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Sample records for inactive older female

  1. Setting-related influences on physical inactivity of older adults in residential care settings : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Johanna G.; Volkers, Karin M.; Engels, Gwenda; Sonneveld, Marieke H.; Goossens, Richard H. M.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the detrimental effects of physical inactivity for older adults, especially aged residents of residential care settings may spend much time in inactive behavior. This may be partly due to their poorer physical condition; however, there may also be other, setting-related factors t

  2. Exercise Modality Choices One Year After Intervention in Previously Inactive Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostas, Liza; Jones, Gareth R

    2016-07-01

    A convenience sample of 176 healthy, community-dwelling, inactive older adults (mean age 70 ± 5 years; 62 males, 114 females) were tracked for one year. The purpose was to describe the exercise modality choices older adults make one year following participation in an exercise and education intervention. Telephone follow-up contacted 137 participants (78%, men = 50, women = 87) and 62% of the men and 69% of the women reported to be "currently exercising." Exercising independently was the most common type of exercise reported by 81% and 64% of men and women, respectively. Walking was the most commonly reported modality by both genders. The setting of exercise was most often reported to be at home or outside for both men and women. The main reason for continued participation at 12 months was for overall health (50% of men and 40% of women). Little variation was observed for exercise modality choice. Future interventions should consider a variety of exercise and physical activity opportunities for older adults.

  3. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life...... of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing......-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. RESULTS: After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2...

  4. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  5. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Mair

    Full Text Available Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14 and middle-aged (n = 14 females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1 and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm. Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool.

  6. Physical inactivity and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a key ... physical activity, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. ... them at risk of morbidity and mortality, and therefore increased efforts are needed to ...

  7. Physical self-esteem and personality traits in Swedish physically inactive female high school students: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlin, Yvonne; Werner, Suzanne; Edman, Gunnar; Raustorp, Anders; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity provides fundamental health benefits and plays a positive role in physical well-being. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether a 6-month physical activity program could influence physical self-esteem and frequency of physical activity in physically inactive female high school students in short- and long-term periods and whether personality traits were related to physical activity behaviour and compliance with the program. The study was a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study including 104 physically inactive female high school students aged 16-19 years, 60 females in an intervention group and 44 females in a control group. The intervention group exercised at sport centres at least once per week during a 6-month period. Questionnaires were used for evaluation. At a 6-month follow up, the intervention group improved physical self-perception in all subdomains and significantly improved physical condition, physical self-worth and self-related health compared to the control group. At 1-year follow up, 25 females out of 53 females were still physically active, and all ratings remained almost the same as at the 6-month follow up. There were no particular personality traits that were dominant in the groups. A 6-month physical activity program can positively influence physical self-esteem and the frequency of physical activity, both from a short- and long-term perspective.

  8. A Female Therapist's Perspective on Growing Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Iris

    2015-11-01

    As an older woman therapist, I find that my life experience grounds me in my work with people of all ages and backgrounds as they deal with life crises, aging issues, and loss. People with whom I work in therapy appreciate the fact that I am older and have had varied life experiences. Gender issues are still central to my work with clients whether I am working with a man or a woman. I am an integrative therapist, with a background in cognitive-behavioral therapy and gestalt therapy. Therapists need to help clients to identify less with their aging bodies and our culture's view of attractiveness, shifting instead to a paradigm that values life experience and the cultivation of wisdom. We need to find ways of embracing what we have learned about life instead of extolling youthful values. As I get older, I more fully appreciate a constructivism framework and life-cycle perspective, focusing on making sense of clients' life narratives. Storytelling and memoirs have both provided a framework for working with clients on coping with the many changes and challenges of life that bring them to therapy and added another layer to my integrative therapeutic work.

  9. Living alone, receiving help, helplessness, and inactivity are strongly related to risk of undernutrition among older home-dwelling people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomstad ST

    2012-03-01

    regularly to manage daily life, not being active and perceived helplessness emerged as predictors for being at risk of undernutrition. The results indicate difficulties in identifying people at nutritional risk and supporting self-care activities to maintain a good nutritional status.Conclusion: Health care professionals have to be able to identify older home-dwelling people at risk of undernutrition, support self-care activities to enable people at risk to maintain a sufficient nutritional status, and be aware that older people living alone, who receive help, feel helpless, and are inactive are especially vulnerable.Keywords: health, nutrition, self-care, sense of coherence

  10. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate

  11. Pilot study: can older inactive adults learn how to reach the required intensity of physical activity guideline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard DR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Danielle R Bouchard,1,2 Marie-France Langlois,3,4 Katherine Boisvert-Vigneault,3,4 Paul Farand,5 Mathieu Paulin,5 Jean-Patrice Baillargeon3,4 1Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, 2Health, Leisure and Human Performance Research Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Departement of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; 4CRC Étienne LeBel, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; 5Departement of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada Abstract: Most individuals do not reach the recommended physical activity level of at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise (AE at moderate-to-vigorous intensity per week. For example, only 13% of older Canadian adults reach World Health Organization physical activity guideline (PAG. One of the reasons might be a difficulty identifying the required intensity. Twenty-five inactive older adults received one session about the AE-PAG and how to use a tool or strategy to help them identify AE intensity: heart-rate (HR monitor (% of maximal HR; N = 9; manual pulse (% of maximal HR; N = 8; or pedometer (walking cadence; N = 8. Participants had 8 weeks to implement their specific tool with the aim of reaching the PAG by walking at home. At pre- and post-intervention, the capacity to identify AE intensity and AE time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity were evaluated. Only the two groups using a tool increased total AE time (both P < 0.01, but no group improved the time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity. No significant improvement was observed in the ability to correctly identify AE intensity in any of the groups, but a tendency was observed in the pedometer group (P = 0.07. Using walking cadence with a pedometer should be explored as a tool to reach the PAG as it is inexpensive, easy to use, and seemed the best tool to improve both AE time and perception

  12. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  13. Moderate-intensity resistance exercise alters skeletal muscle molecular and cellular structure and function in inactive older adults with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark S; Callahan, Damien M; Tourville, Timothy W; Slauterbeck, James R; Kaplan, Anna; Fiske, Brad R; Savage, Patrick D; Ades, Philip A; Beynnon, Bruce D; Toth, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    High-intensity resistance exercise (REX) training increases physical capacity, in part, by improving muscle cell size and function. Moderate-intensity REX, which is more feasible for many older adults with disease and/or disability, also increases physical function, but the mechanisms underlying such improvements are not understood. Therefore, we measured skeletal muscle structure and function from the molecular to the tissue level in response to 14 wk of moderate-intensity REX in physically inactive older adults with knee osteoarthritis (n = 17; 70 ± 1 yr). Although REX training increased quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), average single-fiber CSA was unchanged because of reciprocal changes in myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIA fibers. Intermyofibrillar mitochondrial content increased with training because of increases in mitochondrial size in men, but not women, with no changes in subsarcolemmal mitochondria in either sex. REX increased whole muscle contractile performance similarly in men and women. In contrast, adaptations in single-muscle fiber force production per CSA (i.e., tension) and contractile velocity varied between men and women in a fiber type-dependent manner, with adaptations being explained at the molecular level by differential changes in myosin-actin cross-bridge kinetics and mechanics and single-fiber MHC protein expression. Our results are notable compared with studies of high-intensity REX because they show that the effects of moderate-intensity REX in older adults on muscle fiber size/structure and myofilament function are absent or modest. Moreover, our data highlight unique sex-specific adaptations due to differential cellular and subcellular structural and functional changes.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Moderate-intensity resistance training causes sex-specific adaptations in skeletal muscle structure and function at the cellular and molecular levels in inactive older adult men and women with knee osteoarthritis. However, these responses

  14. Do health care providers discuss HIV with older female patients?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... A questionnaire was administered during face-to-face interviews. Results: Only 36% (95% ... Department of Family Medicine, Kalafong Hospital and University of Pretoria, South Africa ... campaigns on the youth and young adults leaves older .... patients aged 50 years and older.10 Aside from the pressures.

  15. Longitudinal Effects of Physical Inactivity and Obesity on Gait Speed in Older Adults with Frequent Knee Pain: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Bindawas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity (PI and obesity are risk factors for many health conditions, including knee pain (KP. The purpose of the present study was to examine the 6-year effects of PI and obesity on gait speed (GS among older adults with frequent KP. This prospective cohort study used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI. At baseline, we studied 1788 adults aged 45 to 79 years old. We grouped the participants into four categories according to baseline scores on the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE and body mass index (BMI. GS was measured using the 20-m timed walk test. Frequent KP was assessed with a self-report questionnaire, and obesity was assessed by BMI (30 kg/m2 or greater. General linear mixed models were conducted using data collected at baseline and 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 months. After adjusting for all covariates, lower levels of physical activity and obesity were associated with a decrease in GS (β = −0.095, SE = 0.011, p < 0.0001. Our results suggest that both PI and obesity are associated with decreased GS over time in older adults with frequent KP.

  16. Longitudinal effects of physical inactivity and obesity on gait speed in older adults with frequent knee pain: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Vennu, Vishal

    2015-02-05

    Physical inactivity (PI) and obesity are risk factors for many health conditions, including knee pain (KP). The purpose of the present study was to examine the 6-year effects of PI and obesity on gait speed (GS) among older adults with frequent KP. This prospective cohort study used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). At baseline, we studied 1788 adults aged 45 to 79 years old. We grouped the participants into four categories according to baseline scores on the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and body mass index (BMI). GS was measured using the 20-m timed walk test. Frequent KP was assessed with a self-report questionnaire, and obesity was assessed by BMI (30 kg/m² or greater). General linear mixed models were conducted using data collected at baseline and 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 months. After adjusting for all covariates, lower levels of physical activity and obesity were associated with a decrease in GS (β = -0.095, SE = 0.011, p obesity are associated with decreased GS over time in older adults with frequent KP.

  17. Sedentary Time in Male and Female Masters and Recreational Athletes Aged 55 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Heather; Dogra, Shilpa

    2017-05-22

    The purpose of this study was to quantify sedentary time among recreational and Masters (competitive) athletes aged 55 and older. A cross-sectional survey including questions on demographics, sport participation, as well as a short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Measure of Older Adult's Sedentary Time questionnaire was administered (n=203). Male Masters athletes reported more time spent in vigorous intensity physical activity and less TV time than recreational athletes. Among females, being a Masters athlete was associated with being more sedentary than being a recreational athlete, while among males, being a recreational athlete was associated with being more sedentary. The intensity and duration that older Masters and recreational athletes spent in their sport was inversely associated with the amount of sedentary time accumulated. Future research using inclinometers is needed to further elucidate sedentary time in older male and female athletes.

  18. Weight Gain in Older Adolescent Females: The Internet, Sleep, Coffee, and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Catherine S.; Rockett, Helaine R.H.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether excessive recreational Internet time, insufficient sleep, regular coffee consumption, or alcoholic beverages promote weight gain. Study design A longitudinal cohort of >5000 girls (Growing Up Today Study), from all over the US and aged 14–21yrs, returned surveys in 2001 reporting typical past-year recreational Internet time, sleep, coffee (with caffeine) and alcohol consumption. We estimated correlations among these four exposures. Each girl also reported her height and weight in 2000 and again in 2001. Multivariate models investigated associations between 1-year change in body mass index (BMI) and same-year exposures, adjusted for adolescent growth/development, activity and inactivity. Results The exposures were highly (pcoffee with Internet time (p>0.50). More Internet time, more alcohol, and less sleep were all associated (pdrinking coffee promotes weight gain. Conclusions Older girls may benefit from replacing recreational Internet time with sleep and by avoiding alcohol. PMID:18614178

  19. Finger cold-induced vasodilation of older Korean female divers, haenyeo: effects of chronic cold exposure and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Koh, Eunsook; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the local cold tolerance of older Korean female divers, haenyeo ( N = 22) in terms of cold acclimatization and ageing. As control groups, older non-diving females ( N = 25) and young females from a rural area ( N = 15) and an urban area ( N = 51) participated in this study. To evaluate local cold tolerance, finger cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) during finger immersion of 4 °C water was examined. As a result, older haenyeos showed greater minimum finger temperature and recovery finger temperature than older non-diving females ( P heart rate, blood pressure, and thermal and pain sensations as those of older non-diving females. Another novel finding was that young urban females showed more vulnerable responses to local cold in CIVD variables and subjective sensations when compared to older females, whereas young rural females had the most excellent cold tolerance in terms of maximum temperature and frequency of CIVD among the four groups ( P < 0.05). The present results imply that older haenyeos still retain cold acclimatized features on the periphery even though they changed their cotton diving suits to wet suits in the early 1980s. However, cardiovascular responses and subjective sensations to cold reflect aging effects. In addition, we suggest that young people who have been adapted to highly insulated clothing and indoor heating systems in winter should be distinguished from young people who were exposed to less modern conveniences when compared to the aged in terms of cold tolerance.

  20. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (psocial and as a physical activity.

  1. Barriers, Motivations, and Preferences for Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha P. Gothe PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20. Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  3. Postural stability of older female Scottish country dancers in comparison with physically active controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Susan; Peacock, Leslie; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity assists older individuals' functional ability and postural stability. Recently, Scottish country dance (SCD) was reported as being a beneficial form of physical activity for functional ability in older females. This study aims to examine the effect of SCD on postural stability. Scottish country dancers (n = 20) were compared with physically active controls (n = 33) for static postural sway measured on a force platform. The Romberg and Tandem stances were used under 'eyes open' and 'eyes closed' conditions. Ninety-five percent ellipse area and sway velocity were calculated from the center of pressure displacement. Ninety-five percent ellipse area was the same for both groups in all tests. The control group had greater sway velocity for all tests (P < .01) except Tandem eyes closed. SCD participation resulted in similar postural sway as participation in other physical activities, however nondancers may need a greater amount of regulatory activity to maintain balance.

  4. Effect of an Eight-Week Ballroom Dancing Program on Muscle Architecture in Older Adults Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Christina C P; Lodovico, Angélica; Fowler, Neil; Rodacki, André L F

    2015-10-01

    Aging is related to a progressive remodeling of the neuromuscular system, which includes muscle mass, strength, and power reductions. This study investigated the effect of an eight-week dance program on fascicle pennation angle, fascicle length, and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles using ultrasound images. Thirty-four healthy older women were randomly assigned to either a dancing (DG: n = 19, 69.1 ± 6.5 years, 72.5 ± 11.7 kg) or control group (CG: n = 15, 71.5 ± 7.4 years, 70.9 ± 9.3 kg). After training, the DG showed greater (p dance training was effective to change the lower limb muscle architecture in older female adults.

  5. Finger cold-induced vasodilation of older Korean female divers, haenyeo: effects of chronic cold exposure and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Koh, Eunsook; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the local cold tolerance of older Korean female divers, haenyeo (N = 22) in terms of cold acclimatization and ageing. As control groups, older non-diving females (N = 25) and young females from a rural area (N = 15) and an urban area (N = 51) participated in this study. To evaluate local cold tolerance, finger cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) during finger immersion of 4 °C water was examined. As a result, older haenyeos showed greater minimum finger temperature and recovery finger temperature than older non-diving females (P < 0.05), but similar responses in onset time, peak time, maximum finger temperature, frequency of CIVD, heart rate, blood pressure, and thermal and pain sensations as those of older non-diving females. Another novel finding was that young urban females showed more vulnerable responses to local cold in CIVD variables and subjective sensations when compared to older females, whereas young rural females had the most excellent cold tolerance in terms of maximum temperature and frequency of CIVD among the four groups (P < 0.05). The present results imply that older haenyeos still retain cold acclimatized features on the periphery even though they changed their cotton diving suits to wet suits in the early 1980s. However, cardiovascular responses and subjective sensations to cold reflect aging effects. In addition, we suggest that young people who have been adapted to highly insulated clothing and indoor heating systems in winter should be distinguished from young people who were exposed to less modern conveniences when compared to the aged in terms of cold tolerance.

  6. Frailty, cognitive impairment, and functional disability in older women with female pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erekson, Elisabeth A; Fried, Terri R; Martin, Deanna K; Rutherford, Thomas J; Strohbehn, Kris; Bynum, Julie P W

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating frailty as an important predictor of surgical outcomes in older adults undergoing major surgeries. The age-related onset of many symptoms of female pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) in women suggests that many women seeking treatment for PFD may also have a high prevalence of frailty, which could potentially impact the risks and benefits of surgical treatment options. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of frailty, cognitive impairment, and functional disability in older women seeking treatment for PFD. We conducted a cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment between September 2011 and September 2012. Women, age 65 years and older, were recruited at the conclusion of their new patient consultation for PFD at a tertiary center. A comprehensive geriatric screening including frailty measurements (Fried Frailty Index), cognitive screening (Saint Louis University Mental Status score), and functional status evaluation for activities of daily living (Katz ADL score) was conducted. Sixteen percent (n/N = 25/150) of women were categorized as frail according to the Fried Frailty Index score. After adjusting for education level, 21.3 % of women (n/N = 32/150) screened positive for dementia and 46 (30.7 %) reported functional difficulty or dependence in performing at least one Katz ADL. Sixty-nine women (46.0 %) chose surgical options for treatment of their PFD at the conclusion of their new patient visit with their physician. Frailty, cognitive impairment, and functional disability are common in older women seeking treatment for PFD.

  7. The mediating effect of pet attachment support between loneliness and general health in older females living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between loneliness and general health was investigated in 159 older females living in the community. Pet attachment support, a variable tested as a mediator of this relationship, was examined also. Participants completed the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, a Pet Attachment scale, and the Psychological General Well-Being Schedule: general health subscale. A negative relationship between loneliness and general health decreased when controlling for pet attachment support as a coping mechanism. The findings from this study support that pet attachment support has a mediating effect on the relationship between loneliness and general health in this sample of older females. Implications for community health nurses and public policy are discussed.

  8. Sports activities are reflected in the local stability and regularity of body sway: older ice-skaters have better postural control than inactive elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Claudine J C; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

    2012-03-01

    With age postural control deteriorates and increases the risk for falls. Recent research has suggested that in contrast to persons with superior balance control (dancer's athletes), with pathology and aging, predictability and regularity of sway patterns increase and stability decreases implying a less adaptive form of postural control. The aim of the present study was to determine, whether patterns of body sway of elderly (N=13) who practice a sport which challenges postural control (ice speed-skating), are more similar to that of young subjects (N=10) than to that of inactive elderly (N=10). Trunk patterns were measured with a tri-axial accelerometer. Data were recorded during quiet upright stance with (1) eyes open, (2) limited vision, and (3) while performing a dual task. Anterior-posterior and medio-lateral acceleration time-series were analyzed. Differences in postural control were quantified in terms of the magnitude of the acceleration (root mean square), the smoothness (mean power frequency), the predictability (sample entropy) and the local stability (largest Lyapunov exponent). Postural control of ice-skating elderly differed from that of sedentary elderly. As anticipated, postural control of the ice-skating elderly was similar to that of young adults. For anterior-posterior accelerations, the skating elderly and the younger subjects had significant higher stability and lower regularity than the non-skating elderly in all tasks. These results imply that sport activities such as ice-skating are beneficial for elderly people. It might, at least partly, counteract the age related changes in postural control.

  9. “Retirement at 67” – Findings on the Employment Situation of Older Female Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zimmer

    2011-12-01

    Against this background, a representative nationwide survey of 1,800 female workers born between 1947 and 1964 was commissioned by the New Quality of Work Initiative (INQA and conducted by the Institute of Gerontology at the Technical University of Dortmund in cooperation with TNS Infratest in 2007. These cohorts are to be affected by the increase of the age limit from 2012 onwards. In addition to structural data, this survey studied the respondents’ assessment of their current ability to work and to continue to work until reaching the standard age limit. Further, the survey explored specific working conditions and strains of work. The results show that more than 40 % of the female respondents are sceptical about the conditions of being able to continue their current work until reaching their statutory age limit. The only moderate to poor workability and the consequential danger of having to leave work result e.g. from work-related strains which accumulate in certain sectors and professional groups. The creation of appropriate jobs for older workers as well as the implementation of a staff policy in companies, which is sensitive to demographic developments and individual circumstances, can contribute to maintaining and nurturing the workability.

  10. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5-methylcytosine to an unusual degree and appears to contain more of this modified nucleotide than the remainder of the genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepti D. Deobagkar; H. Sharat Chandra

    2003-04-01

    By employing a procedure that combines ELISA and photoacoustic spectroscopy, we have examined the content of 5-methylcytosine (m5C) in DNA of individuals who differed from one another in the number of X chromosomes in their genomes. The results show that the human inactive X chromosome (Xi) contains very high amounts of this modified nucleotide. We estimate that in the 46,XX female there is more m5C in Xi (∼3.6 × 107) than in all the remaining chromosomes put together (∼2.1 × 107). Our results also suggest that nearly one-fifth of all cytosines in Xi are methylated and that, in addition to CpG methylation, there is extensive non-CpG methylation as well.

  11. Prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors among adolescents from public schools in Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors in adolescents, using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 1,455 adolescents (741 females. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic, perceptual, and behavioral variables. Physical activity was estimated with the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Adolescents. Prevalence of physical inactivity was 68% (95%CI: 65.6%-70.4%. The following variables remained associated with physical inactivity in the adjusted analysis (p < 0.05: living in an apartment, female gender, older adolescents, lower self-rated physical activity compared to peers, low perception of maternal physical activity, passive commuting to school, non-participation in physical education at school, non-enjoyment of physical education classes, and limited involvement in other types of physical exercise besides physical education at school. There were a high proportion of inactive adolescents. Strategies to prevent physical inactivity in adolescents should be elaborated with a central role for the school and family.

  12. How older female spouses cope with partners' coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnocha, Suzanne; Marnocha, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to better understand how older female spouses cope with a partner's coronary artery bypass graft surgery and to explore coping's relationships with life-change stress, cognitive appraisal, resilience, social support, and aspects of spouse's surgery. A sample of 96 women, aged from 55 to 81 years, completed surveys after their partner's surgery. Folkman and Lazarus' ways of coping (WCQ) scales yielded two factors in this sample-reactive coping and adaptive coping. Reactive coping, including more emotion-focused ways of coping from the WCQ, was associated only with more time spent anticipating spouses' surgeries. Women described the greatest use of ways of coping labeled adaptive, which in turn had significant relationships with greater resilience, social support, and positive appraisal of the surgical experience. Stepwise multiple regression found greater resilience, more frequent religious participation, and fewer children to be distinct predictors of adaptive coping. Nursing staff are encouraged to accept and normalize reactive coping, while facilitating adaptive coping with surgical stresses.

  13. How Older Female Spouses Cope with Partners’ Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Marnocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to better understand how older female spouses cope with a partner’s coronary artery bypass graft surgery and to explore coping’s relationships with life-change stress, cognitive appraisal, resilience, social support, and aspects of spouse’s surgery. A sample of 96 women, aged from 55 to 81 years, completed surveys after their partner’s surgery. Folkman and Lazarus’ ways of coping (WCQ scales yielded two factors in this sample—reactive coping and adaptive coping. Reactive coping, including more emotion-focused ways of coping from the WCQ, was associated only with more time spent anticipating spouses’ surgeries. Women described the greatest use of ways of coping labeled adaptive, which in turn had significant relationships with greater resilience, social support, and positive appraisal of the surgical experience. Stepwise multiple regression found greater resilience, more frequent religious participation, and fewer children to be distinct predictors of adaptive coping. Nursing staff are encouraged to accept and normalize reactive coping, while facilitating adaptive coping with surgical stresses.

  14. The influence of self-compassion on emotional well-being among early and older adolescent males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Karen; Blanton, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-compassion has been associated with well-being in adult samples, but has rarely been assessed in adolescents. In this study, 90 students ages 11–18 completed an online survey assessing self-compassion, life satisfaction, perceived stress and positive and negative affect. Findings indicated that older female adolescents had lower self-compassion than either older male adolescents or early adolescents of either gender, and self-compassion was associated significantly with all dimensions of emotional well-being with the exception of positive affect. Additionally, phase of adolescence, but not gender, was found to moderate the relationship between self-compassion and dimensions of well-being; for older adolescents, the inverse relationship between self-compassion and negative affect was stronger. Lastly, the influence of the various components of self-compassion was investigated and discussed. PMID:25750655

  15. Remoteness modulates the effects of emotional valence on the neural network of autobiographical memory in older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xianmin; Fu, Yan; Wang, Dahua; Franz, Elizabeth; Long, Zhiying

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of emotional valence on autobiographical memory (AM), the present study compared behavioral performance and neural activation in positive and negative AMs at different levels of remoteness (the time-interval between encoding and retrieving) in a sample of Chinese older females. The behavioral results revealed that older females held a positivity bias in emotional AM in the form of an obvious trend of higher level of vividness when retrieving positive AMs compared with negative AMs. At the neural level, a de-lateralized neural network, covering the core AM system and the affect processing system, was found to be associated with emotional AM. Within the network, increased activation of a prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex (PFC/ACC) control system was found when processing negative recent AMs compared with positive recent AMs; increased activation of the somatosensory area was found with positive remote AMs compared with negative remote AMs. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the positivity bias of the older adults in recent AMs may be due to the use of an emotion regulation or control system (involving PFC/ACC) against negative AMs; in contrast, for remote AMs, the positivity bias may be due to better access to the positive remote memory details than the negative remote memory details.

  16. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low

  17. The Stimulation Effect of Auricular Magnetic Press Pellets on Older Female Adults with Sleep Disturbance Undergoing Polysomnographic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyi Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. To examine the stimulation effect of auricular magnetic press pellet therapy on older female adults with sleep disturbance as determined by polysomnography (PSG. Design. Randomized, single-blind, experimental-controlled, parallel-group. Setting. Community. Participants. Twenty-seven older female adults with sleep disturbance according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI >5 for at least 3 months were recruited. Participants were screened by both the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, as well as polysomnography prior to randomization. Interventions. All eligible participants were randomly allocated into the experimental or control group. Both groups were taped with magnetic press pellet on auricular points for 3 weeks. The experimental group was treated by applying pressure on the magnetic press pellets 3 times per day while no stimulation was applied on the control group. Measurements and Results. Both groups were measured by PSG and PSQI at the beginning of the study and 3 weeks after the study. Both groups showed improvements on PSQI scores compared to the baseline. One-way analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline scores showed that significant improvements of PSG-derived sleep parameters, such as sleep efficiency, were found in the experimental group. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the proportion of sleep stages with the exception of Stage 2. Conclusions. Auricular therapy using magnetic pellets and stimulation by pressing was more effective in improving the sleep quality compared to auricular therapy without any stimulation.

  18. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sense of coherence--a determinant of quality of life over time in older female acute myocardial infarction survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norekvål, Tone M; Fridlund, Bengt; Moons, Philip; Nordrehaug, Jan E; Saevareid, Hans I; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Hanestad, Berit R

    2010-03-01

    To determine the relationships between different sense of coherence levels and quality of life, and in older female myocardial infarction survivors; to investigate how socio-demographic, clinical characteristics, sense of coherence self-reported symptoms and function affect quality of life; and to determine whether sense of coherence and quality of life are stable during a six-month follow-up. Myocardial infraction confers new physical and mental challenges. However, research on sense of coherence and other factors involved in maintaining physical, psychosocial and environmental aspects of quality of life in older female myocardial infraction survivors is scant. Survey. A postal survey was conducted of 145 women, aged 62-80 years, three months to five years after myocardial infarction (T1), with a follow-up after six months (T2). Self-reported socio-demographic and clinical data and hospital medical records data were collected. The sense of coherence scale (SOC-29) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Abbreviated (WHOQOL-BREF) were used. We found a significant difference in quality of life between weak, moderate, and strong sense of coherence groups (pSense of coherence contributed to the level of all quality of life domains (plife: (1) physical domain: comorbidities (psense of coherence and quality of life were stable. Experiencing specific health changes (plife events, influenced quality of life during the six-month follow-up. Sense of coherence was an important stable determinant of quality of life domains in female myocardial infarction survivors. Although other factors were identified, further research is needed to elucidate additional determinants of quality of life. These specific factors could guide clinicians in making treatment decisions that optimize the quality of life of their patients. Applying a salutogenic perspective through patient education may be important.

  20. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  1. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, M L; Kirberger, R M; Tordiffe, A S W; Marker, L L; Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Hartman, M J

    2015-12-01

    The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A

  2. The pandemic of physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since ...

  3. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    exercise: >80% in 7 countries, 60-80% in 12 countries, and 45% and 29% in 2 countries, respectively. Physical inactivity was associated with female sex, older age, lower education, obesity, comorbidity, low functional capacity, and higher levels of disease activity, pain, and fatigue. Conclusion. In many......Objective. Regular physical activity is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been advised to limit physical exercise. We studied the prevalence of physical activity and associations with demographic and disease...... countries, a low proportion of patients with RA exercise. These data may alert rheumatologists to motivate their patients to increase physical activity levels Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/15...

  4. A novel underuse model shows that inactivity but not ovariectomy determines the deteriorated material properties and geometry of cortical bone in the tibia of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Kozai, Yusuke; Ito, Yumi; Furuhama, Takami; Naruse, Kouji; Nonaka, Kiichi; Nagai, Yumiko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Kashima, Isamu; Ohya, Keiichi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko

    2011-07-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine to what extent the physiologic consequences of ovariectomy (OVX) in bones are exacerbated by a lack of daily activity such as walking. We forced 14-week-old female rats to be inactive for 15 weeks with a unique experimental system that prevents standing and walking while allowing other movements. Tibiae, femora, and 4th lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), microfocused X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), histology, histomorphometry, Raman spectroscopy, and the three-point bending test. Contrary to our expectation, the exacerbation was very much limited to the cancellous bone parameters. Parameters of femur and tibia cortical bone were affected by the forced inactivity but not by OVX: (1) cross-sectional moment of inertia was significantly smaller in Sham-Inactive rat bones than that of their walking counterparts; (2) the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes per unit cross-sectional area was larger in Sham-Inactive rat bones than in Sham-Walking rat bones; and (3) material properties such as ultimate stress of inactive rat tibia was lower than that of their walking counterparts. Of note, the additive effect of inactivity and OVX was seen only in a few parameters, such as the cancellous bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae and the structural parameters of cancellous bone in the lumbar vertebrae/tibiae. It is concluded that the lack of daily activity is detrimental to the strength and quality of cortical bone in the femur and tibia of rats, while lack of estrogen is not. Our inactive rat model, with the older rats, will aid the study of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the etiology of which may be both hormonal and mechanical.

  5. Assessing compliance: Active versus inactive trainees in a memory intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Bagwell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Bagwell, Robin L WestDepartment of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Extensive research on memory interventions has confirmed their success with older adults, but the individual difference factors that predict successful training outcomes remain relatively unexplored. In the current intervention, trainees were identified as active (compliant with training regimens or inactive using trainer ratings based on attendance, homework completion, and class participation. The active group showed significantly greater training-related gains than the inactive group and the control group on most measures. Compliance was predicted by health, education, and self-efficacy. Specifically, active trainees were more likely to have advanced degrees and somewhat higher self-efficacy, and to have higher vitality and fewer functional limitations than the inactive trainees. This research may assist future investigators to target interventions to those who will show the most benefit.Keywords: compliance, memory training, aging, intervention

  6. Dose-response effects of a Web-based physical activity program on body composition and metabolic health in inactive older adults: additional analyses of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroege, David P; Wijsman, Carolien A; Broekhuizen, Karen; de Craen, Anton J M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans J G; van Mechelen, Willem; Slagboom, P Eline; Catt, Michael; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Verhagen, Evert A L M; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2014-12-04

    Low physical activity is a major risk factor for several age-related diseases. Recently, we showed in a randomized controlled trial that a 12-week Web-based intervention (Philips DirectLife) to increase physical activity was effective in increasing physical activity levels and metabolic health in an inactive population aged 60-70 years. The goal of this paper was to assess how many participants successfully reached the physical activity level as targeted by the intervention and what the effects of the intervention on body composition and metabolic health in these successful individuals were to provide insight in the maximum attainable effect of the intervention. Among the 235 participants in a randomized controlled trial of the Actief en Gezond Oud (AGO) study, we assessed the effects of the intervention on metabolic parameters in those who had successfully reached their personalized physical activity target compared with the entire intervention group. Furthermore, we studied the dose-response effect of increase in physical activity on metabolic outcome within the intervention group. Of the intervention group, 50 of 119 (42.0%) participants successfully reached the physical activity target (corresponding to a 10% increased daily physical activity on average). This group showed markedly higher effects of the intervention compared to the entire intervention group, with greater decreases in body weight (2.74 vs 1.49 kg), waist circumference (3.74 vs 2.33 cm), insulin resistance (HOMA index: 0.23 vs 0.20), and in cholesterol/HDL ratio (0.39 vs 0.20) and Framingham risk score (0.90% vs 0.54%). We found that men compared to women were more likely to be successful. The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity and body weight loss, BMI reduction, waist circumference reduction, HDL cholesterol increasing, and cholesterol/HDL ratio lowering. Of the intervention group, 42.0% (50

  7. Physical inactivity in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimwegen, M.L. van; Speelman, A.D.; Hofman-van Rossum, E.J.; Overeem, S.; Deeg, D.J.G.; Borm, G.F.; Horst, M.H. van der; Bloem, B.R.; Munneke, M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are likely to become physically inactive, because of their motor, mental, and emotional symptoms. However, specific studies on physical activity in PD are scarce, and results are conflicting. Here, we quantified daily physical activities in a large cohort of PD

  8. [Physical inactivity in Galicia (Spain): trends and the impact of changes in the definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time in Galicia (Spain) between 2007 and 2011 and to assess the impact of including non-leisure time activities in the definition of physical inactivity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the population aged 16 years and older (n=19,235). Physical activity was assessed by the Minnesota Questionnaire. In 2011, inactivity was estimated by including daily activities. Between 2007 and 2011, the prevalence of inactivity in Galicia remained stable (p=0.249) and close to 50%. This prevalence was higher among women and those who worked or were in education. Inactivity decreased from 47% to 16% when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Between 2007 and 2011 in Galicia, the prevalence of inactivity remained high and stable. This prevalence was significantly decreased when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with human development index in 76 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumith, Samuel C; Hallal, Pedro C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Kohl, Harold W

    2011-01-01

    To describe the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and to analyze its association with development level of each country. Pooled analysis of three multicenter studies, conducted between 2002 and 2004, which investigated the prevalence of physical inactivity in 76 countries, and comprised almost 300,000 individuals aged 15 years or older. Each study used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical inactivity. The level of development of each country was analyzed by the Human Development Index (HDI). The crude worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity was 21.4% (95%CI 18.4-24.3), being higher among women (mean=23.7%, 95%CI 20.4-27.1) than men (mean=18.9%, 95%CI 16.2-21.7). It ranged from 2.6% (in Comoros) to 62.3% (in Mauritania), with a median equal to 18%. After weighting for the total population of each country, the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity was 17.4% (95%CI 15.1-19.7). There was a positive association between HDI and prevalence of physical inactivity (rho=0.27). Less developed countries showed the lowest prevalence of physical inactivity (18.7%), while physical inactivity was more prevalent among the most developed countries (27.8%). One out of five adults around the world is physically inactive. Physical inactivity was more prevalent among wealthier and urban countries, and among women and elderly individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Logan

    Full Text Available Critical among the changes that occur with aging are decreases in muscle mass and metabolic rate and an increase in fat mass. These changes may predispose older adults to chronic disease and functional impairment; ultimately resulting in a decrease in the quality of life. Research has suggested that long chain omega-3 fatty acids, found predominantly in fatty fish, may assist in reducing these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil (FO supplementation in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older females on 1 metabolic rate and substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise; 2 resting blood pressure and resting and exercise heart rates; 3 body composition; 4 strength and physical function, and; 5 blood measures of insulin, glucose, c-reactive protein, and triglycerides. Twenty-four females (66 ± 1 yr were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either 3g/d of EPA and DHA or a placebo (PL, olive oil for 12 wk. Exercise measurements were taken before and after 12 wk of supplementation and resting metabolic measures were made before and at 6 and 12 wk of supplementation. The results demonstrated that FO supplementation significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 14%, energy expenditure during exercise by 10%, and the rate of fat oxidation during rest by 19% and during exercise by 27%. In addition, FO consumption lowered triglyceride levels by 29% and increased lean mass by 4% and functional capacity by 7%, while no changes occurred in the PL group. In conclusion, FO may be a strategy to improve age-related physical and metabolic changes in healthy older females. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01734538.

  11. Declining Inconsistent Condom Use but Increasing HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Among Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers: Analysis From Sentinel Surveillance Sites (2010-2015), Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs).We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40-49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time.By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P < 0.001). Syphilis infections significantly declined for FSWs (P < 0.001) but only to 7.3% for LTFSWs. HCV and intravenous drug use were uncommon in FSWs. HIV prevalence increased for older age clients (1.3%-2.0%, P = 0.159) while syphilis prevalence remained stable. HCV infections were halved among older clients in 3 years (1.7%-0.8%, P < 0.001). Condom use during the last sexual encounter increased for FSWs and CFSWs. Few clients reported sex with men or intravenous drug use. Clients

  12. Determinants of work hours among a cohort of male and female farmers 50 years and older in Kentucky and South Carolina (2002-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Jennifer L; Browning, Steven R; Reed, Deborah B; Charnigo, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The average age of United States farmers has been increasing for 20 years. The objective is to examine the factors associated with hours worked among farmers age 50 and older. A cohort of Kentucky and South Carolina farmers (n = 1394) over age 50 were surveyed annually during 2002-2005. Of those that reported any farm work, males worked 24 mean hours/week and females worked 14 mean hours/week. Greater satisfaction and more experience farming, increased acreage, and presence of animals significantly increased estimated hours farmed, whereas chronic health problems, although prevalent, had a minor role in determining work hours.

  13. Prevalence of sarcopenia in Germany and the corresponding effect of osteoarthritis in females 70 years and older living in the community: results of the FORMoSA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler,1 Marc Teschler,1 Sabine Goisser,2 Michael Bebenek,1 Simon von Stengel,1 Leo Cornelius Bollheimer,2,3 Cornel C Sieber,2,3 Ellen Freiberger2 1Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 2Institute for Biomedicine of Aging, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nürnberg, Germany; 3Department of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, St John of God Hospital, Regensburg, GermanyBackground: Although sarcopenia represents a challenging burden for health care systems around the world, its prevalence in the elderly population varies widely. The primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling (CD German women aged 70 years and older; the secondary aim was to assess the effect of osteoarthritis (OA on sarcopenia prevalence in this cohort.Methods: A total of 689 Caucasian females 18–35 years old and 1,325 CD females 70 years+ living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the initial phase of the FORMoSA research project. Anthropometry, total and regional muscle mass, were assessed by segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Further 10 m walking speed and handgrip strength were evaluated to apply the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition of sarcopenia. Covariates were determined by questionnaires and interviews.Results: Applying the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People of two standard deviations below the mean value for appendicular skeletal muscle mass of a reference cohort of the young cohort (5.66 kg/m2, low gait speed (≤0.8 m/s, and low grip strength (<20 kg, the prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years and older was 4.5% (70–79 years: 2.8% vs ≥80 years: 9.9%; P<0.001. Participants with OA at the hip and lower limbs (n=252 exhibited significantly higher rates of sarcopenia (OA: 9.1 vs non-OA: 3.5%. Of importance, anthropometric, demographic

  14. Changes in Female Support Network Systems and Adaptation after Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Differences between Older and Younger Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Palmquist, Aunchalee E. L.; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Singletary, S. Eva; Koehly, Laura M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the changes in social networks of older and younger breast cancer patients over a 6-month period following their first diagnosis and how such modifications are associated with changes in the patients' mood state. Design and Methods: Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were interviewed shortly after their diagnosis…

  15. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...

  16. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  17. The Use of Neuropathic Pain Drugs in Children with Sickle Cell Disease is Associated with Older Age, Female Gender and Longer Length of Hospital Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandow, Amanda M.; Farley, Rebecca A.; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Although neuropathic pain is increasingly recognized in sickle cell disease (SCD), it is unknown how neuropathic pain drugs are used in children with SCD. Thus, we investigated use of these drugs and hypothesized older age and female gender are associated with increased neuropathic drug use and the use of these drugs is associated with longer length of stay. We analyzed the Pediatric Health Information System (2004-09) including all inpatient visits 0-18 years with any SCD-related (all genotypes) discharge diagnosis. To limit confounding we excluded psychiatric and seizure visits. Antiepileptics, tricyclic antidepressants, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were drugs of interest. Generalized Estimating Equations determined the impact of age and gender on neuropathic drug use and the impact of neuropathic drug use on length of stay. We analyzed 53,557 visits; 2.9% received ≥1 neuropathic drugs. The odds of receiving a neuropathic drug increased significantly with age [Reference group 0-4 yrs: 5-10, OR 5.7; 11-14, OR 12.5; 15-18, OR 22.8; all pNeuropathic drug use was associated with longer length of stay [RR 8.3; pNeuropathic drug use in children with SCD was associated with older age, female gender, and longer length of stay. PMID:25222053

  18. Functional autonomy, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum osteocalcin levels in older female participants of an aquatic exercise program (AAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, paquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women.

  19. Tadalafil once daily: Narrative review of a treatment option for female sexual dysfunctions (FSD in midlife and older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Borghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Female Sexual Disorders (FSD include a complex, multidimensional, individual experience that can change as an individual age, suggesting that these problems are caused by multiple factors including psychosocial factors, personal relationships, pathologic changes caused by diseases, and pharmacologic influences. Menopause is an important time for middle aged women and postmenopausal physiological changes could have a significant role in the development of FSD. Few is still known about their correct definition and treatment. Their incidence, prevalence and risk factors are difficult to define because of a high level of overlap in the experience of problems with desire, arousal, and orgasm. Little evidences are known about the best therapeutic approach, and both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have been described. Among these, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors could be an effective option for many subtypes of female sexual disorders, with an improvement in different aspects of sexual function, such as desire, arousal, orgasm and sexual satisfaction. In this paper authors reviewed what is already known about the use of these vasoactive agents, particularly tadalafil, as a treatment option for female sexual disturbances.

  20. Physical (in)activity and depression in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink-Vossen, Sanne; Collard, Rose M; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Comijs, Hannie C; de Vocht, Hilde M; Naarding, Paul

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about characteristics explaining low level of physical activity in late-life depression is needed to develop specific interventions aimed at improving physical health in depressed people above the age of 60. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Netherlands Stu

  1. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  2. Network social capital, social participation, and physical inactivity in an urban adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer

    2012-05-01

    Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might

  3. Feasibility study of home telerehabilitation for physically inactive veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy D. Harada, PhD

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a system for and determine the feasibility of monitoring home exercise for physically inactive older adults using a Health Buddy (HB text messaging device (Robert Bosch Healthcare; Palo Alto, California. Questions and messages related to exercise adherence are displayed on the HB screen and participants choose a response by pressing the corresponding button on the device. Responses are transmitted through a landline connection and high-risk responses are highlighted by the system for follow-up. We developed the questions and messages based on input from patient and clinician focus groups. We evaluated feasibility by administering the intervention to inpatient and outpatient adults aged 60 or older. We gave participants a choice of exercise monitoring by HB (n = 20 or telephone (n = 18. The results showed that home exercise monitoring by HB and telephone is safe, as evidenced by low adverse event rates. We saw a decline in exercise adherence rates to both the HB and telephone after 8 weeks, although adherence was better for HB than telephone. Taken together, the results demonstrate the feasibility of using text messaging to monitor home exercise adherence in physically inactive older adults.

  4. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O;

    2015-01-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical...... inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition...... leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1...

  5. Inactive sites and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, E. J.; Wardil, L. L.; da Silva, J. K. L.

    2016-10-01

    Cooperation is often conditioned on environmental factors. Behaviors may be inactive due to external factors, and yet the trait itself may not change. We study the evolution of cooperation with active and inactive sites. In inactive sites cooperators behave as defectors, receiving but not providing benefits. This unintentional mimicry provides local advantage to cooperation, but also prevents the mutual reinforcement provided by clusters of active cooperators. In general, we found that cooperation is enhanced by inactivity. In particular, if most sites are inactive, cooperation survives even if the temptation to defect is very large. Interestingly, in the square lattice with pairwise comparison rule we found that cooperation is enforced by inactive sites only up to a certain limit.

  6. B-vitamin status and bone mineral density and risk of lumbar osteoporosis in older females in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Looker, Anne C; Lu, Zhaohui; Fan, Ruzong; Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fakhouri, Tala H; Gahche, Jaime J; Weaver, Connie M; Mills, James L

    2015-09-01

    Previous data suggest that elevated serum total homocysteine (tHcy) may be a risk factor for bone fracture and osteoporosis. Nutritional causes of elevated tHcy are suboptimal B-vitamin status. To our knowledge, this is the first nationally representative report on the relation of B vitamins and bone health from a population with folic acid fortification. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the relation between B-vitamin status biomarkers and bone mineral density (BMD), risk of osteoporosis, and biomarkers of bone turnover. We examined the relation of tHcy, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and serum/red blood cell folate and total-body and lumbar spine BMD in women aged ≥50 y participating in the NHANES 1999-2004 (n = 2806), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. These are the only years with concurrent measurement of tHcy and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We also examined B-vitamin biomarkers relative to bone turnover markers, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen in a 1999-2002 subset with available data (n = 1813). In comparison with optimal concentrations, women with elevated tHcy were older with lower serum vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate, and dietary micronutrient intakes and had significantly higher mean ± SE markers of bone turnover (bone alkaline phosphatase: 15.8 ± 0.59 compared with 14.0 ± 0.25 μg/L; urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen: 48.2 ± 2.9 compared with 38.9 ± 0.90 nmol bone collagen equivalents per mmol creatinine/L). Elevated MMA (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.18) and tHcy (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.14, 4.15) were related to increased risk of lumbar osteoporosis. When examined as a continuous variable, tHcy was negatively associated, serum folates were positively associated, and MMA and vitamin B-12 were not significantly associated with lumbar and total-body BMD. In this nationally representative population of older US women with

  7. Urodynamics in a community-dwelling population of females 80 years or older: which motive? Which diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine why community-dwelling women aged 80 years or over were referred for urodynamic evaluation despite their advanced age and which urodynamic diagnosis was made. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive females (80-93 years were referred to our urodynamics outpatient clinic for evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS between 2005 and 2008. Clinical evaluation comprised of a previous history of LUTS, previous medical history of neurological disease or dementia, pelvic floor dysfunction or prior pelvic surgery. Exclusion criteria were complete retention and severe dementia involving failure to understand simple instructions. Assessed items were results of uroflows (free flow and intubated flow, cystometry and urethral pressure profilometry, and final urodynamic diagnosis. RESULTS: The main complaint evoked by the patients was incontinence (65.0% of which 61.5% was "complicated" and urgency was reported by 70.0%. Interpretable free flow at arrival was very low (44.0%. Prevalence of detrusor overactivity was high, found in 45 patients of whom 16 had detrusor hyperactivity with impaired detrusor contractility. Detrusor overactivity and urgency were strongly associated (p = 0.004. Twenty-five patients had intrinsic sphincteric deficiency alone and 15 detrusor underactivity. CONCLUSION: In this particular community-dwelling with an elderly female population, urodynamics is easily feasible. Incontinence, mainly "complicated" is the more frequent complaint and urgency the more frequent symptom. Urodynamic diagnosis underlines the high incidence of detrusor overactivity as well as impaired detrusor function.

  8. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  9. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1(st) of September 2013 and 31(st) of March 2014. Mean age of respondents was 66.42 ± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants' medical ailments (65%), partners' failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient.

  10. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Olli; Haakana, Piia; Pesola, Arto J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Rantalainen, Timo; Havu, Marko; Pullinen, Teemu; Finni, Taija

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg) were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours). EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC)) during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC)). During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC) (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s) which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC)). Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min). Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC) than men (p<0.05). In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  11. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  12. Bipartite structure of the inactive mouse X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinxian; Ma, Wenxiu; Ramani, Vijay; Hill, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Ay, Ferhat; Berletch, Joel B; Blau, Carl Anthony; Shendure, Jay; Duan, Zhijun; Noble, William S; Disteche, Christine M

    2015-08-07

    In mammals, one of the female X chromosomes and all imprinted genes are expressed exclusively from a single allele in somatic cells. To evaluate structural changes associated with allelic silencing, we have applied a recently developed Hi-C assay that uses DNase I for chromatin fragmentation to mouse F1 hybrid systems. We find radically different conformations for the two female mouse X chromosomes. The inactive X has two superdomains of frequent intrachromosomal contacts separated by a boundary region. Comparison with the recently reported two-superdomain structure of the human inactive X shows that the genomic content of the superdomains differs between species, but part of the boundary region is conserved and located near the Dxz4/DXZ4 locus. In mouse, the boundary region also contains a minisatellite, Ds-TR, and both Dxz4 and Ds-TR appear to be anchored to the nucleolus. Genes that escape X inactivation do not cluster but are located near the periphery of the 3D structure, as are regions enriched in CTCF or RNA polymerase. Fewer short-range intrachromosomal contacts are detected for the inactive alleles of genes subject to X inactivation compared with the active alleles and with genes that escape X inactivation. This pattern is also evident for imprinted genes, in which more chromatin contacts are detected for the expressed allele. By applying a novel Hi-C method to map allelic chromatin contacts, we discover a specific bipartite organization of the mouse inactive X chromosome that probably plays an important role in maintenance of gene silencing.

  13. Occupational therapy intervention: effects on self-care, performance, satisfaction, self-esteem/self-efficacy, and role functioning of older Hispanic females with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Gonzalez, Belkis; Molnar, David

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of occupation-based and enabling/preparatory interventions on self-care, perceived performance, satisfaction, self-efficacy, and role function among older Hispanic females with arthritis. A pre- and post-outcome measures design with semi-structured interview and questionnaire/rating scales was used with matched participants assigned to one of two intervention groups or a control, non-intervention group. For measures of task-specific functioning and self-efficacy, there were no statistically significant differences in average gain scores between the two interventions. Average gain scores were higher for the enabling/preparatory intervention than for the control group. For the occupational intervention, the scores were higher than for the control group for self-care/activities of daily living (ADL) functioning and self-esteem/self-efficacy. The results suggest that client-centered occupational therapy intervention provided within the home environment is beneficial for occupational performance, participation, role competence, and quality of life.

  14. The inaction approach to gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Pivovarov, Grigorii

    2012-01-01

    The inaction approach introduced previously for phi^4 is generalized to gauge theories. It combines the advantages of the effective field theory and causal approaches to quantum fields. Also, it suggests ways to generalizing gauge theories.

  15. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taija Finni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect

  16. Comparison of Clinicopathological Features and Treatments between Young (≤40 Years) and Older (>40 Years) Female Breast Cancer Patients in West China: A Retrospective, Epidemiological, Multicenter, Case Only Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyuan; Zheng, Ke; Jiang, Jun; Zou, Tianning; Ma, Binlin; Li, Hui; Liu, Qilun; Ou, Jianghua; Wang, Ling; Wei, Wei; He, Jianjun; Ren, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of young cases of breast cancer is higher in China compared to the western world. We aimed to explore differences in risk factors, clinicopathological features and treatment modes of young female breast cancer compared to older patients in West China. We collected clinical information from 12,209 female breast cancer patients in West China, including risk factors, clinicopathological features and treatment modes, from January 2010 to December 2012. Chi-square tests and the multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied for statistical analysis. There were 2,682 young (≤40 years) cases and 9,527 older cases at the time of breast cancer diagnosis. Young patients had a greater tumor diameter at diagnosis, and a higher probability of axillary lymph node and distant metastasis (P menarche was earlier, they had lower marriage rates, fewer pregnancies and births, and a lower breastfeeding rate (P 40 years) female breast cancer patients in West China. As some of these results differ from those found in the western female population, it is likely that the mechanism of tumorigenesis of young female breast cancer patients in West China may differ from that in western developed countries. Further investigation into the regional differences in breast cancer tumorigenesis is warranted. PMID:27031236

  17. Comparison of Clinicopathological Features and Treatments between Young (≤40 Years and Older (>40 Years Female Breast Cancer Patients in West China: A Retrospective, Epidemiological, Multicenter, Case Only Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    Full Text Available The incidence of young cases of breast cancer is higher in China compared to the western world. We aimed to explore differences in risk factors, clinicopathological features and treatment modes of young female breast cancer compared to older patients in West China. We collected clinical information from 12,209 female breast cancer patients in West China, including risk factors, clinicopathological features and treatment modes, from January 2010 to December 2012. Chi-square tests and the multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied for statistical analysis. There were 2,682 young (≤40 years cases and 9,527 older cases at the time of breast cancer diagnosis. Young patients had a greater tumor diameter at diagnosis, and a higher probability of axillary lymph node and distant metastasis (P 40 years female breast cancer patients in West China. As some of these results differ from those found in the western female population, it is likely that the mechanism of tumorigenesis of young female breast cancer patients in West China may differ from that in western developed countries. Further investigation into the regional differences in breast cancer tumorigenesis is warranted.

  18. Prevalence of Sexual Concerns and Sexual Dysfunction among Sexually Active and Inactive Men and Women with Screen‐Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Morten; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Type 2 diabetes negatively impacts sexual health. Only limited information is available regarding sexual health among sexually inactive patients with type 2 diabetes. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexual concerns among sexually active and sexually inactive men and women with type 2 diabetes and of sexual dysfunction (SD) among sexually active. Methods Data from the Anglo–Danish–Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen‐Detected Diabetes in Primary Care‐Denmark study was used. A total of 1,170 Danish patients with screen‐detected type 2 diabetes attended a health examination, including assessment of sexual concerns using self‐report questionnaires and of SD using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI‐R) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF‐5) instruments. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures used regarding sexual concerns are the following: prevalence of failure to fill sexual needs, of experiencing sexual distress, finding it important to have a good sexual life, and additionally, prevalence of SD. Results Data regarding sexual activity status during the last 12 months were available among 583 men and 377 women. Seventeen percent of men and 47% of women reported to be sexually inactive, among whom 57% of men and 42% of women reported failure to fill sexual needs; 31% of men and 10% of women that it was important to have a good sexual life, and 32% of men and 11% of women that they were experiencing sexual distress. Around half of men and women were excluded from the SD analysis, mainly because of reporting lack of sexual intercourse during the last 4 weeks. Among those included, 54% of men and 12% of women were found to have SD. Conclusions Sexual inactivity is highly prevalent among middle‐aged and older men and women with early type 2 diabetes and these patients often have sexual concerns. The high exclusion rates when assessing SD using the FSFI

  19. Twenty-Four-Hour Mobility During Acute Hospitalization in Older Medical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Merete; Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Petersen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inactivity during hospitalization in older medical patients may lead to functional decline. This study quantified 24-hour mobility, validated the accelerometers used, and assessed the daily level of basic mobility in acutely admitted older medical patients during their hospitalization...

  20. Reactivation of inactive X chromosome in buccal smear of carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natekar Prashant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosal smears of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls matched accordingly. The frequency of Barr bodies was significantly lower in carcinoma of breast patients (menstruating and menopausal women P < 0.001 when compared with controls indicating reactivation of the inactive X chromosome.

  1. Properties of inactive Photosystem II centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, J; Leci, E

    1993-03-01

    A fraction (usually in the range of 10-25%) of PS II centers is unable to transfer electrons from the primary quinone acceptor QA to the secondary acceptor QB. These centers are inactive with respect to O2 evolution since their reopening after photochemical charge separation to the S2OA (-) state involves predominantly a back reaction to S1QA in the few seconds time range (slower phases are also occurring). Several properties of these centers are analyzed by fluorescence and absorption change experiments. The initial rise phase Fo-Fpl of fluorescence induction under weak illumination reflects both the closure of inactive centers and the modulation of the fluorescence yield by the S-states of the oxygen-evolving system: We estimate typical relative amplitudes of these contributions as, respectively, 65 and 35% of the Fo-Fpl amplitude. The half-rise time of this phase is significantly shorter than for the fluorescence induction in the presence of DCMU (in which all centers are involved). This finding is shown to be consistent with inactive centers sharing the same light-harvesting antenna as normal centers, a view which is also supported by comparing the dependence of the fluorescence yield on the amount of closed active or inactive centers estimated through absorption changes. It is argued that the exponential kinetics of the Fo-Fpl phase does not indicate absence of excitation energy transfer between the antennas of inactive and active centers. We show that the acceptor dichlorobenzoquinone does not restore electron transfer in inactive centers, in disagreement with previous suggestions. We confirm, however, the enhancement of steady-state electron flow caused by this quinone and suggest that it acts by relieving a blocking step involved in the reoxidation of a fraction of the plastoquinone pool. Part of the discrepancies between the present results and those from previous literature may arise from the confusion of inactive centers characterized on a single

  2. Detrimental effects of physical inactivity on neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton Lippert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with neurological disorders exhibit a variety of physical and psychiatric symptoms, including muscle atrophy, general immobility, and depression. Patients who participate in physical rehabilitation at times show unexpected clinical improvement, which includes diminished depression and other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS disorders, transplantation of exogenous stem cells, and enhancing the endogenous neurogenesis. The latter therapy utilizes a natural method of re-innervating the injured brain, which may mend neurological impairments. In this study, we examine how inactivity-induced atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, alters neurogenesis in rats. The hypothesis is that inactivity inhibits neurogenesis by decreasing circulation growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth or neurotrophic factors. The restriction modifies neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS, the stem cell microenvironment is examined by the trophic and growth factors, including stress-related proteins. Despite growing evidence revealing the benefits of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the opposing theory involving "physical inactivity," which simulates pathological states, continues to be neglected. This novel theory will allow us to explore the effects on neurogenesis by an intransigent stem cell microenvironment likely generated by inactivity. 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are suggested identifiers of neurogenesis, while evaluation of spontaneous movements will give insight into the psychomotor effects of inactivity. Investigations devised to show how in vivo stimulation, or lack thereof, affects the stem cell microenvironment are necessary to establish

  3. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  4. Exploring the Linkage between Activity-Friendly Zoning, Inactivity, and Cancer Incidence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-03-07

    Background: Physical activity (PA) protects against cancer and enhances cancer survivorship. Given high inactivity rates nationwide, population-level physical activity facilitators are needed. Several authoritative bodies have recognized that zoning and planning helps create activity-friendly environments. This study examined the association between activity-friendly zoning, inactivity, and cancer in 478 of the most populous U.S. counties.Methods: County geocodes linked county-level data: cancer incidence and smoking (State Cancer Profiles), inactivity (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), 11 zoning measures (compiled by the study team), and covariates (from the American Community Survey and NAVTEQ). For each zoning measure, single mediation regression models and Sobel tests examined whether activity-friendly zoning was associated with reduced cancer incidence, and whether inactivity mediated those associations. All models were clustered on state with robust SEs and significance at the P Zoning for crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths were associated with reduced cancer incidence (β between -0.71 and -1.27, P zoning. Except for crosswalks, each association was mediated by inactivity. However, county smoking attenuated these results, with only crosswalks remaining significant. Results were similar for males (with zoning for bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths), but not females, alone.Conclusions: Zoning can help to create activity-friendly environments that support decreased inactivity, and possibly reduced cancer incidence.Impact: Given low physical activity levels nationwide, cross-sectoral collaborations with urban planning can inform cancer prevention and public health efforts to decrease inactivity and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 1-9. ©2017 AACR.See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population

  5. 40 CFR 256.25 - Recommendation for inactive facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommendation for inactive facilities. 256.25 Section 256.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... Disposal Programs § 256.25 Recommendation for inactive facilities. Inactive facilities that continue...

  6. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Maiorana, A.J.; O'Driscoll, G.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function

  7. A cross-sectional examination of the mental and social well-being of older female Scottish country dancers and physically active non-dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Dave; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that conventional forms of physical activity such as walking, jogging and swimming can help maintain the mental and social well-being of older individuals. However, there have been few attempts to determine whether dance participation offers the same benefits. This study compared measures of mental and social well-being between Scottish country dancers and physically active non-dancers. Scores were recorded for the Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-Being Scale, Satisfaction...

  8. Hospitalized Older Adults’ Patient Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale R. Chumbler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the extent to which older adult patients’ perceptions of inpatient dimensions of care experiences are associated with their overall satisfaction. A secondary objective is to determine if these specific care experiences differed between elderly female and male patients. Patient satisfaction data from 6,021 older patients (65 years of age and older were collected by using the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS Survey through telephone interviews of older patients who were recently discharged. Multiple linear regression analyses with older patients’ HCAHPS dimensions (Communication With Nurses, Communication With Doctors, Responsiveness of Hospital Staff, Communication About Medicines, Cleanliness of the Hospital Environment, and Quietness of Hospital Environment and gender were conducted while controlling for self-rated health status, age, race, and education. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all of the HCAHPS dimensions were significantly associated with overall satisfaction. Older female patients reported substantially more positive global evaluations than their male counterparts. However, for older male patients, Communication With Doctors was more influential in their ratings of overall satisfaction than for older female patients. For older female patients, Communication With Nurses was more influential in their ratings of overall satisfaction than for older male patients.

  9. Identification of inactivity behavior in smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujaud, J; Noury, N; Lundy, J-E

    2008-01-01

    To help elderly people live independently at home, the TIMC-IMAG laboratory developed Health Smart Homes called 'HIS'. These smart Homes are composed of several sensors to monitor the activities of daily living of the patients. Volunteers have accepted to be monitored during 2 years in their own flats. During one year, we carried out our survey on one elderly patient. Thanks to this experimentation, we will access to relevant information like physiological, environmental and activity. This paper focuses on daily living activity. We will introduce an original data splitting method based on the relationship between the frame of time and the location in the flat. Moreover we will present two different methods to determine a threshold of critical inactivity and eventually we will discuss their possible utilities.

  10. Comparing Levels of Depression in Healthy Active and Inactive Elders versus Those with Knee Osteoarthritis Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis can have negative effects on the physical and mental conditions, social and family relations, general health and positive feelings of elders. For example, severe limitation of motion and increased depression, which are results of this disease, can have negative impacts on elders. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of depression in healthy active and inactive elders versus those with knee osteoarthritis disease. Two hundred and twenty (220 elders with knee osteoarthritis disease (110 active and 110 inactive patients and 220 healthy elders (110 active and 110 inactive were voluntarily selected, and they filled the questionnaire about elders’ personal characteristics, physical activity and depression levels. Four groups had differences with respect to education, age and gender. The results of chi-square test revealed that women with knee osteoarthritis disease had increased levels of depression compared to men with the same condition (p<0.05. Older patients had increased levels of depression and educated elders reported lower levels of depression. The results of the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that there exist a significant difference in depression scores of healthy active and healthy inactive elders and those with knee osteoarthritis disease. The results of Tukey’s test revealed that healthy active elder had lower depression scores compared to inactive elders with knee osteoarthritis disease. Carrying out exercises and physical activities can help improve the health state of patients with knee osteoarthritis problem and can also improve the elders’ mental condition and thus decrease their pain and depression.

  11. Aberrant mitochondrial homeostasis in the skeletal muscle of sedentary older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Safdar

    Full Text Available The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been extensively characterized in the aetiology of sarcopenia (aging-associated loss of muscle mass and muscle wasting as a result of muscle disuse. What remains less clear is whether the decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity is purely a function of the aging process or if the sedentary lifestyle of older adult subjects has confounded previous reports. The objective of the present study was to investigate if a recreationally active lifestyle in older adults can conserve skeletal muscle strength and functionality, chronic systemic inflammation, mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity, and cellular antioxidant capacity. To that end, muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of young and age-matched recreationally active older and sedentary older men and women (N = 10/group; female symbol = male symbol. We show that a physically active lifestyle is associated with the partial compensatory preservation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and cellular oxidative and antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle of older adults. Conversely a sedentary lifestyle, associated with osteoarthritis-mediated physical inactivity, is associated with reduced mitochondrial function, dysregulation of cellular redox status and chronic systemic inflammation that renders the skeletal muscle intracellular environment prone to reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity. We propose that an active lifestyle is an important determinant of quality of life and molecular progression of aging in skeletal muscle of the elderly, and is a viable therapy for attenuating and/or reversing skeletal muscle strength declines and mitochondrial abnormalities associated with aging.

  12. Sleep EEG patterns and fatigue of middle-aged and older female family caregivers providing routine nighttime care for elderly persons at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Reiko; Kanda, Katsuya; Anan, Mitoko; Watanuki, Shigeaki

    2002-12-01

    The sleep EEGs and fatigue of 9 female family caregivers (age M=65 yr.) and 9 female noncaregivers (age M=67 yr.) were measured during two successive nights at their houses. Perceived quality of sleep was measured by the Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Fatigue was measured by a self-rated questionnaire, the Perceived Symptoms of Fatigue, and by critical flicker fusion (CFF) frequency. The caregivers had a significantly higher percentage of Stage 1 and a lower percentage of Stage 2 during the 2nd cycle and a higher percentage of Stages 3+4 during the 3rd cycle than those of the noncaregivers. Caregivers had significantly higher percentages of EEG waves of 7-9 Hz in the 1st cycle and 6-9 Hz in the 2nd cycle and significantly lower percentages of 2-3 Hz in the 1st cycle than those of the noncaregivers. The caregivers reported a lower quality of sleep and higher perceived fatigue symptoms and also lower CFF frequency (increased physiological fatigue) than noncaregivers. The caregivers' sleep EEGs were associated with their higher sleep needs and fatigue.

  13. Characterization of inactive renin from human kidney and plasma. Evidence of a renal source of circulating inactive renin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh, W A; Carlson, E J; Dzau, V J

    1983-01-01

    An inactive form of renin has been isolated from human plasma. It has been suggested that this may represent renin precursor secreted from the kidney. However, early studies failed to isolate inactive renin from human renal tissue. In this investigation, rapid processing of human kidney cortex at temperatures below 4 degrees C in the presence of protease inhibitors followed by cibacron-blue affinity chromatography allowed us to extract a totally inactive form of renal renin. Furthermore, we f...

  14. [Juvenile obesity and the role of physical activity and inactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, C

    2010-07-01

    Physical activity has important health benefits. Despite of the use of different measurement instruments, a decrease in physical activity and an increase in sedentary habits has been described in children and adolescents. As a consequence, a reduction in physical performance and motor abilities and an increase in overweight and fat mass is found associated with comorbidities, e.g., ranging from insulin resistance up to the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, beside the therapeutic use of exercise in obesity programs, adequate preventive strategies are warranted. However, within this discussion, it must be taken into consideration that special subgroups are more affected by insufficient physical activity/sedentary habits, e.g., females, adolescents, ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status. In many other groups, recommendations for physical activity (1 h/day) are achieved. Hence, interventions must focus on these at-risk groups and intensified. In addition, recommendations related to physical activity and inactivity, in terms of TV consumption, must be critically analyzed as to whether the recommendations are sufficient and how they can be implemented to achieve lasting results.

  15. Effects of Physical (Inactivity on Platelet Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Heber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (inactivity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects’ cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality.

  16. Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this topic was provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Topic last reviewed: March 2015 For ... see Traffic Safety Facts 2012: Older Population. (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). Crashes Down Among Older Drivers Fortunately, ...

  17. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the rela

  18. Structural organization of the inactive X chromosome in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, Luca; Lajoie, Bryan R; Carter, Ava C; Attia, Mikael; Zhan, Ye; Xu, Jin; Chen, Chong Jian; Kaplan, Noam; Chang, Howard Y; Heard, Edith; Dekker, Job

    2016-07-28

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) involves major reorganization of the X chromosome as it becomes silent and heterochromatic. During female mammalian development, XCI is triggered by upregulation of the non-coding Xist RNA from one of the two X chromosomes. Xist coats the chromosome in cis and induces silencing of almost all genes via its A-repeat region, although some genes (constitutive escapees) avoid silencing in most cell types, and others (facultative escapees) escape XCI only in specific contexts. A role for Xist in organizing the inactive X (Xi) chromosome has been proposed. Recent chromosome conformation capture approaches have revealed global loss of local structure on the Xi chromosome and formation of large mega-domains, separated by a region containing the DXZ4 macrosatellite. However, the molecular architecture of the Xi chromosome, in both the silent and expressed regions,remains unclear. Here we investigate the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse Xi chromosome in highly polymorphic clonal neural progenitors (NPCs) and embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate a crucial role for Xist and the DXZ4-containing boundary in shaping Xi chromosome structure using allele-specific genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analysis, an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA sequencing. Deletion of the boundary disrupts mega-domain formation, and induction of Xist RNA initiates formation of the boundary and the loss of DNA accessibility. We also show that in NPCs, the Xi chromosome lacks active/inactive compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), except around genes that escape XCI. Escapee gene clusters display TAD-like structures and retain DNA accessibility at promoter-proximal and CTCF-binding sites. Furthermore, altered patterns of facultative escape genes indifferent neural progenitor clones are associated with the presence of different TAD

  19. Physical inactivity and arterial stiffness in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievi NA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noriane A Sievi,1 Daniel Franzen,1 Malcolm Kohler,1,2 Christian F Clarenbach1 1Division of Pulmonology, University Hospital of Zurich, 2Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Arterial stiffness is an important predictor of cardiovascular risk besides classic cardiovascular risk factors. Previous studies showed that arterial stiffness is increased in patients with COPD compared to healthy controls and exercise training may reduce arterial stiffness. Since physical inactivity is frequently observed in patients with COPD and exercise training may improve arterial stiffness, we hypothesized that low daily physical activity may be associated with increased arterial stiffness. Methods: In 123 patients with COPD (72% men; mean [standard deviation] age: 62 [7.5] years; median [quartile] forced expiratory volume in 1 second 35 [27/65] %predicted, arterial stiffness was assessed by augmentation index (AI. Daily physical activity level (PAL was measured by an activity monitor (SenseWear Pro™ >1 week. The association between AI and PAL was investigated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis, taking into account disease-specific characteristics and comorbidities. Results: Patients suffered from moderate (35%, severe (32%, and very severe (33% COPD, and 22% were active smokers. Median (quartile PAL was 1.4 (1.3/1.5 and mean (standard deviation AI 26% (9.2%. PAL showed a negative association with AI (B=-9.32, P=0.017 independent of age, sex, blood pressure, and airflow limitation. Conclusion: In COPD patients, a higher PAL seems to favorably influence arterial stiffness and therefore may reduce cardiovascular risk. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01527773 Keywords: activity monitor, airflow limitation, COPD, physical activity level

  20. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (P<.05). In contrast, femoral trabecular bone was not affected by the SFAs, whereas MUFAs increased trabecular volume fraction and thickness. The rise over time in FCA was greater in mice fed HFD than NFD and final FCA was higher with HFD (P<.05). Intestinal calbindin-D9k gene and hepatic cytochrome P450 2r1 protein levels were higher with the MUFA than the NFD diet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects.

  1. Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2015-12-01

    There is mounting evidence documenting the adverse health effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, but population-based evidence linking PM2.5 and health behaviour remains lacking. This study examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults 18 years of age and above. Retrospective data analysis. Participant-level data (n = 2,381,292) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2011 surveys were linked with Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research air quality data by participants' residential county and interview month/year. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the effect of ambient PM2.5 air pollution on participants' leisure-time physical inactivity, accounting for various individual and county-level characteristics. Regressions were estimated on the overall sample and subsamples stratified by sex, age cohort, race/ethnicity and body weight status. One unit (μg/m(3)) increase in county monthly average PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 0.46% (95% confidence interval = 0.34%-0.59%). The effect was similar between the sexes but to some extent (although not always statistically significant) larger for younger adults, Hispanics, and overweight/obese individuals compared with older adults, non-Hispanic whites or African Americans, and normal weight individuals, respectively. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution is found to be associated with a modest but measurable increase in individuals' leisure-time physical inactivity, and the relationship tends to differ across population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise promotes IL-6 release from legs in older men with minor response to unilateral immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reihmane, Dace; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major contributor to low-grade systemic inflammation. Most of the studies characterizing interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release from exercising legs have been done in young, healthy men, but studies on inactivity in older people are lacking...

  3. Physical inactivity mediates the association between the perceived exercising behavior of social network members and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette S Leroux

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Social networks influence the spread of depression, health behaviors, and obesity. The social networks of older urban-dwelling adults were examined to assess whether physical inactivity mediated the association between social networks and obesity. METHODS: Data come from the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging study (n=2707. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI with obesity defined as a BMI ≥ 30. A name generator/interpreter instrument was used to elicit participants' core ties (i.e., alters, and assess whether alters exercised regularly and resided in participants' neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical inactivity. Separate multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted for younger (18-54 years and older (55 years plus age groups to examine the association between the exercising behavior of alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses examined whether the residential location of alters was associated with obesity. Mediation analyses assessed whether physical inactivity mediated the association between alter exercising behavior and obesity. Models adjusted for participant socio-demographic and -economic characteristics. RESULTS: Among the older age stratum (55 years plus, physically inactive individuals were more likely obese (OR 2.14; 95% CIs: 1.48-3.10; participants who had more exercising alters were less likely obese (OR: 0.85; 95% CIs: 0.72-0.99. Physical inactivity mediated the association between exercising alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses showed that having exercising alters in the neighborhood compared to other locations tended to reduce the odds of obesity. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates the importance of social networks among older adults in facilitating a physically active lifestyle and reducing the odds of obesity. Such findings can inform the design of public health interventions that seek to improve

  4. Characterization of the basal core promoter and precore regions in anti-HBe-positive inactive carriers of hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, María Mora González López; Galdame, Omar; Bouzas, Belén; Tadey, Luciana; Livellara, Beatriz; Giuliano, Silvina; Viaut, Marcela; Paz, Silvia; Fainboim, Hugo; Gadano, Adrian; Campos, Rodolfo; Flichman, Diego

    2011-05-01

    The study of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomic heterogeneity has become a major issue in investigations aimed at understanding the relationship between HBV mutants and the wide spectrum of clinical and pathological conditions associated with HBV infection. Although most chronically infected HBV patients are inactive carriers, several virological aspects of this state remain unclear. In order to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP) and precore (pC) regions among inactive carriers, the nucleotide sequences from 41 inactive carriers were analyzed and compared with those from 29 individuals with chronic active hepatitis. Genotypes A (24.3%), D (37.1%), F1b (12.9%), and F4 (18.6%) were the most prevalent. Mutations in the BCP/pC regions were observed in most of the inactive carriers (92.7%) and in most of the patients with chronic active hepatitis (93.1%). The prevalence of mutation 1764(A) was significantly higher in patients with chronic active hepatitis (65.5%) than in inactive carriers (36.6%) (p=0.038), whereas the prevalences of mutations at the other positions analyzed were not significantly different. Older patients (>50 years) showed BCP/pC patterns with a higher number of substitutions. Mutations were found to be biased by genotype: the 1896(A) mutation was highly prevalent in genotypes D and F4, while alternative substitutions in the pC region were more prevalent in genotypes A and F1b. Mutations in the BCP/pC regions are the hallmark of chronic anti-HBe-positive individuals; nevertheless, the even distribution of mutations in active and inactive carriers suggests that BCP/pC mutations may occur during HBV infection not strictly related to the HBV infection activity. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Sex differences in the physical inactivity and health-related quality of life relationship among rural adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical inactivity (PIA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rural adults and examine the extent to which sex differences exist in this relationship. Methods: A total of 5617 adults 18 years of age and older who indicated residing in a rural county was included in this analysis. PIA status was assessed by questions regarding recreational physical activity during the previous month. Five HRQOL measures (physical health, mental health, inactivity health, general health, & unhealthy days) were used as primary outcome variables. PIA and HRQOL prevalence estimates were computed with 95% CIs. Multiple logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for age, ethnicity, and income. Results: Physically inactive rural adults were significantly more likely to report poor HRQOL in all overall crude models with ORs ranging from 1.59 to 2.16. Additionally, sex-by-PIA interactions were significant across all crude HRQOL models with ORs ranging from 2.27 to 3.08 and 1.56 to 2.42 for women and men, respectively. Sex differences were maintained in fully adjusted models, except for mental health and inactivity health with ORs ranging from 1.80 to 2.58 and 1.41 to 1.79 for women and men, respectively. Conclusion: Results from this study show that PIA is a strong predictor of poor HRQOL even after controlling for confounding variables. Furthermore, physically inactive rural women appear more likely to report poor levels of HRQOL than physically inactive rural men.

  6. Sex differences in the physical inactivity and health-related quality of life relationship among rural adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Hart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical inactivity (PIA and health-related quality of life (HRQOL in rural adults and examine the extent to which sex differences exist in this relationship. Methods: A total of 5617 adults 18 years of age and older who indicated residing in a rural county was included in this analysis. PIA status was assessed by questions regarding recreational physical activity during the previous month. Five HRQOL measures (physical health, mental health, inactivity health, general health, & unhealthy days were used as primary outcome variables. PIA and HRQOL prevalence estimates were computed with 95% CIs. Multiple logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for age, ethnicity, and income. Results: Physically inactive rural adults were significantly more likely to report poor HRQOL in all overall crude models with ORs ranging from 1.59 to 2.16. Additionally, sex-by-PIA interactions were significant across all crude HRQOL models with ORs ranging from 2.27 to 3.08 and 1.56 to 2.42 for women and men, respectively. Sex differences were maintained in fully adjusted models, except for mental health and inactivity health with ORs ranging from 1.80 to 2.58 and 1.41 to 1.79 for women and men, respectively. Conclusion: Results from this study show that PIA is a strong predictor of poor HRQOL even after controlling for confounding variables. Furthermore, physically inactive rural women appear more likely to report poor levels of HRQOL than physically inactive rural men.

  7. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LORD

    2012-05-25

    May 25, 2012 ... The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive ... microbial properties of meat and intestine, and the present study had provided evidences that ... to the contamination of meat products with antibiotic.

  8. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    . We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk......, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass...

  9. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Djalalinia, Shirin; Mirarefin, Mojdeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samami, Elham; Mansourian, Morteza; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year. Quality assessment and data extraction has been conducted independently by two independent research experts. There were no limitations for time and language. Results: We analyzed data for prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian population. According to our search strategy we found 254 records; of them 185 were from international databases and the remaining 69 were obtained from national databases after refining the data, 34 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction. From them respectively; 9, 20, 2 and 3 studies were at national, provincial, regional and local levels. The estimates for inactivity ranged from approximately 30% to almost 70% and had considerable variation between sexes and studied sub-groups. Conclusion: In Iran, most of studies reported high prevalence of physical inactivity. Our findings reveal a heterogeneity of reported values, often from differences in study design, measurement tools and methods, different target groups and sub-population sampling. These data do not provide the possibility of aggregation of data for a comprehensive inference. PMID:27777692

  10. Any link between sexual inactivity and treadle pump performance characteristics: The Malawi case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Chidanti-Malunga; Yamikani, Malunga

    In mitigating the effects of climate change in Malawi, government promotes the use of low cost irrigation technologies to small-scale farmers, especially in wetlands where water is available. The treadle pump is one such technology. The pump is a manual water lifting device operated by feet. Although the technology has been widely accepted by small-scale farmers, there are documented reports that some farmers abandon the technology, preferring other technologies such as river diversion. One theory for the abandonment is that female farmers claim that the technology makes their male counterparts sexually inactive. This research seeks to find an explanation to the misconception. The study analyzed the physical characteristics of the treadle pump and its users. The results show that the technology is male-dominated (30% were females out of a sample of 40). The results also show that the technology is labor-intensive with very small discharge rates (an average of 0.78 l/s) achieved regardless of the BMI of the operator. With such small discharge rates, in order to fulfill irrigation requirements of a crop, the operator has to pump for long hours. This exercise makes men naturally tired, perhaps making them sexually inactive as well.

  11. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    recreational physical activity were classified as inactive, according to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. The association between physical inactivity exposure and EOC risk overall was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analysis was performed based upon EOC histotype......It is estimated that 5% of women in the United States and 10% to 50% of women worldwide are physically inactive. Previous studies have demonstrated that recreational physical activity is associated with decreased risks of developing breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. The association between...... physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is less clear. Despite extensive research, including several epidemiological studies and 2 systematic reviews, insufficient and inconsistent evidence is available to support an independent association between recreational physical activity and risk...

  12. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  13. Dual sensory loss and social participation in older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljanen, Anna; Törmäkangas, Timo; Vestergaard, Sonja;

    2013-01-01

    on the 2004 data collection of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe comprising 27,536 men and women aged 50 years and older. Hearing and vision difficulties, as well as participation in seven different social activities were assessed using a structured computerassisted personal interview...... socially inactive compared to half of those who reported no sensory difficulties. The participants who reported dual sensory loss had 2.18 (95 % CI 1.83–2.59) times higher odds for social inactivity compared to persons without hearing or vision difficulties. In a model adjusted for age, gender, mobility......The purpose of the study was to describe the prevalence of hearing difficulties, vision difficulties and dual sensory difficulties in 11 European countries, and to study whether sensory difficulties are associated with social inactivity in older Europeans. This cross-sectional study is based...

  14. Prevalence of Sexual Concerns and Sexual Dysfunction among Sexually Active and Inactive Men and Women with Screen‐Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Bjerggaard, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Sexual inactivity is highly prevalent among middle‐aged and older men and women with early type 2 diabetes and these patients often have sexual concerns. The high exclusion rates when assessing SD using the FSFI‐R and IIEF‐5 instruments makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the prevalence. Sexual health should be broadly assessed in both sexually active and sexually inactive people with type 2 diabetes. Bjerggaard M, Charles M, Kristensen E, Lauritzen T, Sandbæk A, and Giraldi A. Prevalence of sexual concerns and sexual dysfunction among sexually active and inactive men and women with screen‐detected type 2 diabetes. Sex Med 2015;3:302–310.

  15. Evaluation of a Peer-Led, Low-Intensity Physical Activity Program for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Brown, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to decreasing functional physical fitness and increasing chronic disease in older adults. Purpose: This study assessed the health-related benefits of ExerStart for Lay Leaders, a 20-week, community based, peer-led, low-impact exercise program for older adults. ExerStart focuses on aerobic…

  16. Understanding Older Adults' Physical Activity Behavior: A Multi-Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodesky, Janene M.; Kosma, Maria; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2006-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a health issue with serious consequences for older adults. Investigating physical activity promotion within a multi-theoretical approach may increase the predictive strength of physical activity determinants and facilitate the development and implementation of effective interventions for older adults. This article examines…

  17. Watch and Wait Management of Inactive Cystic Echinococcosis - Does the Path to Inactivity Matter - Analysis of a Prospective Patient Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Marija; Rosenberger, Kerstin Daniela; Steudle, Franziska; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are rarely discussed in the context of NTDs despite their relevance for patients under the care of health services with limited resources where the risks of therapy induced complications are often disproportionate to the benefit. The advantages of cyst staging-based management of patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE) are not yet fully explored. Questions are: Do inactive cysts (CE 4 and CE 5) need treatment and is there a difference between cysts which reach CE4 and CE5 naturally or by benzimidazole therapy? Analysis of long-term follow-up data from a prospective CE patient cohort of 223 patients of a national clinical center for echinococcosis. The event of interest "relapse" was defined as the reversal of a cyst from an inactive stage (CE4, CE5) back to an active stage. The watch &wait (ww) group included 30 patients with 46 inactive cysts who never received medical treatment. The benzimidazole-treated (med) group included 15 patients with 17 cysts. There was no relapse in the ww-group whereas 8/17 cysts showed relapse within 18 months after treatment in the med-group. Loss to follow-up was 15.5%. Data from the watch & wait group impressively show how stable naturally inactivated cysts are in contrast to cysts which reach inactivity through treatment with benzimidazoles. A substantial proportion of patients can be spared from treatment through cyst staging. Cysts which inactivated through a natural course do not relapse with very high likelihood. We recommend follow up of 5 years to confirm the stability of the inactive stage. Cysts driven into inactivity through benzimidazole therapy instead need careful monitoring to identify those which reactivate (around 50% within 18 months). 5 years follow-up appears safe to make a final decision on the need for further monitoring.

  18. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated...

  19. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size...

  20. Do dopaminergic impairments underlie physical inactivity in people with obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexxai V Kravitz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the negative health consequences of obesity. Despite a wide consensus that people with obesity should exercise more, there are few effective methods for increasing physical activity in people with obesity. This lack is reflected in our limited understanding of the cellular and molecular causes of physical inactivity in obesity. We hypothesize that impairments in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in people with obesity, as in classic movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Here, we review two lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis: 1 chronic exposure to obesogenic diets has been linked to impairments in dopamine synthesis, release, and receptor function, particularly in the striatum, and 2 striatal dopamine is necessary for the proper control of movement. Identifying the biological determinants of physical inactivity may lead to more effective strategies for increasing physical activity in people with obesity, as well as improve out understanding of why it is difficult for people with obesity to alter their levels of physical activity.

  1. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  2. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque da Silva Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. Methods: cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. Results: half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. Conclusions: due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (she stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample, diabetic (44% and dyslipidemic patients (31%.

  3. Inaction inertia, regret, and valuation : A closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Putten, Marijke; van Dijk, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Inaction inertia is the phenomenon that one is not likely to act on an attractive opportunity after having bypassed an even more attractive opportunity. So far, all published work has assumed a causal role for the emotion regret in this effect. In a series of 5 experiments we found no support for th

  4. Revised cutoff values of ALT and HBV DNA level can better differentiate HBeAg (- chronic inactive HBV patients from active carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Sana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims ELISA is still used as primary test for diagnosis HBV disease. However, ELISA-positive patients were marked as HBV inactive after confirmation with PCR and vice versa. Our aim was to assess the performance of new cut-off value of ALT, HBV DNA load and significance of AST as screening tool for HBeAg (- chronic active or inactive patients in Pakistani population. Materials and methods In a cross-sectional, cohort study, 567 HBeAg (- patients followed for one year were selected. Patients with persistent elevated ALT than normal and HBV DNA ≥ 100,000 copies/mL were taken as active chronic. Diagnostic values for ALT, AST and HBV DNA load in HBV HBeAg (- chronic active and inactive patients compared using receiver operation characteristic (ROC curves. Results Of 567 HBeAg (- patients, 228 were classified as chronic inactive and 339 as active. HBV infection was dominant in male. Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA levels showed significant and high AUROC to differentiate chronic HBeAg (- inactive patients from active. AUROC for Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA were observed 0.997, 0.969 and 1.000, respectively. For revised cut off value for ALT (30 IU/L for male and 19 IU/L for female and HBV DNA load ≥100,000 copies/mL, a PPV of 97%, NPV of 94%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 92% was observed to discriminate active carriers from inactive carriers. We also observed 93.5% specificity, 83.1% sensitivity, 82% PPV and 89.5% NPV for AST ≤20 IU/L to differentiate inactive carriers from active ones in our study group. Conclusions Revised cut off value of ALT and NIH derived HBV DNA value can better discriminate between HBeAg (- chronic active and inactive patients.

  5. Interpretations of Child Behavior by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Constance R.; Docherty, Edward M., Jr.

    This study examined sex-role typing in older adults' interpretations of young children's behavior. Participants were 48 older adults averaging 64.7 years of age. Videotapes were made of the play behavior of each of two toddlers, a female and a male matched in body type, hair length, dress (plain tee shirt and shorts), and in the activities in…

  6. Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Fischetti, F; Maccagnano, G; Comes, R; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown the effectiveness of a few weekly pilates sessions as helping to reduce lower back pain (LBP). However many patients fear that physical activity can actually make the pain and disability worse. We carried out this observational prospective clinical study to look at the effects that taking part in daily pilates has one on side and on the other the effects of LBP management without physical exercise. The volunteers who participated in this study were recruited from among some local cultural associations. Patients affected by LBP were evaluated. The subjects were 60 volunteers (27 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 51.2 years who had chronic low back pain (CLBP). They were allocated to pilates group (N.=30) or inactivity control group (N.=30). The pilates group performed one-hour lesson of pilates exercise, 5 lessons per week during the following 6 months. The inactivity group continued with their normal daily activities. The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T1) and at 6 months (T2). At T2 improvements were observed in the pilates group with increases in physical and social functioning, general health and vitality (Ppilates. Some authors underlined the possible risk of a lack of adherence to an exercise program at home. This study suggests that a daily pilates program is effective for the management of CLBP. On the other hand, the inactivity contributes to further worsening, inducing a vicious cycle in which pain and physical activity intolerance follow each other.

  7. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  8. Histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 9 marks the inactive metaphase X chromosome in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Irina S; Shevchenko, Alexander I; Shilov, Alexander G; Nesterova, Tatyana B; Vandeberg, John L; Zakian, Suren M

    2011-04-01

    In somatic cells of female marsupial and eutherian mammals, X chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs. XCI results in the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes and is accompanied by specific covalent histone modifications attributable to the inactive chromatin state. Because data about repressed chromatin of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in marsupials are sparse, we examined in more detail the distribution of active and inactive chromatin markers on metaphase X chromosomes of an American marsupial, Monodelphis domestica. Consistent with data reported previously both for eutherian and marsupial mammals, we found that the Xi of M. domestica lacks active histone markers-H3K4 dimethylation and H3K9 acetylation. We did not observe on metaphase spreads enrichment of the Xi with H3K27 trimethylation which is involved in XCI in eutherians and was detected on the Xi in the interphase nuclei of mature female M. domestica in an earlier study. Moreover, we found that the Xi of M. domestica was specifically marked with H3K9 trimethylation, which is known to be a component of the Xi chromatin in eutherians and is involved in both marsupials and eutherians in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation which has been proposed as an ancestral mechanism of XCI.

  9. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the Eur

  10. Modelo hierárquico multivariado da inatividade física em crianças de escolas públicas Multivariate hierarchical model for physical inactivity among public school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario M. Bracco

    2006-08-01

    built, including distal and proximal categorical variables, with a p < 0.05. RESULTS: Physical inactivity was positively associated with biological factors such as being overweight, being older than 7.5 years, being a female, and having a good appetite, and with socioeconomic factors such as having garbage collected less than twice a week and having mothers who work outside the home. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with published data about determinant factors of physical activity and inactivity among children, showing that questionnaires answered by parents and submitted to a sophisticated statistical analysis can be used in population-based studies involving children younger than 10 years old.

  11. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction in inactive systemic lupus erythematosus: An unusual finding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulia; Leonardi; Nicola; de; Bortoli; Massimo; Bellini; Maria; Gloria; Mumolo; Francesco; Costa; Angelo; Ricchiuti; Stefano; Bombardieri; Santino; Marchi

    2010-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is an infre-quent complication of an active systemic lupus erythema-tosus (SLE). We illustrate a case of SLE inactive-related CIP. A 51-year old female with inactive SLE (ECLAM score 2) was hospitalized with postprandial fullness, vomiting, abdominal bloating and abdominal pain. She had had no bowel movements for five days. Plain abdominal X-ray revealed multiple fluid levels and dilated small and large bowel loops with air-fluid levels. Intestinal contrast radiology detected dilated loops. CIP was diagnosed. The patient was treated with prokinetics, octreotide, claritromycin, rifaximin, azathioprine and tegaserod without any clinical improvement. Then methylprednisolone (500 mg iv daily) was started. After the first administration, the patient showed peristaltic movements. A bowel movement was reported after the second administration. A plain abdominal X-ray revealed no air-fluid levels. Steroid therapy was slowly reduced with complete resolution of the symptoms. The patient is still in a good clinical condition. SLE-related CIP is generally reported as a complication of an active disease. In our case, CIP was the only clinical demonstration of the SLE.

  12. A Transcriptionally Inactive ATF2 Variant Drives Melanomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Claps

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is one of the most lethal cutaneous malignancies, characterized by chemoresistance and a striking propensity to metastasize. The transcription factor ATF2 elicits oncogenic activities in melanoma, and its inhibition attenuates melanoma development. Here, we show that expression of a transcriptionally inactive form of Atf2 (Atf2Δ8,9 promotes development of melanoma in mouse models. Atf2Δ8,9-driven tumors show enhanced pigmentation, immune infiltration, and metastatic propensity. Similar to mouse Atf2Δ8,9, we have identified a transcriptionally inactive human ATF2 splice variant 5 (ATF2SV5 that enhances the growth and migration capacity of cultured melanoma cells and immortalized melanocytes. ATF2SV5 expression is elevated in human melanoma specimens and is associated with poor prognosis. These findings point to an oncogenic function for ATF2 in melanoma development that appears to be independent of its transcriptional activity.

  13. 青岛市大龄女性性工作者社会支持网络特征分析%Characteristics of social supportive network serving the older female sex workers in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许意清; 李宜霏; 姜珍霞; 张西江; 袁雪; 张宁; 李秀芳; 姜宝法

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解青岛市大龄女性性工作者(OFSW)的社会支持网络特征,分析其所获支持力度的影响因素.方法 应用Ucinet6软件分析2014年3-6月通过同伴推动抽样(RDS)方法获得的青岛市400名OFSW的个体中心社会支持网络特征,通过结构方程模型(SEM)对数据进行拟合和评估.结果 400名OFSW共提名1 617名社会支持网络成员,OFSW个体中心社会支持网络规模较小,平均为4.0±1.5,其中女性同行朋友613人,在各类社会关系中所占比重最大(37.91%),在异地户籍OFSW支持网中规模较小,非亲缘关系成员比重大的特征更加明显;OFSW所获情感支持力度(4.42±2.38)小于财力支持力度(5.73±1.69) (P<0.05);SEM拟合结果表明同质性、连带强度和网络结构均为社会支持力度的影响因素,标准化的总效应分别为0.110、0.925和-0.069,其中同质性还可通过间接作用来影响.结论 青岛市OFSW倾向于向女性同行朋友寻求社会支持,支持成员与核心个体间连带强度越强、一般人口学特征越相似,网络结构越紧凑,核心成员所获平均支持力度越大.%Objective To overview the status of social support on older female sex workers (OFSWs) in Qingdao and to better understand the characteristics of this egocentric social support networks.Methods Ucinet 6 software was used to analyze the characteristics of egocentric social networks which involving 400 OFSWs who were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in Qingdao during March 2014 to June.Structural equation model (SEM) was used for data analysis,fitted test and estimation.Results A total of 400 OFSWs of Qingdao nominated 1 617 social supportive members,and the average size of egocentric social networks of OFSWs was (4.0 ± 1.5).Among all the alter egos (social support network members of the egos),613 were female sex workers fellows,accounted for the most important part of all the social ties (37.91%).Characteristics of small

  14. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  15. Measuring Years of Inactivity, Years in Retirement, Time to Retirement, and Age at Retirement Within the Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKOOG, GARY R.; CIECKA, JAMES E.

    2010-01-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed—all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person’s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38 for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement. PMID:20879680

  16. FEMALE_GENITAL. NEW.CDR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection and injury to adjacent organs. Long term damage ... the practice of infant circumcision is highly prevalent among the ... proportion of the females were older than 60 years (12.4% .... if the head touches the clitoris during delivery . Every.

  17. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  18. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  19. Live cell imaging of the nascent inactive X chromosome during the early differentiation process of naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Guyochin

    Full Text Available Random X-chromosome inactivation ensures dosage compensation in mammals through the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes present in each female cell. Silencing is initiated in the differentiating epiblast of the mouse female embryos through coating of the nascent inactive X chromosome by the non-coding RNA Xist, which subsequently recruits the Polycomb Complex PRC2 leading to histone H3-K27 methylation. Here we examined in mouse ES cells the early steps of the transition from naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells as a model for inducing X chromosome inactivation in vitro. We show that these conditions efficiently induce random XCI. Importantly, in a transient phase of this differentiation pathway, both X chromosomes are coated with Xist RNA in up to 15% of the XX cells. In an attempt to determine the dynamics of this process, we designed a strategy aimed at visualizing the nascent inactive X-chromosome in live cells. We generated transgenic female XX ES cells expressing the PRC2 component Ezh2 fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. The fluorescent fusion protein was expressed at sub-physiological levels and located in nuclei of ES cells. Upon differentiation of ES cell towards epiblast stem cell fate, Venus-fluorescent territories appearing in interphase nuclei were identified as nascent inactive X chromosomes by their association with Xist RNA. Imaging of Ezh2-Venus for up to 24 hours during the differentiation process showed survival of some cells with two fluorescent domains and a surprising dynamics of the fluorescent territories across cell division and in the course of the differentiation process. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing the nascent inactive X chromosome and suggests the possibility for a large plasticity of the nascent inactive X chromosome.

  20. Female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  1. Female epispadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Krishna Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. The symptoms of female epispadias are primary urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 7-year-old girl presented with partial incontinence of urine. On physical examination, bifid clitoris and labia minora were seen. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, single stage reconstruction of the urethra, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  2. Alterations in protein metabolism during space flight and inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Arny A.; Paddon-Jones, Doug; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight and the accompanying diminished muscular activity lead to a loss of body nitrogen and muscle function. These losses may affect crew capabilities and health in long-duration missions. Space flight alters protein metabolism such that the body is unable to maintain protein synthetic rates. A concomitant hypocaloric intake and altered anabolic/catabolic hormonal profiles may contribute to or exacerbate this problem. The inactivity associated with bedrest also reduces muscle and whole-body protein synthesis. For this reason, bedrest provides a good model for the investigation of potential exercise and nutritional countermeasures to restore muscle protein synthesis. We have demonstrated that minimal resistance exercise preserves muscle protein synthesis throughout bedrest. In addition, ongoing work indicates that an essential amino acid and carbohydrate supplement may ameliorate the loss of lean body mass and muscle strength associated with 28 d of bedrest. The investigation of inactivity-induced alterations in protein metabolism, during space flight or prolonged bedrest, is applicable to clinical populations and, in a more general sense, to the problems associated with the decreased activity that occur with aging.

  3. Kepler Flares I. Active and Inactive M dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hawley, Suzanne L; Kowalski, Adam F; Wisniewski, John P; Hebb, Leslie; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the ARC 3.5m telescope identify magnetically active (H$\\alpha$ in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early-M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of H$\\alpha$. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy dist...

  4. Inactivity amplifies the catabolic response of skeletal muscle to cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Stuart, C. A.; Sheffield-Moore, M.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    Severe injury or trauma is accompanied by both hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity or bed rest (BR). Trauma and BR alone each result in a loss of muscle nitrogen, albeit through different metabolic alterations. Although BR alone can result in a 2-3% loss of lean body mass, the effects of severe trauma can be 2- to 3-fold greater. We investigated the combined effects of hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers. Six males were studied before and after 14 days of strict BR using a model based on arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. Fractional synthesis and breakdown rates of skeletal muscle protein were also directly calculated. Each assessment of protein metabolism was conducted during a 12-h infusion of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (120 microg/kg x h), resulting in blood cortisol concentrations that mimic severe injury (approximately 31 microg/dL). After 14 days of strict BR, hypercortisolemia increased phenylalanine efflux from muscle by 3-fold (P catabolic effects of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, these effects on healthy volunteers are analogous to those seen after severe injury.

  5. Outcome of pregnancy in patients with inactive systemic lupus erythromatosus and minimal proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshohaib Saad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease. This study was under-taken to assess the outcome of pregnancies in patients with inactive SLE. We prospectively studied 20 female patients with diagnosis of stable class IV Lupus nephritis followed up at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2008. Before each pregnancy all the patients had their blood pressure, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serology for SLE and 24-hour urine protein excretion measured and then repeated at monthly intervals during the pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Despite having negative antinuclear antibody (ANA significant complications were observed during pregnancy. The daily proteinuria during 34-36 weeks′ gestation was significantly higher (P< 0.05 than during 32 weeks. Two patients had abortions one stillbirth and 2 required termination of the pregnancy; one due to severe hypertension, and other due to renal impairment. One patient developed HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome. 14 patients had a successful preg-nancy, including 4 requiring a cesarian section. In conclusion, although no clinical evidence of lupus disease activity was demonstrated pre-conception proteinuria significantly increased during pregnancy along with maternal and fetal complications. Pregnant females with diagnosis of SLE need a multidisciplinary care during the pregnancy and post-partum period.

  6. How Active Are Older Americans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger, PhD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969 according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active.ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in

  7. Madumycin II inhibits peptide bond formation by forcing the peptidyl transferase center into an inactive state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterman, Ilya A.; Khabibullina, Nelli F.; Komarova, Ekaterina S.; Kasatsky, Pavel; Kartsev, Victor G.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Konevega, Andrey L.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Polikanov, Yury S. (InterBioScreen); (UIC); (MSU-Russia); (Kurchatov)

    2017-05-13

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is limiting the effectiveness of commonly used antibiotics, which spurs a renewed interest in revisiting older and poorly studied drugs. Streptogramins A is a class of protein synthesis inhibitors that target the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) on the large subunit of the ribosome. In this work, we have revealed the mode of action of the PTC inhibitor madumycin II, an alanine-containing streptogramin A antibiotic, in the context of a functional 70S ribosome containing tRNA substrates. Madumycin II inhibits the ribosome prior to the first cycle of peptide bond formation. It allows binding of the tRNAs to the ribosomal A and P sites, but prevents correct positioning of their CCA-ends into the PTC thus making peptide bond formation impossible. We also revealed a previously unseen drug-induced rearrangement of nucleotides U2506 and U2585 of the 23S rRNA resulting in the formation of the U2506•G2583 wobble pair that was attributed to a catalytically inactive state of the PTC. The structural and biochemical data reported here expand our knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms by which peptidyl transferase inhibitors modulate the catalytic activity of the ribosome.

  8. A region of euchromatin coincides with an extensive tandem repeat on the mouse (Mus musculus) inactive X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Emily M; Seberg, Andrew P; Das, Sunny; Figueroa, Debbie M; Sun, Zhuo; Moseley, Shawn C; Chadwick, Brian P

    2014-09-01

    Euchromatic features are largely absent from the human inactive X chromosome (Xi), with the exception of several large tandem repeats that can be detected as euchromatin bands at metaphase. Despite residing megabases apart, these tandem repeats make frequent inactive X-specific interactions. The mouse homologue has been reported for at least one of the tandem repeats, but whether the mouse Xi is also characterized by distinct bands of euchromatin remains unknown. We examined the mouse Xi for the presence of euchromatin bands by examining the pattern of histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and detected two major signals. The first band resides in the subtelomeric region of band XF5 and may correspond to the pseudoautosomal region. The second band localizes to XE3 and coincides with an extensive complex repeat composed of a large tandem and inverted repeat segment as well as several large short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-rich tandem repeats. Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals that sequences with homology to the repeat region are scattered along the length of the Y chromosome. Immunofluorescence analysis of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9 on metaphase chromosomes indicates that the repeat region corresponds to a band of constitutive heterochromatin on the male X and female active X chromosomes, whereas the euchromatin signal appears to be female specific. These data suggest that the band of euchromatin observed at XE3 is unique to the mouse Xi, comparable to the chromatin arrangement of several large tandem repeats located on the human X chromosome.

  9. Haematological, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in inactive Behçet's disease. Its association with red blood cell distribution width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Rivera, Leonor; Todolí, José; Hernandez, Jose Luis; Laiz, Begoña; Ricart, José M

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been shown to be associated with disease activity in several inflammatory disorders. However only one study to show this has been conducted in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). The aim of the present study was to analyse the association of RDW with BD and its main complications; i.e.; thrombosis and posterior uveitis. A second aim was to analyse the possible correlation between RDW and both haematological and inflammatory parameters. Eighty-nine patients with BD (48 males/41 females) and 94 controls (49 males/45 females) were included in the study. Patients were in an inactive phase of the disease, showing only minimum activity. RDW was statistically higher in patients than in controls (14.02 ± 1.32 vs. 13.15 ± 0.75; p 0.05). RDW correlated negatively with haemoglobin, MCH and MCHC (p 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that haemoglobin and homocysteine were independent predictors of RDW (beta coefficient: -0.310; p = 0.003, beta coefficient: 0.379; p 14 was associated with neither thrombosis nor uveitis (p = 0.935; p = 0.553, respectively). Our results indicate that BD patients show increased RDW when compared with controls. This increase seems to be related with haematimetric indices and with homocysteine levels. Lack of correlation with inflammatory markers may be due to the fact that patients were in an inactive phase of the disease.

  10. Older men and older women remand prisoners: mental illness, physical illness, offending patterns and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Mary; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Caddow, Fintan; Caddow, Martin; O'Neill, Conor; O'Neill, Helen; Kennedy, Harry G

    2015-05-01

    Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in most countries. They have high rates of physical and psychiatric co-morbidity, compared to community dwelling older persons and also compared with other prisoner groups. Very high rates of mental illness have been found in remand (pre-trial) prisoners when compared with other prisoner groups; however to date there have been no studies examining older male and female remand prisoners. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all remands, to a male and a female prison, over a six and half-year period. Demographic data were collected pertaining to psychiatric and medical diagnoses and seriousness of offending. We found rising numbers of older prisoners amongst male remand prisoners. Older remand prisoners had very high rates of affective disorder and alcohol misuse. They had rates of psychotic illnesses and deliberate self-harm comparable to younger remand prisoners. High rates of vulnerability were found among older prisoners and older prisoners had a greater need for general medical and psychiatric services than younger prisoners. We also found comparable offending patterns with younger prisoners and high rates of sexual offending among the older male prisoner group. Given the ageing population of many countries it is likely the numbers of older prisoners will continue to grow and given their high levels of both physical and psychiatric illness this will have implications for future service delivery.

  11. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Modeling the Relationship Between Social Network Activity, Inactivity, and Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) are multi-billion dollar enterprises. Surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms that drive them to growth, stability, or death. This study sheds light on these mechanisms. We are particularly interested in OSNs where current subscribers can invite new users to join the network (e.g., Facebook, LinkedIn). Measuring the relationship between subscriber activity and network growth of a large OSN over five years, we formulate three hypotheses that together describe the observed OSN subscriber behavior. We then provide a model (and extensions) that simultaneously satisfies all three hypotheses. Our model provides deep insights into the dynamics of subscriber activity, inactivity, and network growth rates, even predicting four types of OSNs with respect to subscriber activity evolution. Finally, we present activity data of nearly thirty OSN websites, measured over five years, and show that the observed activity is well described by one of the four activity time series predicted...

  13. TALE proteins bind to both active and inactive chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James N F; Kupinski, Adam P; Kirkham, Christopher M; Tuma, Roman; Boyes, Joan

    2014-02-15

    TALE (transcription activator-like effector) proteins can be tailored to bind to any DNA sequence of choice and thus are of immense utility for genome editing and the specific delivery of transcription activators. However, to perform these functions, they need to occupy their sites in chromatin. In the present study, we have systematically assessed TALE binding to chromatin substrates and find that in vitro TALEs bind to their target site on nucleosomes at the more accessible entry/exit sites, but not at the nucleosome dyad. We show further that in vivo TALEs bind to transcriptionally repressed chromatin and that transcription increases binding by only 2-fold. These data therefore imply that TALEs are likely to bind to their target in vivo even at inactive loci.

  14. Differential membrane fluidization by active and inactive cannabinoid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromoustakos, T; Papahatjis, D; Laggner, P

    2001-06-06

    The effects of the two cannabinomimetic drugs (-)-2-(6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-1-hydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyranyl-2-(hexyl)-1,3-dithiolane (AMG-3) and its pharmacologically less active 1-methoxy analogue (AMG-18) on the thermotropic and structural properties of dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (DPPC) liposomes have been studied by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC data revealed that the incorporation of the drugs affect differently the thermotropic properties of DPPC. The presence of the more active drug distinctly broadened and attenuated both the pretransition and main phase transition of DPPC bilayers, while the inactive analogue had only minor effects. Small and wide angle X-ray diffraction data showed that the two cannabinoids have different effects on the lipid phase structures and on the hydrocarbon chain packing. The pharmacologically active analogue, AMG-3, was found to efficiently fluidize domains of the lipids in the L(beta)' gel phase, and to perturb the regular multibilayer lattice. In the liquid crystalline L(alpha) phase, AMG-3 was also found to cause irregularities in packing, suggesting that the drug induces local curvature. At the same concentration, the inactive AMG-18 had only minor structural effects on the lipids. At about 10-fold or higher concentrations, AMG-18 was found to produce similar but still less pronounced effects in comparison to those observed by AMG-3. The dose-dependent, different thermotropic and structural effects by the two cannabinoid analogues suggest that these may be related to their biological activity.

  15. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hebb, Leslie, E-mail: slhawley@uw.edu [Department of Physics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E{sub K{sub p}}> 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate.

  16. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  17. Older adults' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Marie; Baltzell, Amy; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2008-01-01

    To examine how motives discriminate 3 physical activity levels of inactive, active, and sustained maintainers. Six hundred forty-five adults (M age = 63.8) completed stage-of-change and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) scales. Exploratory factor analysis established psychometric properties of the EMI-2 suitable for older adults. Six factors emerged in the EMI-2: health and fitness, social/emotional benefits, weight management, stress management, enjoyment, and appearance. Enjoyment contributed most to differentiating activity levels. Moderators of age and gender were delineated. Intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation distinguish older adults' activity levels.

  18. Structured Exercise Program is Feasible and Improves Functional Capacity among Older Adults in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo J Hernandez Soto; Ramirez Marrero, Farah A

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor affecting overall health and functional capacity among older adults. In this study we evaluated functional capacity in 22 older adults in Puerto Rico (mean age ± standard deviation = 73.3 ± 8.2 years) before, during and after eight weeks participation in a structured exercise program. Functional capacity was evaluated using a field test battery (body composition, flexibility, coordination, agility and balance, muscle endurance and cardiorespiratory e...

  19. The Health Status and Unique Health Challenges or Rural Older Adults in California

    OpenAIRE

    Durazo, Eva; Jones, Melissa; Wallace,Steven; Van Arsdale, Jessica; Aydin, May; Stewart, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Despite living in the countryside where open space is plentiful and there is often significant agricultural production, rural older adults have higher rates of overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and food insecurity than older adults living in suburban areas. All three conditions are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and repeated falls. This policy brief examines the health of rural elders and, by contrast, their urban counterparts, and finds that both groups lmost one in five Cali...

  20. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe;

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population...... is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....

  1. Self-reported physical fitness in frail older persons: reliability and validity of the Self-Assessment of Physical Fitness (SAPF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening-Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; Greef, E. de; Krijnen, W.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2012-01-01

    In very old and/or frail older people living in long-term care facilities, physical inactivity negatively affects activities of daily living. The main reason to assess older adults' perceived fitness is to establish the relation with their beliefs about their ability to perform physical activity adj

  2. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  3. Self-reported physical fitness in frail older persons : Reliability and validity of the self-assessment of physical fitness (Sapf)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening - Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2012-01-01

    In very old and/ or frail older people living in long-term care facilities, physical inactivity negatively affects activities of daily living. The main reason to assess older adults' perceived fitness is to establish the relation with their beliefs about their ability to perform physical activity

  4. Employers’ Attitudes Toward Older Workers and Obstacles and Opportunities for the Older Unemployed to Reenter Working Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kadefors

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at identifying the attitude-related barriers that older unemployed, jobseeking workers (50+ face when they endeavor to reenter the labor market and to investigate employers’ attitudes and perceptions of older workers. Two studies were conducted. In study 1, interviews were undertaken with 26 unemployed persons and 24 representatives of other stakeholders, including social partners and officials representing the Social Insurance Agency (FK and the Public Employment Service (AF. In study 2, the attitudes among private sector employers were studied by carrying out a questionnaire survey (N = 147. The interview results showed that many unemployed job seekers had experienced negative age-related attitudes among employers. This observation was supported by other stakeholders. Perceived attitudes to older workers and lack of updated competence were considered crucial. The questionnaire study showed a mixed picture concerning employer attitudes. There was a statistical difference between older (>50 years and younger employers; older employers believed that older women wanted competence development to a greater extent. There was also a significant difference between female and male employers’ opinions; female employers, in particular the older ones, assessed that older women wished competence development to a greater extent. These differences were not found with respect to views on older men. About half (52% of the employers had the opinion that there was no difference between older and younger employees with respect to the ability to cope with changes or learning new things. However, younger female employers (but not older female employers considered that older employees had greater difficulties with changes or learning new things. It is concluded that negative attitudes to older workers with respect to competence development tend to be most common among younger employers.

  5. Relationship between serum ferritin levels and sarcopenia in Korean females aged 60 years and older using the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Kim

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been suggested that elevated serum ferritin is associated with several metabolic disorders. However, there is no reported study assessing any association between serum ferritin and sarcopenia despite the close relationship between sarcopenia and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether serum ferritin was associated with sarcopenia in older Koreans. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data acquired in the second and third years (2008-9 of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 952 men (mean age 69.0 years and 1,380 women (mean age 69.3 years aged 60 years and older completed a body composition study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. MEASUREMENTS: Serum ferritin levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal mass as a percentage of body weight that was less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. RESULTS: Serum ferritin levels were lower in women than in men. Women with sarcopenia showed a higher level of serum ferritin than women without sarcopenia (men: without sarcopenia 115.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 134.4 ng/mL vs. women: without sarcopenia 70.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 85.4 ng/mL. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased as the tertile of serum ferritin increased. However, statistical significance was only seen in elderly women (1(st tertile 6.3%, 2(nd tertile 8.0%, 3(rd tertile 12.0%; p = 0.008. Without adjustment, compared with those in the lowest tertile of serum ferritin level, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio of 2.02 (95% confidence interval = 1.26-3.23 for sarcopenia in women. After adjusting for known risk factors, the OR for sarcopenia was 1.74 (95% CI = 1.02-2.97 in women. There was no statistically significant association between sarcopenia and serum ferritin tertiles in men. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum ferritin levels were

  6. Relationship between serum ferritin levels and sarcopenia in Korean females aged 60 years and older using the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sang-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that elevated serum ferritin is associated with several metabolic disorders. However, there is no reported study assessing any association between serum ferritin and sarcopenia despite the close relationship between sarcopenia and metabolic disorders. We investigated whether serum ferritin was associated with sarcopenia in older Koreans. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data acquired in the second and third years (2008-9) of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In total, 952 men (mean age 69.0 years) and 1,380 women (mean age 69.3 years) aged 60 years and older completed a body composition study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum ferritin levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal mass as a percentage of body weight that was less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Serum ferritin levels were lower in women than in men. Women with sarcopenia showed a higher level of serum ferritin than women without sarcopenia (men: without sarcopenia 115.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 134.4 ng/mL vs. women: without sarcopenia 70.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 85.4 ng/mL). The prevalence of sarcopenia increased as the tertile of serum ferritin increased. However, statistical significance was only seen in elderly women (1(st) tertile 6.3%, 2(nd) tertile 8.0%, 3(rd) tertile 12.0%; p = 0.008). Without adjustment, compared with those in the lowest tertile of serum ferritin level, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio of 2.02 (95% confidence interval = 1.26-3.23) for sarcopenia in women. After adjusting for known risk factors, the OR for sarcopenia was 1.74 (95% CI = 1.02-2.97) in women. There was no statistically significant association between sarcopenia and serum ferritin tertiles in men. Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in women but not in men from a representative sample

  7. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  8. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Physical activity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: prevalence of inactivity and perceived barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Joanna; Ingles, Jodie; Timperio, Anna; Patterson, Jillian; Ball, Kylie; Semsarian, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to physical activity among individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and to determine potential demographic, clinical and health-related factors influencing likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients (n=198) with HCM attending a specialist HCM centre from July 2014 to November 2015. The primary outcome measure was physical activity (minutes per day), as measured by self-report (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)) and objective means (ActiGraph accelerometer). For both, participants were classified as meeting guidelines if they did at least 150 min per week of physical activity. Quality of life (Short Form-36 V.2, SF-36v2), barriers to exercise and clinical–demographic data were also collected. Results In total, 54.8% of participants did not meet physical activity recommendations based on IPAQ, and 12.7% did not meet guidelines based on accelerometer data. The most commonly identified barriers to exercise were ‘pain interferes with my exercise’ (33%) and ‘I have an injury/disability that stops me’ (29%). Independent factors associated with meeting guidelines included older age (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.85, p=0.002), higher education level (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.93, p=0.03), better physical quality of life (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.09, p=0.05) and more reported barriers (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.91, p=0.01). Conclusions More than half of the patients with HCM did not meet minimum physical activity recommendations. Several barriers to exercise among individuals with HCM exist, and provide the basis for targeted interventions to promote physical activity and improve overall health in patients with HCM. PMID:27547438

  10. Murine Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Is Converted into the Inactive Fold by the Ser195Cys Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scavenius, Carsten; Petersen, Jane Savskov; Thomsen, Line Rold

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that human extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) exists as two variants with differences in their disulfide bridge patterns: one form is the active enzyme (aEC-SOD), and the other is inactive (iEC-SOD). The availability of both active and inactive folding variants...

  11. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section 40.2a... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission..., if the site is covered by the remedial action program of title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings...

  12. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  13. Gender Differences in Performance of Script Analysis by Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, E.; Bush, J. D.; Pike, D. L.; Drake, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical…

  14. Are Young People Biased against Older Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1980-01-01

    Elementary school students and university students indicated they preferred younger male and female (under 35) to older teachers. Personality and competence were given as reasons for their preferences by sixth graders and university students. Younger children gave no explanation nor did they indicate teacher appearance or resemblance to well-known…

  15. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  16. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  17. Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, James E; Wright, Kenneth P; Melanson, Edward L; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C

    2016-09-01

    We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). This study aimed to quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared with sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-min conditions of sitting, passive cycling, and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured, and participants performed cognitive tests. After each condition, a 2-h OGTT was performed. EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared with sitting (1.36 ± 0.58 and 6.50 ± 1.73 kcal·min greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and postsitting OGTT 2-h postplasma glucose (r = 0.30, P < 0.05); thus, participants were divided into lean (n = 11) and nonlean (n = 13) groups. In the nonlean group, compared with sitting, passive cycling lowered 2-h postplasma glucose (7.7 ± 1.3 vs 6.9 ± 1.6 mmol·L, respectively, P < 0.05), and the Matsuda whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) was higher (2.74 ± 0.86 vs 3.36 ± 1.08, P < 0.05). In addition, passive and moderate-intensity cycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h postplasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Two-hour postplasma glucose was lower and WBISI after acute passive cycling was higher in nonlean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace.

  18. Prevalence of Sexual Concerns and Sexual Dysfunction among Sexually Active and Inactive Men and Women with Screen-Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerggaard, Mette; Charles, Morten; Kristensen, Ellids

    2015-01-01

    2 diabetes attended a health examination, including assessment of sexual concerns using self-report questionnaires and of SD using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-R) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) instruments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures used......INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes negatively impacts sexual health. Only limited information is available regarding sexual health among sexually inactive patients with type 2 diabetes. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexual concerns among sexually active and sexually...... inactive men and women with type 2 diabetes and of sexual dysfunction (SD) among sexually active. METHODS: Data from the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care-Denmark study was used. A total of 1,170 Danish patients with screen-detected type...

  19. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  20. Psychological and socioeconomic health of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Lin, Mei-Hui; Wang, Yueh-Chin; Li, Chun-Huw; Huang, Hsin-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Different dimensions of health are intertwined. The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate the psychological and socioeconomic health status of community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan, and (2) to compare the psychological and socioeconomic health differences among people of different age groups, gender, marital status, and exercise habits. Using stratified random sampling, 384 Taiwanese community-dwelling older adults were recruited for this survey research. Based on the Health Model of Older Adults, seven constructs were measured: (1) psychological health: sleep quality, emotional health, cognitive functioning, and health promotion behaviors; (2) socioeconomic health: social engagement, social support, and financial status. Results showed that most participants were in a good state of psychological and socioeconomic health, except that 38.02% of them suffered from sleep disruptions, and the majority of them were not involved in any social group, nor engaged in any volunteer work. Young-old older adults had better psychological and socioeconomic health than middle-old and old-old older adults. Male older adults had better psychological health than female older adults; however, they had less social engagement and social support than female older adults. Married older adults and exercisers performed better in most of the psychological and socioeconomic health indicators than single/widowed older adults and non-exercisers.

  1. Oxytocin improves emotion recognition for older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice E; Glue, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Older adults (≥60 years) perform worse than young adults (18-30 years) when recognizing facial expressions of emotion. The hypothesized cause of these changes might be declines in neurotransmitters that could affect information processing within the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuropeptide oxytocin that functions to increase neurotransmission. Research suggests that oxytocin benefits the emotion recognition of less socially able individuals. Men tend to have lower levels of oxytocin and older men tend to have worse emotion recognition than older women; therefore, there is reason to think that older men will be particularly likely to benefit from oxytocin. We examined this idea using a double-blind design, testing 68 older and 68 young adults randomly allocated to receive oxytocin nasal spray (20 international units) or placebo. Forty-five minutes afterward they completed an emotion recognition task assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces. Older males receiving oxytocin showed improved emotion recognition relative to those taking placebo. No differences were found for older females or young adults. We hypothesize that oxytocin facilitates emotion recognition by improving neurotransmission in the group with the worst emotion recognition.

  2. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in adulthood: fulfilment of classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, long-term outcomes and predictors of inactive disease, functional status and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Ramos, Filipa; Eusébio, Mónica; M Martins, Fernando; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Furtado, Carolina; Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Cordeiro, Inês; Ferreira, Joana; Cerqueira, Marcos; Figueira, Ricardo; Brito, Iva; Santos, Maria José; Melo-Gomes, José A; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine how adult juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients fulfil classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, evaluate their outcomes and determine clinical predictors of inactive disease, functional status and damage. Methods Patients with JIA registered on the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt) older than 18 years and with more than 5 years of disease duration were included. Data regarding sociodemographic features, fulfilment of adult classification criteria, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index—articular (JADI-A) and Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index—extra-articular (JADI-E) damage index and disease activity were analysed. Results 426 patients were included. Most of patients with systemic JIA fulfilled criteria for Adult Still's disease. 95.6% of the patients with rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive polyarthritis and 57.1% of the patients with RF-negative polyarthritis matched criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 38.9% of the patients with extended oligoarthritis were classified as RA while 34.8% of the patients with persistent oligoarthritis were classified as spondyloarthritis. Patients with enthesitis-related arthritis fulfilled criteria for spondyloarthritis in 94.7%. Patients with psoriatic arthritis maintained this classification. Patients with inactive disease had lower disease duration, lower diagnosis delay and corticosteroids exposure. Longer disease duration was associated with higher HAQ, JADI-A and JADI-E. Higher JADI-A was also associated with biological treatment and retirement due to JIA disability and higher JADI-E with corticosteroids exposure. Younger age at disease onset was predictive of higher HAQ, JADI-A and JADI-E and decreased the chance of inactive disease. Conclusions Most of the included patients fulfilled classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, maintain active disease and have functional impairment. Younger age at disease onset was predictive

  3. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  4. Physical inactivity and obesity: relation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2009-12-01

    Physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and depression. Both physical inactivity and obesity are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation that may contribute to the inflammatory processes present in many chronic diseases. In asthma, almost no studies are available in which physical inactivity has been studied using performance-based instruments. In contrast, the association between obesity and a higher prevalence of asthma has often been suggested in a large number of studies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) physical inactivity has been demonstrated in a few studies that used performance-based instruments; this was associated with the higher COPD Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages and a higher degree of systemic inflammation, independent of body mass index. In contrast to physical inactivity, obesity in COPD is associated with the lower GOLD stages. Additionally, obesity is associated with the chronic obstructive phenotype and features of the metabolic syndrome. To elucidate the independent relation of physical inactivity and obesity with systemic inflammation, performance-based studies of physical inactivity in asthma and COPD are highly needed.

  5. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome–like Symptoms in Japanese Patients with Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Toshihiko; Kato, Yu; Takimoto, Mayu; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Yoko; Ikehara, Hisatomo; Ohda, Yoshio; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Shigemi; Shima, Masayuki; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Few studies are available that have investigated the risk factors for overlapping irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The present study has 3 objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of IBS-like symptoms in Japanese patients with inactive IBD using Rome III criteria, (2) to examine the relationship of IBS-like symptoms to health related quality of life (HR-QOL), and (3) to investigate associations for developing IBS-like symptoms in patients with inactive IBD. Methods IBS-like symptoms were evaluated using the Rome III questionnaire for functional gastrointestinal disorders. HR-QOL and hospital anxiety and depression scale were evaluated. Results IBS-like symptoms were found in 17.5% (7/40) of patients with inactive ulcerative colitis, 27.1% (29/107) of patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD), and 5.3% (23/438) of healthy control subjects. The QOL level was significantly lower and anxiety score was significantly higher in inactive CD patients with IBS-like symptoms than in those without such symptoms (P = 0.003, P = 0.009). Use of anti-anxiety drugs was associated with the presence of IBS symptoms (P = 0.045). HR-QOL score was lower and anxiety score was higher in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The prevalence of IBS-like symptoms in inactive IBD patients was significantly higher than in healthy controls. Inactive CD patients with IBS-like symptoms has low QOL and anxiety; suggesting that anxiety may be associated with symptom development in such patients. PMID:27193973

  7. Strength training and detraining effects on muscular strength, anaerobic power, and mobility of inactive older men are intensity dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Fatouros, I; Kambas, A; Katrabasas, I; Nikolaidis, K; Chatzinikolaou, A; Leontsini, D; Taxildaris, K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although strength training (ST) enhances physical function in the elderly, little is known about the effect of training intensity on training and detraining adaptations in musculoskeletal fitness.

  8. 42 CFR 407.32 - Prejudice to enrollment rights because of Federal Government misrepresentation, inaction, or error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government misrepresentation, inaction, or error. 407.32 Section 407.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... enrollment rights because of Federal Government misrepresentation, inaction, or error. If an individual's..., misrepresentation, on inaction of a Federal employee or any person authorized by the Federal Government to act in...

  9. Feeling Older and the Development of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-19

    Subjective age is a biopsychosocial marker of aging associated with a range of outcomes in old age. In the domain of cognition, feeling older than one's chronological age is related to lower cognitive performance and steeper cognitive decline among older adults. The present study examines whether an older subjective age is associated with the risk of incident cognitive impairment and dementia. Participants were 5,748 individuals aged 65 years and older drawn from the Health and Retirement Study. Measures of subjective age, cognition, and covariates were obtained at baseline, and follow-up cognition was assessed over a 2- to 4-year period. Only participants without cognitive impairment were included at baseline. At follow-up, participants were classified into one of the three categories: normal functioning, cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND), and dementia. An older subjective age at baseline was associated with higher likelihood of CIND (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18; 1.09-1.28) and dementia (OR = 1.29; 1.02-1.63) at follow-up, controlling for chronological age, other demographic factors, and baseline cognition. Physical inactivity and depressive symptoms partly accounted for these associations. An older subjective age is a marker of individuals' risk of subsequent cognitive impairment and dementia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A new light on DNA replication from the inactive X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladjem, Mirit I; Fu, Haiqing

    2014-06-01

    While large portions of the mammalian genome are known to replicate sequentially in a distinct, tissue-specific order, recent studies suggest that the inactive X chromosome is duplicated rapidly via random, synchronous DNA synthesis at numerous adjacent regions. The rapid duplication of the inactive X chromosome was observed in high-resolution studies visualizing DNA replication patterns in the nucleus, and by allele-specific DNA sequencing studies measuring the extent of DNA synthesis. These studies conclude that inactive X chromosomes complete replication earlier than previously thought and suggest that the strict order of DNA replication detected in the majority of genomic regions is not preserved in non-transcribed, "silent" chromatin. These observations alter current concepts about the regulation of DNA replication in non-transcribed portions of the genome in general and in the inactive X-chromosome in particular.

  11. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    ... on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom...

  12. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 董双林; 田相利; 王芳; 高勤峰; 董云伟

    2010-01-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates (Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory ...

  13. Oxidative Weathering and Microbial Diversity of an Inactive Seafloor Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Cui, Jiamei; Yang, Qunhui; Cui, Guojie; Wei, Bingbing; Wu, Zijun; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Huaiyang

    2017-01-01

    When its hydrothermal supply ceases, hydrothermal sulfide chimneys become inactive and commonly experience oxidative weathering on the seafloor. However, little is known about the oxidative weathering of inactive sulfide chimneys, nor about associated microbial community structures and their succession during this weathering process. In this work, an inactive sulfide chimney and a young chimney in the early sulfate stage of formation were collected from the Main Endeavor Field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. To assess oxidative weathering, the ultrastructures of secondary alteration products accumulating on the chimney surface were examined and the presence of possible Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) was investigated. The results of ultrastructure observation revealed that FeOB-associated ultrastructures with indicative morphologies were abundantly present. Iron oxidizers primarily consisted of members closely related to Gallionella spp. and Mariprofundus spp., indicating Fe-oxidizing species likely promote the oxidative weathering of inactive sulfide chimneys. Abiotic accumulation of Fe-rich substances further indicates that oxidative weathering is a complex, dynamic process, alternately controlled by FeOB and by abiotic oxidization. Although hydrothermal fluid flow had ceased, inactive chimneys still accommodate an abundant and diverse microbiome whose microbial composition and metabolic potential dramatically differ from their counterparts at active vents. Bacterial lineages within current inactive chimney are dominated by members of α-, δ-, and γ-Proteobacteria and they are deduced to be closely involved in a diverse set of geochemical processes including iron oxidation, nitrogen fixation, ammonia oxidation and denitrification. At last, by examining microbial communities within hydrothermal chimneys at different formation stages, a general microbial community succession can be deduced from early formation stages of a sulfate chimney to actively mature sulfide

  14. Light saturation response of inactive photosystem II reaction centers in spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylla, R A; Whitmarsh, J

    1990-07-01

    The effective absorption cross section of inactive photosystem II (PS II) centers, which is the product of the effective antenna size and the quantum yield for photochemistry, was investigated by comparing the light saturation curves of inactive PS II and active reaction centers in intact chloroplasts and thylakoid membranes of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Inactive PS II centers are defined as the impaired PS II reaction centers that require greater than 50 ms for the reoxidation of QA (-) subsequent to a single turnover flash. Active reaction centers are defined as the rapidly turning over PS II centers (recovery time less than 50 ms) and all of the PS I centers. The electrochromic shift, measured by the flash-induced absorbance increase at 518 nm, was used to probe the activity of the reaction centers. Light saturation curves were generated for inactive PS II centers and active reaction centers by measuring the extent of the absorbance increase at 518 nm induced by red actinic flashes of variable energy. The light saturation curves show that inactive PS II centers required over twice as many photons as active reaction centers to achieve the same yield. The ratio of the flash energy required for 50% saturation for active reaction centers (PS II active + PS I) compared to inactive PS II centers was 0.45±0.04 in intact chloroplasts, and 0.54±0.11 in thylakoid membranes. Analysis of the light saturation curves using a Poisson statistical model in which the ratio of the antenna size of active PS II centers to that of PS I is considered to range from 1 to 1.5, indicates that the effective absorption cross section of inactive PS II centers was 0.54-0.37 times that of active PS II centers. If the quantum yield for photochemistry is assumed to be one, we estimate that the antenna system serving the inactive PS II centers contains approx. 110 chlorophyll molecules.

  15. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  16. A Src-like inactive conformation in the abl tyrosine kinase domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Levinson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The improper activation of the Abl tyrosine kinase results in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. The recognition of an inactive conformation of Abl, in which a catalytically important Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG motif is flipped by approximately 180 degrees with respect to the active conformation, underlies the specificity of the cancer drug imatinib, which is used to treat CML. The DFG motif is not flipped in crystal structures of inactive forms of the closely related Src kinases, and imatinib does not inhibit c-Src. We present a structure of the kinase domain of Abl, determined in complex with an ATP-peptide conjugate, in which the protein adopts an inactive conformation that resembles closely that of the Src kinases. An interesting aspect of the Src-like inactive structure, suggested by molecular dynamics simulations and additional crystal structures, is the presence of features that might facilitate the flip of the DFG motif by providing room for the phenylalanine to move and by coordinating the aspartate side chain as it leaves the active site. One class of mutations in BCR-Abl that confers resistance to imatinib appears more likely to destabilize the inactive Src-like conformation than the active or imatinib-bound conformations. Our results suggest that interconversion between distinctly different inactive conformations is a characteristic feature of the Abl kinase domain.

  17. Atividade física, horas de assistência à TV e composição corporal em crianças e adolescentes Physical inactivity, TV-watching hours and body composition in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Romero Rivera

    2010-08-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To determine physical activity level (PAL and daily number of hours of TV (HTV and the association and/or correlation of these variables with age, gender, economic class, public/private school, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: Cross sectional study, school-based population, public and private education, primary and secondary education. The sample was calculated based on the minimum expected prevalence of several variables, including physical inactivity. Cluster sampling. Protocol: structured questionnaire, including Physical Activity for Older Children Questionnaire (PAQ-C measurements of weight, height, body mass index (BMI and triceps skinfold (TSF. Statistical analysis: Chi-square, linear correlation. RESULTS: Among the 1,253 students, averaging 12.4 ± 2.9 years old, of which 549 were male, there was a prevalence of inactivity in 93.5%, more commonly found in female adolescents and there was no association between PAL and excess weight or body fat, soccer and dance were the most frequent activities in boys and girls, respectively; 60% of students did not have physical education classes. Average and median HTV were respectively 3.6 and 3 hours; there was a significant association between HTV and obesity and significant correlation between PAL and age (negative and between BMI and TSF (positive. CONCLUSION: Physical inactivity is present in 93.5% of children and adolescents from Maceió. It is more commonly found among teenagers and females, with no association or correlation of this variable with excess weight or body fat; obesity was associated with > 3 HTV.

  18. A positive association between active lifestyle and hemispheric lateralization for motor control and learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinsung; D'Amato, Arthur; Bambrough, Jennifer; Swartz, Ann M; Miller, Nora E

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is well known to have general health benefits for older adults, but it is unclear whether it can also positively affect brain function involved in motor control and learning. We have previously shown that interlimb transfer of visuomotor adaptation occurs asymmetrically in young adults, while that occurs symmetrically in older adults, which suggests that the lateralized function of each hemisphere during motor tasks is diminished with aging. Here, we investigated the association between the level of PA and hemispheric motor lateralization by comparing the pattern of interlimb transfer following visuomotor adaptation between physically active and inactive older adults. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their PA level (active, inactive). They were further divided into two groups, such that a half of the subjects in each group adapted to a 30° rotation during targeted reaching movements with the left arm first, then with the right arm; and the other half with the right arm first, then with the left arm. Results indicated asymmetrical transfer (from left to right only) in the active subjects, whereas symmetrical transfer (from left to right, and vice versa) was observed in the inactive subjects. These findings suggest that older adults who maintain active lifestyle have a central nervous system that is more intact in terms of its lateralized motor function as compared with those who are inactive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of immobilization on the mechanical properties of the patellar tendon in younger and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, Christian; Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Kongsgaard, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unknown if inactivity changes the mechanical properties of the human patellar tendon in younger and older healthy persons. The purpose was to examine the effects of short-term unilateral immobilization on the structural and mechanical properties of the patellar tendon in ol...

  20. The Effect of Reduced Physical Activity and Retraining on Blood Lipids and Body Composition in Young and Older Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Jesper; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent re-training on cardiovascular risk factors in seventeen young (Y; 23.4±0.5) and fifteen older adult (O; 68.1±1.1 yrs.) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged...

  1. Schizophrenia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth; Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2011-11-01

    Although the number of people older than 55 with schizophrenia is expected to double during the next 20 years, the research data on older adults with schizophrenia are limited. This appears to be because until the middle of the 20th century, it was assumed that mental illness in older adults was a part of the aging process and because older adults are often excluded from research investigations. Nursing research is needed to explore how people with schizophrenia learn to manage their problems as they age, as well as how those who are first diagnosed with schizophrenia in later life adapt to their illness. Mental health nurses need to be cautious in assigning premature labels to older adults with mental illness that may lead to unsubstantiated assumptions about levels of disability. Instead, nurses should realize individual potential regarding undiscovered strengths and should attempt to create interventions that recognize and foster personal development for older adults with schizophrenia.

  2. Clinical Association of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody Levels with Disease Severity in the Chronic Inactive Stage of Graves' Orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Jae; Jang, Sun Young; Lim, Tyler Hyung Taek; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2015-08-01

    To investigate associations between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) levels and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) activity/severity in chronic-stage GO and compare the performance of two newly-developed TRAb assays (third-generation TSH-binding inhibition immunoglobulin [TBII] assay versus Mc4 thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin [TSI] bioassay). This study is a retrospective review of medical charts and blood tests from Korean GO patients who first visited the departments of ophthalmology and endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine from January 2008 to December 2011, were diagnosed with GO and Graves' hyperthyroidism, and were followed up for ≥18 months. Third-generation M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI assays were performed in the chronic-inactive GO patients in whom euthyroidism status was restored. Patients' GO activity/severity clinical activity scores (CAS), and modified NOSPECS scores were examined for a correlation with TRAb assays. Fifty patients (mean age, 41.3 years; 41 females) were analyzed. The mean duration of Graves' hyperthyroidism symptom was 63 months (range, 18 to 401 months) and that of GO was 46 months (range, 18 to 240 months). All patients had been treated previously with anti-thyroid drugs for a median period of 52.3 months, and two patients underwent either radioiodine therapy or total thyroidectomy. Mean CAS and NOSPECS scores were 0.5 ± 0.9 (standard deviation) and 4.8 ± 3.1, respectively. Mean M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI values were 7.5 ± 10.2 IL/L and 325.9 ± 210.1 specimen-to-reference control ratio. TSI was significantly correlated with NOSPECS score (R = 0.479, p 0.05), because GO inflammatory activity subsided in the chronic stages of GO. In chronic-inactive GO after euthyroid restoration, GO activity score did not associate with serum levels of TRAb or TBII. However, levels of the functional antibody Mc4-TSI did correlate with GO severity. Therefore, the TSI bioassay is a clinically relevant measure of disease

  3. The Majority of the Migrant Factory Workers of the Light Industry in Shenzhen, China May Be Physically Inactive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a strong risk factor of non-communicable diseases (NCD. In China, there are 250 million migrant factory workers, who are susceptible to physical inactivity and hence NCD because of work nature and setting. With random stratified sampling, 807 such workers of the light industry were recruited in Shenzhen, China and completed a self-administered questionnaire with informed consent. The prevalence of inadequate physical activity (defined according to the World Health Organization's recommendation on level of moderate/vigorous physical activity was 95.4%. Of all participants, 69.1% showed "a very low level of physical activity" (VLLPA, defined as ≤30 minutes of weekly moderate/vigorous physical activity, which was significantly associated with female sex (Odds ratio [OR]=1.65, lower education level (OR=0.10 to 0.33, primary education as the reference group and married status (OR=0.63, single status as the reference group. Adjusted for these factors, perceived social support (Adjusted OR=0.87 was negatively associated with VLLPA, while job stress due to workload, which was significant in the univariate analysis (OR=0.98, became non-significant (p=0.184. Significant interaction between perceived social support and perceived job stress onto VLLPA was found (p=0.044, implying that the negative association between job stress and VLLPA, which might reflect a potential response to cope with stress by performing exercises, was stronger among those with weaker social support. The extremely low level of physical activity rings an alarm, as it implies high risk of NCD, and as there are no existing programs promoting physical activity in this group. Interventions need to take into account social support, potential coping to job stress, and structural factors of the factory setting, while involving factories' management.

  4. The Majority of the Migrant Factory Workers of the Light Industry in Shenzhen, China May Be Physically Inactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Cheng, Yu; Lau, Joseph T F; Wu, Anise M S; Tse, Vincent W S; Zhou, Shenglai

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a strong risk factor of non-communicable diseases (NCD). In China, there are 250 million migrant factory workers, who are susceptible to physical inactivity and hence NCD because of work nature and setting. With random stratified sampling, 807 such workers of the light industry were recruited in Shenzhen, China and completed a self-administered questionnaire with informed consent. The prevalence of inadequate physical activity (defined according to the World Health Organization's recommendation on level of moderate/vigorous physical activity) was 95.4%. Of all participants, 69.1% showed "a very low level of physical activity" (VLLPA), defined as ≤30 minutes of weekly moderate/vigorous physical activity, which was significantly associated with female sex (Odds ratio [OR]=1.65), lower education level (OR=0.10 to 0.33, primary education as the reference group) and married status (OR=0.63, single status as the reference group). Adjusted for these factors, perceived social support (Adjusted OR=0.87) was negatively associated with VLLPA, while job stress due to workload, which was significant in the univariate analysis (OR=0.98), became non-significant (p=0.184). Significant interaction between perceived social support and perceived job stress onto VLLPA was found (p=0.044), implying that the negative association between job stress and VLLPA, which might reflect a potential response to cope with stress by performing exercises, was stronger among those with weaker social support. The extremely low level of physical activity rings an alarm, as it implies high risk of NCD, and as there are no existing programs promoting physical activity in this group. Interventions need to take into account social support, potential coping to job stress, and structural factors of the factory setting, while involving factories' management.

  5. Depression and religiosity in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, M; Warzecha, A

    2011-09-12

    We investigated the hypothesis that religious commitment could help counter general affective distress, accompanying depressive symptoms, in older age. A total of 34 older adults, all catholic believers, completed self-reported questionnaires on the presence of depressive symptoms, religiosity, health, worry, and the style of coping with stress. The depressive and non-depressive subgroups were then created. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 50%, with the substantial predominance of females. Regression analyses indicate that health expectations and worry significantly worsen with increasing intensity of depressive symptoms. The results further show that religious engagement was not different between the depressive and non-depressive subgroups. Religiosity failed to influence the intensity of depressive symptoms or the strategy of coping with stress in either subgroup, although a trend was noted for better health expectations with increasing religious engagement in depressive subjects. We conclude that religiosity is unlikely to significantly ameliorate dysphoric distress accompanying older age.

  6. Depression and religiosity in older age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorski M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated the hypothesis that religious commitment could help counter general affective distress, accompanying depressive symptoms, in older age. A total of 34 older adults, all catholic believers, completed self-reported questionnaires on the presence of depressive symptoms, religiosity, health, worry, and the style of coping with stress. The depressive and non-depressive subgroups were then created. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 50%, with the substantial predominance of females. Regression analyses indicate that health expectations and worry significantly worsen with increasing intensity of depressive symptoms. The results further show that religious engagement was not different between the depressive and non-depressive subgroups. Religiosity failed to influence the intensity of depressive symptoms or the strategy of coping with stress in either subgroup, although a trend was noted for better health expectations with increasing religious engagement in depressive subjects. We conclude that religiosity is unlikely to significantly ameliorate dysphoric distress accompanying older age.

  7. Motivating patients to exercise: translating high blood pressure into equivalent risk of inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Tsai, Min-Kuang; Tai, Ya-Ping; Wai, Jackson Pui Man; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Wen, Chi-Pang

    2015-02-01

    Even with the 2008 physical activity guidelines for Americans and the strong epidemiological evidence, physicians are not routinely emphasizing the importance of exercise. We try to explore an innovative way to communicate the benefits of physical activity in a term familiar to patients. A cohort of 470, 163 adults from a medical screening program in Taiwan were recruited between 1994 and 2008. Their vital status was followed up by matching with the National Death File. Individuals were classified as 'inactive', 'low active', or 'fully active', with 'fully active' meeting the current exercise recommendation of 150  min per week or more. Cox proportional model was used to calculate the hazard ratio. More than one-half of the cohort was inactive (54%), with one-quarter fully active (24%). One in seven was hypertensive (14%), defined as SBP at least 140  mmHg. Among the hypertensive individuals, mortality risks were increased by 37% for the inactive. Inactive individuals had higher all-cause mortality than active ones across all blood pressure (BP) levels. At 110-119  mmHg, the inactive had a risk as high as the risk at 155  mmHg, an increased mortality risk equivalent to a risk of BP increase of 41.2 mmHg. The mortality risk of being inactive was equivalent to an increase of around 40  mmHg in SBP or 20  mmHg in DBP, a number relevant to hypertensive patients. Appreciating this relationship may convince the inactive to start exercising, a behavior as important as controlling BP.

  8. High prevalence of inactivity among young patients with type 1 diabetes in south Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Gutiérrez Manzanedo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe usual physical activity level and analyze its association with metabolic control and presence of microvascular complications in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes (DM-1 in south Spain. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study that included one hundred thirty patients, aged 33.9 ± 11.5 years-old with disease duration of 16.5 ± 9.5 years that consecutively were recruited among patients attending the Endocrinology Service of Puerta del Mar University Hospital (Cádiz, Spain. Usual physical activity level was assessed using the "General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire" (GPPAQ together with clinical, anthropometric, metabolic parameters and microvascular complications. Results: DM-1 patients were grouped in four categories of physical activity level: inactive (n = 33; 25.3%, moderately inactive (n = 31; 23.8%, moderately active (n = 26; 20.0% and active (n = 40; 30.9%. We observed no significant differences in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c level between the different physical activity groups analyzed. Patients classified as moderately active and active were more often men, significantly younger and presented lower plasmatic levels of triglycerides than patients classified as inactive or moderately inactive, with no differences in other clinical or anthropometric variables. In addition, active and moderately active patients had a lower prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and microvascular complications in general compared to inactive or moderately inactive patients. Conclusions: Half of patients with type 1 diabetes evaluated were classified as inactive and these patients had a higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy than active patients. No difference in HbA1c levels was documented among different groups of physical activity.

  9. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  10. Older Motorcyclists in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, D

    2017-06-01

    Older motorcyclists are under-recognised as vulnerable road users. Using Irish data from the Central Statistics Office, the Road Safety Authority and the Healthcare Pricing Office, we explored the trend of ageing riders and factors in older motorcyclist collisions and injuries. In 2005, 17 motorcyclists ≥55 were injured compared to 31 in 2012. Motorcyclists aged between 30 and 49 years and ≥50 have longer lengths of stay compared to riders <30. The percentage of motorcycles with an engine capacity of ≥750cc increased from 39.6% in 2007 to 46.7% in 2015. Older motorcyclists are less likely to be fatally injured in single vehicle collisions. Older motorcyclists are generally safer than younger riders but the proportion of older motorcyclist injury is rising. Irish road safety strategies and trauma services need to incorporate these findings into planning and development of preventive and treatment approaches

  11. Renovating Older Schools: Reusing Older Schools Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State. Educational Design Inst.

    A slide presentation examines the decisionmaking process behind whether a community should renovate their older school facilities or abandon them for new facilities. Three factors to be considered in this decision are addressed and involve the school's location, the history of the school, and the relationship of the school to the community and the…

  12. Physical activity, disability, and quality of life in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2010-05-01

    This article provides an overview of physical activity and its association with function, disability, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes among older adults. The rationale and the associated onset of chronic disease conditions that influence function, disability, and QOL is embedded in the "Graying of America". The literature reviewed in this article yielded 3 general conclusions: (1) there is an alarming rate of physical inactivity among older adults, particularly those aging with a disability; (2) there is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on impairment, function, and health-related aspects of QOL among older adults, but there is less conclusive evidence for positive effects of physical activity on disability and global QOL; and (3) there is emerging support for self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between physical activity and disability, and QOL outcomes in older adults. Researchers should consider designing and testing programs that incorporate strategies for enhancing self-efficacy along with the promotion of physical activity as a means of preventing disablement and improving QOL among older adults. Such work will go a long way in identifying practical approaches that can be applied for improving the later years of life and is critical because many Americans will soon be affected by the aging of adults in the United States.

  13. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA, using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  14. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Is a Regulator of Circadian Active and Inactive State Consolidation in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. DeKorver

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory systems required to maintain behavioral arousal remain incompletely understood. We describe a previously unappreciated role that toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2, a membrane bound pattern recognition receptor that recognizes specific bacterial, viral, and fungal peptides, contributes toward regulation of behavioral arousal. In 4–4.5 month old mice with constitutive loss of Tlr2 function (Tlr2−/− mice, we note a marked consolidation in the circadian pattern of both active and inactive states. Specifically, Tlr2−/− mice demonstrated significantly fewer but longer duration active states during the circadian dark cycle, and significantly fewer but longer duration inactive states during the circadian light cycle. Tlr2−/− mice also consumed less food and water, and moved less during the circadian light cycle. Analysis of circadian rhythms further suggested that Tlr2−/− mice demonstrated less day-to-day variability in feeding, drinking, and movement behaviors. Reevaluation of this same mouse cohort at age 8–8.5 months revealed a clear blunting of these differences. However, Tlr2−/− mice were still noted to have fewer short-duration active states during the circadian dark cycle, and continued to demonstrate significantly less day-to-day variability in feeding, drinking, and movement behaviors. These results suggest that Tlr2 function may have a role in promoting transitions between active and inactive states. Prior studies have demonstrated that Tlr2 regulates sickness behaviors including hypophagia, hyperthermia, and decreased activity. Our work suggests that Tlr2 function also evokes behavioral fragmentation, another aspect of sickness behavior and a clinically significant problem of older adults.

  16. Older Adults (and Oral Health)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Sorted by ... > OlderAdults Older Adults and Oral Health Main Content ​ Is dry mouth a natural part ... from fiction by reading this web page about oral health and growing older. Having the right information can ...

  17. Sexual inactivity and sexual satisfaction among women living with HIV in Canada in the context of growing social, legal and public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kaida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women represent nearly one-quarter of the 71,300 people living with HIV in Canada. Within a context of widespread HIV-related stigma and discrimination and on-going risks to HIV disclosure, little is known about the influence of growing social, legal and public health surveillance of HIV on sexual activity and satisfaction of women living with HIV (WLWH. Methods: We analyzed baseline cross-sectional survey data for WLWH (≥16 years, self-identifying as women enrolled in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS, a multisite, longitudinal, community-based research study in British Columbia (BC, Ontario (ON and Quebec (QC. Sexual inactivity was defined as no consensual sex (oral or penetrative in the prior six months, excluding recently postpartum women (≤6 months. Satisfaction was assessed using an item from the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined independent correlates of sexual inactivity. Results: Of 1213 participants (26% BC, 50% ON, 24% QC, median age was 43 years (IQR: 35, 50. 23% identified as Aboriginal, 28% as African, Caribbean and Black, 41% as White and 8% as other ethnicities. Heterosexual orientation was reported by 87% of participants and LGBTQ by 13%. In total, 82% were currently taking antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 77% reported an undetectable viral load (VL<40 copies/mL. Overall, 49% were sexually inactive and 64% reported being satisfied with their current sex lives, including 49% of sexually inactive and 79% of sexually active women (p<0.001. Sexually inactive women had significantly higher odds of being older (AOR=1.06 per year increase; 95% CI=1.05–1.08, not being in a marital or committed relationship (AOR=4.34; 95% CI=3.13–5.88, having an annual household income below $20,000 CAD (AOR: 1.44; 95% CI=1.08–1.92, and reporting high (vs. low HIV-related stigma (AOR=1.81; 95% CI=1.09–3.03. No independent

  18. Health in older women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Katulski, Krzysztof; Czyzyk, Adam; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity has been identified as a protective factor against a wide spectrum of diseases, but little is known about the link between older women's health and their professional involvement in sport in the past. The aim of this narrative review is to characterize and summarize the available data concerning the influence of physical activity on morbidity and mortality in former female athletes. Concerning bone health, it seems that physical activity in the past can be protective against osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, but these data come from observational studies only. Also the cardiovascular system appears to benefit in older women from regular sport in the past. This refers mainly to better heart efficiency, and improved endothelial function and metabolic profile. The incidence of different types of neoplasms, especially breast cancer, is also decreased in former athletes. Professional sport, on the other hand, acts negatively on the pelvic floor and is a risk factor for urinary incontinence. The overall effect on mortality is difficult to assess, because of many parameters, such as the sport's intensity, variety of the sport and exposure to extreme danger in some disciplines. Also, caution should be kept in interpretation of the data because of the shortage of well-designed studies.

  19. Remarks Regarding the Activity of Taxpayers Declared Inactive and Subsequent Economical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina-Martha ILUCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Declaring a taxpayer as inactive is a procedure founded on expressly stipulated law conditions and it has both individual effects and effects on the relation established between an inactive taxpayer and an active one. The primary effect, which is the cause for all of the others, is the ex officio cancellation of the VAT registration. This marks the loss of the taxpayer’s right to deduct the VAT using the “downstream VAT – upstream VAT” mechanism, becoming just a final consumer. The active taxpayer engaging in commercial transactions with an inactive taxpayer cannot deduct expenses, nor the VAT, as these operations are based on a document that is not issued in accordance with the legal provisions.

  20. Dual-wavelength polymer laser based on an active/inactive/active sandwich-like structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tianrui; Wu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Meng; Tong, Fei; Li, Songtao; Ma, Yanbin; Deng, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xinping

    2016-09-01

    Dual-wavelength laser emission is achieved by using an active/inactive/active sandwich-like structure, which can be conveniently fabricated using spin coating technique. Poly [(9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl)-alt-co-(1, 4-benzo-(2, 1', 3) -thiadiazole)] and polyvinyl alcohol are employed as the active and the inactive materials, respectively. Two laser wavelengths are simultaneously observed, which are attributed to the difference of the surrounding refractive index of two active waveguides in the sandwich-like structure. Each wavelength is controlled by the respective waveguide structure, meaning that multi-wavelength laser can be designed by stacking the active/inactive layer pair. These results provide more flexibility to design compact laser sources.

  1. A novel PWM scheme to eliminate the diode freewheeling In the Inactive phase in BLDC motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Kun; HU Chang-sheng; ZHANG Zhong-chao

    2006-01-01

    The brushless DC motor (BLDCM) with trapezoidal electromotive force (back-EMF) waveform is used widely.In principle,when the motor runs in the 120°conduction mode,two of the three phases are active while the other phase is inactive at all times.However,a ripple current occurs in the inactive phase due to the diode freewheeling during the non-commutation period in the traditional pulse width modulation (PWM) methods,which aggravates the torque ripples.A new PWM method is proposed in this paper to eliminate the diode freewheeling during the non-commutation period in the inactive phase.As a result,the torque ripple is suppressed using the proposed method.The simulation and experimental results are demonstrated to verify the validity of the proposed PWM method.

  2. Establishment of X chromosome inactivation and epigenomic features of the inactive X depend on cellular contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallot, Céline; Ouimette, Jean-François; Rougeulle, Claire

    2016-09-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an essential epigenetic process that ensures X-linked gene dosage equilibrium between sexes in mammals. XCI is dynamically regulated during development in a manner that is intimately linked to differentiation. Numerous studies, which we review here, have explored the dynamics of X inactivation and reactivation in the context of development, differentiation and diseases, and the phenotypic and molecular link between the inactive status, and the cellular context. Here, we also assess whether XCI is a uniform mechanism in mammals by analyzing epigenetic signatures of the inactive X (Xi) in different species and cellular contexts. It appears that the timing of XCI and the epigenetic signature of the inactive X greatly vary between species. Surprisingly, even within a given species, various Xi configurations are found across cellular states. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying these variations, and how they might influence the fate of the Xi.

  3. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    In this paper I estimate a discrete time hazard model for the exits from the different labour market states - unemployment, employment and inactivity (or OLF) - in the Danish labour market. I find that women and individuals over fifty are more likely to experience the long-term unemployment...... and inactivity. The less educated and unskilled workers are found to be another risk group to face the marginalisation from the labour market. Being previously employed reduces the risk of OLF, and increases the re-entry to employment probability, while living in the biggest Danish cities makes persons...... disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...

  4. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  5. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN. PMID:26891312

  6. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Member States, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old, coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  7. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  8. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtland, Karen; Lin, Ji; Shrestha, Sundar; Thompson, Ted; Albright, Ann; Gregg, Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC) from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004–2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008–2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48). APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity. PMID

  9. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  10. Light saturation curves show competence of the water splitting complex in inactive Photosystem II reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbal, L; Gibas, C; Whitmarsh, J

    1991-12-01

    Photosystem II complexes of higher plants are structurally and functionally heterogeneous. While the only clearly defined structural difference is that Photosystem II reaction centers are served by two distinct antenna sizes, several types of functional heterogeneity have been demonstrated. Among these is the observation that in dark-adapted leaves of spinach and pea, over 30% of the Photosystem II reaction centers are unable to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol at physiologically meaningful rates. Several lines of evidence show that the impaired reaction centers are effectively inactive, because the rate of oxidation of the primary quinone acceptor, QA, is 1000 times slower than in normally active reaction centers. However, there are conflicting opinions and data over whether inactive Photosystem II complexes are capable of oxidizing water in the presence of certain artificial electron acceptors. In the present study we investigated whether inactive Photosystem II complexes have a functional water oxidizing system in spinach thylakoid membranes by measuring the flash yield of water oxidation products as a function of flash intensity. At low flash energies (less that 10% saturation), selected to minimize double turnovers of reaction centers, we found that in the presence of the artificial quinone acceptor, dichlorobenzoquinone (DCBQ), the yield of proton release was enhanced 20±2% over that observed in the presence of dimethylbenzoquinone (DMBQ). We argue that the extra proton release is from the normally inactive Photosystem II reaction centers that have been activated in the presence of DCBQ, demonstrating their capacity to oxidize water in repetitive flashes, as concluded by Graan and Ort (Biochim Biophys Acta (1986) 852: 320-330). The light saturation curves indicate that the effective antenna size of inactive reaction centers is 55±12% the size of active Photosystem II centers. Comparison of the light saturation dependence of steady state oxygen evolution

  11. The association of ambient air pollution and physical inactivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Roberts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity, ambient air pollution and obesity are modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, with the first accounting for 10% of premature deaths worldwide. Although community level interventions may target each simultaneously, research on the relationship between these risk factors is lacking. OBJECTIVES: After comparing spatial interpolation methods to determine the best predictor for particulate matter (PM2.5; PM10 and ozone (O3 exposures throughout the U.S., we evaluated the cross-sectional association of ambient air pollution with leisure-time physical inactivity among adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed leisure-time physical inactivity using individual self-reported survey data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. These data were combined with county-level U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution exposure estimates using two interpolation methods (Inverse Distance Weighting and Empirical Bayesian Kriging. Finally, we evaluated whether those exposed to higher levels of air pollution were less active by performing logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and behavioral risk factors, and after stratifying by body weight category. RESULTS: With Empirical Bayesian Kriging air pollution values, we estimated a statistically significant 16-35% relative increase in the odds of leisure-time physical inactivity per exposure class increase of PM2.5 in the fully adjusted model across the normal weight respondents (p-value<0.0001. Evidence suggested a relationship between the increasing dose of PM2.5 exposure and the increasing odds of physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample, increased community level air pollution is associated with reduced leisure-time physical activity particularly among the normal weight. Although our design precludes a causal inference, these

  12. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD) and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186) was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88) and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by mea...

  13. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    and inactivity. The less educated and unskilled workers are found to be another risk group to face the marginalisation from the labour market. Being previously employed reduces the risk of OLF, and increases the re-entry to employment probability, while living in the biggest Danish cities makes persons......In this paper I estimate a discrete time hazard model for the exits from the different labour market states - unemployment, employment and inactivity (or OLF) - in the Danish labour market. I find that women and individuals over fifty are more likely to experience the long-term unemployment...

  14. Inactive DNMT3B Splice Variants Modulate De Novo DNA Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Catherine A.; Hartono, Stella R; Frédéric Chédin

    2013-01-01

    Inactive DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B splice isoforms are associated with changes in DNA methylation, yet the mechanisms by which they act remain largely unknown. Using biochemical and cell culture assays, we show here that the inactive DNMT3B3 and DNMT3B4 isoforms bind to and regulate the activity of catalytically competent DNMT3A or DNMT3B molecules. DNMT3B3 modestly stimulated the de novo methylation activity of DNMT3A and also counteracted the stimulatory effects of DNMT3L, therefore l...

  15. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Relationship of Physical Activity with Depression and Cognitive Deficit in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo T, R S; Tribess, Sheilla; Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Meneguci, Joilson; Martins, Cristiane A; Freitas, Ismael F; Romo-Perez, Vicente; Virtuoso, Jair S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with depression and cognition deficit, separately and combined, in Brazilian older adults. We analyzed data from 622 older adults. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, while cognitive deficit was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess associations of depression and cognitive deficit with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of physical inactivity (physical activity/ week), depression, and cognitive deficit were 35.7%, 37.4%, and 16.7%. Physical inactivity was associated with depression (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14-2.94) and with depression and cognitive deficit combined (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01-8.91). Physically inactive participants were also more likely to present limitations in orientation and language functions. Physical inactivity was associated with depression and also with depression and cognitive deficit combined in older adults.

  17. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  18. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Certain health problems are common in older adults. Heavy drinking can make these problems worse, including: Diabetes High blood pressure Congestive heart failure Liver problems Osteoporosis Memory problems Mood disorders Bad Interactions with Medications ...

  19. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  20. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sim Ong, Fon; Phillips, David R

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet...

  1. Falls and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Falls and Older Adults About Falls Risk Increases With Age Many people have a ... problems -- rises with age. Click for more information Falls Lead to Fractures, Trauma Each year, more than ...

  2. Myths about older people's use of information and communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandke, Hartmut; Sengpiel, Michael; Sönksen, Malte

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses six myths common in the field of 'human-computer interaction (HCI) and older people'. These myths are widespread among computer scientists, engineers and programmers, as well as among the general public and even older individuals themselves. We can define these myths as follows. (1) Just wait and see. Future generations of older people will use computers without problems. This myth differs from those following, as it may lead to a (dangerous) conclusion of avoidance and inactivity by integrating myths 2-6. If the other myths are accepted as being true and one assumes that the problems will eventually solve themselves, it might not seem worthwhile to expend any effort on 'universal design' for older people's use of information and communication technology (ICT). However, we argue that if we do not actively and properly counteract these myths, we will perpetuate them and their grave consequences. (2) Older people are not interested in using computers. They are unaware of computer capabilities. (3) Older people consider computers as useless and unnecessary. (4) Older people lack the physical capabilities to use ICT. (5) Older people simply cannot understand interactive computing technology. (6) You can't teach an old dog new tricks. The problem of HCI for older people is that they do not learn to use new technologies and interaction techniques. In discussing these myths, we demonstrate that each one contains a grain of truth. However, the myths are improperly overgeneralized and, therefore, often wrong. Such myths are problematic. Designers and engineers often accept them as truths and neglect older users and/or apply information and communication technologies in an age-discriminating manner. Furthermore, the myths are problematic as they lead older people to avoid computer usage (i.e. a self-fulfilling prophecy). We present evidence to support the notion that these myths may often be largely - although not completely - wrong. We then demonstrate

  3. Building a foundation for systems change: increasing access to physical activity programs for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmayr, Sue; Mackenzie, Geraldine

    2004-10-01

    Although 25% of U.S. adults are physically inactive, this percentage increases dramatically for older adults. Organizational change theory guided a state health department in identifying system gaps and developing strategies to expand programming for seniors. A survey of provider agencies in New Jersey assessed (a) capacity for physical activity programs for older adults, (b) accessibility of programs, and (c) barriers to providing programs. One hundred sixty agencies provided physical activity programs to almost 184,000 individuals annually. Fewer than one half of the agencies provided exercise programs for people with disabilities, and only 44% provided in-home programs. Eighty-two percent of program providers wanted to expand programming but cited lack of trained instructors and peer leaders, inadequate facility space, insufficient funding, and limited transportation resources as barriers. Sustaining older adult behavior change requires infrastructure that will ensure access to diverse physical activities. This article provides strategies to expand access to physical activity programs for older adults.

  4. Postural control during one-leg stance in active and sedentary older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo George Victorio Victor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity and aging are functional disability factors for older individuals, causing loss of balance and increasing the risk of falls. The purpose of this study was to compare the balance of physically independent older individuals, both participants and non-participants in a regular exercise program. Fifty six physically independent older participants were divided into G1ACTIVE = 28 individuals who participate in a regular exercise program and G2SEDENTARY = 28 individuals who did not participate in any physical exercise program. All participants underwent an eyes-open during one-leg balance test on a force platform. The postural oscillation parameters included center of pressure (COP; sway mean velocity and frequency of COP oscillations. G2 SEDENTARY showed higher postural instability than G1ACTIVE. Significant differences were observed for the main balance parameters. The results of this study support the concept that participation in regular physical activity is beneficial for postural balance of older individuals.

  5. Gender differences on the impacts of social exclusion on mortality among older Japanese: AGES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hirai, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the gender-specific impact of social exclusion on the mortality of older Japanese adults, we performed a prospective data analysis using the data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES). In AGES, we surveyed functionally independent residents aged 65 years or older who lived in six municipalities in Aichi prefecture, Japan. We gathered baseline information from 13,310 respondents in 2003. Information on mortality was obtained from municipal databases of the public long-term care insurance system. All participants were followed for up to 4 years. We evaluated social exclusion in terms of the combination of social isolation, social inactivity, and relative poverty. Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that socially excluded older people were at significantly increased risk (9-34%) for premature mortality. Those with simultaneously relative poverty and social isolation and/or social inactivity were 1.29 times more likely to die prematurely than those who were not socially excluded. Women showed stronger overall impact of social exclusion on mortality, whereas relative poverty was significantly associated with mortality risks for men. If these associations are truly causal, social exclusion is attributable to 9000-44,000 premature deaths (1-5%) annually for the older Japanese population. Health and social policies to mitigate the issue of social exclusion among older adults may require gender-specific approaches.

  6. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  7. Aging and the Socioeconomic Life of Older Adults in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bakshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to approach aging in India from three perspectives, namely, the well-being of an aging individual, the aging household, and the aging population. The aspects, namely, work, financial dependence, integration, empowerment, and elder abuse are studied and their relation to age, gender, and marital status is investigated. The data sets pertaining to the National Sample Surveys for the reference periods 1986-1987, 1995-1996, and 2004 are primarily utilized for the purpose. The data sets from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India Survey, 2011, are also utilized for information on elder abuse. The results show that the older males are more likely to participate in household activities when compared with the older females. The married older adults are also more likely to participate in household activities when compared with their widowed counterparts. In a similar way, gender and marital status are found to be associated with empowerment of older adults. The working older adults, those who possess property and/or assets are more likely to be financially independent. Furthermore, the older females and the financially dependent older adults are more likely to face abuses of different kinds. Households are classified into three different types. Type I households have no older adults, Type II households have older adults and other younger members, and Type III households have older adults only. Results show that Type III households are found to be relatively more deprived and report higher average monthly expenditure when compared with other types of households.

  8. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  9. A Lebanese dietary pattern promotes better diet quality among older adults: findings from a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Naja, Farah

    2016-04-19

    Proper nutrition is critical for healthy aging and maintaining functional independence. Limited research has been done on the assessment of dietary patterns of older adults and their association with diet quality indices. This study was conducted to identify, characterize, and evaluate the dietary patterns and diet quality of older adults in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults aged >50 years (n = 525). Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were collected through interviews, and dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Five commonly used diet quality indices (DQIs) were calculated, including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMed), the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet score, and the Lebanese Mediterranean Diet index. Dietary patterns (DPs) were derived using exploratory factor analysis. Associations of identified DPs with energy, energy-adjusted nutrients, and DQIs were evaluated by Pearson's correlations. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine correlates of DPs. Three DPs were derived: Lebanese, Western, and High Protein/Alcohol patterns. The Lebanese pattern had highest correlations with fiber, folate, vitamin C, and all five DQIs. The Western was positively associated with energy and sodium and was inversely correlated with fiber, most vitamins, and a number of DQIs, namely AHEI, aMED, and DASH-style diet score. Highest correlations with intakes of proteins and fat were observed for the High Protein/Alcohol pattern. The Lebanese pattern was associated with female gender, education, nonsmoking and physical activity, whereas the Western pattern was associated with adverse health behaviors, including smoking, skipping breakfast, and physical inactivity

  10. Obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity as risk factors for CKD: Are men more vulnerable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hallan; R. de Mutsert; S. Carlsen; F.W. Dekker; K. Aasarod; J. Holmen

    2006-01-01

    Background: The incidence of end-stage renal disease is especially high in men, and some studies indicated that smoking is a risk factor for men only. We investigated associations between obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population and whether

  11. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  12. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; de Campos, Wagner; Lopes, Adair da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%), and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use) was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  13. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  14. 2014 consensus statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) conference (Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M

    2014-06-01

    This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Artist-Teachers' In-Action Mental Models While Teaching Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…

  16. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  17. Overweight and Physical Inactivity Among African American Students at a Historically Black University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Heimdal, James; Sbrocco, Tracy; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about correlates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American students at historically Black colleges and universities. To assess overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American college students at a historically Black university in Maryland in the USA. Data were collected from 268 African American college students in 2013. Data were analyzed with percentage difference z-tests, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression. Cross-sectional survey (student response rate = 49.9%). The overweight/obesity rate of participants was 47.5%, which was higher than that of the U.S. college student population overall (34.1%) and a representative sample of African American college students (38.3%). When age and sex were controlled, a family history of obesity, skipping breakfast, drinking caffeinated drinks, lower family income, and smoking a pipe, cigars, or cigarettes daily were significant correlates of overweight (obesity included). The percentage of physical inactivity was 68.3, and physical inactivity was higher among women and overweight or obese students. Given the high overweight and obesity prevalence among African American college students, historically Black colleges and universities in the USA should increase health promotion efforts targeting weight-related behaviors, particularly physical activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  19. Teacher Educators' In-Action Mental Models in Different Teaching Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevorach, Miriam; Strauss, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    In previous studies on teachers' cognition, we discovered that teachers' teaching can be described via a general in-action mental model (IAMM) concerning the structure of the mind and the roles of teaching in fostering children's learning. The purpose of our study was to examine teacher educators' IAMM regarding student teachers' minds and…

  20. Comparison of fractions of inactive modules between Run1 and Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Kazuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Fraction of inactive modules for each component of the ATLAS pixel detector at the end of Run 1 and the beginning of Run 2. A similar plot which uses a result of functionality tests during LS1 can be found in ATL-INDET-SLIDE-2014-388.

  1. Sauna-induced body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.

  2. Coronary Heart Disease Risk between Active and Inactive Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawta, Jennifer N.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Wilcox, Anthony R.; Fox, Susan D.; Nalle, Darek J.; Anderson, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether abdominal fat accumulation and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose differed between 123 active and inactive women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that low-to-moderate leisure time physical activity significantly related to less abdominal fat accumulation, lower triglyceride…

  3. A conceptualisation of help-avoidance as motivated inaction: implications for theory, research, and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Täuber, Susanne; Zagefka, Hanna; van Leeuwen, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This chapter zooms in on the strategic motives of help-avoidance, an intriguing yet under-researched phenomenon. Conceptualising this phenomenon as a particular form of inaction, I propose that help-avoidance is a strategic response to disadvantage that is motivated by identity concerns. I provide t

  4. Peripheral aneurysm rupture in a patient with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelke, Christoph; Sabharwal, Tarun; Reidy, John F. [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, St. Thomas' Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Mohan, Aarthi R. [Department of Chest Medicine, Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital Trust, St. Thomas' Street, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-01

    We describe a patient with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting with sudden haemothorax, due to a ruptured internal mammary artery (IMA) aneurysm 7 years after the corticosteroid treatment was terminated. The unusual imaging findings and the treatment with embolization are discussed with a view to the role of a regular vascular screening in this patient group. (orig.)

  5. [Physical inactivity among non-institutionalized elderly individuals: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Bruno Morbeck de; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Leal Neto, João de Souza; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this study is to assess the prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly in Northeast Brazil and analyze the associated lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and health conditions. The work presented here is a descriptive and association-based study using secondary data derived from a population-based epidemiological study that included 316 elderly participants. The physical activity level of each participant was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables examined in this study were gender, age group, family set-up, ability to read and write, paid or voluntary employment, smoking, symptoms of depression, high blood pressure, fasting hyperglycemia and functional capacity. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 46.5. The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that physical inactivity was positively associated with the age group ≥ 80 years (PR = 2.37), with the lack of an occupation (PR = 4.86) and with dependence on instrumental activities of daily life (PR = 1.47) and basic activities of daily life (PR = 1.60). Physical inactivity was highly prevalent in the surveyed population, making it essential to discuss programs that encourage and enable increased physical activity to combat the risk factors of a sedentary lifestyle.

  6. "Learning-in-Action" and "Learning Inaction": Advancing the Theory and Practice of Critical Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, Russ

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve our understanding of the emotional and political dynamics that are generated (and too often avoided) in action learning. The idea at the centre of the paper is a distinction between "learning-in-action" and "learning inaction". The phrase "learning-in-action" represents the value of action…

  7. [The costs of physical inactivity in the world: a general review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Denise Rodrigues; Marucci, Maria de Fátima Nunes; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Roediger, Manuela de Almeida

    2016-04-01

    There is convincing evidence in the scientific literature of the effectiveness of regular physical activity and physical exercise in the conservation of health and the prevention of various ailments. However, studies into the association between costs of medical services and physical inactivity have not been duly addressed. International studies have quantified these costs and revealed the association between physical activity and/or sedentary behavior. Therefore, this review sought to gather information available from several countries and analyze the global costs associated with physical inactivity over the past few decades. The results of twenty-four original and well-researched articles in nine countries, including Brazil, were analyzed. The results showed that physical inactivity, irrespective of the method of classification, is burdensome to the economy of health worldwide, and directly responsible for the high cost of medication, the incidence of hospitalization and the frequency of medical appointments. The costs of the group of the physically inactive population affected by chronic diseases feature among the major components of the total costs involved in public health.

  8. Coronary Heart Disease Risk between Active and Inactive Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawta, Jennifer N.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Wilcox, Anthony R.; Fox, Susan D.; Nalle, Darek J.; Anderson, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether abdominal fat accumulation and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose differed between 123 active and inactive women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that low-to-moderate leisure time physical activity significantly related to less abdominal fat accumulation, lower triglyceride…

  9. Hypogonadism associated with muscle atrophy, physical inactivity and ESA hyporesponsiveness in men undergoing haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cobo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Hypogonadism is common in our male haemodialysis population and is associated with higher ESA doses, reduced muscle mass and lower physical activity. The link between low testosterone levels and physical inactivity may conceivably relate to reduced muscle mass due to inadequate muscle protein synthesis.

  10. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity and m...

  11. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  12. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila; Jeppesen, Rikke Schou; Krustrup, Birgitte Rejkjær

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories (“I,”“we” and “they”) as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical...

  13. [Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in school children from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. A national survey of 'inactive' physicians in the United States of America: enticements to reentry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brotherton Sarah E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians leaving and reentering clinical practice can have significant medical workforce implications. We surveyed inactive physicians younger than typical retirement age to determine their reasons for clinical inactivity and what barriers, real or perceived, there were to reentry into the medical workforce. Methods A random sample of 4975 inactive physicians aged under 65 years was drawn from the Physician Masterfile of the American Medical Association in 2008. Physicians were mailed a survey about activity in medicine and perceived barriers to reentry. Chi-square statistics were used for significance tests of the association between categorical variables and t-tests were used to test differences between means. Results Our adjusted response rate was 36.1%. Respondents were fully retired (37.5%, not currently active in medicine (43.0% or now active (reentered, 19.4%. Nearly half (49.5% were in or had practiced primary care. Personal health was the top reason for leaving for fully retired physicians (37.8% or those not currently active in medicine (37.8% and the second highest reason for physicians who had reentered (28.8%. For reentered (47.8% and inactive (51.5% physicians, the primary reason for returning or considering returning to practice was the availability of part-time work or flexible scheduling. Retired and currently inactive physicians used similar strategies to explore reentry, and 83% of both groups thought it would be difficult; among those who had reentered practice, 35.9% reported it was difficult to reenter. Retraining was uncommon for this group (37.5%. Conclusion Availability of part-time work and flexible scheduling have a strong influence on decisions to leave or reenter clinical practice. Lack of retraining before reentry raises questions about patient safety and the clinical competence of reentered physicians.

  15. PRC2 represses transcribed genes on the imprinted inactive X chromosome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclary, Emily; Hinten, Michael; Harris, Clair; Sethuraman, Shriya; Gayen, Srimonta; Kalantry, Sundeep

    2017-05-03

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes histone H3K27me3, which marks many transcriptionally silent genes throughout the mammalian genome. Although H3K27me3 is associated with silenced gene expression broadly, it remains unclear why some but not other PRC2 target genes require PRC2 and H3K27me3 for silencing. Here we define the transcriptional and chromatin features that predict which PRC2 target genes require PRC2/H3K27me3 for silencing by interrogating imprinted mouse X-chromosome inactivation. H3K27me3 is enriched at promoters of silenced genes across the inactive X chromosome. To abrogate PRC2 function, we delete the core PRC2 protein EED in F1 hybrid trophoblast stem cells (TSCs), which undergo imprinted inactivation of the paternally inherited X chromosome. Eed (-/-) TSCs lack H3K27me3 and Xist lncRNA enrichment on the inactive X chromosome. Despite the absence of H3K27me3 and Xist RNA, only a subset of the inactivated X-linked genes is derepressed in Eed (-/-) TSCs. Unexpectedly, in wild-type (WT) TSCs these genes are transcribed and are enriched for active chromatin hallmarks on the inactive-X, including RNA PolII, H3K27ac, and H3K36me3, but not the bivalent mark H3K4me2. By contrast, PRC2 targets that remain repressed in Eed (-/-) TSCs are depleted for active chromatin characteristics in WT TSCs. A comparative analysis of transcriptional and chromatin features of inactive X-linked genes in WT and Eed (-/-) TSCs suggests that PRC2 acts as a brake to prevent induction of transcribed genes on the inactive X chromosome, a mode of PRC2 function that may apply broadly.

  16. The impact of smoking on airflow limitation in subjects with history of asthma and inactive tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Although smoking is the most important and modifiable cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, other risk factors including asthma and tuberculosis (TB are also associated. It is common for COPD patients to have more than one of these risk factors. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of airflow limitation (FEV1/FVC<0.7 according to the risk factors and to investigate their impact and interaction in airflow limitation.From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2012, we analyzed participants over 40 years of age by spirometry, chest radiograph and questionnaire about asthma and smoking history.Of 12,631 participants, 1,548 (12.3% had airflow limitation. The prevalence of airflow limitation in smokers (≥10 pack-year, asthmatics, and those with inactive TB was 23.9%, 32.1%, and 33.6%. The prevalence increased with the number of risk factors: 86.1% had airflow limitation if they had all three risk factors. Impacts of inactive TB and asthma on airflow limitation were equivalent to 47 and 69 pack-years of smoking, respectively. Airflow limitation resulted from lower levels of smoking in those with inactive TB and asthma. A potential interaction between smoking and inactive tuberculosis in the development of airflow limitation was identified (p = 0.054.Asthma and inactive TB lesions increase susceptibility to smoking in the development of airflow limitation. People with these risk factors should be seen as a major target population for anti-smoking campaigns to prevent COPD.

  17. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.

  18. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  19. Probing kinetic drug binding mechanism in voltage-gated sodium ion channel: open state versus inactive state blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Krishnendu; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics of open state and inactive state drug binding mechanisms have been studied here using different voltage protocols in sodium ion channel. We have found that for constant voltage protocol, open state block is more efficient in blocking ionic current than inactive state block. Kinetic effect comes through peak current for mexiletine as an open state blocker and in the tail part for lidocaine as an inactive state blocker. Although the inactivation of sodium channel is a free energy driven process, however, the two different kinds of drug affect the inactivation process in a different way as seen from thermodynamic analysis. In presence of open state drug block, the process initially for a long time remains entropy driven and then becomes free energy driven. However in presence of inactive state block, the process remains entirely entropy driven until the equilibrium is attained. For oscillating voltage protocol, the inactive state blocking is more efficient in damping the oscillation of ionic current. From the pulse train analysis it is found that inactive state blocking is less effective in restoring normal repolarisation and blocks peak ionic current. Pulse train protocol also shows that all the inactive states behave differently as one inactive state responds instantly to the test pulse in an opposite manner from the other two states.

  20. Physical Inactivity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Relevance of Various Dimensions of Inequality in a Swedish Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Laura; Nermo, Magnus; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-01-01

    As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e.,…

  1. The older worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, J S; Fallon, L F

    2001-01-01

    About one person in eight remains employed past 65, the average age for retirement in the U.S. These persons tend to be highly reliable. They can adapt and learn new technology, but may require extra time to do so. Older workers have particular needs in the workplace due to physiological changes that accompany aging. They may require more lighting, and they may have decreased mobility, physical strength, and dexterity. These factors often have no impact on their ability to accomplish job duties. This chapter underscores the significant contributions that older workers often provide, and also addresses retirement planning.

  2. Obesity in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Virginia B

    2016-03-01

    The percentage of older obese adults is on the rise. Many clinicians underestimate the health consequences of obesity in the elderly, citing scarce evidence and concerns that weight loss might be detrimental to the health of older adults. Although overweight and obese elders are not at the same risk for morbidity and mortality as younger individuals, quality of life and function are adversely impacted. Weight loss plans in the elderly should include aerobic activities as well as balance and resistance activities to maintain optimal physical function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  4. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  5. How Older People Position Their Late-Life Childlessness: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ruth E. S.; Wiles, Janine L.

    2013-01-01

    This research explored how older people describe their paths to late-life childlessness. In-depth accounts from 38 childless older people, age 63-93, highlight the complex journeys and diverse meanings of childlessness for male and female participants, single and partnered, including some who had outlived children. Positioning theory is used to…

  6. A Comparison of Intellectual and Behavioral Functioning in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael C.; Kramer, Nanette A.

    In order to ascertain the extent to which older persons' levels of behavioral functioning parallel their levels of intellectual functioning, 42 female patients, aged 61-99, of an outpatient comprehensive care geriatric clinic, completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), the…

  7. Food Security in Older Australians from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Bird, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the experiences and barriers to food security of community-dwelling older people. Design: Quantitative questionnaire and 5 focus group discussions using purposive sampling. Setting: Shire of Melton, Victoria, Australia. Participants: Thirty-seven people (13 male and 24 female), between 58 and 85 years of age, from…

  8. Food Security in Older Australians from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Bird, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the experiences and barriers to food security of community-dwelling older people. Design: Quantitative questionnaire and 5 focus group discussions using purposive sampling. Setting: Shire of Melton, Victoria, Australia. Participants: Thirty-seven people (13 male and 24 female), between 58 and 85 years of age, from…

  9. A Comparison of Intellectual and Behavioral Functioning in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael C.; Kramer, Nanette A.

    In order to ascertain the extent to which older persons' levels of behavioral functioning parallel their levels of intellectual functioning, 42 female patients, aged 61-99, of an outpatient comprehensive care geriatric clinic, completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), the…

  10. Transport dynamics of molecular motors that switch between an active and inactive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkoviezky, I; Gov, N S

    2013-08-01

    Molecular motors are involved in key transport processes in the cell. Many of these motors can switch from an active to a nonactive state, either spontaneously or depending on their interaction with other molecules. When active, the motors move processively along the filaments, while when inactive they are stationary. We treat here the simple case of spontaneously switching motors, between the active and inactive states, along an open linear track. We use our recent analogy with vehicular traffic, where we go beyond the mean-field description. We map the phase diagram of this system, and find that it clearly breaks the symmetry between the different phases, as compared to the standard total asymmetric exclusion process. We make several predictions that may be testable using molecular motors in vitro and in living cells.

  11. Influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium–tritium plasma containing inactive impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gus’kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Sherman, V. E. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The degree of influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium–tritium (DT) plasma has been theoretically studied as dependent on the content of inactive impurities in plasma. The analytic criterion of plasma ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets is modified taking into account the absorption of intrinsic radiation from plasma in the ignition region. The influence of radiative processes on the DT plasma ignition has been analytically and numerically studied for plasma that contains a significant fraction of inactive impurities either as a result of DT fuel mixing with ICF target ablator material or as a result of using light metal DT-hydrides as solid noncryogenic fuel. It has been shown that the effect of the absorption of intrinsic radiation leads to lower impurity-induced increase in the ignition energy as compared to that calculated in the approximation of optically transparent ignition region.

  12. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded...... and after exercise, PPTs increased to the same degree in active and inactive subjects, and the CPM and EIH responses were correlated (P CPM response immediately after cold pressor test was maintained in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Cold pressor stimulation and aerobic exercise caused...... comparable multisegmental increases in PPT in active and inactive men and women. The CPM and EIH responses were correlated, but they have different temporal manifestation of hypoalgesia....

  13. 3D Studies of Neutral and Ionised Gas and Stars in Seyfert and Inactive Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mundell, C G; Schinnerer, E; Nagar, N; Haan, S; Wilcots, E; Wilson, A S; Emsellem, E; Ferruit, P; Peletier, R F; De Zeeuw, P T

    2006-01-01

    We are conducting the first systematic 3D spectroscopic imaging survey to quantify the properties of the atomic gas (HI) in a distance-limited sample of 28 Seyfert galaxies and a sample of 28 inactive control galaxies with well-matched optical properties (the VHIKINGS survey). This study aims to address the role of the host galaxy in nuclear activity and confront outstanding controversies in optical/IR imaging surveys. Early results show possible relationships between Seyfert activity and HI extent, content and the prevalence of small, nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxies (M(HI)~10^7 Msun); results will be tested via rigorous comparison with control galaxies. Initial results from our optical followup study of 15 of our galaxies using the SAURON integral field unit on the WHT suggest a possible difference between Seyfert and inactive stellar and gaseous kinematics that support the conclusion that internal kinematics of galaxies are the key to nuclear activity.

  14. Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ananya; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Tsien, Richard W

    2011-12-18

    Recurrent excitatory circuits face extreme challenges in balancing efficacy and stability. We recorded from CA3 pyramidal neuron pairs in rat hippocampal slice cultures to characterize synaptic and circuit-level changes in recurrent synapses resulting from long-term inactivity. Chronic tetrodotoxin treatment greatly reduced the percentage of connected CA3-CA3 neurons, but enhanced the strength of the remaining connections; presynaptic release probability sharply increased, whereas quantal size was unaltered. Connectivity was decreased in activity-deprived circuits by functional silencing of synapses, whereas three-dimensional anatomical analysis revealed no change in spine or bouton density or aggregate dendrite length. The silencing arose from enhanced Cdk5 activity and could be reverted by acute Cdk5 inhibition with roscovitine. Our results suggest that recurrent circuits adapt to chronic inactivity by reallocating presynaptic weights heterogeneously, strengthening certain connections while silencing others. This restricts synaptic output and input, preserving signaling efficacy among a subset of neuronal ensembles while protecting network stability.

  15. A new algorithm for inactive orbital optimization in valence bond theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhenHua; ZHANG QianEr; WU Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for energy gradients in valence bond self-consistent field (VBSCF) method with non-orthogonal orbitals.The frozen core approximation method is extended to the case of non-orthogonal orbitals.The expressions for the total energy and its gradients are presented by introducing auxiliary orbitals,where inactive orbitals are orthogonal,while active orbitals are non-orthogonal themselves but orthogonal to inactive orbitsls.It is shown that our new algorithm has a low scaling of (N_a+ 1)m~4,where N_a and m are the numbers of the active orbitals and basis functions,respectively,and is more efficient than the existing VBSCF algorithms.

  16. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  17. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  18. A new algorithm for inactive orbital optimization in valence bond theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for energy gradients in valence bond self-consistent field(VBSCF) method with non-orthogonal orbitals.The frozen core approximation method is extended to the case of non-orthogonal orbitals.The expressions for the total energy and its gradients are presented by introducing auxiliary orbitals,where inactive orbitals are orthogonal,while active orbitals are non-orthogonal themselves but orthogonal to inactive orbitals.It is shown that our new algorithm has a low scaling of(Na+1)m4,where Na and m are the numbers of the active orbitals and basis functions,respectively,and is more efficient than the existing VBSCF algorithms.

  19. Influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium-tritium plasma containing inactive impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Sherman, V. E.

    2016-08-01

    The degree of influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma has been theoretically studied as dependent on the content of inactive impurities in plasma. The analytic criterion of plasma ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets is modified taking into account the absorption of intrinsic radiation from plasma in the ignition region. The influence of radiative processes on the DT plasma ignition has been analytically and numerically studied for plasma that contains a significant fraction of inactive impurities either as a result of DT fuel mixing with ICF target ablator material or as a result of using light metal DT-hydrides as solid noncryogenic fuel. It has been shown that the effect of the absorption of intrinsic radiation leads to lower impurity-induced increase in the ignition energy as compared to that calculated in the approximation of optically transparent ignition region.

  20. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  1. Depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults, but it can have serious consequences. More than half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and are more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are depressed younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late-life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late-life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but are too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support.

  2. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  3. Activities for Older People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Along with the improvement of the standard of living and medical care the lifespan of people in China has increased greatly in the 1990s. There are more older people living in Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin than in the rest of the country. The government and

  4. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  5. Dance for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  6. Older migrants in exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne; Minet, Lisbeth; Zeraiq, Lina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the everyday life conditions experienced by older migrants and their reasons for specific age- and health-related behaviour during the conduct of everyday life. The study comprised 16 qualitative interviews with migrants aged 56-96 years from Palestine, Lebanon...

  7. Physical exercise minimizes the toxic triad for cancer: Physical inactivity, low fitness, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Rojas, Javier Salvador; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Pareja Galeano, Helios

    2016-01-01

    The so-called toxic triad of factors linked to cancer, namely obesity, poor cardiorespiratory fitness and physical inactivity, increase the risk of cancer and, when cancer is present, worsen its prognosis. Thus, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have been linked to an elevated cancer risk whereas regular physical exercise and good cardiorespiratory function (CRF) diminish this risk. Despite genetic risk factors, there is evidence to show that some lifestyle modifications are capable of reduci...

  8. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  9. Differences in some physical characteristics and motor abilities at dance active and dance inactive children

    OpenAIRE

    Petrič, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In Degree dissertation titled “Differences in some physical characteristics and motor abilities at dance active and dance inactive children” we compared some physical characteristics and motor abilities in the two groups of children: the ones that are taking the interests in dance and the ones that are not interested in dance. In theoretical part of dissertation we presented the offer of dance schools in Slovenia, projects School dance festival, recognition of dance in elementary schools, in...

  10. The use of periodization in exercise prescriptions for inactive adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Strohacker

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although it is premature to conclude that periodized exercise is superior to non-periodized exercise for improving health outcomes, periodization appears to be a feasible means of prescribing exercise to inactive adults within an intervention setting. Further research is necessary to understand the effectiveness of periodizing aerobic exercise, the psychological effects of periodization, and the feasibility of implementing flexible non-linear methods.

  11. Pyridinediimine Iron Complexes with Pendant Redox-Inactive Metals Located in the Secondary Coordination Sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Mayra; Ziegler, Joshua M; Seda, Takele; Zakharov, Lev N; Gilbertson, John D

    2016-01-19

    A series of pyridinediimine (PDI) iron complexes that contain a pendant 15-crown-5 located in the secondary coordination sphere were synthesized and characterized. The complex Fe((15c5)PDI)(CO)2 (2) was shown in both the solid state and solution to encapsulate redox-inactive metal ions. Modest shifts in the reduction potential of the metal-ligand scaffold were observed upon encapsulation of either Na(+) or Li(+).

  12. Redox potential tuning by redox-inactive cations in nature's water oxidizing catalyst and synthetic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewald, Vera; Neese, Frank; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

    2016-04-28

    The redox potential of synthetic oligonuclear transition metal complexes has been shown to correlate with the Lewis acidity of a redox-inactive cation connected to the redox-active transition metals of the cluster via oxo or hydroxo bridges. Such heterometallic clusters are important cofactors in many metalloenzymes, where it is speculated that the redox-inactive constituent ion of the cluster serves to optimize its redox potential for electron transfer or catalysis. A principal example is the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II of natural photosynthesis, a Mn4CaO5 cofactor that oxidizes water into dioxygen, protons and electrons. Calcium is critical for catalytic function, but its precise role is not yet established. In analogy to synthetic complexes it has been suggested that Ca(2+) fine-tunes the redox potential of the manganese cluster. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by computing the relative redox potentials of substituted derivatives of the oxygen-evolving complex with the cations Sr(2+), Gd(3+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Sc(3+), Na(+) and Y(3+) for two sequential transitions of its catalytic cycle. The theoretical approach is validated with a series of experimentally well-characterized Mn3AO4 cubane complexes that are structural mimics of the enzymatic cluster. Our results reproduce perfectly the experimentally observed correlation between the redox potential and the Lewis acidities of redox-inactive cations for the synthetic complexes. However, it is conclusively demonstrated that this correlation does not hold for the oxygen evolving complex. In the enzyme the redox potential of the cluster only responds to the charge of the redox-inactive cations and remains otherwise insensitive to their precise identity, precluding redox-tuning of the metal cluster as a primary role for Ca(2+) in biological water oxidation.

  13. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  14. Estimation of cancer incidence and mortality attributable to overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Wang, Jian-Bing; Wei, Wen-Qiang; Liang, Hao; Qiao, You-Lin; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to provide an evidence-based, systematic assessment of the burden of cancer due to overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in China. This study evaluated the proportion of cancers of colon, rectum, pancreas, breast (postmenopausal), endometrium, and kidney attributable to overweight [30 kg/m(2) > body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2))/obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and physical inactivity in China in 2005. Data of prevalence of overweight/obesity and lack of physical activity were derived from cross-sectional surveys among representative samples of Chinese population, and data of relative risks on cancers were derived from meta-analyses or large-scale studies from China and East Asian populations. The attributable fractions were calculated by combining both data of prevalence and relative risks. In China in 2005, 0.32% of cancer deaths and 0.65% of cancer cases were attributable to overweight and obesity combined. Lack of physical activity was responsible for 0.27% of cancer deaths and 0.39% of cancer cases. Future projections indicate that the contribution of overweight and obesity to the overall cancer burden will increase in the next decades. The largest increased attributable fractions will be for endometrial cancer. The increase in attributable fractions would be greater in men and in rural populations. Although the current burden of cancer associated with overweight/obesity and physical inactivity is still relatively small in China, it is expected to increase in the future.

  15. The Effect of Whole-body Vibration on Muscle Activity in Active and Inactive Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhard, K; Vienneau, J; Friesenbichler, B; Nigg, S; Meste, O; Nigg, B M; Colson, S S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare lower limb muscle activity between physically active and inactive individuals during whole-body vibration exercises. Additionally, transmissibility of the vertical acceleration to the head was quantified. 30 active and 28 inactive participants volunteered to stand in a relaxed (20°) and a squat (60°) position on a side-alternating WBV platform that induced vibrations at 16 Hz and 4 mm amplitude. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured in selected lower limb muscles and was normalized to the corresponding sEMG recorded during a maximal voluntary contraction. The vertical acceleration on the head was evaluated and divided by the vertical platform acceleration to obtain transmissibility values. Control trials without vibration were also assessed. The outcomes of this study showed that (1) WBV significantly increased muscle activity in the active (absolute increase: +7%, P 0.05). However, (3), transmissibility to the head was greater in the active (0.080) than the inactive participants (0.065, P active counterparts, but are at lower risk for potential side-effects of vibration exposure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years....... In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low...

  17. Inactive DNMT3B splice variants modulate de novo DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; Hartono, Stella R; Chédin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Inactive DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B splice isoforms are associated with changes in DNA methylation, yet the mechanisms by which they act remain largely unknown. Using biochemical and cell culture assays, we show here that the inactive DNMT3B3 and DNMT3B4 isoforms bind to and regulate the activity of catalytically competent DNMT3A or DNMT3B molecules. DNMT3B3 modestly stimulated the de novo methylation activity of DNMT3A and also counteracted the stimulatory effects of DNMT3L, therefore leading to subtle and contrasting effects on activity. DNMT3B4, by contrast, significantly inhibited de novo DNA methylation by active DNMT3 molecules, most likely due to its ability to reduce the DNA binding affinity of co-complexes, thereby sequestering them away from their substrate. Immunocytochemistry experiments revealed that in addition to their effects on the intrinsic catalytic function of active DNMT3 enzymes, DNMT3B3 and DNMT34 drive distinct types of chromatin compaction and patterns of histone 3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) deposition. Our findings suggest that regulation of active DNMT3 members through the formation of co-complexes with inactive DNMT3 variants is a general mechanism by which DNMT3 variants function. This may account for some of the changes in DNA methylation patterns observed during development and disease.

  18. Inactive DNMT3B splice variants modulate de novo DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    Full Text Available Inactive DNA methyltransferase (DNMT 3B splice isoforms are associated with changes in DNA methylation, yet the mechanisms by which they act remain largely unknown. Using biochemical and cell culture assays, we show here that the inactive DNMT3B3 and DNMT3B4 isoforms bind to and regulate the activity of catalytically competent DNMT3A or DNMT3B molecules. DNMT3B3 modestly stimulated the de novo methylation activity of DNMT3A and also counteracted the stimulatory effects of DNMT3L, therefore leading to subtle and contrasting effects on activity. DNMT3B4, by contrast, significantly inhibited de novo DNA methylation by active DNMT3 molecules, most likely due to its ability to reduce the DNA binding affinity of co-complexes, thereby sequestering them away from their substrate. Immunocytochemistry experiments revealed that in addition to their effects on the intrinsic catalytic function of active DNMT3 enzymes, DNMT3B3 and DNMT34 drive distinct types of chromatin compaction and patterns of histone 3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3 deposition. Our findings suggest that regulation of active DNMT3 members through the formation of co-complexes with inactive DNMT3 variants is a general mechanism by which DNMT3 variants function. This may account for some of the changes in DNA methylation patterns observed during development and disease.

  19. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  20. CHANGES IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DURING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Dimec Časar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated weightlessness by bed rest model represents an important method to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity on psychological distress, depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life of healthy male adults. Participants were ten volunteers, aged between 21 and 28 years who were subjected to a 35-day head-down bed rest. Psychological state of the participants was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Participants completed psychological inventories before, during and after the experiment. The results revealed no significant differences in mental health and satisfaction with life of participants following the head-down bed rest, however there was a tendency towards an increase in neurotic and depressive symptoms at the end of the experiment. The obtained results are interpreted in the light of stimulative living conditions in which the experiment was carried out, as well as the amount and quality of social interactions during the period of extended physical inactivity.

  1. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older ... may wonder if it’s too late to quit smoking. Or you may ask yourself if it’s even ...

  2. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online training for health care providers. Learn More Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... get older. What You Can Do to Prevent Hip Fractures You can prevent hip fractures by taking steps ...

  3. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  4. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsavan Philayrath

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4 aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4% of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97 and high household

  5. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy; Nguyen, Binh; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pratt, Michael; Lawson, Kenny D

    2017-10-01

    To summarise the literature on the economic burden of physical inactivity in populations, with emphases on appraising the methodologies and providing recommendations for future studies. Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016047705). Electronic databases for peer-reviewed and grey literature were systematically searched, followed by reference searching and consultation with experts. Studies that examined the economic consequences of physical inactivity in a population/population-based sample, with clearly stated methodologies and at least an abstract/summary written in English. Of the 40 eligible studies, 27 focused on direct healthcare costs only, 13 also estimated indirect costs and one study additionally estimated household costs. For direct costs, 23 studies used a population attributable fraction (PAF) approach with estimated healthcare costs attributable to physical inactivity ranging from 0.3% to 4.6% of national healthcare expenditure; 17 studies used an econometric approach, which tended to yield higher estimates than those using a PAF approach. For indirect costs, 10 studies used a human capital approach, two used a friction cost approach and one used a value of a statistical life approach. Overall, estimates varied substantially, even within the same country, depending on analytical approaches, time frame and other methodological considerations. Estimating the economic burden of physical inactivity is an area of increasing importance that requires further development. There is a marked lack of consistency in methodological approaches and transparency of reporting. Future studies could benefit from cross-disciplinary collaborations involving economists and physical activity experts, taking a societal perspective and following best practices in conducting and reporting analysis, including accounting for potential confounding, reverse causality and

  6. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  7. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Female Sexual Dysfunction February 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... Resources Mayo Clinic Cleveland Clinic What is female sexual dysfunction (FSD)? Many women have a low sex ...

  8. Gender, educational and ethnic differences in active life expectancy among older Singaporeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angelique; Malhotra, Rahul; Matchar, David B; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compute total life expectancy (TLE), active life expectancy (ALE) and inactive life expectancy among older Singaporeans by gender, education and ethnicity. Data from a longitudinal survey of older Singaporeans were used. No difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living was considered as "active." Transition probabilities across health states (active/inactive/dead) were assessed to develop multistate life tables, which estimated TLE, ALE and inactive life expectancy. At age 60 years, women, versus men, had significantly higher TLE (25.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24.0-27.8 vs 21.6, 95% CI 20.1-23.1), but similar ALE (18.1, 95% CI 17.0-19.2 vs 18.9, 95% CI 17.7-20.2). Those with high (secondary or higher), versus low (primary or less), education had significantly higher TLE (28.5, 95% CI 25.0-32.0 vs 22.5, 95% CI 21.1-23.9) and ALE (23.5, 95% CI 21.2-25.7 vs 17.1, 95% CI 16.1-18.0) at age 60 years. Those of Chinese, versus non-Chinese, ethnicity had significantly higher ALE at age 60 years (19.4, 95% CI 18.4-20.3 vs 15.0, 95% CI 13.4-16.7). Unlike Western nations, there was no gender difference in ALE among older adults in Singapore. However, difference in ALE by education among older Singaporeans was similar to that observed in Western societies. Policies focusing specifically on improving women's health at all ages, in addition to policies that increase population education levels, are promising approaches to improving ALE. Recognizing ethnic differences in ALE will help target policies that increase ALE in multicultural societies. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Discourse Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Alvin J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed older (N=33) and middle-aged (N=18) women on linguistic discourse tasks. Subjects were interviewed, administered cognitive tests, and given narrative and procedural discourse tasks. Older subjects generally performed more poorly than did middle-aged subjects. Within the older group, measures of quality of disclosure were generally…

  10. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  11. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    ) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...... inactivity from age 50 to 60 to 70 on disability at age 75 when adjusting for functional ability at age 70. Physical inactivity is a risk factor for disability among old people. Thus, old people should be encouraged to take up and maintain physical training throughout the aging process....

  12. Influência do estado de treinamento sobre o comportamento da pressão arterial após uma sessão de exercícios com pesos em idosas hipertensas Influence of the training status on the blood pressure behavior after a resistance training session in hypertensive older females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bruno Yoshinaga Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: São escassas as investigações envolvendo o efeito hipotensivo pós-esforço dos exercícios com pesos em idosos e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, diastólica (PAD e média (PAM após uma sessão de exercícios com pesos em idosas hipertensas treinadas e não treinadas. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 15 mulheres (66 ± 4 anos; 63,9 ± 9,1kg; 1,6 ± 0,1m divididas em grupo treinadas (GT; n = 6 e grupo não treinadas (GNT; n = 9. A amostra foi submetida aleatoriamente a uma sessão controle (SC, na qual permaneceram sentadas em repouso por 40 min e a uma sessão experimental (SE, realizando sete exercícios com pesos executados em duas séries de 10-15 repetições máximas. A pressão arterial foi verificada pelo método auscultatório após 10 min de repouso no período pré-exercício e em ciclos de 15 min durante 1h após o término da sessão. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos para as variáveis analisadas no período pré-exercício. A análise de variância para medidas repetidas identificou, no GT, PAS significativamente menor no 30º min após o exercício comparado com o repouso (P = 0,03 durante a SE e nenhuma diferença na SC. O GNT apresentou reduções na PAS (P BACKGROUND: There are few studies on post-resistance exercise hypotension in hypertensive older females. PURPOSE: To verify the acute systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP response after a resistance exercise session performed by hypertensive elderly subjects with and without experience in resistance training. METHODS: Fifteen elderly women (66 ± 4 yrs; 63.9 ± 9.1 kg; 1.6 ± 0.1 m were divided in trained group (TG; n = 6 and non-trained group (NTG; n = 9. The sample performed a control session (CS - seated during 40 min and experimental session (ES - seven resistance exercises; two sets; 10-15 RM. Blood pressure was assessed by auscultation after 10

  13. Adult age and gender differences in perceptions of facial attractiveness: beauty is in the eye of the older beholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Paul W; Clark, M Cherie

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ratings of facial attractiveness, rankings of faces and reasons given by young, middle-aged, and older men and women for young, middle-aged, and older male and female face attractiveness. No support for predictions derived from similarity, interest, and cohort hypotheses was obtained. In support of the expertise hypothesis, young and middle-aged adults rated younger faces as more attractive than old faces, whereas older adults rated all aged faces equally. In support of the crone hypothesis, older female faces were rated the lowest of all faces. Theoretical implications and real-world applications are discussed.

  14. Leisure-time Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Older People: The Influence of Sport Involvement on Behaviour Patterns in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Gayman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the dramatic demographic change underway in most industrialized nations, the health of older adults is a major concern, particularly given the prevalence of sedentary behaviours and physical inactivity among ageing populations. Researchers have suggested sport participation in later life promotes other health-related behaviours, however, these relationships are poorly understood. It is possible for individuals to be classified as sufficiently active and still spend most of their day involved in sedentary pursuits. Moreover, there is little information on older sport participants’ use of time compared to leisurely active or inactive peers and whether type of physical activity involvement is associated with differences in older adults’ behaviour patterns. With this in mind, data from 1,723 respondents (65 years and older who completed the sport module of the 2010 Canadian General Social Survey–Time Use were used to investigate the influence of physical activity involvement (competitive sport vs. non-competitive sport vs. physically active leisure vs. inactivity on time spent in leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Results indicated that competitive sport participants spent less time engaging in sedentary behaviours compared to the physically active leisure or inactive respondents; however, sport participants (both competitive and non-competitive also spent less time engaging in leisure-time physical activities than the physically active leisure group. Implications of these findings to assumptions related to the activity levels of older sport participants, suggestions for future research, and considerations for sport-related interventions aimed at enhancing health in older adulthood are discussed.

  15. Shared Reproductive State Enhances Female Associations in Dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Möller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Female bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus. We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves. This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottlenose dolphins.

  16. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gerage,Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina,Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves,Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Edilson Serpeloni CYRINO

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent ...

  17. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  18. Weight loss and physical activity for disease prevention in obese older adults: an important role for lifestyle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Willy Marcos; Stoutenberg, Mark; Florez, Hermes

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss in older adults has been a controversial topic for more than a decade. An obesity paradox has been previously described and the issue of weight status on health outcomes remains a highly debated topic. However, there is little doubt that physical activity (PA) has a myriad of benefits in older adults, especially in obese individuals who are inactive and have a poor cardiometabolic profile. In this review, we offer a critical view to clarify misunderstandings regarding the obesity paradox, particularly as it relates to obese older adults. We also review the evidence on PA and lifestyle interventions for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness, which can prevent disease and provide benefits to obese older adults, independent of weight changes.

  19. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  20. Depressive symptoms are associated with physical inactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, Berber; Pouwer, Francois; de Bie, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    through decreased physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To test whether type 2 diabetes patients with elevated depression scores are more often physically inactive. METHODS: Demographic features, clinical factors, level of physical inactivity and depressive symptoms were assessed in 2646 primary care patients...... with type 2 diabetes. Sequential multiple logistic regression analyses [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI)] were performed to test the association between depressive symptoms and physical inactivity. RESULTS: About 48% of the respondents were physically inactive. Elevated depressive symptoms were......BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication of type 2 diabetes, associated with poor disease outcomes such as impaired glycaemic control, cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. The mechanisms behind these associations are unclear. Depression might contribute to poor disease outcomes...

  1. Hospitalisations due to falls in older persons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, D

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes hospitalisations due to falls among people aged 65 years and over resident in the Eastern Region of Ireland. Of the 2,029 hospitalisations recorded for 2002, 78% were female and 68% were aged 75 years and over. Fractures accounted for 1,697 or 84% of cases with nearly half of them (841) sustained to the hip. Females were more likely to have a limb fracture whereas males were more likely to have a head injury. The total inpatient costs of the 2,029 hospitalisations were estimated at 10.6 million euros. Hip fractures were the costliest injuries as they accounted for 7.4 million euros (70%) of inpatient costs. There are also substantial additional costs implications for hip fractures as they constituted the majority (56%) of cases transferred to nursing\\/convalescent homes or long-stay health facilities. In keeping with an ageing population, the problem of injuries in older people is likely to increase over time and as falls are the dominant cause of those injuries, all acute and long-stay health facilities need to develop and implement fall prevention strategies for older people.

  2. Administration of additional inactive iodide during radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. Who might benefit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Reinholz, U.; Schmidt, M.; Schomaecker, K.; Schicha, H.; Wellner, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2007-07-01

    Aim: Graves' hyperthyroidism and antithyroid drugs empty the intrathyroid stores of hormones and iodine. The consequence is rapid {sup 131}I turnover and impending failure of radioiodine therapy. Can administration of additional inactive iodide improve 131I kinetics? Patients, methods: Fifteen consecutive patients, in whom the 48 h post-therapeutically calculated thyroid dose was between 150 and 249 Gy due to an unexpectedly short half-life, received 3 x 200 {mu}g inactive potassium-iodide ({sup 127}I) daily for 3 days (Group A), while 17 consecutive patients with a thyroid dose of = 250 Gy (Group B) served as the non-iodide group. 48 hours after {sup 131}I administration (M1) and 4 or 5 days later (M2) the following parameters were compared: effective {sup 131}I half-life, thyroid dose, total T3, total T4, {sup 131}I-activity in the T3- and T4-RIAs. Results: In Group A, the effective {sup 131}I half-life M1 before iodine (3.81 {+-} 0.93 days) was significantly (p <0.01) shorter than the effective {sup 131}I half-life M2 (4.65 {+-} 0.79 days). Effective {sup 131}I half-life M1 correlated with the benefit from inactive {sup 127}I (r = -0.79): Administration of {sup 127}I was beneficial in patients with an effective {sup 131}I half-life M1 of <3 or 4 days. Patients from Group A with high initial specific {sup 131}I activity of T3 and T4 showed lower specific {sup 131}I activity after addition of inactive iodine compared with patients from the same group with a lower initial specific {sup 131}I activity of T3 and T4 and compared with the patient group B who was given no additional inactive iodide. This correlation was mathematically described and reflected in the flatter gradient in Group A (y = 0.5195x + 0.8727 for {sup 131}I T3 and y = 1.0827x - 0.4444 for {sup 131}I T4) and steeper gradient for Group B (y = 0.6998x + 0.5417 for {sup 131}I T3 and y = 1.3191x - 0.2901 for {sup 131}I T4). Radioiodine therapy was successful in all 15 patients from Group A

  3. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and t...

  4. Targeting physical activity promotion in general practice: Characteristics of inactive patients and willingness to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Pinilla Ricardo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselling in routine general practice to promote physical activity (PA is advocated, but inadequate evidence is available to support this intervention, and its sustainable implementation over time is difficult. Objectives To describe the characteristics of physically inactive adults visiting GPs and the factors associated with their willingness to change PA. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 4317 Spanish people aged 20–80 years, selected by systematic sampling among those attending 56 public primary health care practices identified as inactive by their GPs in 2003. PA (7-day PAR, PA stage of change, health-related quality of life (SF-36, cardiovascular risk factors, and social and demographic characteristics were measured. Multivariate mixed effects ordinal logistic models were adjusted to identify factors associated with motivational readiness to change. Results At least 70% (95% CI: 67.6% to 72.8% of patients assessed by GPs did not achieve minimal PA recommendations. In addition, 85% (95% CI: 83% to 86.3% had at least an additional cardiovascular risk factor. Only 30% (95% CI: 25.8% to 33.5% were prepared for or attempting a change. A younger age; retirement or work at home; higher education and social class levels; obesity; and hypertension were associated with a higher motivational readiness to change (p Conclusion The overburden that would result from counselling such a high proportion of inactive primary care patients justifies a targeted strategy for PA promotion in family practice. Selection of a target population based on readiness to change, the combination of risk factors and socio-demographic characteristics of patients is suggested in order to prioritise promotion efforts.

  5. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  6. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in active and inactive immunoinflammatory gonarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Lorenzen, I; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    examined 16 clinically active (CAG), 7 clinically inactive (CIG) and 4 healthy knees. The synovium of a preselected slice was outlined. Its area and relative signal intensity increase after gadopentetate dimeglumine on T1-SE and FLASH (at each time t) were calculated. The CAG knees showed a mean signal...... intensity increase on early dynamic FLASH images higher by far than the CIG knees, while no significant difference was found on spin-echo images obtained 5 to 15 min after contrast injection. The early signal enhancement probably reflects the perfusion and capillary permeability of the synovium. The area...

  7. Remedial action plan for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Monument Valley, Arizona It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  8. Chronic fatigue syndrome in an ethnically diverse population: the influence of psychosocial adversity and physical inactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessely Simon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a complex multifactorial disorder. This paper reports the prevalence of chronic fatigue (CF and CFS in an ethnically diverse population sample and tests whether prevalence varies by social adversity, social support, physical inactivity, anxiety and depression. Methods Analysis of survey data linking the Health Survey for England (1998 and 1999 and the Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community (EMPIRIC study undertaken in 2000. The study population comprised a national population sample of 4,281 people ages 16 to 74 years. CF and CFS were operationally defined on the basis of an interview in the EMPIRIC study, alongside questions about psychosocial risk factors. Previous illnesses were reported in the Health Survey for England during 1998 and 1999, as was physical inactivity. Results All ethnic minority groups had a higher prevalence of CFS than the White group. The lowest prevalence was 0.8% in the White group, and it was highest at 3.5% in the Pakistani group (odds ratio (OR, 4.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI, 1.6 to 10.4. Anxiety (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.2, depression (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8, physical inactivity (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.8, social strain (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.48 and negative aspects of social support (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.3 were independent risk factors for CFS in the overall sample. Together these risk factors explained ethnic differences in the prevalence of CFS, but no single risk factor could explain a higher prevalence in all ethnic groups. Conclusions The prevalence of CFS, but not CF, varies by ethnic group. Anxiety, depression, physical inactivity, social strain and negative aspects of social support together accounted for prevalence differences of CFS in the overall sample.

  9. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in active and inactive immunoinflammatory gonarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Lorenzen, I; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    examined 16 clinically active (CAG), 7 clinically inactive (CIG) and 4 healthy knees. The synovium of a preselected slice was outlined. Its area and relative signal intensity increase after gadopentetate dimeglumine on T1-SE and FLASH (at each time t) were calculated. The CAG knees showed a mean signal...... intensity increase on early dynamic FLASH images higher by far than the CIG knees, while no significant difference was found on spin-echo images obtained 5 to 15 min after contrast injection. The early signal enhancement probably reflects the perfusion and capillary permeability of the synovium. The area...

  10. Therapy of ovarian inactivity in postpartum Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by PRID and Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanimir Yotov; Anatoli Atanasov; Yordanka Ilieva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the present study was to assess therapeutical effect of modified Ovsynch and PRID estrus synchronization protocols in Bulgarian Murrah buffalo with inactive ovaries during the low-breeding season. Methods:The study was carried out in 46 Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes with small inactive ovaries established by two consecutive transrectal ultrasonographies on Day 40 and 50 postpartum. At the start of the therapy the buffaloes were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n=18) was treated by PRID-based protocol;Group II (n=18) was treated by Ovsynch based protocol and Group III (control;n=10) was injected intramuscular with saline at the same days as in the first two groups and fertile bull was introduced after that. The animals in the different groups were submitted to ultrasound examination at day of artificial insemination or bull introduction. Ovulation was determined 7 days post insemination by ultrasound. The pregnancy diagnosis was done 30 days after insemination. Mean diameter of the largest follicles at the start of therapy and the day of AI was registered. In the hormonal treated buffaloes estrus clinical sings, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate after AI were determined. In the control group pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus was established. The mean diameter of the largest follicles determined on Days 40 and 50 after calving was not over 9 mm for all buffaloes. Results:At day of AI the average diameters of the preo-vulatory follicles in PRID and Ovsynch treated buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01) greater than these on Day 0. The cases of a clear uterine mucus discharge during the induced estrus were significant more (P<0.05) for Group I (94.4%) than Group II (66.7%). The pregnancy rate after AI (56.6%and 38.8%) in PRID and Ovsynch program was significant higher (P<0.05) than pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus (10%) in the control group. Conclusions:the treatment of buffalo ovarian inactivity could start on Day 50

  11. The black hole - bulge mass relation in active and inactive galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    New virial black-hole mass estimates are presented for a sample of 72 AGN covering three decades in optical luminosity. Using a model in which the AGN broad-line region (BLR) has a flattened geometry, we investigate the M_{bh)-L_{bulge} relation for a combined 90-object sample, consisting of the AGN plus a sample of 18 nearby inactive elliptical galaxies with dynamical black-hole mass measurements. It is found that, for all reasonable mass-to-light ratios, the M_{bh}-L_{bulge} relation is equ...

  12. Assessment of the Radiological Impact of the Inactive Uranium-Mill Tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Haywood, F. F.; Goldsmith, W. A.; Ellis, B. S.; Hubbard Jr., H. M.; Fox, W. F.; Shinpaugh, W. H.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1980-01-01

    High surface soil concentrations of 226Ra and high above-ground measurements of gamma-ray intensity in the vicinity of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat show both wind and water erosion of the tailings. The former mill area, occupied by a trade school at the time of this survey, shows a comparatively high level of contamination, probably from unprocessed ore on the surface of the ore storage area near the location of the former mill buildings. However, the estimated health e...

  13. The Effects of Incest on Therapist Assessment of Female Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiselman, Karin C.; Sheehy, Nancy

    The occurrence of incest in which a female child is molested by an older male family member may be increasing as the number of stepfamilies increases, because previous evidence suggests that girls living with stepfathers are at greater risk for molestation. If psychotherapists will be seeing more incest-history clients as a result of this trend,…

  14. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  15. Effects of physical exercise programme on happiness among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee-Pool, M; Sadeghi, R; Majlessi, F; Rahimi Foroushani, A

    2015-02-01

    This randomized-controlled trial investigated the effect of physical exercise programme (PEP) on happiness among older adults in Nowshahr, Iran. Results of this study on 120 male and female volunteers showed that an 8-week group physical exercise programme was significantly effective in older adults' happiness. Findings showed that physical exercise programme is so beneficial for increasing older adults' happiness. Physical activity is associated with well-being and happiness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week long physical exercise programme (PEP) on happiness among older adults in Nowshahr, Iran. This was a randomized control trial study. The participants consisted of a group of 120 male and female volunteers (mean ± SD age: 71 ± 5.86 years) in a convenience sampling among older adults in public parks in Nowshahr, Iran. We randomly allocated them into experimental (n = 60) and control (n = 60) groups. A validated instrument was used to measure well-being and happiness [Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI)]. Respondents were asked to complete the OHI before and 2 months after implementing PEP. The 8-week PEP was implemented with the intervention group. The statistical analysis of the data was conducted using paired t-test, Fisher's exact test and χ(2). Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in the happiness mean score between the case and control groups; however, after implementing PEP, happiness significantly improved among the experimental group (P = 0.001) and did not improve within the control group (P = 0.79). It can be concluded that PEP had positive effects on happiness among older adults. Planning and implementing of physical activity is so important for older happiness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Inatividade física no lazer em trabalhadores da indústria do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Physical inactivity during leisure-time among industrial workers from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovâni Firpo Del Duca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investigou a prevalência e os fatores associados à inatividade física no lazer em trabalhadores da indústria do Rio Grande do Sul. Empregou-se questionário para a coleta de dados, com uso da regressão de Poisson na análise. Participaram do estudo 2.265 trabalhadores, sendo a maioria homens (55,9%. Grande proporção dos trabalhadores enquadrou-se na faixa etária de até 29 anos (47,6%. A prevalência de inatividade física no lazer foi de 45,6% (IC95%: 43,5; 47,6, associando-se com: sexo feminino, ter companheiro(a, ser fumante, não estar satisfeito(a com o peso corporal e apresentar percepção negativa de bem-estar no lazer. Detectou-se associação direta do desfecho com o aumento da idade e associação inversa com a autopercepção de saúde. Conclui-se que a prevalência de inatividade física no lazer em trabalhadores foi elevada, sendo o sexo feminino e a percepção de bem-estar no lazer negativa os fatores mais fortemente associados à ocorrência de tal comportamento..The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors to physical inactivity during leisure-time in a representative sample of industrial workers from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Physical inactivity was defined as the negative response to the question: "Do you perform any type of physical activity during leisure-time, such as exercises (calisthenics, walking, jogging, sports, dance or martial arts?" The sample included 2,265 workers, and the prevalence of physical inactivity was 45.6% (CI95%: 43.5; 47.6, which was significantly higher for females, those living with a companion, smokers, those not satisfied with their body weight, and those with a negative perception of their own leisure. Besides, it was observed a positive association of physical inactivity with age, and a negative association with self assessment of health status. Overall, results indicate that the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among

  17. Older drivers, crashes and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Bohensky, Megan; Langford, Jim; Taranto, David

    2011-10-01

    This article aimed to identify the main features of older driver casualty crashes, including detailed descriptions of injury outcomes. Data were obtained from the Transport Accident Commission insurance claims database for 2 groups of drivers: aged 41 to 55 years (middle-aged drivers) and aged 65 years and older (older drivers). In terms of crash circumstances, the majority of crashes involved a collision with another vehicle (70.0% of middle-aged drivers and 68.7% of older drivers). The 2 main maneuvers at the time of crash were driving straight ahead (44.6% of middle-aged drivers and 42.8% of older drivers) and turning right (equivalent of left turn in North America; 15.2% of middle-aged drivers and 17.6% of older drivers). In terms of injury outcomes, older drivers sustained a significantly higher proportion of injuries to the thorax (30.9% compared to 18.5% of middle-aged drivers). Conversely, a significantly higher proportion of middle-aged drivers sustained some form of injury to the neck (30.6% compared to 12.1% of older drivers). These findings highlight the situations that are particularly risky for older drivers and provide important insights for developing solutions to reduce older driver crash and injury risk.

  18. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients: comparing adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henyse Gómez Valiente da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category Methods: Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. Results: A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p < 0.01 and a lower frequency of being overweight (7% vs. 15.1%, p < 0.01 than adults. Both, adult and older adults had a high frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. The older adults had lower consumption of calories, intake of iron and folic acid. Inadequacy of vitamin intake was observed in both groups; respectively, 52%, 43%, 95%, 76% and 88% for Vitamin A, C, D, E and folic acid. The older adults had a higher folic acid and calcium inadequacy than the adults (97% vs 82%, p <0.01; 88% vs 72%, p < 0.01. There was no association of micronutrient intake with cancer, nor with nutritional status. Conclusion: The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category.

  19. The prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Eschbach, Karl A; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in older Mexicans in the United States and Mexico. Stratified by sex, logistic regression models to predict physician-diagnosed hypertension were conducted by using the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (wave 3) and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (age > or =70 years) datasets. Older Mexican and Mexican American women have a greater prevalence of hypertension than their male counterparts. Mexican women who have migrated to the United States and returned to Mexico have similarly high rates of hypertension as their female counterparts in the United States. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, diabetes, obesity, alcohol use, and smoking, older Mexican women who have migrated to the United States are at increased risk for hypertension. Conversely, immigrant older Mexican American men are at significantly lower odds of hypertension. Sex differences exist in hypertension risk for older Mexicans and Mexican Americans living in the United States and Mexico. Older women who migrate to the United States are at a particular risk for hypertension in Mexico.

  20. Changes in physical activity and cognitive decline in older adults living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunhwan; Kim, Jinhee; Han, Eun Sook; Chae, Songi; Ryu, Mikyung; Ahn, Kwang Ho; Park, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity may be beneficial in preserving cognition in late life. This study examined the association between baseline and changes in physical activity and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older people. Data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, with 2605 aged 65 years and older subjects interviewed in 2006 and followed up for 2 years. Cognitive decline was defined by calculating the Reliable Change Index using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Physical activity levels were categorized as sedentary, low, or high. Changes in physical activity were classified as inactive, decreaser, increaser, or active. Logistic regression analysis of baseline and changes in physical activity with cognitive decline was performed. Compared with the sedentary group at baseline, both the low and high activity groups were less likely to experience cognitive decline. The active (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.68) and increaser (OR = 0.45, 95 % CI 0.27-0.74) group, compared with the inactive counterpart, demonstrated a significantly lower likelihood of cognitive decline. Older adults who remained active or increased activity over time had a reduced risk of cognitive decline. Engagement in physical activity in late life may have cognitive health benefits.

  1. Female-female cooperation in polygynous oystercatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; van Treuren, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Waders (Charadrii) provide biologists with an astonishing variety of mating systems to study(1). Male and female birds establish breeding units in which behaviour varies from monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, double clutching, lekking and serial monogamy to sex role reversal, and many mixed mating

  2. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  3. Moral dilemmas in females: children are more utilitarian than adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eBucciarelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Influential theories on moral judgments propose that they rely either on emotions or on innate moral principles. In contrast, the mental model theory postulates that moral judgments rely on reasoning, either intuition or deliberation. The theory allows for the possibility that intuitions lead to utilitarian judgments. This paper reports two experiments involving fifth-grade children, adolescents, and adults; the results revealed that children reason intuitively to resolve moral dilemmas in which action and inaction lead to different outcomes. In particular, the results showed female children to be more utilitarian than female adults in resolving classical moral dilemmas: they preferred an action that achieved a good outcome for a greater number of people. Within the mental model theory’s framework there is no reason to expect that females and males differ in their ability to reason, but at the moment the results for females cannot be generalized to males who were not properly represented in the adults groups of the two experiments. The result revealing that (female children are more utilitarian than (female adults, which is hard to explain via many current theories, was predicted by the mental model theory.

  4. Detection of (Inactivity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Damas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of (inactivity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (inactivity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  5. An analysis of job search behaviour of inactive nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira; Yasukawa, Fumiaki; Matsuda, Yoichiro

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine inactive nurses' job-searching behaviours to return to healthcare workplace at where serious difficulty of meeting demand and supply of nurses exist. To clarify the factors that would make their attempts easy or difficult, successful or not, we employed econometric method to analyse the probability of job finding in terms of both the length of duration and the quality of consequence in job-seeking behaviour by using microdata pooled on Japan Nursing Association Computer System (NCCS), in which inactive nurses' individual attributes (gender, age, academic background, the types of qualifications, the number of preschool aged children, etc) are stated. From the estimations, we found that (i) having preschool children is one of the factors of delaying job finding, and failing to obtain desired workplace and working style; (ii) nurses with higher educational backgrounds tend to spend a longer time in finding jobs and (iii) training programme for the returners may not work well in case of shorter career blank, while may support for those who have longer one. To meet the desired demand for qualified nurses in healthcare facilities, we should (i) develop more supportive working environment for nurses with preschool children, such as more flexible working time and shifts; (ii) encourage the employment of higher educated nurses by reforming compensation scheme, as well as reconsidering of the standard of skill-mix; and (iii) redevelop training programme for returners with more practical contents.

  6. Aerobic capacity testing with inactive individuals: the role of subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Gurney, Burke; Mermier, Christine M; Bryan, Angela D

    2013-02-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), an assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness, is regularly used as the primary outcome in exercise interventions. Many criteria have been suggested for validating such tests-most commonly, a plateau in oxygen consumption. The current study investigated the proportion of inactive individuals who reached a plateau in oxygen uptake and who achieved a valid test as assessed by secondary criteria (RERmax ≥ 1.1; RPEmax ≥ 18; age predicted HRmax ±10bpm), and the correlates of a successful plateau or achievement of secondary criteria during a VO2max session. Participants (n = 240) were inactive individuals who completed VO2max assessments using an incremental treadmill test. We explored physical, behavioral, and motivational factors as predictors of meeting criteria for meeting a valid test. Approximately 59% of the sample achieved plateau using absolute (increase of VO2 of 150ml O2 or less) and 37% achieved plateau using relative (increase of VO2 of 1.5ml/kg O2 or less) criteria. Being male, having a higher BMI, a greater waist-to-hip ratio, and increased self-efficacy were associated with lower odds of achieving an absolute plateau, whereas none of these factors predicted odds of achieving relative plateau. Findings raise questions about the validity of commonly used criteria with less active populations.

  7. Multimotor transport in a system of active and inactive kinesin-1 motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharrel, Lara; Ma, Rui; Schneider, René; Jülicher, Frank; Diez, Stefan

    2014-07-15

    Long-range directional transport in cells is facilitated by microtubule-based motor proteins. One example is transport in a nerve cell, where small groups of motor proteins, such as kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, work together to ensure the supply and clearance of cellular material along the axon. Defects in axonal transport have been linked to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is not known in detail how multimotor-based cargo transport is impaired if a fraction of the motors are defective. To mimic impaired multimotor transport in vitro, we performed gliding motility assays with varying fractions of active kinesin-1 motors and inactive kinesin-1 motor mutants. We found that impaired transport manifests in multiple motility regimes: 1), a fast-motility regime characterized by gliding at velocities close to the single-molecule velocity of the active motors; 2), a slow-motility regime characterized by gliding at close-to zero velocity or full stopping; and 3), a regime in which fast and slow motilities coexist. Notably, the transition from the fast to the slow regime occurred sharply at a threshold fraction of active motors. Based on single-motor parameters, we developed a stochastic model and a mean-field theoretical description that explain our experimental findings. Our results demonstrate that impaired multimotor transport mostly occurs in an either/or fashion: depending on the ratio of active to inactive motors, transport is either performed at close to full speed or is out of action.

  8. [High prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents living with HIV/Aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros; Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Marques, Heloisa Helena de Sousa

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents with HIV/AIDS, as well as associated factors. Ninety-one adolescents (from 10 to 19 years old) with HIV/AIDS who are patients at a university follow-up service were interviewed. Anthropometric data (weight, height, and waist circumference) were measured twice; clinical information was obtained from medical records, and habitual physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire proposed by Florindo et al. The cutoff point for sedentariness was 300minutes/week. The prevalence of inadequate height for age, malnutrition, and overweight/obesity was 15.4%, 9.9% and 12.1%, respectively. The most common physical activities were soccer (44.4%), volleyball (14.4%) and cycling (7.8%). The median times spent with physical activity and walking/bicycling to school were 141minutes and 39minutes, respectively. Most adolescents (71.4%) were sedentary and this proportion was higher among girls (p=0.046). A high prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents with HIV/AIDS was observed, similarly to the general population. Promoting physical activity among adolescents, especially among girls with HIV/AIDS, as well as monitoring it should be part of the follow-up routine of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of obesity, physical inactivity, and weight cycling on chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohacker, K; McFarlin, Brian K

    2010-01-01

    Obesity prevalence continues to rise due to excessive caloric intake and sedentary behavior. Weight loss can be achieved through diet and/or exercise, but maintenance of a reduced weight is rare and relapse is prevalent. Repeated periods of weight loss and regain have been termed "weight cycling." It has been speculated that weight cycling may further increase the elevated disease risk common with weight gain, obesity, and physical inactivity. Alterations in adipose tissue with weight cycling may create a more hypoxic environment; hypoxic adipose tissue secretes leptin, a stimulus for macrophage activation and accumulation within adipose tissue. Hypoxic adipocytes and macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines into circulation. Elevated body weight and adiposity are linked to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes via an inflammatory mechanism. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that weight cycling causes a more profound change in chronic inflammation than sustained weight gain. The purpose of this review is to explore inflammatory consequences associated with weight cycling as they are related to sustained weight gain, obesity, physical inactivity as well as relative disease risk.

  10. Major initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada: the year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews 15 significant initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada between September 2010 and September 2011. These include the: announcement of a Federal-Provincial-Territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights; implementation of the nutrition labeling initiative; launch of the CBC "Live Right Now" campaign; announcement of the Public Health Agency of Canada's innovation strategy funding related to obesity; publication of the Canadian Health Measures Survey physical activity findings; release of new Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines; launch of ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign; workshop on building trust to address the epidemic of obesity; start of the Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry; initiation of "Our Health Our Future: A National Dialogue on Healthy Weights"; release of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth; National Obesity Summit; Nature Play Day and Sports Day in Canada; development of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy; and the creation of Active Canada 20/20--A National Physical Activity Plan. The diversity and intensity of activity addressing the childhood obesity and physical inactivity "epidemic" in Canada is encouraging and must be maintained and enhanced.

  11. Epigenome changes in active and inactive Polycomb-group-controlled regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, Achim; O'Neill, Laura P; D'Eliseo, Donatella; Turner, Bryan M; Orlando, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins conveys epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. In Drosophila, the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) maintains the silent state by inhibiting the transcription machinery and chromatin remodelling at core promoters. Using immunoprecipitation of in vivo formaldehyde-fixed chromatin in phenotypically diverse cultured cell lines, we have mapped PRC1 components, the histone methyl transferase (HMT) Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and histone H3 modifications in active and inactive PcG-controlled regions. We show that PRC1 components are present in both cases, but at different levels. In particular, active target promoters are nearly devoid of E(z) and Polycomb. Moreover, repressed regions are trimethylated at lysines 9 and 27, suggesting that these histone modifications represent a mark for inactive PcG-controlled regions. These PcG-specific repressive marks are maintained by the action of the E(z) HMT, an enzyme that has an important role not only in establishing but also in maintaining PcG repression. PMID:15448640

  12. "Spatial Energetics": Integrating Data From GPS, Accelerometry, and GIS to Address Obesity and Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Jankowska, Marta; Marx, Christine; Hart, Jaime E; Berrigan, David; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hurvitz, Philip M; Hipp, J Aaron; Laden, Francine

    2016-11-01

    To address the current obesity and inactivity epidemics, public health researchers have attempted to identify spatial factors that influence physical inactivity and obesity. Technologic and methodologic developments have led to a revolutionary ability to examine dynamic, high-resolution measures of temporally matched location and behavior data through GPS, accelerometry, and GIS. These advances allow the investigation of spatial energetics, high-spatiotemporal resolution data on location and time-matched energetics, to examine how environmental characteristics, space, and time are linked to activity-related health behaviors with far more robust and detailed data than in previous work. Although the transdisciplinary field of spatial energetics demonstrates promise to provide novel insights on how individuals and populations interact with their environment, there remain significant conceptual, technical, analytical, and ethical challenges stemming from the complex data streams that spatial energetics research generates. First, it is essential to better understand what spatial energetics data represent, the relevant spatial context of analysis for these data, and if spatial energetics can establish causality for development of spatially relevant interventions. Second, there are significant technical problems for analysis of voluminous and complex data that may require development of spatially aware scalable computational infrastructures. Third, the field must come to agreement on appropriate statistical methodologies to account for multiple observations per person. Finally, these challenges must be considered within the context of maintaining participant privacy and security. This article describes gaps in current practice and understanding and suggests solutions to move this promising area of research forward.

  13. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Inactive corrinoid-compound significantly decreases in Spirulina platensis grown in a cobalt-deficient medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, F; Miyamoto, E; Nakano, Y

    2001-11-01

    Spirulina platensis NIES-39 was grown under open culture system in the presence or absence of CoSO(4) (12 microg/L) and/or vitamin B(12) (10 microg/L) to confirm whether CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) stimulate or are essential for growth of the algal cells and for accumulation of vitamin B(12). The addition of CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) could not affect both cell growth and cell yield of the alga. The amount of corrinoid-compound was increased significantly by the addition of CoSO(4) but not by vitamin B(12). A C18 reversed-phase HPLC pattern of the Spirulina corrinoid-compound increased by the addition of CoSO(4) was identical to that of authentic pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive for human. These results indicate that the algal cells grown in the absence of CoSO(4) are suitable for use of human health foods because the inactive corrinoid-compound can be reduced significantly.

  15. Why are Jupiter-family comets active and asteroids in cometary-like orbits inactive?

    CERN Document Server

    Gundlach, B

    2016-01-01

    Surveys in the visible and near-infrared spectral range have revealed the presence of low-albedo asteroids in cometary like orbits (ACOs). In contrast to Jupiter family comets (JFCs), ACOs are inactive, but possess similar orbital parameters. In this work, we discuss why ACOs are inactive, whereas JFCs show gas-driven dust activity, although both belong to the same class of primitive solar system bodies. We hypothesize that ACOs and JFCs have formed under the same physical conditions, namely by the gravitational collapse of ensembles of ice and dust aggregates. We use the memory effect of dust-aggregate layers under gravitational compression to discuss under which conditions the gas-driven dust activity of these bodies is possible. Owing to their smaller sizes, JFCs can sustain gas-driven dust activity much longer than the bigger ACOs, whose sub-surface regions possess an increased tensile strength, due to gravitational compression of the material. The increased tensile strength leads to the passivation again...

  16. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  17. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  18. The Motive to Avoid Success and Its Effects on Performance in School-Age Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Nancy

    1975-01-01

    Males and females in grades 5-11 were asked to take a Thematic Apperception-like measure and to perform a series of tasks in competitive and non-competitive conditions. The results suggest that the motive to avoid success affects males and young females differently than it does older females. (JMB)

  19. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  20. Methylization analysis of the FMR1 gene in carrier females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Cappon, S.; Khalifa, M.M. [Kingston General Hospital (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome mutation is associated with an expansion of a CGG repeat sequence and methylation of the CpG island in the promoter of the FMR1 gene. Methylation of the CpG island silences the FMR1 gene, thereby generating the disease phenotypes. Previous studies suggest that the normal FMR1 gene has the properties of an X-linked housekeeping gene that is subject to X inactivation, i.e., its CpG island is unmethylated on the active X chromosome and methylated on the inactive X. Because methylation of the mutant FMR1 gene occurs in both males and females with the full mutation, inactivating the FMR1 gene in these females might be a localized event independent from X inactivation. To test this hypothesis we compared the methylation pattern of two housekeeping genes, PGK1 and androgen receptor (AR) with that of the FMR1 in 46 female carriers of the fragile X syndrome. Twenty eight females were in the premutation range (63-193 repeats) and 16 were carriers of the full mutation (263-996 repeats). The data revealed complete correlation between the methylation pattern of PGK1 and AR. There was also a close correlation between X inactivation pattern detected by PGK1 and/or AR and that detected by FMR1 in female carriers of the premutation. In all female carriers of the full mutation there was complete methylation of the BssHII site in the expanded FMR1 allele. The X chromosome inactivation pattern in these females as detected by PGK1 and/or AR was as follows: in 10 cases the X inactivation was skewed in favor of the mutant FMR1, i.e. the mutant allele was on the inactive X chromosome, in 3 the inactivation was random and in 3 the inactivation was skewed in favor of the normal allele. These data suggest that the methylation of the FMR1 gene in females with the full mutation is a localized event and methylation of the FMR1 gene in these females cannot be used as a predictor of X inactivation.

  1. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  2. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  3. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...

  4. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  5. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the opti

  6. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2012-03-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans.

  7. Female sexuality in magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Patrícia Zucco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from an investigation on the discourse of female sexuality carried by women's magazines in the years 2005 and 2006. 'Claudia' and 'Mulher dia-a-dia' were the documents analyzed through a qualitative investigative approach. The data construction was undertaken through critical discourse analysis, and female sexuality was approached from a constructivist perspective. The main results showed that the discursive conventions present in the reports gave shape to dual positions on contemporary Western sexual dynamics, such as: adoption of symmetrical sexual practices versus continuation of asymmetrical sexual practices; female sexual autonomy versus female sexual dependency; activeness versus passiveness; female pleasure versus male pleasure. Thus, we argue that sexuality remains doubly informed by hegemonic standards in force within society.

  8. Human nonindependent mate choice: is model female attractiveness everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakirtzis, Antonios; Roberts, S Craig

    2012-05-06

    Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners ('model females') into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive) model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits) by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  9. Effect of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus on some Biochemical Parameters in Female Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G.E Helal*, Medhat El- Shafaey**, Hala Rahoma

    2004-01-01

    It has been noticed that there is an increase in the number of women suffering from SLE. Most studies confirmed that serum DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and DHEA sulphate are lower among patients with SLE than among controls even- during phases of inactive disease so we performed this study to detect the level of DHEA-S in the female patients with SLE. The overall results confirm that DHEA treatment was well- tolerated, significantly reduced the number of SLE flares, and improved patient's gl...

  10. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle: Impact on health and quality of life of older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salinas Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the current status of the elderly in relation to physical activity and sedentary, the latter now become a major source of threat to public health in the European and American countries. We report the negative effects of physical inactivity on cardiovascular parameters, diabetes, depression and cancer, among others. We show the benefits of physical activity (a key tool to solve the problems of the sedentary lifestyle for the health of this group of the population while we study the reasons why older people attend physical activity programs. Finally, we provide a number of conclusions.

  11. Female urethral syndrome. A female prostatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The cause of the female urethral syndrome has previously been obscure, as it has been associated by definition with a lack of objective findings but a plethora of subjective complaints of retropubic pressure, dyspareunia, urinary frequency, and dysuria. There is now strong evidence that the microscopic paraurethral glands connected to the distal third of the urethra in the prevaginal space are homologous to the prostate. They stain histologically for prostate-specific antigen and, like the pr...

  12. Older breast cancer survivors' views and preferences for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Sarah; Lavelle, Katrina

    2009-07-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity improves quality of life and physical functioning among breast cancer patients and survivors. However, previous studies have tended to focus on younger patients, despite higher incidence and lower survival among older breast cancer survivors. In this study we explored physical activity preferences of older breast cancer survivors to inform the development of future targeted interventions. Twenty-nine female breast cancer survivors (1 to 5 years postdiagnosis) aged 59 to 86 (mean 66.54, SD 6.50) took part in either a semistructured interview or a focus group exploring physical activity patterns, motivators, facilitators, barriers, and preferences. The main factors influencing physical activity were body image, weight issues, vitality, mood, and the desire to carry on as normal. Preference was expressed for activities that were gentle, tailored to age and cancer-related abilities, holistic, involving other older breast cancer survivors, and with an instructor who was knowledgeable about both breast cancer and aging.

  13. Scottish country dance: benefits to functional ability in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Susan; Nelson, Norah; Dougall, Paul K; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term participation in Scottish country dance on body composition, functional ability, and balance in healthy older females were examined. Participants were grouped into dancers and physically active nondancers (ages 60-70 and 70-80 for both groups). Physical activity, body composition (body-mass index, skinfold thickness, waist-to-hip ratio), functional ability (6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, 8-ft up-and-go time, lower body flexibility, shoulder flexibility), and static balance were measured. Younger dancers and physically active nondancers had similar 6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, and 8-ft up-and-go time results; however, while older dancers performed similarly to younger dancers, older physically active nondancers performed poorer than their younger counterparts (p dance can delay the effects of aging on locomotion-related functional abilities.

  14. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  15. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohee Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5% and 2,004 (2.2% cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women. Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  16. Factors increasing the risk of inactivity among administrative, technical, and manual workers in Warszawa public institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research aims to assess the level of physical activity among administrative, technical, and manual workers employed in Warszawa public institutions and to analyze the factors that increase the risk of failing to meet World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Material and Methods: The study comprised 373 employees of randomly selected institutions. A short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. The correlation between the mean values of duration, days, MET-min/week of efforts, gender, and type of work was analyzed using the Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD test, while the correlation between the level of physical activity and the socio-demographic characteristics was assessed with the Chi2 test. The strength of the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and fulfilment of WHO standards was expressed by the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI. The significance level was p = 0.05. Results: High levels of physical activity were declared by 41.8% of the manual workers, 14.7% of the administration staff, and 7.3% of the technicians; 19%, 31.5% and 54.5%, respectively, reported low levels of physical activity. Factors determining the fulfilment of the WHO recommendations include: the nature of work (p = 0.003, education (p = 0.004, and income (p = 0.003. The risk of being inactive nearly doubles in the case of administration staff (31.5% and increases more than 4 times in the case of technicians (54.5%. Respondents with secondary school education (31.6% are exposed to a 3-fold higher risk of inactivity, while in respondents with higher education (37.2%, the level of the risk is 4-fold higher. Compared to those in the highest income group (23.4%, people who earn less (34.1% are inactive almost twice as often. Conclusions: Urgent intervention is necessary in all studied groups: increased energy expenditure for recreation and locomotion, educational offers

  17. Sexuality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sapetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Just as the body and its functions undergo changes with age, in the same way sexuality shares this aging process. However, remember a golden rule that we are sexual since we are born until we die; only possibilities are modified with the passage of the years. This article intends to show the changes that occur in the sexual response of the elderly. If sexual life during youth was pleasant and satisfactory this will condition sexuality in the socalled third age and the elderly seek to maintain it, this is not the case for those who had a dysfunctional past. This article briefly describes the andropause and the SIM, vicissitudes, changes and differences in sexual response and chances to maintain eroticism in the older adult. 

  18. Predictors of fear of crime in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about factors that predict fear of crime in older adults. Indeed, the topic itself remains a source of controversy, with early studies indicating higher levels of crime fear with age, and new, more methodologically rigorous studies demonstrating the opposite trend. The present exploratory investigation included 106 older adults and assessed the relationship between demographic variables, interpersonal violence, psychopathology, and fear of crime. In addition, this study built on previous research in that specific feared outcomes (e.g., hospitalization) were also considered. Initial findings indicate that being female, non-Caucasian, having depressive symptoms, and reporting social isolation are predictive of general fear of crime ratings. Different predictor sets were noted for fear of crime against person and fear of crime against property. Reported perceptions of negative crime outcomes were associated with being female, non-Caucasian, and having low income.

  19. Meta-analysis of three diabetes population studies: association of inactive ALDH2 genotype with maternal inheritance of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, C; Taniyama, M; Kuriyama, S; Muramatsu, T; Atsumi, Y; Matsuoka, K; Suzuki, Y

    2004-12-01

    To date, there have been three population studies that examined the association of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genotype with inheritance of diabetes. Here, we summarize the results by meta-analysis. The study 1 consisted of 212 type 2 diabetics who did not have renal failure. The study 2 consisted of 73 type 2 diabetics who had renal failure. The study 3 consisted of 230 type 1 diabetics. In total, 515 subjects were examined for the association of ALDH2 genotype with inheritance of diabetes. Out of 515 subjects, 307 (60%) had active ALDH2 (ALDH2*1/ALDH2*1) and 208 (40%) had inactive ALDH2 (175 had ALDH2*1/ALDH2*2 and 33 had ALDH2*2/ALDH2*2). As for family history, 25 subjects (8.1%) in the active ALDH2 group had a diabetic mother, compared with 43 (20.6%) in the inactive ALDH2 group. Twenty-nine subjects (9.4%) in the active ALDH2 group had a diabetic father, compared with 14 (6.7%) in the inactive ALDH2 group. The percentage of diabetic mother was higher in the inactive ALDH2 group, the differences were statistically significant (P maternal trait of diabetes inheritance. In conclusion, meta-analysis using three diabetes population studies strongly confirmed the association between ALDH2 inactivity and maternal inheritance.

  20. Cohort Influences in Older Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskew, Ron W.

    Cohort differentiation has been posited to crystallize around periods of social crises and to be most impactful on the young adults of a given socio-historical period. The two most prominent socio-historical events in the pasts of today's older married persons were the Great Depression of the 1930's and World War II. Older married couples were…

  1. A voice for older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Anne

    2016-09-29

    How did you become an older people's nurse? I have never seen it as a specialty, but as part of my job as a nurse. I work in the Bournemouth area, as nurse consultant intermediate care at Dorset HealthCare University NHS Foundation Trust, where we have a large older population.

  2. Back complaints in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Scheele (Jantine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWith the aging of the Dutch population, the number of older aged back pain patients is also expected to increase. However, information on the course and prognosis of older patients with back pain in general practice is very scarce. Back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, also in

  3. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  4. Back complaints in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Scheele (Jantine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWith the aging of the Dutch population, the number of older aged back pain patients is also expected to increase. However, information on the course and prognosis of older patients with back pain in general practice is very scarce. Back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, also in

  5. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  6. First inactive conformation of CK2 alpha, the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Niefind, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    (EPKs). To function as regulatory key components, EPKs normally exist in inactive ground states and are activated only upon specific signals. Typically, this activation is accompanied by large conformational changes in helix alpha C and in the activation segment, leading to a characteristic arrangement......The Ser/Thr kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic chains (CK2alpha, catalytic subunit of CK2) attached to a dimer of two noncatalytic subunits (CK2beta, noncatalytic subunit of CK2). CK2alpha belongs to the superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases...... of catalytic key elements. For CK2alpha, however, no strict physiological control of activity is known. Accordingly, CK2alpha was found so far exclusively in the characteristic conformation of active EPKs, which is, in this case, additionally stabilized by a unique intramolecular contact between the N...

  7. LOXL2 catalytically inactive mutants mediate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva P. Cuevas

    2014-01-01

    Lysyl-oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2 is a member of the lysyl oxidase family that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagens or elastins in the extracellular matrix, thus regulating the tensile strength of tissues. However, many reports have suggested different intracellular roles for LOXL2, including the ability to regulate gene transcription and tumor progression. We previously reported that LOXL2 mediates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT by Snail1-dependent and independent mechanisms, related to E-cadherin silencing and downregulation of epidermal differentiation and cell polarity components, respectively. Whether or not the catalytic activity of LOXL2 is required to induce/sustain EMT is actually unknown. Here we show that LOXL2 catalytic inactive mutants collaborate with Snail1 in E-cadherin gene repression to trigger EMT and, in addition, promote FAK/Src pathway activation to support EMT. These findings reveal a non-conventional role of LOXL2 on regulating epithelial cell plasticity.

  8. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation.

  9. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  10. 'The sedentary heart': physical inactivity is associated with cardiac atrophy in adults with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Jeroen C; de Bruin-Bon, Rianne H; Bouma, Berto J; Backx, Ad P; Huisman, Sylvia A; Imschoot, Luc; Mulder, Barbara J

    2012-07-26

    The cardiac muscle is well regulated in response to changes in loading conditions. This cardiac plasticity has been studied intensively and is well known in trained athletes. Conversely, the mechanisms leading to the opposite response are less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) dimensions in a physically inactive population of adults with an intellectual disability. Adults with an intellectual disability with and without Down syndrome (DS) and healthy controls were included (n=182). Echocardiography was performed in all included subjects and physical activity was measured by means of a questionnaire. Physical activity was lower in adults with an intellectual disability compared to controls (pcardiac atrophy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and distribution of inactivity and weight excess in Spanish scholar children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aims to study the distribution of leisure time physical activity pattern and weight status of Spanish schoolchildren. The sample corresponds to 6,803 school-aged children (3,491 boys and 3,312 girls, who took part in the Spanish National Health Survey 2006, being representative of the Spanish scholar population. It has assessed their pattern of physical activity and weight status through international body mass index cut offs. The relationship between the variables studied has been established through a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Physical inactivity is more prevalent in children that exceed a healthy weight, and there are regional differences in the distribution of a sedentary lifestyle and weight excess, as well as in different age groups and sex. Globally, 49.7% of Spanish schoolchildren have an unhealthy leisure time physical activity pattern, and 28.9% of them exceed the recommended weight for their age.

  12. Physical inactivity as a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Crowston, Jonathan G; van Wijngaarden, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have been identified as modifiable risk factors for diabetes. However, little is known of the associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diabetic retinopathy. The development of diabetic retinopathy is associated with longer duration of diabetes, elevated blood pressure and poor glycaemic control. However these factors only explain a proportion of the risk of retinopathy in individuals with diabetes. Several studies have suggested a protective role for physical activity in diabetic retinopathy. Other work has shown that the time spent watching television is independently associated with abnormal retinal vascular signs. Limitations of the existing studies, such as the absence of objective measures of physical activity, a lack of sedentary behaviour measures, the inclusion of only those with type 1 diabetes and a lack of longitudinal data, make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the strength of these associations.

  13. Efficient production of transgenic chickens using self-inactive HIV-based lentiviral vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyong XU; Yan SUN; Hongmei DING; Meng WANG; Yafei CAI; Jie CHEN; Honglin LIU

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the simple and effective production of transgenic chickens, in which the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was expressed by using third-generation self-inactive HIV-based lentiviral vectors. In our experiments, lentiviruses were injected into 204 fertilized eggs, from which 30 ( 15% ) chickens were hatched. The exogenous gene was detected in the genomes of 16 out of 30 (53%) chickens. The green fluorescence signal was observed directly in various body parts, and was particularly significant in the testes. The transgenes were also found in the offspring of these chickens. The results indicate that HIV-based lentivirul vectors can be used to generate transgenic birds economically and effectively [Current Zoology 55 (5): 383 - 387,2009].

  14. Plant antimutagenic agents, 4. Isolation and structure elucidation of maesol, an inactive constituent of Maesa spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M E; Wani, M C; Gaetano, K; Manikumar, G; Taylor, H; McGivney, R

    1988-01-01

    Maesol, a novel dimeric phenol, was isolated from seeds of Maesa montana and Maesa indica. Maesol was shown to have the formula C28H42O4 with structure 1, a dimeric, symmetrical 1,12-bis(3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethyl-5,5'-dimethoxyphenyl)dodecane. It is the first compound with such structure to be isolated from plant material. Structure elucidation was based largely on 1H- and 13C-nmr techniques and comparison with a known synthetic isomeric dimer 3. Although crude extracts showed strong inhibition of 2-aminoanthracene activity against Salmonella typhimurium (T-98), the pure compound was inactive when tested for inhibition of the mutagenic activity of several mutagens.

  15. Inactive experiments for advanced separation processes prior to high activity trials in ATALANTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamet, Jean; Lanoe, Jean-Yves; Rivalier, Patrick; Borda, Gilles [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), CEA/DEN/VRH/DTEC/SGCS, Centre de Marcoule - BP 17171, 302007 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Many trials have been performed in ATALANTE's shielded cells to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processes involving minor actinide separation. They required developments of new extractors as well as a step by step procedure have been used to lower the risks of malfunction during high active operation. The design of the extractors developed by Cea has included shielded cells restrictions, miniaturization to lower the quantity of high active material and wastes and the care for being representative of industrial equipment. After individual shake down inactive tests, with actual phases, each process experiment scheduled in ATALANTE has been tested at G1 Facility in Marcoule. The objective was to reproduce as much as possible all the equipment chosen for active tests. This procedure has demonstrated its efficiency to detect many problems that would have heavy impact if they have been discovered during active trials. It was also used for operators'training. (authors)

  16. Groundwater contamination from an inactive uranium mill tailings pile: 1. Application of a chemical mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. F.; Delany, J. M.; Narasimhan, T. N.; Smith, A.

    1984-11-01

    Low-pH process waters contained in a number of inactive and abandoned uranium mill tailings in the United States represent potential sources of radionuclide and trace metal contamination of groundwater. Detailed investigations at a typical site at Riverton, Wyoming, indicate that chemical transport occurs from initial dewatering of the tailings, downward infiltration due to precipitation, and groundwater intrusion into the base of the tailings pile. Except for elevated uranium and molybdenum concentrations, current radionuclide and trace metal transport is limited by the near-neutral pH conditions of the groundwater. Significant reactions include the dissolution of calcite, production of CO2, and precipitation of gypsum and the hydroxides of iron and aluminum. A geochemical mixing model employing the PHREEQE computer code is used to estimate current rates of the groundwater contamination by tailings water. A maximum mixing of 1.7% of pore water is a factor of 2 less than steady state estimates based on hydraulic parameters.

  17. DNA topoisomerase II activity in nonreplicating, transcriptionally inactive, chicken late spermatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Mezquita, C

    1989-06-01

    To study a possible differential involvement of type I and type II DNA topoisomerases in the functional and structural changes that chromatin undergoes during spermatogenesis, we have determined both enzymatic activities in chicken testis cell nuclei at successive stages of differentiation. Whereas DNA topoisomerase I varies in parallel with transcriptional activity, DNA topoisomerase II was present in both replicating, transcriptionally active chicken testis cells and nonreplicating, transcriptionally inactive late spermatids. The presence of DNA topoisomerase II activity in late spermatids and, in addition, the relative increment of drug-induced topo-II-mediated DNA cleavage detected in these cells, suggest that DNA topoisomerase II might modulate the topology of DNA during the marked changes that chromatin structure undergoes in the nucleohistone-nucleoprotamine transition at the end of the spermiogenesis and could be involved in the final organization of DNA within the nucleus of the male gamete.

  18. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, L; Jeppesen, R S; Krustrup, B R

    2010-04-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories ("I,"we" and "they") as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks). The study also points to the importance of the activity itself for internal bonding illustrated through we- and they-stories. Our data indicate that team sports, such as football, may have an advantage over individual sports in the development of social capital.

  19. Food preferences of older adults in senior nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hee-Jung; Simon, Judy R; Patel, Dhruti U

    2014-01-01

    The Elderly Nutrition Program (ENP) is being challenged to improve the quality of meal programs. The purpose of this study was to explore how food preferences varied depending on gender and ethnic groups. A total of 2,024 participants in the ENP aged 60 years or older were interviewed. A majority of the participants were female (74.7%), served by congregate meal programs (71.7%), with the mean ± SD age of 76.9 ± 9.2 years. A general impression of the meals and preferences for 13 food groups (fresh fruit, chicken, soup, salad, vegetables, potatoes, meat, sandwiches, pasta, canned fruit, legumes, deli meats, and ethnic foods) were assessed. After adjusting other variables, older males were significantly more likely to prefer deli meats, meat, legumes, canned fruit, and ethnic foods compared to females. In addition, compared with African Americans, Caucasians demonstrated higher percentages of preference for 9 of 13 food groups including pasta, meat, and fresh fruit. To improve the quality of the ENP, and to increase dietary compliance of the older adults to the programs, the nutritional services require a strategic meal plan that solicits and incorporates older adults' food preferences.

  20. Career progression in older managers : motivational and gender differences

    OpenAIRE

    Bown-Wilson, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    This study explores what UK managers aged 50 and over perceive as career progression at a time in life when opportunities for further promotion may have ceased. It examines motivational drivers and subjectively significant personal and organizational influences on career progression. It also investigates whether motivation for career progression is perceived to have changed over the career and the extent to which it may differ between male and female older managers. The research adopted a ...

  1. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...

  2. Mammography and pap smear use by older rural women.

    OpenAIRE

    Ives, D G; Lave, J R; Traven, N D; Schulz, R.; Kuller, L.H. (Lewis H.)

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To compare the characteristics of older women who did and did not have screening mammograms and Pap smears during the first two years both services were a Medicare Part B benefit. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted in five rural Pennsylvania counties of 2205 female community-dwelling Medicare Part B beneficiaries who volunteered to participate in a Medicare prevention demonstration project. The baseline health risk appraisal included information on demographics, insurance s...

  3. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation.

  4. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707.

  5. Survey of active and inactive mines for possible use as in situ test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    A survey of active and inactive mines which might be useful for radioactive waste storage in situ test experiments was conducted. It was performed for Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Office of Waste Isolation. The report covers available information gathered from literature, U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Mining Enforcement and Safety Agency, and a limited number of personal contacts with constructors or operators of facilities. This survey is preliminary in nature and the objective is to develop potential candidate facilities for in situ experiments which warrant further investigation. Included are descriptions of 244 facilities, with all the data about each one which was available within the time restraint of the study. These facility descriptions are additionally indexed by depth of mine, nature of the country rock, mineral mined, and type of entry. A total of 14 inactive mines and 34 active mines has been selected as those most worthy of further investigation for possible service as nuclear waste isolation test facilities. This investigation, being preliminary and having been performed in a very short time period, must be qualified, and the description of the qualification is presented in the body of this report. Qualifications deal primarily with the hazard of having omitted facilities and having incomplete data in some instances. Results indicate sedimentary rock mines of minerals of evaporite origin as a first ranking of preference for in situ testing, followed by other sedimentary rocks and then by mines producing minerals from any type rock where the mine is above the local water table. These are general rules and of course there can be exceptions to them.

  6. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  7. Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in inactive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Leah M; Jones, Kelly R; Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3 days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5 days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5 day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5 day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise.

  8. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  9. Effective communication with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Louise

    2017-06-07

    Communication is an essential aspect of life, yet it can be taken for granted. Its centrality to being in the world and in professional practice often becomes evident when nurses and older adults encounter communication difficulties. The factors that can affect nurses' communication with older adults relate to the older adult, the nurse, sociocultural considerations and the environment, and the interactions between these factors. In adopting a person-centred approach to communicating with older adults, it is necessary to get to know the person as an individual and ensure communication meets their needs and abilities. Effective communication is essential in nursing practice and requires professional competence and engagement. This article can be used by nurses to support effective communication with older adults across the continuum of care.

  10. A method of active conformation search based on active and inactive analogues, and its application to allylamine antimycotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万年; 季海涛; 周有骏; 朱杰; 朱驹; 吕加国

    1999-01-01

    A new program ACSBAIA (Active Conformation Search Based on Active and Inactive Analogues) for determination of the active conformations was developed based on the rationales that specific functional groups of active analogues could reach and interact with the active site of target receptor by means of the change of conformations, but that of inactive analogues could not interact with the active site owing to conformational restriction. The program consisted of 4 sub-programs: conformation sampling system, active conformation constraint system, inactive conformation exclusion system, and activity prediction system. Pharmacophoric conformation of allylamine antimycotics was studied by this method. Activities of 2 analogues were predicted and tested. The results suggested that the method was scientific and practical. The application of this method was not restricted by the three-dimensional structural knowledge of target receptor. In the absence of structural information about the receptor, the method was

  11. Relation of diet to high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in middle-aged marathon runners, joggers, and inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, G H; Foreyt, J P; Mitchell, R E; Vlasek, I; Gotto, A M

    1980-02-14

    We investigated the effect of diet on high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in 59 healthy middle-aged marathon runners, 85 joggers, and 74 inactive men. Marathon runners and joggers reported eating less red meat (P less than 0.0001), bacon (P less than 0.05), and sausage (P less than 0.01) than did the inactive men, although meat consumption was not significantly correlated with HDL. Results suggest that HDL differences (marathon runners, 65 mg per deciliter; joggers, 58 mg per deciliter; inactive men, 43 mg per deciliter) among the three groups were primarily the result of distance run, not dietary factors. Distance run was also the best predictor of the HDL:total cholesterol ratio and of total cholesterol (a negative correlation), and it was second only to weight in predicting triglyceride levels.

  12. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term, female athlete triad may lead to reduced physical performance, stress fractures, and other injuries. Over the long term, it can cause bone weakness, long-term effects on the reproductive system, and heart problems. A ...

  13. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are signs of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ...

  14. Deconstructing Female Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela MATEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of Fay Weldon’s early novels, Female Friends (1975, published at the peak of her feminist ’phase’, deconstructs female and feminine stereotypes in order to present the writer’s own views on feminism. It speaks for a generation of women, who struggle to find their place in a male-dominated world, through three protagonists, who are neither happy, nor perfect. Narrated by the character Chloe, the novel revolves around her and her friends, Grace and Marjorie, with an aim at depicting the falsehood and hypocrisy that surround female friendship. It is precisely where Weldon’s specificity as a feminist writer lies: in her rendering the imperfections of women’s characters and relationships. This paper attempts to trace such elements of ‘fayminism’ in Female Friends by resorting to the tools of the feminist critic.

  15. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be comfortable with your sexuality, improve your self-esteem and accept your body. Try practicing these healthy ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-sexual-dysfunction/basics/definition/CON-20027721 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  16. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  17. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  18. Wage determination and discrimination among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J F

    1979-09-01

    In this study, the determinants of the wage rates of a large sample of individuals aged 58 to 63 are first analyzed. Second, an explanation for the large discrepancies existing between the average wage rates earned by whites and nonwhites and by men and women is attempted. Human capital and geographic variables were found to be important wage determinants. Education, vocational training, years of job tenure, health, region of residence and local cost of living were significant explanators, especially for whites. Differences in these variables, however, cannot completely explain the wage differentials that exist by race and sex. There is a large unexplained component (especially in the male-female comparison) offering evidence of race and sex discrimination among older workers. In the case of sex discrimination, much of the problem appears to be occupational segregation--the crowding of women into low paying industries and occupations.

  19. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Great Help for Older Americans ... on National Pepper Center website. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / ...

  20. The diseasome of physical inactivity--and the role of myokines in muscle--fat cross talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, breast cancer, dementia and depression constitute a cluster of diseases, which defines 'a diseasome of physical inactivity'. Both physical inactivity and abdominal adiposity, reflecting accumulation of visceral fat mass, are associated...... of exercise. The finding that muscles produce and release myokines provides a conceptual basis to understand the mechanisms whereby exercise influences metabolism and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. According to our theory, contracting skeletal muscles release myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion......, exerting specific endocrine effects on visceral fat. Other myokines work locally within the muscle via paracrine mechanisms, exerting their effects on signalling pathways involved in fat oxidation....

  1. Human Nonindependent Mate Choice: Is Model Female Attractiveness Everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vakirtzis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  2. Memory impairment in older adults’ diversionary thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima eAlves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males, aged 65 to 69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini–Mental State Examination. Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one’s childhood home or the last party that one had attended after studying one word list (List 1 and before viewing the second word list (List 2. After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information.

  3. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  4. Sports activities are reflected in the local stability and regularity of body sway : Older ice-skaters have better postural control than inactive elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    2012-01-01

    With age postural control deteriorates and increases the risk for falls. Recent research has suggested that in contrast to persons with superior balance control (dancer's athletes), with pathology and aging, predictability and regularity of sway patterns increase and stability decreases implying a l

  5. Infantile masturbation in an African female: is this a justification for female genital cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaigbe, Barbara Edewele

    2008-05-01

    Masturbation is a taboo and not discussed openly in Africa. It is still worse when it occurs in an infant and will thus call for a visit to the traditional healers for 'spiritual intervention' and prompt female genital cutting/mutilation to reduce the child's libido and risk of sexual promiscuity as she gets older. Because of its peculiar presentation in children without manual genital stimulation, it is often misdiagnosed. A Medline search showed sparse information on infantile masturbation and none from Africa. A 15-month-old female was brought into a clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a history of unusual rocking with adduction of the thighs noticed since 3 months of age. At 10 months of age, the child would lean forward and rock continuously on a hard surface such as a chair or an adult's lap. Rocking was accompanied with lip smacking, eye rolling, shaking, "watching of television in the air", spasm and feeling of fatigue and then resumption of the motions unless she was distracted. The child had been spanked occasionally by both parents with no noticeable change in behavior. Older female relatives had suggested female genital cutting or circumcision, but her father resisted vehemently. Infantile masturbation was viewed by the pediatrician and a 10-minute video recording was taken to confirm the diagnosis. The mother was reassured, counseled about behavioral and environmental modification. There was a marked improvement when the baby was seen 6 weeks later. Infantile masturbation rarely diagnosed in our region is probably due to a low index of suspicion and because mothers are afraid of stigma. We suggest that infantile masturbation should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of strange movement mimicking epilepsy in infants, and when a diagnosis is made parents should be counseled against female genital cutting. A video recording is encouraged fora correct diagnosis.

  6. Regular Latin Dancing and Health Education may Improve Cognition of Late Middle-Aged and Older Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, David X; Wilson, Robert; Aguiñaga, Susan; Vásquez, Priscilla; Fogg, Louis; Yang, Zhi; Wilbur, JoEllen; Hughes, Susan; Spanbauer, Charles

    2017-01-17

    Disparities exist between Latinos and non-Latino whites in cognitive function. Dance is culturally appropriate and challenges individuals physically and cognitively, yet the impact of regular dancing on cognitive function in older Latinos has not been examined. A two-group pilot trial was employed among inactive, older Latinos. Participants (N = 57) participated in the BAILAMOS(©) dance program or a health education program. Cognitive test scores were converted to z-scores and measures of global cognition and specific domains (executive function, episodic memory, working memory) were derived. Results revealed a group x time interaction for episodic memory (pdance group showed greater improvement in episodic memory than the health education group. A main effect for time for global cognition (pdance programs can positively influence episodic memory; and participation in structured programs may improve overall cognition among older Latinos.

  7. Regular Latin Dancing and Health Education may Improve Cognition of Late Middle-Aged and Older Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, David X.; Wilson, Robert; Aguiñaga, Susan; Vásquez, Priscilla; Fogg, Louis; Yang, Zhi; Wilbur, JoEllen; Hughes, Susan; Spanbauer, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Disparities exist between Latinos and non-Latino whites in cognitive function. Dance is culturally appropriate and challenges individuals physically and cognitively, yet the impact of regular dancing on cognitive function in older Latinos has not been examined. A two-group pilot trial was employed among inactive, older Latinos. Participants (N = 57) participated in the BAILAMOS© dance program or a health education program. Cognitive test scores were converted to z-scores and measures of global cognition and specific domains (executive function, episodic memory, working memory) were derived. Results revealed a group × time interaction for episodic memory (pdance group showed greater improvement in episodic memory than the health education group. A main effect for time for global cognition (pdance programs can positively influence episodic memory; and participation in structured programs may improve overall cognition among older Latinos. PMID:28095105

  8. Chronic disease in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Durán, Adriana; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Valderrama, Laura; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Uribe, Ana Fernanda; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; González, Angélica; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Máximo Molina, Juan; Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias de Andalucía (AETSA)

    2016-01-01

    Methodology: A sample of 500 older adults was selected, between 60 and 96 years of age. A questionnaire of psychosocial factors in older adults designed by Baca, Gonzalez, and Uribe was used. Results: Hypertension, diabetes and osteoporosis were the most frequent diseases in older adults, although the greater percentage of this population did not refer any pathology. Married and widowers individuals presented more diseases as compared to unmarried, separated and people who live together.Concl...

  9. Life events and stress: do older men and women in Malaysia cope differently as consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Fon Sim; Phillips, David R; Chai, Sen Tyng

    2013-06-01

    The study of major life events and their effects on well-being has considerable relevance for scientific disciplines and policy making in understanding the consumer behaviour of older people. There is evidence of differences in reactions to and coping with stress between males and females but relatively little knowledge about such gender differences amongst older people, especially in middle-income countries. This study of older Malaysians looked at both coping strategies and gender differences in reactions to stress when people are confronted with certain life events. Seventeen major life events were used in interviews with 645 respondents aged 50 years or older in five major urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The analysis showed older women tended to experience higher levels of chronic stress than older men. They also had more health problems, had lower levels of self-esteem and were less satisfied with life. Whilst the results showed little support for gender differences in coping behaviours, stress had a significant influence on the way older men and women change store preferences. A hypothesis that older women would use more emotion-focused coping strategies was not supported. Knowledge of how older Malaysians cope with life events and stress and especially in this instance with regard to consumption behaviour, is likely to be of considerable academic and policy related interest.

  10. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Tinucci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present. Resumo A prática de atividades físicas tem sido recomendada para a prevenção e reabilitação cardíacas. Porém, quando feita de maneira inadequada, o que ocorre mais freqüentemente na ausência de supervisão em locais públicos, esta prática pode se associar ao aumento do risco de acometimentos cardiovasculares. Comparar o risco cardiovascular de freqüentadores de parques p

  11. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  12. Violent female offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Loinaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores themajor research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013 about women'sviolence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV and sexual violencecommitted by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism ofthese female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (childphysical abuse is not included, for example the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases inthe treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of maleoffenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic;predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalentamong adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescentsamples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last,recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available. Main implicationsand research lines are discussed.

  13. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub.

  14. Rethinking exercise identity: a qualitative study of physically inactive cancer patients' transforming process while undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Christina; Lillelund, Christian; Bloomquist, Kira; Møller, Tom

    2017-08-23

    To explore physically inactive breast and colon cancer patients' prediagnosis exercise history and attitudes to physical activity (PA) and experiences in initiating PA while undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. An explorative qualitative study guided the interpretive analysis of semistructured, open-ended interviews conducted at initiation of chemotherapy and after 12 weeks. The study was embedded in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Participants were recruited from the Oncological Department at a hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. 33 patients with cancer, median age 49 years: 25 patients with breast cancer and 8 with colon cancer, 72% with a low cardiac respiratory fitness level and the majority with a high level of education. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, oncologist's PA recommendation and exercise, cancer nurse specialist's counselling prior to allocation to PA interventions or waitlist control group. Prediagnosis exercise had been excluded from patients' daily lives due to perceptions of exercise as boring, lack of discipline and stressful work conditions for both genders. Recommendations from oncologists and nurses inspired the patients to reconsider their attitudes and behaviour by accepting recruitment and participation in PA interventions during chemotherapy. Despite extensive side effects, most patients adhered to their PA commitment due to their perception of the bodily, emotional and social benefits and support of healthcare professionals, peers and family. The patients' attitude towards exercise transformed from having no priority in patients' daily lives prediagnosis to being highly prioritised. This study identified four important phases in the exercise transformation process during the patients' treatment trajectory of relevance to clinicians in identifying, motivating and supporting physically inactive patients with cancer at long-term risk. Clinicians should address young, highly educated patients with cancer at onset of adjuvant

  15. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  16. Dementia: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead to complications too. These include malnutrition, falls, osteoporosis (“thinning bones”), bone fractures, frailty, sleep problems, anxiety, agitation, delirium, and disturbed behavior. Caring for an older adult with dementia and other health problems can be ...

  17. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  18. Delirium: Issues for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Delirium Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... of life. Overview of this section: Differences between Delirium and Dementia Other Neurologic Disorders Some Important Causes ...

  19. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  20. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  1. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  2. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  3. An inactive lifestyle and low physical fitness are associated with functional somatic symptoms in adolescents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Bonvanie, Irma J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    Objective: An inactive lifestyle has been associated with functional somatic symptoms (FSS), but findings are contradictory. Moreover, mediating factors in this relationship are unclear. We examined whether low physical activity was related to FSS in adolescents, and whether this association was

  4. Jarid2 Is Implicated in the Initial Xist-Induced Targeting of PRC2 to the Inactive X Chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Boeva, Valentina; Escamilla-Del-Arenal, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    During X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is thought to participate in the early maintenance of the inactive state. Although Xist RNA is essential for the recruitment of PRC2 to the X chromosome, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate th...

  5. Norm theory and the action-effect: The role of social norms in regret following action and inaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, Gilad; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    The action-effect (Kahneman & Tversky, 1982) is one of the most widely cited and replicated effects in the regret literature, showing that negative outcomes are regretted more when they are a result of action compared to inaction. Building on theoretical arguments by norm theory (Kahneman & Miller,

  6. 37 CFR 11.58 - Duties of disciplined or resigned practitioner, or practitioner on disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., may, under the direct supervision of the other practitioner, act as a paralegal for the other... practitioner transferred to disability inactive status acts as a paralegal or performs services under paragraph...) Explains in detail the precise nature of all paralegal or other services performed by the excluded...

  7. Bacterial and archaeal communities in the deep-sea sediments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Xu, Jian; Shuai, Yinjie; Zhou, Xiaojian; Yang, Zhihui; Ma, Kesen

    2016-05-01

    Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents harbor abundant thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms. However, microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents have not been well documented. Here, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in the two deep-sea sediments (named as TVG4 and TVG11) collected from inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq2500 platform. Based on the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, sequence analysis showed that bacterial communities in the two samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Furthermore, archaeal communities in the two samples were dominated by Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Comparative analysis showed that (i) TVG4 displayed the higher bacterial richness and lower archaeal richness than TVG11; (ii) the two samples had more divergence in archaeal communities than bacterial communities. Bacteria and archaea that are potentially associated with nitrogen, sulfur metal and methane cycling were detected in the two samples. Overall, we first provided a comparative picture of bacterial and archaeal communities and revealed their potentially ecological roles in the deep-sea environments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest Indian Ridge, augmenting microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents.

  8. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  9. A Comparing of Body Composition Components in Physically Active and Inactive Male Students of Sharoud University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bahrololoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a serious health problem that reduces life expectancy by increasing one's risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis and certain types of cancer. Moreover, body composition is divided into fat and fat free mass components. Research shows that physical activity is an important factor that affects body composition. This research aimed at estimating and comparing the body composition components of physically active and inactive male student of Shahroud University of technologyMethods: Participants of this study were 70 inactive male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years and 65 physically active male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years. The participants were randomly selected through stratified sampling procedure from various faculties and different admission years. Body composition was estimated with Body composition analyzer system that measured body composition components using bioelectrical impedance method.Results: Data analysis with SPSS-15 software revealed that: average of BF% in physically active sample was (13.43±3.15 and average of inactive samples was (16.73±6.16 which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.001 ; the LBM in physically active samples was (60.27±8.05 Kg and average of inactive samples was (56.43±7.6 Kg which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.005; the average of BMI in physically active sample was (22.62±2.8 kgm and average of inactive samples was (22.25±3.84 kgm which statistically did not show significant difference (P=0.519; the WHR average of physically active samples was (0.798±.03m and average of inactive samples was (0.81±.06m and there was not a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: These results revealed that body composition of physically active students were better than that of the inactive ones, so it can be concluded that there is a

  10. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopfer, David W; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    The biology of aging and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overlap, with the effect that CVD is endemic in the growing population of older adults. Moreover, CVD in older adults is usually complicated by age-related complexities, including multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, and other intricacies that add to the risks of ambiguous symptoms, deconditioning, iatrogenesis, falls, disability, and other challenges. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive lifestyle program that can have particular benefit for older patients with cardiovascular conditions. Although CR was originally designed primarily as an exercise training program for younger adults after a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery, it has evolved as a comprehensive lifestyle program (promoting physical activity as well as education, diet, risk reduction, and adherence) for a broader range of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and valvular heart disease). It provides a valuable opportunity to address and moderate many of the challenges pertinent for the large and growing population of older adults with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation promotes physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness as well as strength and balance) that helps overcome disease and deconditioning as well as related vulnerabilities such as disability, frailty, and falls. Similarly, CR facilitates education, monitoring, and guidance to reduce iatrogenesis and promote adherence. Furthermore, CR fosters cognition, socialization, and independence in older patients. Yet despite all its conceptual benefits, CR is significantly underused in older populations. This review discusses benefits and the paradoxical underuse of CR, as well as evolving models of care that may achieve greater application and efficacy.

  11. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  12. Imaging female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadow, Cheryl A; Sahni, V Anik

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to discuss causes of female infertility, in particular, those etiologies in which imaging plays a key role in detection. Included are disorders of cervical, ovarian, fallopian tube, and uterine origin. We also discuss the role of various imaging modalities including hysterosalpingography, pelvic ultrasonography, hysterosonography, and pelvic MR imaging in elucidating the cause of female infertility. Radiologists need to know the conditions to be aware of when these patients are sent for diagnostic imaging, as well as how to direct further management, if necessary, should an abnormality be detected.

  13. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findings....... Such a review is indtended to provide some insight into how scholars in different social contexts, who study apparently the same phenomenon, direct their focus. It should also enrich research into female entrepreneurship in both regions of the world and provide directions for further research in the field....

  14. Is mate choice copying or aggregation responsible for skewed distributions of females on leks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, K; Clutton-Brock, T

    1994-01-22

    In several lek-breeding populations of birds and mammals, females arriving on leks tend to join males that already have females in their territories. This might occur either because females have an evolved preference for mating with males that are attractive to other females, or because they join groups of other females to obtain greater safety from predation or dangerous harassment by males. We have previously used controlled experiments to show that oestrous fallow deer females join males with established harems because they are attracted to female groups rather than to the males themselves. Here we demonstrate that the preference for males with females over males without females is specific to oestrous females and weak or absent in anoestrous ones, and that it is not associated with a preference for mating with males that have previously been seen to mate with other females. Furthermore, oestrous females given the choice between males that do not already have females with them show no significant preference for antlered over deantlered males or for older males over younger ones. We conclude that female attraction to other females on the lek is likely to be an adaptation to avoiding harassment in mixed-sex herds. In this situation, a male's ability to maintain the cohesion of his harem may be the principal cause of variation in mating success between males.

  15. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Eisa ES

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Einas S Al-Eisa,1 Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr1,2 1Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in healthy older adults.Methods: A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25, moderate (n=20, and physically active (n=35. Serum 25(OHD (25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively.Results: Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5% compared to females (26.25%. Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OHD concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OHD concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores

  16. Loss of catalytically inactive lipid phosphatase myotubularin-related protein 12 impairs myotubularin stability and promotes centronuclear myopathy in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vandana A; Hnia, Karim; Smith, Laura L; Gundry, Stacey R; McIntire, Jessica E; Shimazu, Junko; Bass, Jessica R; Talbot, Ethan A; Amoasii, Leonela; Goldman, Nathaniel E; Laporte, Jocelyn; Beggs, Alan H

    2013-06-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by mutations of the myotubularin gene, MTM1. Myotubularin belongs to a large family of conserved lipid phosphatases that include both catalytically active and inactive myotubularin-related proteins (i.e., "MTMRs"). Biochemically, catalytically inactive MTMRs have been shown to form heteroligomers with active members within the myotubularin family through protein-protein interactions. However, the pathophysiological significance of catalytically inactive MTMRs remains unknown in muscle. By in vitro as well as in vivo studies, we have identified that catalytically inactive myotubularin-related protein 12 (MTMR12) binds to myotubularin in skeletal muscle. Knockdown of the mtmr12 gene in zebrafish resulted in skeletal muscle defects and impaired motor function. Analysis of mtmr12 morphant fish showed pathological changes with central nucleation, disorganized Triads, myofiber hypotrophy and whorled membrane structures similar to those seen in X-linked myotubular myopathy. Biochemical studies showed that deficiency of MTMR12 results in reduced levels of myotubularin protein in zebrafish and mammalian C2C12 cells. Loss of myotubularin also resulted in reduction of MTMR12 protein in C2C12 cells, mice and humans. Moreover, XLMTM mutations within the myotubularin interaction domain disrupted binding to MTMR12 in cell culture. Analysis of human XLMTM patient myotubes showed that mutations that disrupt the interaction between myotubularin and MTMR12 proteins result in reduction of both myotubularin and MTMR12. These studies strongly support the concept that interactions between myotubularin and MTMR12 are required for the stability of their functional protein complex in normal skeletal muscles. This work highlights an important physiological function of catalytically inactive phosphatases in the pathophysiology of myotubular myopathy and suggests a novel therapeutic approach through identification of drugs

  17. Loss of catalytically inactive lipid phosphatase myotubularin-related protein 12 impairs myotubularin stability and promotes centronuclear myopathy in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana A Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM is a congenital disorder caused by mutations of the myotubularin gene, MTM1. Myotubularin belongs to a large family of conserved lipid phosphatases that include both catalytically active and inactive myotubularin-related proteins (i.e., "MTMRs". Biochemically, catalytically inactive MTMRs have been shown to form heteroligomers with active members within the myotubularin family through protein-protein interactions. However, the pathophysiological significance of catalytically inactive MTMRs remains unknown in muscle. By in vitro as well as in vivo studies, we have identified that catalytically inactive myotubularin-related protein 12 (MTMR12 binds to myotubularin in skeletal muscle. Knockdown of the mtmr12 gene in zebrafish resulted in skeletal muscle defects and impaired motor function. Analysis of mtmr12 morphant fish showed pathological changes with central nucleation, disorganized Triads, myofiber hypotrophy and whorled membrane structures similar to those seen in X-linked myotubular myopathy. Biochemical studies showed that deficiency of MTMR12 results in reduced levels of myotubularin protein in zebrafish and mammalian C2C12 cells. Loss of myotubularin also resulted in reduction of MTMR12 protein in C2C12 cells, mice and humans. Moreover, XLMTM mutations within the myotubularin interaction domain disrupted binding to MTMR12 in cell culture. Analysis of human XLMTM patient myotubes showed that mutations that disrupt the interaction between myotubularin and MTMR12 proteins result in reduction of both myotubularin and MTMR12. These studies strongly support the concept that interactions between myotubularin and MTMR12 are required for the stability of their functional protein complex in normal skeletal muscles. This work highlights an important physiological function of catalytically inactive phosphatases in the pathophysiology of myotubular myopathy and suggests a novel therapeutic approach through

  18. The formation and potential importance of cemented layers in inactive sulfide mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, David W.; Reardon, Eric J.; Jambor, John L.; Cherry, John A.

    1991-04-01

    Investigations of inactive sulfide-rich tailings impoundments at the Heath Steele (New Brunswick) and Waite Amulet (Quebec) minesites have revealed two distinct types of cemented layers or "hardpans." That at Heath Steele is 10-15 cm thick, occurs 20-30 cm below the depth of active oxidation, is continuous throughout the tailings impoundment, and is characterized by cementation of tailings by gypsum and Fe(II) solid phases, principally melanterite. Hardpan at the Waite Amulet site is only 1-5 cm thick, is laterally discontinuous (10-100 cm), occurs at the depth of active oxidation, and is characterized by cementation of tailings by Fe(III) minerals, principally goethite, lepidocrocite, ferrihydrite, and jarosite. At Heath Steele, an accumulation of gas-phase CO 2, of up to 60% of the pore gas, occurs below the hardpan. The calculated diffusivity of the hardpan layer is only about 1/100 that of the overlying, uncemented tailings. The pore-water chemistry at Heath Steele has changed little over a 10-year period, suggesting that the cemented layer restricts the movement of dissolved metals through the tailings and also acts as a zone of metal accumulation. Generation of a cemented layer therefore has significant environmental and economic implications. It is likely that, in sulfide-rich tailings impoundments, the addition of carbonate-rich buffering material during the late stages of tailings deposition would enhance the formation of hardpan layers.

  19. Propofol Anesthesia Is Reduced in Phospholipase C-Related Inactive Protein Type-1 Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Yoshikazu; Furukawa, Tomonori; Shimoyama, Shuji; Yamada, Junko; Migita, Keisuke; Koga, Kohei; Kushikata, Tetsuya; Hirota, Kazuyoshi; Kanematsu, Takashi; Hirata, Masato; Ueno, Shinya

    2017-06-01

    The GABA type A receptor (GABAA-R) is a major target of intravenous anesthetics. Phospholipase C-related inactive protein type-1 (PRIP-1) is important in GABAA-R phosphorylation and membrane trafficking. In this study, we investigated the role of PRIP-1 in general anesthetic action. The anesthetic effects of propofol, etomidate, and pentobarbital were evaluated in wild-type and PRIP-1 knockout (PRIP-1 KO) mice by measuring the latency and duration of loss of righting reflex (LORR) and loss of tail-pinch withdrawal response (LTWR). The effect of pretreatment with okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase 1/2A inhibitor, on propofol- and etomidate-induced LORR was also examined. PRIP-1 deficiency provided the reduction of LORR and LTWR induced by propofol but not by etomidate or pentobarbital, indicating that PRIP-1 could determine the potency of the anesthetic action of propofol. Pretreatment with OA recovered the anesthetic potency induced by propofol in PRIP-1 KO mice. OA injection enhanced phosphorylation of cortical the GABAA-R β3 subunit in PRIP-1 KO mice. These results suggest that PRIP-1-mediated GABAA-R β3 subunit phosphorylation might be involved in the general anesthetic action induced by propofol but not by etomidate or pentobarbital. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Selected indicators of physical activities and inactivities of persons with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Bláha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For persons with visual impairments it is more difficult in many ways to carry out physical activities. They usually have a lower level of locomotive faculties and the negative trends of contemporary lifestyle related to the imbalance in energy intake and expenditure may affect them in larger measure. AIM: The objective of this research was to find out the volume of everyday physical activities compared to the passive relaxation. METHODS: Using the questionnaire IPAQ-short, we investigated the indicators characterizing the applied physical activity and inactivity during the week of citizens with visual impairment in the Usti Region (n = 152. The acquired data was converted to values MET and MET- min. . week-1. RESULTS: We recorded low values in intense physical activities and moderate activities. In the total volume of reported activities during the week (2967 METmin. . week-1 there is an increased share of walking (2222 MET-min. . week-1. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small part of the persons with visual impairments meets more of the health recommended criteria. Their lifestyle may suffer from an excess of sedentary activities that may have an unfavorable influence on health. These manifestations appear most in the persons with the highest degree of impairment. We recommend supporting their activity by the presence of tracers, improvements in navigation and preparation of specific programs. We see the possible measures also in the municipal politics.

  1. Annual status report on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Assessments of inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States led to the designation of 25 processing sites for remedial action under the provisions of Section 102(a) Public Law 95-604. The Department of Energy assessed the potential health effects to the public from the residual radioactive materials on or near the 25 sites; and, with the advice of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary established priorities for performing remedial action. In designating the 25 sites and establishing the priorities for performing remedial action, the Department of Energy consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of the Interior, governors of the affected States, Navajo Nation, and appropriate property owners. Public participation in this process was encouraged. During Fiscal Year 1980, Department of Energy will be conducting surveys to verify the radiological characterization at the designated processing sites; developing cooperative agreements with the affected States; and initiating the appropriate National Environmental Policy Act documentation prior to conducting specific remedial actions.

  2. Inhibition of ERBB2-overexpressing Tumors by Recombinant Human Prolidase and Its Enzymatically Inactive Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ERBB2 is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in a subset of human breast cancer and other cancers. We recently found that human prolidase (PEPD, a dipeptidase, is a high affinity ERBB2 ligand and cross-links two ERBB2 monomers. Here, we show that recombinant human PEPD (rhPEPD strongly inhibits ERBB2-overexpressing tumors in mice, whereas it does not impact tumors without ERBB2 overexpression. rhPEPD causes ERBB2 depletion, disrupts oncogenic signaling orchestrated by ERBB2 homodimers and heterodimers, and induces apoptosis. The impact of enzymatically-inactive mutant rhPEPDG278D on ERBB2 is indistinguishable from that of rhPEPD, but rhPEPDG278D is superior to rhPEPD for tumor inhibition. The enzymatic function of rhPEPD stimulates HIF-1α and other pro-survival factors in tumors, which likely attenuates its antitumor activity. rhPEPDG278D is also attractive in that it may not interfere with the physiologic function of endogenous PEPD in normal cells. Collectively, we have identified a human protein as an inhibitory ERBB2 ligand that inhibits ERBB2-overexpressing tumors in vivo. Several anti-ERBB2 agents are on the market but are hampered by drug resistance and high drug cost. rhPEPDG278D may synergize with these agents and may also be highly cost-effective, since it targets ERBB2 with a different mechanism and can be produced in bacteria.

  3. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP controls KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Asano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP-knockout mice exhibited hyperinsulinemia. Here, we investigated the role of PRIP in insulin granule exocytosis using Prip-knockdown mouse insulinoma (MIN6 cells. Insulin release from Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells was higher than that from control cells, and Prip knockdown facilitated movement of GFP-phogrin-labeled insulin secretory vesicles. Double-immunofluorescent staining and density step-gradient analyses showed that the KIF5B motor protein co-localized with insulin vesicles in Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells. Knockdown of GABAA-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP, a microtubule-associated PRIP-binding partner, by Gabarap silencing in MIN6 cells reduced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with KIF5B and the movement of vesicles, resulting in decreased insulin secretion. However, the co-localization of KIF5B with microtubules was not altered in Prip- and Gabarap-knockdown cells. The presence of unbound GABARAP, freed either by an interference peptide or by Prip silencing, in MIN6 cells enhanced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with microtubules and promoted vesicle mobility. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PRIP and GABARAP function in a complex to regulate KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion, providing new insights into insulin exocytic mechanisms.

  4. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein can regulate obesity, a state of peripheral inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Yamawaki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Chronic inflammation in fat influences the development of obesity-related diseases. Many reports state that obesity increases the risk of morbidity in many diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and breast, prostate and colon cancers, leading to increased mortality. Obesity is also associated with chronic neuropathologic conditions such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. However, there is strong evidence that weight loss reduces these risks, by limiting blood pressure and improving levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol. Prevention and control of obesity is complex, and requires a multifaceted approach. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms driving fat metabolism (adipogenesis and lipolysis aims at developing clinical treatments to control obesity. We recently reported a new regulatory mechanism in fat metabolism: a protein phosphatase binding protein, phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP, regulates lipolysis in white adipocytes and heat production in brown adipocytes via phosphoregulation. Deficiency of PRIP in mice led to reduced fat accumulation and increased energy expenditure, resulting in a lean phenotype. Here, we evaluate PRIP as a new therapeutic target for the control of obesity.

  5. MK-STYX, a catalytically inactive phosphatase regulating mitochondrially dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Natalie M; Lanning, Nathan J; Klomp, Jeff A; Tait, Stephen W; Xu, Yong; Dykema, Karl J; Murphy, Leon O; Gaither, L Alex; Xu, H Eric; Furge, Kyle A; Green, Douglas R; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P

    2011-04-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is a significant problem affecting an array of cancers. In order to identify novel regulators of apoptosis, we performed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen against all kinases and phosphatases in the human genome. We identified MK-STYX (STYXL1), a catalytically inactive phosphatase with homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases. Despite this homology, MK-STYX knockdown does not significantly regulate MAPK signaling in response to growth factors or apoptotic stimuli. Rather, RNAi-mediated knockdown of MK-STYX inhibits cells from undergoing apoptosis induced by cellular stressors activating mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis. This MK-STYX phenotype mimics the loss of Bax and Bak, two potent guardians of mitochondrial apoptotic potential. Similar to loss of both Bax and Bak, cells without MK-STYX expression are unable to release cytochrome c. Proapoptotic members of the BCL-2 family (Bax, Bid, and Bim) are unable to trigger cytochrome c release in MK-STYX-depleted cells, placing the apoptotic deficiency at the level of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). MK-STYX was found to localize to the mitochondria but is neither released from the mitochondria upon apoptotic stress nor proximal to the machinery currently known to control MOMP, indicating that MK-STYX regulates MOMP using a distinct mechanism.

  6. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis.

  7. Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimel, Joshua P.; Aragones, Juan L.; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser

    2016-04-01

    Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

  8. A novel large filamentous deltaproteobacterium on hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimneys of the Southern Mariana Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    Unusual large filamentous bacteria (LFB) have been found on the deep seafloor environments. They play a significant role in geochemical cycling in the dark environments. However, our knowledge of the spatial distribution and phylogenetic diversity of the LFB on the deep seafloor are still limited due to the inaccessibility to these environments. Here, we report the discovery of a novel LFB on a hydrothermally inactive sulfide chimney in a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Southern Mariana Trough. Light and electron microscopic observation showed that the width and total length of the LFB were >8 μm and >100 μm, respectively, of which morphology was similar to that of other known LFB such as "cable bacteria" of the Desulfobulbaceae. Analyses of a 16S rRNA gene clone library and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this LFB belongs to the Desulfobulbaceae. The 16S rRNA gene of the LFB showed 94% similarity to those of the reported cable bacteria and cultured deltaproteobacterial species, suggesting that the LFB is a novel cable bacterium of the Desulfobulbaceae. The novel LFB potentially play a role in sulfur cycling on sulfide chimneys at the hydrothermally ceasing or even ceased deep-sea hydrothermal fields.

  9. Vasoconstrictor eicosanoids and impaired microvascular function in inactive and insulin-resistant primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, S M; Belcik, J T; Bader, L; Kievit, P; Grove, K L; Lindner, J R

    2016-10-01

    The inability to augment capillary blood volume (CBV) in response to insulin or glucose is thought to contribute to insulin resistance (IR) by limiting glucose uptake in key storage sites. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to impaired CBV augmentation early in the onset of IR may lead to new future therapies. We hypothesized that inactivity alters the balance of vasoactive eicosanoids and contributes to microvascular IR. In ten activity-restricted (AR) and six normal activity adult male rhesus macaques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound of skeletal muscle blood flow and CBV was performed at baseline and during intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Plasma was analyzed for vasoconstrictor hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and the ratio of vasodilatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their less biologically active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) as an indirect measure of soluble epoxide hydrolase activity. AR primates were IR during IVGTT and had a 45% lower glucose-stimulated CBV response. Vasoconstrictor 18-HETE and 19-HETE and the DHET/EET ratio were markedly elevated in the AR group and correlated inversely with the CBV response. In addition, levels of 18-HETE and 19-HETE correlated directly with microvascular IR. We conclude that a shift toward increased eicosanoid vasoconstrictor tone correlates with abnormal skeletal muscle vascular recruitment and may contribute to IR.

  10. Decision tree approach to evaluating inactive uranium processing sites for liner requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relyea, J.F.

    1983-03-01

    Recently, concern has been expressed about potential toxic effects of both radon emission and release of toxic elements in leachate from inactive uranium mill tailings piles. Remedial action may be required to meet disposal standards set by the states and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In some cases, a possible disposal option is the exhumation and reburial (either on site or at a new location) of tailings and reliance on engineered barriers to satisfy the objectives established for remedial actions. Liners under disposal pits are the major engineered barrier for preventing contaminant release to ground and surface water. The purpose of this report is to provide a logical sequence of action, in the form of a decision tree, which could be followed to show whether a selected tailings disposal design meets the objectives for subsurface contaminant release without a liner. This information can be used to determine the need and type of liner for sites exhibiting a potential groundwater problem. The decision tree is based on the capability of hydrologic and mass transport models to predict the movement of water and contaminants with time. The types of modeling capabilities and data needed for those models are described, and the steps required to predict water and contaminant movement are discussed. A demonstration of the decision tree procedure is given to aid the reader in evaluating the need for the adequacy of a liner.

  11. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  12. The formation and potential importance of cemented layers in inactive sulfide mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowes, D.W.; Reardon, E.J.; Cherry, J.A. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)); Jambor, J.L. (CANMET, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-04-01

    Investigations of inactive sulfide-rich tailings impoundments at the Heath Steele (New Brunswick) and Waite Amulet (Quebec) minesites have revealed two distinct types of cemented layers or hardpans. That at Heath Steele is 10-15 cm thick, occurs 20-30 cm below the depth of active oxidation, is continuous throughout the tailings impoundment, and is characterized by cementation of tailings by gypsum and Fe(II) solid phases, principally melanterite. Hardpan at the Waite Amulet site is only 1-5 cm thick, is laterally discontinuous (10-100 cm), occurs at the depth of active oxidation, and is characterized by cementation of tailings by Fe(III) minerals, principally goethite, lepidocrocite, ferrihydrite, and jarosite. At Heath Steele, an accumulation of gas-phase CO{sub 2}, of up to 60{percent} of the pore gas, occurs below the hardpan. The calculated diffusivity of the hardpan layer is only about 1/100 that of the overlying, uncemented tailings. The pore-water chemistry at Heath Steele has changed little over a 10-year period, suggesting that the cemented layer restricts the movement of dissolved metals through the tailings and also acts as a zone of metal accumulation. Generation of a cemented layer therefore has significant environmental and economic implications. It is likely that, in sulfide-rich tailings impoundments, the addition of carbonate-rich buffering material during the late stages of tailings deposition would enhance the formation of hardpan layers.

  13. Growth, Metabolism and Physiological Response of the Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka During Periods of Inactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Rongbin; ZANG Yuanqi; TIAN Xiangli; DONG Shuanglin

    2013-01-01

    The growth,metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus,were investigated during periods of inactivity.The body weight,oxygen consumption rate (OCR),activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP),alkaline phosphatase (AKP),catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD),and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A.japonicus were measured during starvation,experimental aestivation and aestivation.The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period (P<0.05).The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments,but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment.The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments,whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment.The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24℃.To some extent,the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response.These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism ofA.japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  14. Deletion of DXZ4 on the human inactive X chromosome alters higher-order genome architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Emily M; Huntley, Miriam H; Dudchenko, Olga; Stamenova, Elena K; Durand, Neva C; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Su-Chen; Sanborn, Adrian L; Machol, Ido; Shamim, Muhammad; Seberg, Andrew P; Lander, Eric S; Chadwick, Brian P; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2016-08-02

    During interphase, the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is largely transcriptionally silent and adopts an unusual 3D configuration known as the "Barr body." Despite the importance of X chromosome inactivation, little is known about this 3D conformation. We recently showed that in humans the Xi chromosome exhibits three structural features, two of which are not shared by other chromosomes. First, like the chromosomes of many species, Xi forms compartments. Second, Xi is partitioned into two huge intervals, called "superdomains," such that pairs of loci in the same superdomain tend to colocalize. The boundary between the superdomains lies near DXZ4, a macrosatellite repeat whose Xi allele extensively binds the protein CCCTC-binding factor. Third, Xi exhibits extremely large loops, up to 77 megabases long, called "superloops." DXZ4 lies at the anchor of several superloops. Here, we combine 3D mapping, microscopy, and genome editing to study the structure of Xi, focusing on the role of DXZ4 We show that superloops and superdomains are conserved across eutherian mammals. By analyzing ligation events involving three or more loci, we demonstrate that DXZ4 and other superloop anchors tend to colocate simultaneously. Finally, we show that deleting DXZ4 on Xi leads to the disappearance of superdomains and superloops, changes in compartmentalization patterns, and changes in the distribution of chromatin marks. Thus, DXZ4 is essential for proper Xi packaging.

  15. Recurrent boosting effects of short inactivity delays on performance: an ERPs study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maquet Pierre

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies investigating off-line processes of consolidation in motor learning have demonstrated a sudden, short-lived improvement in performance after 5–30 minutes of post-training inactivity. Here, we investigated further this behavioral boost in the context of the probabilistic serial reaction time task, a paradigm of implicit sequence learning. We looked both at the electrophysiological correlates of the boost effect and whether this phenomenon occurs at the initial training session only. Findings Reaction times consistently improved after a 30-minute break within two sessions spaced four days apart, revealing the reproducibility of the boost effect. Importantly, this improvement was unrelated to the acquisition of the sequential regularities in the material. At both sessions, event-related potentials (ERPs analyses disclosed a boost-associated increased amplitude of a first negative component, and shorter latencies for a second positive component. Conclusion Behavioral and ERP data suggest increased processing fluency after short delays, which may support transitory improvements in attentional and/or motor performance and participate in the final setting up of the neural networks involved in the acquisition of novel skills.

  16. Nonstationary Stochastic Dynamics Underlie Spontaneous Transitions between Active and Inactive Behavioral States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Alexandre; Mejias, Jorge F; Jun, James J; Maler, Leonard; Longtin, André

    2017-01-01

    The neural basis of spontaneous movement generation is a fascinating open question. Long-term monitoring of fish, swimming freely in a constant sensory environment, has revealed a sequence of behavioral states that alternate randomly and spontaneously between periods of activity and inactivity. We show that key dynamical features of this sequence are captured by a 1-D diffusion process evolving in a nonlinear double well energy landscape, in which a slow variable modulates the relative depth of the wells. This combination of stochasticity, nonlinearity, and nonstationary forcing correctly captures the vastly different timescales of fluctuations observed in the data (∼1 to ∼1000 s), and yields long-tailed residence time distributions (RTDs) also consistent with the data. In fact, our model provides a simple mechanism for the emergence of long-tailed distributions in spontaneous animal behavior. We interpret the stochastic variable of this dynamical model as a decision-like variable that, upon reaching a threshold, triggers the transition between states. Our main finding is thus the identification of a threshold crossing process as the mechanism governing spontaneous movement initiation and termination, and to infer the presence of underlying nonstationary agents. Another important outcome of our work is a dimensionality reduction scheme that allows similar segments of data to be grouped together. This is done by first extracting geometrical features in the dataset and then applying principal component analysis over the feature space. Our study is novel in its ability to model nonstationary behavioral data over a wide range of timescales.

  17. Biosorption of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc by inactive biomass of Pseudomonas Putida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Rafael; Herguedas, Mar; Barrado, Enrique; Vega, Marisol [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Valladolid, Facultad de Ciencias, Prado de la Magdalena, 47005, Valladolid (Spain)

    2003-05-01

    The accumulation of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) at mg L{sup -1} concentration levels by inactive freeze-dried biomass of Pseudomonas Putida has been investigated. These metals could be efficiently removed from diluted aqueous solutions. A contact time of 10 min was sufficient to reach equilibrium. The pH has a strong effect on metal biosorption and the optimal pH values were 6.0, 5.0-6.0, 6.0-6.5 and 7.0-7.5 for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) respectively. Under these conditions there was 80% removal for all metals studied. The process of biosorption can be described by a Langmuir-type adsorption model. This model accounts for 98% of the data variance. The K{sub A} and q{sub max} parameters for each metal are strongly correlated (at confidence levels greater than 98%) with the metal acidity, quantified by the constant of the corresponding M(OH){sup +} complex, thus confirming previous assertions by other authors. (orig.)

  18. AGN feedback at z~2 and the mutual evolution of active and inactive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; Talia, M; Mignoli, M; Rodighiero, G; Kurk, J; Cassata, P; Halliday, C; Renzini, A; Daddi, E

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between galaxies of intermediate stellar mass and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 110^42.3 erg s^-1 disappear from the blue cloud/green valley where they were hosted predominantly by star-forming systems with disk and irregular morphologies. These results are even clearer when the rest-frame colors are corrected for dust reddening. At z~2.2, the ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies (including two Type 1 AGNs) show possible gas outflows with velocities up to about -500 km s^-1 that are not observed neither in inactive systems at the same redshift, nor at lower redshifts. Such outflows indicate the presence of gas that can move faster than the escape velocities of active galaxies. These results suggest that feedback from moderately luminous AGNs (logL_X~2 by contributing to outflows capable of ejecting part of the interstellar medium and leading to a rapid decrease in the star formation in host galaxies with stellar masses 10

  19. CORAL: Binary classifications (active/inactive) for drug-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, Alla P; Toropov, Andrey A

    2017-02-15

    The data on human hepatotoxcity (drug-induced liver injury) is extremely important information from point of view of drug discovery. Experimental clinical data on this endpoint is scarce. Experimental way to extend databases on this endpoint is extremely difficult. Quantitative structure - activity relationships (QSAR) is attractive alternative of the experimental approach. Predictive models for human hepatotoxicity (drug-induced liver injury) have been built up by the Monte Carlo method with using of the CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral). These models are the binary classifications into active class and inactive class. These models are calculated with so-called "semi correlations" described in this work. The Mattews correlation coefficient of these models for external validation sets ranged from 0.52 to 0.62. The approach has been checked up with a group of random splits into the training and validation sets. These stochastic experiments have shown the stability of results: predictability of the models for various splits. Thus, the attempt to build up the classification QSAR model by means of the Monte Carlo technique, based on representation of the molecular structure via simplified molecular input line entry systems (SMILES) and hydrogen suppressed graph (HSG) using the CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral) has shown ability of this approach to provide quite good prediction of the examined endpoint (drug-induced liver injury). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258 completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction.