lack of a systemic approach that would take into account the multidisciplinary nature of this category. The origins of the definition of «corporate values» have been identified. As result, a classification of the specific manifestations of the values of enterprise are presented, the notions of «values» and «value orientations» are delineated. It has been substantiated that value is the economic category that has a polysemic nature and, accordingly, its ontological essence can be systemically disclosed only in the light of the interests of all stakeholders in business.

  2. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V; Graugaard, Christian; Frisch, Morten

    2011-07-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting. To examine associations between unhealthy lifestyle factors and sexual inactivity with a partner and four specific sexual dysfunctions in each sex. We used nationally representative survey data from 5,552 Danish men and women aged 16-97 years in 2005. Cross-sectional associations of lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions were estimated by logistic regression-derived, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (ORs). We calculated ORs for sexual inactivity with a partner and for sexual dysfunction and sexual difficulties overall in both sexes, for erectile dysfunction, anorgasmia, premature ejaculation, and dyspareunia in men, and for lubrication insufficiency, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, and vaginismus in women. Obesity (body mass index [BMI]≥30 kg/m(2) ) or a substantially increased waist circumference (men ≥102 cm; women ≥88 cm), physical inactivity, and, among women, tobacco smoking were each significantly associated with sexual inactivity in the last year. Among sexually active men, both underweight (BMI 21 alcoholic beverages/week), tobacco smoking, and use of hard drugs were each significantly positively associated with one or more sexual dysfunctions (ORs between 1.71 and 22.0). Among sexually active women, the only significant positive association between an unhealthy lifestyle factor and sexual dysfunction was between hashish use and anorgasmia (OR 2.85). In both sexes, several unhealthy lifestyle factors were associated with sexual inactivity with a partner in the last year. Additionally, among sexually active participants, men with unhealthy lifestyles were significantly more likely to experience sexual dysfunctions. Considering the importance of a good sex life, our findings may be useful in attempts to promote healthier

  3. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  4. Physical inactivity among older adults across Europe based on the SHARE database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos; Figueiredo, Daniela; Teixeira, Laetitia; Poveda, Verónica; Paúl, Constança; Santos-Silva, Alice; Costa, Elísio

    2017-01-20

    Regular physical activity is one of the key components of a healthy lifestyle. It is associated with better physical and cognitive functioning in later life and with increased life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of, and factors related to, physical inactivity among older adults across Europe. In this cross-sectional analysis, we used data from participants aged 55 or older in Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) database, a multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database covering health, socioeconomic status, and social and family networks. Individuals included in this study were classified as physically active or physically inactive. Clinical, psychosocial and sociodemographic variables were evaluated for their association with physical inactivity. From the total of 58,489 individuals in SHARE, we selected 19,298 people age 55 or older (mean age 67.8 ± 8.9 years; 11,430 (59.2%) female). The overall prevalence of inactivity among individuals age 55 or older in the 16 included countries was 12.5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity varied between countries, ranging from 4.9% (Sweden) to 29% (Portugal). Increasing age, depression, physical limitations, poor sense of meaning in life, social support and memory loss were significant variables associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity can be explained by physical, cognitive and psychological conditions. Interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among older people are needed to address this diversity of factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Adult physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world: Analysis of 38 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity surveillance informs policy and treatment options toward meeting the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal of a 10% reduction in its prevalence by 2025. We currently do not know the aggregate prevalence for Muslim-majority countries, many of which have extremely high rates of comorbidities associated with physical inactivity. Based on data for 163, 556 persons in 38 Muslim countries that were collected by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, unweighted and weighted physical inactivity prevalence estimates were calculated. I used two-proportion Z tests to determine gender and ethnic differences within the sample and between the sample and 94 non-Muslim countries and odds ratios to determine the magnitude of significant differences. Total physical inactivity prevalence was 32.3% (95% CI: 31.9, 32.7). Prevalence among males and females was 28.8% and 35.5%, respectively. Prevalence among non-Arabs and Arabs was 28.6% and 43.7%, respectively. Females and Arabs were more likely physically inactive than their respective counterparts [OR = 1.36 (1.33, 1.39) and OR = 1.94 (1.90, 1.98)]. Muslim countries were more likely physically inactive [OR = 1.23 (1.22, 1.25)] than non-Muslim ones, which was primarily due to the influence of Arabs [OR = 2.01 (1.97, 2.04)], and in particular female Arabs [OR = 2.22 (2.17, 2.27)]. Physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world is higher than non-Muslim countries and the difference is primarily due to higher rates among Arabs.

  6. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970's and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D ampersand RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program

  7. The Efficiency of Inactive Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Biomass on Removing Arsenic from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Ehrampoush

    2014-05-01

    Methods:This experimental study was performed in laboratory scale and was performed on 243 synthetic samples in a batch system. In this study the effect of parameters such as contact time (5,15,30,60,120,min and 24 h, pH (5,7,9, fluoride concentration (100, 250, 500, 750,1000 µg/l and absorbent dosages (0.5,1,2/5,5g/l was evaluated. Finally biosorption kinetic and equilibrium isotherms of adsorbent was investigated. Results: The removal efficiency of inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 89.49% at pH 5, adsorbent dose of 1g/L and initial metal concentration of 100 mg/L. Maximum uptake was observed after the Contact time of 60 minutes. In addition absorption isotherm followed pseudo-second order model with a maximum R2 = 0.999. Conclusion:The results of study showed that biosorption efficiency decreases with increase in pH of solution. Optimum pH of biosorption was 5. The Removal efficiency of arsenic enhanced with increase in mass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae up to 1 g/L, but The Removal efficiency decreased with increase in initial concentration of arsenic. Maximum absorption was observed in 15 minutes.

  8. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  9. 80,000 Inactive Oil Wells: A Blessing or a Curse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Muehlenbachs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For a century, oil and gas wells have been Alberta’s economic pride. That there could be a hidden cost in maintaining these wells past their productive life is difficult to imagine, much less accept. The financial burden of abandoning a well officially is no doubt why Alberta producers delay doing so as long as possible. Turning a blind eye, they routinely keep non-producing wells in a state of “inactive” suspension and refuse to rule out the possibility that someday oil prices or technology, or both, will change significantly enough to make those wells profitable again. In most cases that will never happen, but the province plays along anyway: It enforces no limit on how long a well can be kept inactive before it must be reactivated or abandoned. While a convenience for well owners, there is no benefit to Albertans. They are exposed to the risk of thousands of inactive wells becoming a hazardous threat to public safety. The longer a well is inactive, the higher the likelihood that its owner may no longer be around to arrange and pay for its official abandonment, a process whereby wells are permanently sealed using regulated methods that insure they cause no environmental damage. Oil and gas producers come and go. Periodic price shocks, like the one that recently ravaged the sector, drive companies into insolvency. When the owner of an inactive well is no longer around to pay for its abandonment costs, the well becomes orphaned. Alberta’s permissive policies have led to a situation where there are now more than 80,000 inactive wells in the province. Some have been inactive for decades. If the possibility existed that they could eventually become economical, those wells might be considered a blessing. However, the simulations that model scenarios where prices are substantially higher or where production technology is significantly improved, clearly show that the vast majority of these wells will never be reactivated, no matter how

  10. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  11. A theory for fluidelastic instability of tube-support-plate-inactive modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Chandra, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes, vibrating in a tube support plate (TSP)-inactive mode, is suspected to be one of the main causes of the tube failure in some operating steam generators and heat exchangers. This paper presents a mathematical model for fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes exposed to nonuniform crossflow. the model incorporates all motion-dependent fluid forces based on the unsteady-flow theory. In the unstable region associated with a TSP-inactive mode, tube motion can be described by two linear models: TSP-inactive mode when tubes do not strike the TSP, and TSP-active mode when tubes do strike the TSP. The bilinear model (consisting of these linear models) presented here simulates the characteristics of fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes in stable and unstable regions associated with TSP-inactive modes. Analytical results obtained with the model are compared with published experimental data; they agree reasonably well. The prediction procedure presented for the fluidelastic instability response of loosely supported tubes is applicable to the stable and unstable regions of the TSP-inactive mode

  12. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  13. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  14. Hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction associated with physical inactivity in community-dwelling elderly subjects: The Sefuri study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Araki, Yuko; Takashima, Yuki; Nogami, Kohjiro; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Yao, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the modifiable risk factors for hippocampal atrophy and Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the relationship between physical activity, hippocampal atrophy, and memory using structural equation modeling (SEM). We examined 213 community-dwelling elderly subjects (99 men and 114 women with a mean age of 68.9 years) without dementia or clinically apparent depression. All participants underwent Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). Physical activities were assessed with a structured questionnaire. We evaluated the degree of hippocampal atrophy (z-score-referred to as ZAdvance hereafter), using a free software program-the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping 8 plus Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through an Exponentiated Lie algebra. Routine magnetic resonance imaging findings were as follows: silent brain infarction, n  = 24 (11.3%); deep white matter lesions, n  = 72 (33.8%); periventricular hyperintensities, n  = 35 (16.4%); and cerebral microbleeds, n  = 14 (6.6%). Path analysis based on SEM indicated that the direct paths from leisure-time activity to hippocampal atrophy (β = -.18, p  physical inactivity, and hippocampal atrophy appeared to cause memory dysfunction, although we are unable to infer a causal or temporal association between hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction from the present observational study.

  15. Interaction of a genetic risk score with physical activity, physical inactivity, and body mass index in relation to venous thromboembolism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Kraft, Peter; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Harrington, Laura B; Lindstroem, Sara; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly heritable. Physical activity, physical inactivity and body mass index (BMI) are also risk factors, but evidence of interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors is limited. Data on 2,134 VTE cases and 3,890 matched controls were obtained from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). We calculated a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with VTE risk in published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Data on three risk factors, physical activity (metabolic equivalent [MET] hours per week), physical inactivity (sitting hours per week) and BMI, were obtained from biennial questionnaires. VTE cases were incident since cohort inception; controls were matched to cases on age, cohort, and genotype array. Using conditional logistic regression, we assessed joint effects and interaction effects on both additive and multiplicative scales. We also ran models using continuous wGRS stratified by risk-factor categories. We observed a supra-additive interaction between wGRS and BMI. Having both high wGRS and high BMI was associated with a 3.4-fold greater risk of VTE (relative excess risk due to interaction = 0.69, p = 0.046). However, we did not find evidence for a multiplicative interaction with BMI. No interactions were observed for physical activity or inactivity. We found a synergetic effect between a genetic risk score and high BMI on the risk of VTE. Intervention efforts lowering BMI to decrease VTE risk may have particularly large beneficial effects among individuals with high genetic risk. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  17. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning of Multidimensional Acoustic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Swingley, Daniel; Smits, Roel

    2009-01-01

    Learning to recognize the contrasts of a language-specific phonemic repertoire can be viewed as forming categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research on the learning of distributionally defined visual categories has shown that categories defined over 1 dimension are easy to learn and that learning multidimensional categories is…

  18. Waste management plan for inactive LLLW tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This Project Waste Management Plan identifies the waste that is expected to be generated in connection with the removal and disposition of inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30, and grouting of tank 3013 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the isolation of these tanks' associated piping systems. The plan also identifies the organization, responsibilities, and administrative controls that will be followed to ensure proper handling of the waste

  19. Emotion words and categories: evidence from lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2014-05-01

    We examined the categorical nature of emotion word recognition. Positive, negative, and neutral words were presented in lexical decision tasks. Word frequency was additionally manipulated. In Experiment 1, "positive" and "negative" categories of words were implicitly indicated by the blocked design employed. A significant emotion-frequency interaction was obtained, replicating past research. While positive words consistently elicited faster responses than neutral words, only low frequency negative words demonstrated a similar advantage. In Experiments 2a and 2b, explicit categories ("positive," "negative," and "household" items) were specified to participants. Positive words again elicited faster responses than did neutral words. Responses to negative words, however, were no different than those to neutral words, regardless of their frequency. The overall pattern of effects indicates that positive words are always facilitated, frequency plays a greater role in the recognition of negative words, and a "negative" category represents a somewhat disparate set of emotions. These results support the notion that emotion word processing may be moderated by distinct systems.

  20. Mental health, places and people: a multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Using data on 24,975 respondents to the Welsh Health Survey 1998 aged 17-74 years, we investigated associations between individual mental health status measured using the SF-36 instrument, social class, economic inactivity and the electoral division Townsend deprivation score. In a multilevel modelling analysis, we found mental health was significantly associated with the Townsend score after adjusting for composition, and this effect was strongest in respondents who were economically inactive. Further contextual effects were shown by significant random variability in the slopes of the relation between mental health and economic inactivity at the electoral division level. Our results suggest that the places in which people live affect their mental health, supporting NHS policy that multi-agency planning to reduce inequalities in mental health status should address the wider determinants of health, as well as services for individual patients.

  1. Model and Reduction of Inactive Times in a Maintenance Workshop Following a Diagnostic Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Beda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of maintenance workshops in manufacturing factories are hierarchical. This arrangement permits quick response in advent of a breakdown. Reaction of the maintenance workshop is done by evaluating the characteristics of the breakdown. In effect, a diagnostic error at a given level of the process of decision making delays the restoration of normal operating state. The consequences are not just financial loses, but loss in customers’ satisfaction as well. The goal of this paper is to model the inactive time of a maintenance workshop in case that an unpredicted catalectic breakdown has occurred and a diagnostic error has also occurred at a certain level of decision-making, during the treatment process of the breakdown. We show that the expression for the inactive times obtained, is depended only on the characteristics of the workshop. Next, we propose a method to reduce the inactive times.

  2. The relationship between coping, health competence and patient participation among patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Seema; Jedel, S; Hood, M M; Mutlu, E; Swanson, G; Keshavarzian, A

    2014-05-01

    Coping is an integral part of adjustment for patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease but has not been well described in the literature. This study explored the relationship between coping, perceived health competence, patient preference for involvement in their treatment, depression and quality of life, particularly among patients with inactive disease (in remission). Subjects (n=70) with active and inactive IBD completed questionnaires, including the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Health Competence Scale and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The Harvey Bradshaw Index measured disease activity. Patients with inactive IBD demonstrated significantly more interest in participating in their treatment (pperceived health competence (p=.001), less depressive symptoms (pperceived control of their health, and exhibit less depression symptoms. Our findings may increase awareness of the importance of identifying coping strategies for IBD patients, including those in remission. © 2013.

  3. Destroying God's Temple? Physical Inactivity, Poor Diet, Obesity, and Other "Sin" Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; McClendon, Megan; Jones, Eric J

    2017-02-17

    On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index. It is possible that inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are not internalized into the spiritual perspective as destroying the body, God's temple, in the same way as other "sin" behaviors.

  4. Depressive symptoms are associated with physical inactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, Berber; Pouwer, Francois; de Bie, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    through decreased physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To test whether type 2 diabetes patients with elevated depression scores are more often physically inactive. METHODS: Demographic features, clinical factors, level of physical inactivity and depressive symptoms were assessed in 2646 primary care patients...... with type 2 diabetes. Sequential multiple logistic regression analyses [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI)] were performed to test the association between depressive symptoms and physical inactivity. RESULTS: About 48% of the respondents were physically inactive. Elevated depressive symptoms were...... found in 14% of the respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds for being physically inactive were almost doubled in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes 1.74 (95% CI 1.32-2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of depressive symptoms almost doubles the likelihood of physical inactivity...

  5. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  7. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  8. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  9. Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Sithu; Parakh, Kapil; Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Gottdiener, John S; Kop, Willem J

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressed older individuals have a higher mortality than older persons without depression. Depression is associated with physical inactivity, and low levels of physical activity have been shown in some cohorts to be a partial mediator of the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods A cohort of 5888 individuals (mean 72.8±5.6 years, 58% female, 16% African-American) from four US communities was followed for an average of 10.3 years. Self-reported depressive symptoms (10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were assessed annually and self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 7 years. To estimate how much of the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with depressive symptoms was due to physical inactivity, Cox regression with time-varying covariates was used to determine the percentage change in the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality after adding physical activity variables. Results At baseline, 20% of participants scored above the cut-off for depressive symptoms. There were 2915 deaths (49.8%), of which 1176 (20.1%) were from cardiovascular causes. Depressive symptoms and physical inactivity each independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality and were strongly associated with each other (all pphysical inactivity had greater cardiovascular mortality than those with either individually (pPhysical inactivity reduced the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality by 26% after adjustment. This was similar for persons with (25%) and without (23%) established coronary heart disease. Conclusions Physical inactivity accounted for a significant proportion of the risk of cardiovascular mortality due to depressive symptoms in older adults, regardless of coronary heart disease status. PMID:21339320

  10. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Linda S; Kirtland, Karen; Lin, Ji; Shrestha, Sundar; Thompson, Ted; Albright, Ann; Gregg, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC) from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48). APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  11. The effects of smoking and physical inactivity on advancing mortality in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Luisa N

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the rate advancement period (RAP) by which deaths for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality is advanced by smoking and physical inactivity among U.S. adults aged 18 years or more who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were followed to December 31, 2006. Mortality status was determined using the underlying cause of death. Cox regression was used to calculate the advanced time of deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among exposed adults relative to their nonexposed counterparts. Deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were advanced by 7.9 and 5.1 years among current smoker adults. For physically inactive adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were 4.0 and 2.4 years, respectively. The joint effects of current smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity resulted in early all-cause and CVD-specific deaths of 14.2 and 12.2 years. For current smokers, physically inactive, and overweight adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific deaths were 7.9 and 8.9 years, respectively. Our findings suggest that smoking and physical inactivity could significantly advance the time of death associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality by at least 2.4 years among U.S. adults. Moreover, the advancement death period for the joint effects of smoking, physical inactivity, and overweight or obesity could be at least 7.9 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NEET, Unemployed, Inactive or Unknown--Why Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background: The UK, like most countries across Europe and other advanced economies, has experienced an alarming rise in the levels of young people (aged between 16 and 24 years) who are detached from both the labour market and the education and training system. In the UK, there are nearly a million 16-24-year-olds who are recorded as being not in…

  13. New Method for Determination of Electrically Inactive Phosphorus in n-type Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...

  14. An initial study of the behaviour under repository conditions of inactive components of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    This review extends the appreciation of repository behaviour to include the inactive components of wastes and their degradation products. These materials include a wide range of metals and organics, sludges and decommissioning wastes. The effect of degradation products on the solubility of long-lived radionuclides and any active daughters and their sorption on surfaces of the repository are assessed. Research requirements are identified that may help to improve significantly the assessment of the effects of inactive materials. Data required to improve the quality of inventory data on nuclear wastes are listed. (author)

  15. Associations between physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors among adolescents in 10 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You; Zheng, Zhonghui; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2014-07-22

    Studies in western countries have revealed that excessive sedentary behavior is a major risk factor for physical inactivity in adolescents. This study was performed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in Chinese adolescents using a large-scale cross-sectional survey design. This study was part of the 2011 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Between March and September 2011, 10,214 11-18-year-olds were recruited for survey participation in 18 schools in 10 cities in China. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and the prevalences of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors, were examined. Correlations between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity were analyzed using baseline logistic regression. Among the final 9,901 students, physical inactivity (~80%) and sedentary behaviors (television viewing, 43%; computer use, 30.2%) were prevalent. More male than female students reported sedentary behaviors (television viewing > 2 h: 5.5% vs. 3.9%; computer use > 2 h: 7.2% vs. 3.5%; both p physically active than females (25.1% vs.14.6%; p physical activity (No PA) in males [0-2 h: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.96; >4 h: OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.64], but not in females. A similar pattern between insufficient physical activity and >4 h TV viewing (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.76) and >4 h computer use (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78) was observed in males. In females, 0-2 h daily computer use was associated with higher odds of physical inactivity (No PA: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10-1.82; Insufficient PA: AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.24-2.01), while TV viewing was not associated with No PA or Insufficient PA. The probability of physical inactivity significantly increased with grade and decreased with socioeconomic status. Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors were prevalent in Chinese adolescents. Further support, including parental guidance and the provision of

  16. Application of inactive cycle stopping criteria for Monte Carlo Wielandt calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, H. J.; Kim, C. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Wielandt method is incorporated into Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculation as a way to speed up fission source convergence. To make the most of the MC Wielandt method, however, it is highly desirable to halt inactive cycle runs in a timely manner because it requires a much longer computational time to execute a single cycle MC run than the conventional MC eigenvalue calculations. This paper presents an algorithm to detect the onset of the active cycles and thereby to stop automatically the inactive cycle MC runs based on two anterior stopping criteria. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to a slow convergence problem. (authors)

  17. Seepage studies through hydraulic structures and their foundations by inactive and radio tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Azher; Mahajan, N.M.; Kamble, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the last ten years extensive efforts have been made by the Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune to study seepage by means of inactive and radiotracers. Various inactive tracers like electrolytes and organic dyes and radiotracers like 82 Br and 3 H in the form of tritiated water have been used for location of source of seepage. Different techniques like borehole dilution, in situ detection at various observation points and analysis of water samples in liquid scintillation spectrometer in the laboratory have been employed to suit the field conditions. Some typical studies at river valley projects indicating the techniques are enumerated. (author)

  18. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  19. Incremental Learning of Perceptual Categories for Open-Domain Sketch Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lovett, Andrew; Dehghani, Morteza; Forbus, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper describes an incremental learning technique for opendomain recognition. Our system builds generalizations for categories of objects based upon previous sketches of those objects and uses those generalizations to classify new sketches...

  20. A Factor Analysis of Need-Fulfillment Items Designed to Measure Maslow Need Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, L. K.; Roach, Darrell

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to factor analyze a set of items frequently used to measure Maslow need categories to obtain further information on their structure in relation to the Maslow system. (Author)

  1. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect.

  2. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  3. The structure and formation of natural categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  4. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  5. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process

  6. Classification versus inference learning contrasted with real-world categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Erin L; Ross, Brian H

    2011-07-01

    Categories are learned and used in a variety of ways, but the research focus has been on classification learning. Recent work contrasting classification with inference learning of categories found important later differences in category performance. However, theoretical accounts differ on whether this is due to an inherent difference between the tasks or to the implementation decisions. The inherent-difference explanation argues that inference learners focus on the internal structure of the categories--what each category is like--while classification learners focus on diagnostic information to predict category membership. In two experiments, using real-world categories and controlling for earlier methodological differences, inference learners learned more about what each category was like than did classification learners, as evidenced by higher performance on a novel classification test. These results suggest that there is an inherent difference between learning new categories by classifying an item versus inferring a feature.

  7. Effects of Long-Term Acupuncture Treatment on Resting-State Brain Activity in Migraine Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Active Acupoints and Inactive Acupoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Fuwen; Dong, Xilin; Peng, Yulin; Qin, Wei; Wu, Fumei; Li, Ying; Yuan, Kai; von Deneen, Karen M.; Gong, Qiyong; Tang, Zili; Liang, Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture has been commonly used for preventing migraine attacks and relieving pain during a migraine, although there is limited knowledge on the physiological mechanism behind this method. The objectives of this study were to compare the differences in brain activities evoked by active acupoints and inactive acupoints and to investigate the possible correlation between clinical variables and brain responses. Methods and Results A randomized controlled trial and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were conducted. A total of eighty migraineurs without aura were enrolled to receive either active acupoint acupuncture or inactive acupoint acupuncture treatment for 8 weeks, and twenty patients in each group were randomly selected for the fMRI scan at the end of baseline and at the end of treatment. The neuroimaging data indicated that long-term active acupoint therapy elicited a more extensive and remarkable cerebral response compared with acupuncture at inactive acupoints. Most of the regions were involved in the pain matrix, lateral pain system, medial pain system, default mode network, and cognitive components of pain processing. Correlation analysis showed that the decrease in the visual analogue scale (VAS) was significantly related to the increased average Regional homogeneity (ReHo) values in the anterior cingulate cortex in the two groups. Moreover, the decrease in the VAS was associated with increased average ReHo values in the insula which could be detected in the active acupoint group. Conclusions Long-term active acupoint therapy and inactive acupoint therapy have different brain activities. We postulate that acupuncture at the active acupoint might have the potential effect of regulating some disease-affected key regions and the pain circuitry for migraine, and promote establishing psychophysical pain homeostasis. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003635 PMID:24915066

  8. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production.

  9. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old, Danish men. Relation to sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status: the Odense Androgen Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K; Brixen, K; Hermann, A P; Andersen, M; Hagen, C

    2006-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old men and to analyze whether sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status are independent correlates of obesity and physical inactivity. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Seven hundred and eighty-three Caucasian, Danish men, aged 20-29 years recruited from 2042 respondents in a questionnaire survey of 3000 men, randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. Questionnaire, interview and physical examination. The 783 included men and the 2042 questionnaire respondents matched the background population demographically. The 783 men matched the questionnaire respondents as regards BMI, physical activity, chronic disease, medication, smoking, sociodemography and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.7 and 7.9%, respectively (World Health Organization criteria). Using waist circumference (WC) cutoffs of 94 and 102 cm, the prevalence was 16.2 and 10.6%, respectively; 24.4% were physically inactive. BMI and WC increased significantly from age 20 to 29 years. Physical activity decreased significantly with age and correlated inversely with WC, but not with BMI. Occupation, geography, partner status, fatherhood and tobacco exposure were independently related with obesity and physical inactivity. Obesity was also related to musculoskeletal complaints, whereas chronic diseases and low educational level were associated with physical inactivity. Age was not independently related with either outcome. In affluent societies, sociodemographic changes may partly explain the age-related decrease in physical activity and the parallel increase in WC and BMI.

  10. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  11. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories.......In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...

  12. Fitness, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Symptoms of Depression, and Cognition in Inactive Overweight Children: Mediation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika M K; Montoya, Amanda K; Drescher, Christopher F; Newberry, Andrew; Sultan, Zain; Williams, Celestine F; Pollock, Norman K; Davis, Catherine L

    We used mediation models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationships among physical fitness, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), symptoms of depression, and cognitive functioning. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the cohorts involved in the 2003-2006 project PLAY (a trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on health and cognition) and the 2008-2011 SMART study (a trial of the effects of exercise on cognition). A total of 397 inactive overweight children aged 7-11 received a fitness test, standardized cognitive test (Cognitive Assessment System, yielding Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, and Full Scale scores), and depression questionnaire. Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. We used bootstrapped mediation analyses to test whether SDB mediated the relationship between fitness and depression and whether SDB and depression mediated the relationship between fitness and cognition. Fitness was negatively associated with depression ( B = -0.041; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02) and SDB ( B = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.001). SDB was positively associated with depression ( B = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.67) after controlling for fitness. The relationship between fitness and depression was mediated by SDB (indirect effect = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.0004). The relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition was independently mediated by SDB (indirect effect = 0.058; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.13) and depression (indirect effect = -0.071; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.17). SDB mediates the relationship between fitness and depression, and SDB and depression separately mediate the relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition.

  13. An initial report of sleep disturbance in inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie; Stepanski, Edward J; Ranjbaran, Ziba; Benson, Laura M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2006-10-15

    There is an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, peptic ulcer disease, and colon cancer in night-shiftworkers, whose sleep is commonly disrupted. Sleep complaints are an extrapyramidal symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Sleep disruption may contribute to increased medical morbidity by weakening the ability of the immune system to protect against endotoxins-this pathway could be of potential importance to the pathogenesis and/or clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic immunoinflammatory gastrointestinal disorder associated with marked reductions in quality of life. This is the first study to comprehensively examine sleep concerns in patients with IBD. Sixteen patients with biopsy-proven inactive IBD (8 with Crohn disease and 8 with ulcerative colitis), 9 patients with IBS, and 7 healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, SF-12, and a single overnight polysomnogram. Polysomnography and arousals were scored according to standard criteria. Multivariate analyses were used to compare subjective and objective sleep parameters between groups and to identify associations between sleep complaints and quality of life. Patients with IBD did not seem to significantly differ from patients with IBS, who have established sleep complaints. On polysomnography, total sleep time differentiated the 3 groups well, with the IBS and IBD groups appearing numerically similar. Whereas IBS and IBD groups were similar with respect to observed sleep parameters, IBS patients did report the most concerns, consistent with earlier research suggesting that hyperarousal and perceptual differences may contribute to symptom reporting. Sleep parameters greatly influenced quality of life in both groups and highlight the need to address sleep concerns as part of IBD management.

  14. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-The-Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C.; Ferreira, Mário B.; Semin, Gün R.; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment…

  15. Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Dundas, Eva M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched…

  16. Artist-Teachers' In-Action Mental Models While Teaching Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…

  17. The cost of policy inaction : the case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.C.; Brink, ten P.; Klok, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    The COPI methodology and valuation database. Change in land use, climate, pollution, water use; change in biodiversity; change in ecosystem functions; change in ecosystem services contributes to change in economic value. The Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI) is described in monitory terms. The outcome

  18. A conceptualisation of help-avoidance as motivated inaction: implications for theory, research, and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; Zagefka, Hanna; van Leeuwen, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This chapter zooms in on the strategic motives of help-avoidance, an intriguing yet under-researched phenomenon. Conceptualising this phenomenon as a particular form of inaction, I propose that help-avoidance is a strategic response to disadvantage that is motivated by identity concerns. I provide

  19. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inact...

  20. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity