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Sample records for inactive murein binding

  1. Compensating stereochemical changes allow murein tripeptide to be accommodated in a conventional peptide-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Abbas; Levdikov, Vladimir M; Blagova, Elena V; Hervé, Mireille; Horler, Richard S P; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Thomas, Gavin H

    2011-09-09

    The oligopeptide permease (Opp) of Escherichia coli is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that uses the substrate-binding protein (SBP) OppA to bind peptides and deliver them to the membrane components (OppBCDF) for transport. OppA binds conventional peptides 2-5 residues in length regardless of their sequence, but does not facilitate transport of the cell wall component murein tripeptide (Mtp, L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-meso-Dap), which contains a D-amino acid and a γ-peptide linkage. Instead, MppA, a homologous substrate-binding protein, forms a functional transporter with OppBCDF for uptake of this unusual tripeptide. Here we have purified MppA and demonstrated biochemically that it binds Mtp with high affinity (K(D) ∼ 250 nM). The crystal structure of MppA in complex with Mtp has revealed that Mtp is bound in a relatively extended conformation with its three carboxylates projecting from one side of the molecule and its two amino groups projecting from the opposite face. Specificity for Mtp is conferred by charge-charge and dipole-charge interactions with ionic and polar residues of MppA. Comparison of the structure of MppA-Mtp with structures of conventional tripeptides bound to OppA, reveals that the peptide ligands superimpose remarkably closely given the profound differences in their structures. Strikingly, the effect of the D-stereochemistry, which projects the side chain of the D-Glu residue at position 2 in the direction of the main chain in a conventional tripeptide, is compensated by the formation of a γ-linkage to the amino group of diaminopimelic acid, mimicking the peptide bond between residues 2 and 3 of a conventional tripeptide.

  2. MpaA is a murein-tripeptide-specific zinc carboxypeptidase that functions as part of a catabolic pathway for peptidoglycan-derived peptides in γ-proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Abbas; Hervé, Mireille; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Thomas, Gavin H

    2012-12-15

    The murein peptide amidase MpaA is a cytoplasmic enzyme that processes peptides derived from the turnover of murein. We have purified the enzyme from Escherichia coli and demonstrated that it efficiently hydrolyses the γ-D-glutamyl-diaminopimelic acid bond in the murein tripeptide (L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-meso-Dap), with Km and kcat values of 0.41±0.05 mM and 38.3±10 s-1. However, it is unable to act on the murein tetrapeptide (L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-meso-Dap-D-Ala). E. coli MpaA is a homodimer containing one bound zinc ion per chain, as judged by mass spectrometric analysis and size-exclusion chromatography. To investigate the structure of MpaA we solved the crystal structure of the orthologous protein from Vibrio harveyi to 2.17 Å (1Å=0.1 nm). Vh_MpaA, which has identical enzymatic and biophysical properties to the E. coli enzyme, has high structural similarity to eukaryotic zinc carboxypeptidases. The structure confirms that MpaA is a dimeric zinc metalloprotein. Comparison of the structure of MpaA with those of other carboxypeptidases reveals additional structure that partially occludes the substrate-binding groove, perhaps explaining the narrower substrate specificity of the enzyme compared with other zinc carboxypeptidases. In γ-proteobacteria mpaA is often located adjacent to mppA which encodes a periplasmic transporter protein previously shown to bind murein tripeptide. We demonstrate that MppA can also bind murein tetrapeptide with high affinity. The genetic coupling of these genes and their related biochemical functions suggest that MpaA amidase and MppA transporter form part of a catabolic pathway for utilization of murein-derived peptides that operates in γ-proteobacteria in addition to the established murein recycling pathways.

  3. A mononuclear non-heme manganese(IV)-oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N; Nam, Wonwoo

    2013-05-01

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal-oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc(3+) ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C-H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal-oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  4. A Mononuclear Non-Heme Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Binding Redox-Inactive Metal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junying; Lee, Yong-Min; Davis, Katherine M.; Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Yoon, Heejung; Park, Young Jun; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Pushkar, Yulia N.; Nam, Wonwoo [Ewha; (Purdue); (Osaka)

    2013-05-29

    Redox-inactive metal ions play pivotal roles in regulating the reactivities of high-valent metal–oxo species in a variety of enzymatic and chemical reactions. A mononuclear non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex bearing a pentadentate N5 ligand has been synthesized and used in the synthesis of a Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding scandium ions. The Mn(IV)–oxo complexes were characterized with various spectroscopic methods. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)–oxo complex are markedly influenced by binding of Sc3+ ions in oxidation reactions, such as a ~2200-fold increase in the rate of oxidation of thioanisole (i.e., oxygen atom transfer) but a ~180-fold decrease in the rate of C–H bond activation of 1,4-cyclohexadiene (i.e., hydrogen atom transfer). The present results provide the first example of a non-heme Mn(IV)–oxo complex binding redox-inactive metal ions that shows a contrasting effect of the redox-inactive metal ions on the reactivities of metal–oxo species in the oxygen atom transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

  5. Preferential binding of allosteric modulators to active and inactive conformational states of metabotropic glutamate receptors

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    Klein-Seetharaman Judith

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are G protein coupled receptors that play important roles in synaptic plasticity and other neuro-physiological and pathological processes. Allosteric mGluR ligands are particularly promising drug targets because of their modulatory effects – enhancing or suppressing the response of mGluRs to glutamate. The mechanism by which this modulation occurs is not known. Here, we propose the hypothesis that positive and negative modulators will differentially stabilize the active and inactive conformations of the receptors, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we have generated computational models of the transmembrane regions of different mGluR subtypes in two different conformations. The inactive conformation was modeled using the crystal structure of the inactive, dark state of rhodopsin as template and the active conformation was created based on a recent model of the light-activated state of rhodopsin. Ligands for which the nature of their allosteric effects on mGluRs is experimentally known were docked to the modeled mGluR structures using ArgusLab and Autodock softwares. We find that the allosteric ligand binding pockets of mGluRs are overlapping with the retinal binding pocket of rhodopsin, and that ligands have strong preferences for the active and inactive states depending on their modulatory nature. In 8 out of 14 cases (57%, the negative modulators bound the inactive conformations with significant preference using both docking programs, and 6 out of 9 cases (67%, the positive modulators bound the active conformations. Considering results by the individual programs only, even higher correlations were observed: 12/14 (86% and 8/9 (89% for ArgusLab and 10/14 (71% and 7/9 (78% for AutoDock. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that mGluR allosteric modulation occurs via stabilization of different conformations analogous to those identified in rhodopsin where they are induced by

  6. Interconversion between active and inactive TATA-binding protein transcription complexes in the mouse genome.

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    Choukrallah, Mohamed-Amin; Kobi, Dominique; Martianov, Igor; Pijnappel, W W M Pim; Mischerikow, Nikolai; Ye, Tao; Heck, Albert J R; Timmers, H Th Marc; Davidson, Irwin

    2012-02-01

    The TATA binding protein (TBP) plays a pivotal role in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through incorporation into the TFIID and B-TFIID complexes. The role of mammalian B-TFIID composed of TBP and B-TAF1 is poorly understood. Using a complementation system in genetically modified mouse cells where endogenous TBP can be conditionally inactivated and replaced by exogenous mutant TBP coupled to tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify two TBP mutations, R188E and K243E, that disrupt the TBP-BTAF1 interaction and B-TFIID complex formation. Transcriptome and ChIP-seq analyses show that loss of B-TFIID does not generally alter gene expression or genomic distribution of TBP, but positively or negatively affects TBP and/or Pol II recruitment to a subset of promoters. We identify promoters where wild-type TBP assembles a partial inactive preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID, TFIIB and Mediator complex, but lacking TFIID, TFIIE and Pol II. Exchange of B-TFIID in wild-type cells for TFIID in R188E and K243E mutant cells at these primed promoters completes preinitiation complex formation and recruits Pol II to activate their expression. We propose a novel regulatory mechanism involving formation of a partial preinitiation complex comprising B-TFIID that primes the promoter for productive preinitiation complex formation in mammalian cells.

  7. Transcription Factors Bind Thousands of Active and InactiveRegions in the Drosophila Blastoderm

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    Li, Xiao-Yong; MacArthur, Stewart; Bourgon, Richard; Nix, David; Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Hechmer, Aaron; Simirenko, Lisa; Stapleton, Mark; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Chu, Hou Cheng; Ogawa, Nobuo; Inwood, William; Sementchenko, Victor; Beaton, Amy; Weiszmann, Richard; Celniker, Susan E.; Knowles, David W.; Gingeras, Tom; Speed, Terence P.; Eisen, Michael B.; Biggin, Mark D.

    2008-01-10

    Identifying the genomic regions bound by sequence-specific regulatory factors is central both to deciphering the complex DNA cis-regulatory code that controls transcription in metazoans and to determining the range of genes that shape animal morphogenesis. Here, we use whole-genome tiling arrays to map sequences bound in Drosophila melanogaster embryos by the six maternal and gap transcription factors that initiate anterior-posterior patterning. We find that these sequence-specific DNA binding proteins bind with quantitatively different specificities to highly overlapping sets of several thousand genomic regions in blastoderm embryos. Specific high- and moderate-affinity in vitro recognition sequences for each factor are enriched in bound regions. This enrichment, however, is not sufficient to explain the pattern of binding in vivo and varies in a context-dependent manner, demonstrating that higher-order rules must govern targeting of transcription factors. The more highly bound regions include all of the over forty well-characterized enhancers known to respond to these factors as well as several hundred putative new cis-regulatory modules clustered near developmental regulators and other genes with patterned expression at this stage of embryogenesis. The new targets include most of the microRNAs (miRNAs) transcribed in the blastoderm, as well as all major zygotically transcribed dorsal-ventral patterning genes, whose expression we show to be quantitatively modulated by anterior-posterior factors. In addition to these highly bound regions, there are several thousand regions that are reproducibly bound at lower levels. However, these poorly bound regions are, collectively, far more distant from genes transcribed in the blastoderm than highly bound regions; are preferentially found in protein-coding sequences; and are less conserved than highly bound regions. Together these observations suggest that many of these poorly-bound regions are not involved in early

  8. MUREIN-METABOLIZING ENZYMES FROM ESCHERICHIA-COLI - EXISTENCE OF A 2ND LYTIC TRANSGLYCOSYLASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ENGEL, H; SMINK, AJ; VANWIJNGAARDEN, L; KECK, W

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the soluble lytic transglycosylase, a murein-metabolizing enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa (Slt70), Escherichia coli possesses a second lytic transglycosylase, which has been described as a membrane-bound lytic transglycosylase (Mlt; 35 kDa; EC 3.2.1.-). The mlt gene, which

  9. Spectroscopic capture and reactivity of a low-spin cobalt(IV)-oxo complex stabilized by binding redox-inactive metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seungwoo; Pfaff, Florian Felix; Kwon, Eunji; Wang, Yong; Seo, Mi-Sook; Bill, Eckhard; Ray, Kallol; Nam, Wonwoo

    2014-09-22

    High-valent cobalt-oxo intermediates are proposed as reactive intermediates in a number of cobalt-complex-mediated oxidation reactions. Herein we report the spectroscopic capture of low-spin (S=1/2) Co(IV)-oxo species in the presence of redox-inactive metal ions, such as Sc(3+), Ce(3+), Y(3+), and Zn(2+), and the investigation of their reactivity in C-H bond activation and sulfoxidation reactions. Theoretical calculations predict that the binding of Lewis acidic metal ions to the cobalt-oxo core increases the electrophilicity of the oxygen atom, resulting in the redox tautomerism of a highly unstable [(TAML)Co(III)(O˙)](2-) species to a more stable [(TAML)Co(IV)(O)(M(n+))] core. The present report supports the proposed role of the redox-inactive metal ions in facilitating the formation of high-valent metal-oxo cores as a necessary step for oxygen evolution in chemistry and biology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Antidiabetic Bis-Maltolato-OxoVanadium(IV): conversion of inactive trans- to bioactive cis-BMOV for possible binding to target PTP-1B.

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    Scior, Thomas; Mack, Hans-Georg; García, José Antonio Guevara; Koch, Wolfhard

    2009-02-06

    The postulated transition of Bis-Maltolato-OxoVanadium(IV) (BMOV) from its inactive trans- into its cis-aquo-BMOV isomeric form in solution was simulated by means of computational molecular modeling. The rotational barrier was calculated with DFT - B3LYP under a stepwise optimization protocol with STO-3G, 3-21G, 3-21G*, and 6-31G ab initio basis sets. Our computed results are consistent with reports on the putative molecular mechanism of BMOV triggering the insulin-like cellular response (insulin mimetic) as a potent inhibitor of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B). Initially, trans-BMOV is present in its solid dosage form but in aqueous solution, and during oral administration, it is readily converted into a mixture of "open-type" and "closed-type" complexes of cis-aquo-BMOV under equilibrium conditions. However, in the same measure as the "closed-type" complex binds to the cytosolic PTP-1B, it disappears from solution, and the equilibrium shifts towards the "closed-type" species. In full accordance, the computed binding mode of cis-BMOV is energetically favored over sterically hindered trans-BMOV. In view of our earlier report on prodrug hypothesis of vanadium organic compounds the present results suggest that cis-BMOV is the bioactive species.

  11. ENZYMATIC PREPARATION OF 1,6-ANHYDRO-MUROPEPTIDES BY IMMOBILIZED MUREIN HYDROLASES FROM ESCHERICHIA-COLI FUSED TO STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN-A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Hendrik; van Leeuwen, A; Dijkstra, A; Keck, W

    In order to produce biologically active 1,6-anhydro-muropeptides in large amounts by enzymatic degradation of isolated bacterial murein polymer highly specific periplasmic murein-metabolizing enzymes from Escherichia coli are made available. The genes slt, dacB, and mepA, encoding the soluble lytic

  12. Structure and Function of the First Full-Length Murein Peptide Ligase (Mpl) Cell Wall Recycling Protein

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    Das, Debanu; Hervé, Mireille; Feuerhelm, Julie; Farr, Carol L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Elsliger, Marc-André; Knuth, Mark W.; Klock, Heath E.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Wilson, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, an essential polymer made by enzymes in the Mur pathway. These proteins are specific to bacteria, which make them targets for drug discovery. MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF catalyze the synthesis of the peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine by the sequential addition of amino acids onto UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-MurNAc). MurC-F enzymes have been extensively studied by biochemistry and X-ray crystallography. In Gram-negative bacteria, ∼30–60% of the bacterial cell wall is recycled during each generation. Part of this recycling process involves the murein peptide ligase (Mpl), which attaches the breakdown product, the tripeptide L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate, to UDP-MurNAc. We present the crystal structure at 1.65 Å resolution of a full-length Mpl from the permafrost bacterium Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 (PaMpl). Although the Mpl structure has similarities to Mur enzymes, it has unique sequence and structure features that are likely related to its role in cell wall recycling, a function that differentiates it from the MurC-F enzymes. We have analyzed the sequence-structure relationships that are unique to Mpl proteins and compared them to MurC-F ligases. We have also characterized the biochemical properties of this enzyme (optimal temperature, pH and magnesium binding profiles and kinetic parameters). Although the structure does not contain any bound substrates, we have identified ∼30 residues that are likely to be important for recognition of the tripeptide and UDP-MurNAc substrates, as well as features that are unique to Psychrobacter Mpl proteins. These results provide the basis for future mutational studies for more extensive function characterization of the Mpl sequence-structure relationships. PMID:21445265

  13. Antidiabetic Bis-Maltolato-OxoVanadium(IV: Conversion of inactive trans- to bioactive cis-BMOV for possible binding to target PTP-1B

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    Thomas Scior

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scior1, Hans-Georg Mack2, José Antonio Guevara García3, Wolfhard Koch41Departamento de Farmacia. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Colonia San Manuel, Puebla, Mexico; 2Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; 3Laboratorio de Investigación en Bioinorgánica y Biorremediación (LIByB. Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Apizaco, Tlaxcala, Mexico; 4Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (FESZ, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM, Colonia Ejército de Oriente, Delegación Iztapalapa, Mexico City, MexicoAbstract: The postulated transition of Bis-Maltolato-OxoVanadium(IV (BMOV from its inactive trans- into its cis-aquo-BMOV isomeric form in solution was simulated by means of computational molecular modeling. The rotational barrier was calculated with DFT – B3LYP under a stepwise optimization protocol with STO-3G, 3-21G, 3-21G*, and 6-31G ab initio basis sets. Our computed results are consistent with reports on the putative molecular mechanism of BMOV triggering the insulin-like cellular response (insulin mimetic as a potent inhibitor of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B. Initially, trans-BMOV is present in its solid dosage form but in aqueous solution, and during oral administration, it is readily converted into a mixture of “open-type” and “closed-type” complexes of cis-aquo-BMOV under equilibrium conditions. However, in the same measure as the “closed-type” complex binds to the cytosolic PTP-1B, it disappears from solution, and the equilibrium shifts towards the “closed-type” species. In full accordance, the computed binding mode of cis-BMOV is energetically favored over sterically hindered trans-BMOV. In view of our earlier report on prodrug hypothesis of vanadium organic compounds the present results suggest that cis-BMOV is the bioactive species

  14. Murein and pseudomurein cell wall binding domains of bacteria and archaea-a comparative view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Kok, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The cell wall, a major barrier protecting cells from their environment, is an essential compartment of both bacteria and archaea. It protects the organism from internal turgor pressure and gives a defined shape to the cell. The cell wall serves also as an anchoring surface for various proteins and

  15. Regulation of dCTP deaminase from Escherichia coli by nonallosteric dTTP binding to an inactive form of the enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Eva; Thymark, Majbritt; Bynck, Julie H

    2007-01-01

    -maximal activity and the cooperativity of dCTP saturation. Likewise, increasing concentrations of dCTP increase the cooperativity of dTTP inhibition. Previous structural studies showed that the complexes of inactive mutant protein, E138A, with dUTP or dCTP bound, and wild-type enzyme with dUTP bound were all...... highly similar and characterized by having an ordered C-terminal. When comparing with a new structure in which dTTP is bound to the active site of E138A, the region between Val120 and His125 was found to be in a new conformation. This and the previous conformation were mutually exclusive within...

  16. A heparin binding synthetic peptide from human HIP / RPL29 fails to specifically differentiate between anticoagulantly active and inactive species of heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, David E; Carson, Daniel D; Höök, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    Despite extensive progress in determining structures within heparin and heparan sulfate (Hp/HS) and the discovery of numerous proteinaceous binding partners for Hp/HS so far; the only detailed characterization of a specific protein-glycosaminoglycan interaction is antithrombin III (ATIII) binding to a Hp pentasaccharide containing a unique 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residue. Previously, it was reported from our laboratories that a 16 amino acid synthetic peptide derived from the C-terminus of human HIP/RPL29 (HIP peptide-1) enriched for ATIII-dependent anticoagulant activity, presumably by specifically binding the ATIII pentasaccharide. Herein, we demonstrate that HIP peptide-1 cannot enrich ATIII-dependent anticoagulant activity from a starting pool of porcine intestinal mucosa Hp through a bio-specific interaction. However, a HIP peptide-1 column can be used to enrich for anticoagulantly active Hp from a diverse pool of glycosaminoglycans known as Hp byproducts by a mechanism of nonspecific charge interactions. Thus, HIP peptide-1 cannot recognize Hp via bio-specific interactions but binds glycosaminoglycans by non-specific charge interactions. PMID:12659638

  17. Murein Hydrolase LytF of Streptococcus sanguinis and the Ecological Consequences of Competence Development.

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    Cullin, Nyssa; Redanz, Sylvio; Lampi, Kirsten J; Merritt, Justin; Kreth, Jens

    2017-12-15

    The overall health of the oral cavity is dependent on proper homeostasis between health-associated bacterial colonizers and bacteria known to promote dental caries. Streptococcus sanguinis is a health-associated commensal organism, a known early colonizer of the acquired tooth pellicle, and is naturally competent. We have shown that LytF, a competence-controlled murein hydrolase, is capable of inducing the release of extracellular DNA (eDNA) from oral bacteria. Precipitated LytF and purified LytF were used as treatments against planktonic cultures and biofilms. Larger amounts of eDNA were released from cultures treated with protein samples containing LytF. Additionally, LytF could affect biofilm formation and cellular morphology. Biofilm formation was significantly decreased in the lytF -complemented strain, in which increased amounts of LytF are present. The same strain also exhibited cell morphology defects in both planktonic cultures and biofilms. Furthermore, the LytF cell morphology phenotype was reproducible in wild-type cells using purified LytF protein. In sum, our findings demonstrate that LytF can induce the release of eDNA from oral bacteria, and they suggest that, without proper regulation of LytF, cells display morphological abnormalities that contribute to biofilm malformation. In the context of the oral biofilm, LytF may play important roles as part of the competence and biofilm development programs, as well as increasing the availability of eDNA. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus sanguinis , a commensal organism in the oral cavity and one of the pioneer colonizers of the tooth surface, is associated with the overall health of the oral environment. Our laboratory showed previously that, under aerobic conditions, S. sanguinis can produce H 2 O 2 to inhibit the growth of bacterial species that promote dental caries. This production of H 2 O 2 by S. sanguinis also induces the release of eDNA, which is essential for proper biofilm formation. Under anaerobic

  18. Impact of the Staphylococcus epidermidis LytSR two-component regulatory system on murein hydrolase activity, pyruvate utilization and global transcriptional profile

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    Yu Fangyou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, mainly because of its ability to colonize implanted biomaterials by forming a biofilm. Extensive studies are focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation. The LytSR two-component regulatory system regulates autolysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the role of LytSR played in S. epidermidis remained unknown. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that lytSR knock-out in S. epidermidis did not alter susceptibility to Triton X-100 induced autolysis. Quantitative murein hydrolase assay indicated that disruption of lytSR in S. epidermidis resulted in decreased activities of extracellular murein hydrolases, although zymogram showed no apparent differences in murein hydrolase patterns between S. epidermidis strain 1457 and its lytSR mutant. Compared to the wild-type counterpart, 1457ΔlytSR produced slightly more biofilm, with significantly decreased dead cells inside. Microarray analysis showed that lytSR mutation affected the transcription of 164 genes (123 genes were upregulated and 41 genes were downregulated. Specifically, genes encoding proteins responsible for protein synthesis, energy metabolism were downregulated, while genes involved in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, amino acid transporters were upregulated. Impaired ability to utilize pyruvate and reduced activity of arginine deiminase was observed in 1457ΔlytSR, which is consistent with the microarray data. Conclusions The preliminary results suggest that in S. epidermidis LytSR two-component system regulates extracellular murein hydrolase activity, bacterial cell death and pyruvate utilization. Based on the microarray data, it appears that lytSR inactivation induces a stringent response. In addition, LytSR may indirectly enhance biofilm formation by altering the metabolic status of the bacteria.

  19. Peptidoglycan Association of Murein Lipoprotein Is Required for KpsD-Dependent Group 2 Capsular Polysaccharide Expression and Serum Resistance in a Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Jingyu; Bouwman, Catrien; Yan, Donghong; Kang, Jing; Katakam, Anand K; Liu, Peter; Pantua, Homer; Abbas, Alexander R; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Austin, Cary; Reichelt, Mike; Sandoval, Wendy; Xu, Min; Whitfield, Chris; Kapadia, Sharookh B

    2017-05-23

    Murein lipoprotein (Lpp) and peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (Pal) are major outer membrane lipoproteins in Escherichia coli Their roles in cell-envelope integrity have been documented in E. coli laboratory strains, and while Lpp has been linked to serum resistance in vitro , the underlying mechanism has not been established. Here, lpp and pal mutants of uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073 showed reduced survival in a mouse bacteremia model, but only the lpp mutant was sensitive to serum killing in vitro The peptidoglycan-bound Lpp form was specifically required for preventing complement-mediated bacterial lysis in vitro and complement-mediated clearance in vivo Compared to the wild-type strain, the lpp mutant had impaired K2 capsular polysaccharide production and was unable to respond to exposure to serum by elevating capsular polysaccharide amounts. These properties correlated with altered cellular distribution of KpsD, the predicted outer membrane translocon for "group 2" capsular polysaccharides. We identified a novel Lpp-dependent association between functional KpsD and peptidoglycan, highlighting important interplay between cell envelope components required for resistance to complement-mediated lysis in uropathogenic E. coli isolates. IMPORTANCE Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates represent a significant cause of nosocomial urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Many UPEC isolates are resistant to serum killing. Here, we show that a major cell-envelope lipoprotein (murein lipoprotein) is required for serum resistance in vitro and for complement-mediated bacterial clearance in vivo This is mediated, in part, through a novel mechanism by which murein lipoprotein affects the proper assembly of a key component of the machinery involved in production of "group 2" capsules. The absence of murein lipoprotein results in impaired production of the capsule layer, a known participant in complement resistance. These results demonstrate an important role for

  20. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

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    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  1. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  2. The pandemic of physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Harold W; Craig, Cora Lynn; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2012-01-01

    the 1950s, promotion to improve the health of populations has lagged in relation to the available evidence and has only recently developed an identifiable infrastructure, including efforts in planning, policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and development, and monitoring and surveillance......Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. We summarise present global efforts to counteract this problem and point the way forward to address the pandemic of physical inactivity. Although evidence for the benefits of physical activity for health has been available since...

  3. Substrate Capture Assay Using Inactive Oligopeptidases to Identify Novel Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioli, Vanessa; Ferro, Emer S

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are always searching for novel biologically active molecules including peptides. With the improvement of equipment for electrospray mass spectrometry, it is now possible to identify hundreds of novel peptides in a single run. However, after identifying the peptide sequences it is expensive to synthesize all the peptides to perform biological activity assays. Here, we describe a substrate capture assay that uses inactive oligopeptidases to identify putative biologically active peptides in complexes peptide mixtures. This methodology can use any crude extracts of biological tissues or cells, with the advantage to introduce a filter (i.e., binding to an inactive oligopeptidase) as a prior step in screening to bioactive peptides.

  4. Understanding Female Inactivity in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Azzopardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study is based in Malta, a small island state with the highest rate of economically inactive women in the European Union (EU. Using a random sample of 402 inactive female homemakers, the responses to a telephone survey revealed that (a this inactive group is motivated by aspects of social and economic well-being and to a lesser extent by aspects of personal and professional development; (b work hindrances include low wages, family responsibilities, and a dependency on social security contributions/benefits; (c the intention to work in the future is significantly associated with work motives, work hindrances, and demographic variables, resulting in an overall holdout accuracy of 84.8%; and (d the respondents would be encouraged to work if there are more supportive/flexible work structures available for working mothers, equal opportunities for women at the workplace, and employment opportunities through in-work benefits that make work pay (particularly for those aged 40+, with limited skills and with low work intensity. The findings are discussed, and the study concludes by providing four policy recommendations aimed at addressing the present shortcomings of the Maltese labor market.

  5. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  6. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  7. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  8. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...

  9. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  10. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical...... leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.......67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical...

  11. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    limited in terms of maintaining a behavior change. The purpose of this study was to investigate individual, cognitive, social, and contextual factors influencing the adoption and maintenance of regular self-organized jogging, and how they were manifested among former inactive adults. Methods A qualitative...... to translate intention into regular behavior. TTM: Informants expressed rapid progression from the pre-contemplation to the action stage caused by an early shift in the decisional balance towards advantages overweighing disadvantages. This was followed by a continuous improvement in self-efficacy, which...... jogging-related self-efficacy, and deployment of realistic goal setting was significant in the achievement of regular jogging behavior. Cognitive factors included a positive change in both affective and instrumental beliefs about jogging. Expectations from society and social relations had limited effect...

  12. Vascular adaption to physical inactivity in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical inactivity, exercise decreases the risk for cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect of exercise is partly due to changes in vascular function and structure. However, far less is known about vascular ...

  13. Barren diets increase wakeful inactivity in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Laura E.; Engel, Bas; Reenen, van Kees; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Inactivity is a vastly understudied behavioural category, which may reflect positive or negative affective states in captive or domesticated animals. Increased inactivity in barren-housed animals, in combination with an increased or decreased interest in stimuli, e.g. novel objects, can indicate

  14. Administrative Inactivity: Concept and Requirements of Legality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Yarkovoy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general concept of omission in law, as well as the concept and main features of inactivity on the part of executive bodies, other public administration agencies and their officials in their administrative law enforcement are examined, conditions of legality of such inactivity are under study

  15. Autonomic responses to exercise: deconditioning/inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Richard L; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental models of physical inactivity associated with a sedentary lifestyle or extreme forms of inactivity with bed rest or spaceflight affect the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system. Deconditioning effects are rapidly seen in the regulation of heart rate to compensate for physical modifications in blood volume and cardiac function. Reflex regulation of cardiovascular control during exercise by metaboreflex and baroreflex is altered by bed rest and spaceflight. These models of extreme inactivity provide a reference to guide physical activity requirements for optimal cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 24 CFR 214.200 - Inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... review. (b) Agencies that seek temporary inactive status must submit a request to HUD in writing... review and notify the agency of approval or rejection, in writing. If approved, the agency's name and contact information will be temporarily removed from the HUD-approved Web list of agencies and the...

  17. Effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...

  18. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  19. Physical Inactivity, Sedentary Behavior and Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez, Karim?; Fuentes, Jorge; M?rquez, Jos? Luis

    2017-01-01

    New research into physical activity suggests that it is no longer sufficient just to meet minimum levels recommended by health guidelines in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior have their own health hazards and need to be addressed separately, in order to explore their different deleterious mechanisms. The aim of this review was to define and to characterize both concepts, and their relationship with major non-communicable chronic diseases. A P...

  20. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  1. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    deconditioning effects of bed rest inactivity are independent of any disease state. The impor- tance of physical activity on reversing the effects of inactivity...Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity VICTOR A. CONVERTINO, PHD ABSTRACT: Data from both cross-sectional and longitu- dinal...studies provide compelling evidence that circulat- ing blood volume can be influenced by regular physical activity or inactivity. Expansion or contraction

  2. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  3. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Maiorana, A.J.; O'Driscoll, G.; Cable, N.T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Green, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function

  4. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  5. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the

  7. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall in adults 2 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17 037 (95% uncertainty interval 11 394 - 20 407), or 3.3% (95% ...

  8. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...

  9. Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity and associated factors in chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. ... Several factors were identified which may assist in programmes to promote physical activity in this population. Keywords: Physical inactivity, risk factors, chronic disease patients, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam ...

  10. The physical inactivity matrix: lessons from the classification of physical inactivity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Donaldson, Alex; Johnstone, Elizabeth

    2006-05-01

    Physical inactivity (PI), a leading modifiable cause of disease and injury, is endemic in industrialised nations. Although considerable research has been undertaken in this field, we lack a system to synthesise the research literature to inform policy and identify research needs. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a system to classify physical inactivity intervention studies, (2) examine the distribution of PI interventions published in the peer-reviewed health literature using the system, and (3) consider implications for future research. We developed the Physical Inactivity Matrix (PIM), with 12 intervention points, created by the intersection of two dimensions: the intervention target (individual, physical environment and social/cultural environment) and the activity focus (transport, work/school, leisure and consumer). A formal search of the health research literature identified 529 eligible studies and each was classified into one of the 12 cells of the PIM. Most studies were categorised as: individual-leisure (68%), individual-work/school (12%) or social/cultural environment-leisure (13%). Only 4% targeted the physical environment. The findings of this initial application of the PIM support the call for greater investment in policies, interventions and research that focus on the relationship between the environment and PI, and transportation in particular. There would be merit in establishing the inter-rater reliability of the PIM and applying it to a wider variety of studies, including those published in the transportation and urban planning literatures. The PIM could be a useful tool for monitoring trends in research directions and funding levels over time and across countries.

  11. Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, and the oxidative-inflammatory loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratas-Delamarche, A; Derbré, F; Vincent, S; Cillard, J

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that physical inactivity, a main factor of global energetic imbalance, is involved in the worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Although the complex pathogenesis of insulin resistance is not fully understood, literature data accumulated during the past decades clearly indicate that the activation of the oxidative-inflammatory loop plays a major role. By activating the oxidative-inflammatory loop in insulin-sensitive tissues, fat gain and adipose tissue dysfunction likely contribute to induce insulin resistance during chronic and prolonged physical inactivity. However, in the past years, evidence has emerged showing that early insulin resistance also occurs after very short-term exposure to physical inactivity (1-7 days) without any fat gain or energetic imbalance. The possible role of liver disturbances or endothelial dysfunction is suggested, but further studies are necessary to really conclude. Inactive skeletal muscle probably constitutes the primary triggering tissue for the development of early insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss on the current knowledge about the effect of physical inactivity on whole-body and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and how local inflammation and oxidative stress arising with physical inactivity could potentially induce insulin resistance. We assume that early muscle insulin resistance allows the excess nutrients to shift in the storage tissues to withstand starvation through energy storage. We also consider when chronic and prolonged, physical inactivity over an extended period of time is an underestimated contributor to pathological insulin resistance and hence indirectly to numerous chronic diseases.

  12. Recommendations and interventions to decrease physical inactivity at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.; Douwes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Many contemporary work tasks, e.g. at an office workplace, are characterised by physical inactivity and by long periods of uninterrupted sitting. These characteristics increase the risk of several health problems, among others obesity, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, cancer, musculoskeletal

  13. Impact of inactivity and exercise on the vasculature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Maiorana, Andrew J; O'Driscoll, Gerry; Cable, Nigel T; Hopman, Maria T E; Green, Daniel J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of inactivity and exercise training on established and novel cardiovascular risk factors are relatively modest and do not account for the impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular risk. We examine evidence that inactivity and exercise have direct effects on both vasculature function and structure in humans. Physical deconditioning is associated with enhanced vasoconstrictor tone and has profound and rapid effects on arterial remodelling in both large and smaller arteries. Evidence for an effect of deconditioning on vasodilator function is less consistent. Studies of the impact of exercise training suggest that both functional and structural remodelling adaptations occur and that the magnitude and time-course of these changes depends upon training duration and intensity and the vessel beds involved. Inactivity and exercise have direct "vascular deconditioning and conditioning" effects which likely modify cardiovascular risk.

  14. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    , weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk....... We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular...

  15. PROFILE OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AS A RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay; Ram C; Abhay; Vasant

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eighty-five percent of the global burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) is borne by the low and middle income countries, like India development. Emergence of NCDs in India is identified by WHO, ICMR and Government of India. NCDs share common risk factors like physical inactivity are causing 3.2 million deaths annually in the world (WHO, 2014). AIMS: Aim was to study profile of physical inactivity for non-communicable diseases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: SET...

  16. Experiential versus genetic accounts of inactivity: implications for inactive individuals' self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kreutzer, Christiane; Rupert, James L

    2011-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of deterministic media reports, linking genetics to inactivity, in relation to inactive people's social cognitions concerning physical activity involvement. Sixty three inactive university students were randomly allocated to one of three experimental conditions (control, genetically-primed, experientially-primed) and completed measures of instrumental and affective attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and exercise intentions. One week later participants in the two experimental conditions were provided with a bogus newspaper report that either reflected a genetic explanation for physical inactivity or an experiential basis for inactivity. Shortly afterwards, participants in all three conditions completed the same measures as at pre-test. The results revealed that after controlling for baseline measures participants in the experientially-primed condition reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy and intentions to exercise than those in the genetically-primed condition. These findings raise a cautionary flag concerning the presentation of genetic research in the media, especially with regard to inactive populations.

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  18. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  19. Assessing compliance: Active versus inactive trainees in a memory intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Bagwell

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Bagwell, Robin L WestDepartment of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Extensive research on memory interventions has confirmed their success with older adults, but the individual difference factors that predict successful training outcomes remain relatively unexplored. In the current intervention, trainees were identified as active (compliant with training regimens or inactive using trainer ratings based on attendance, homework completion, and class participation. The active group showed significantly greater training-related gains than the inactive group and the control group on most measures. Compliance was predicted by health, education, and self-efficacy. Specifically, active trainees were more likely to have advanced degrees and somewhat higher self-efficacy, and to have higher vitality and fewer functional limitations than the inactive trainees. This research may assist future investigators to target interventions to those who will show the most benefit.Keywords: compliance, memory training, aging, intervention

  20. Environmental condition and impact of inactive uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr.; Eadie, G.E.; O'Connell, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was required to provide a report to Congress identifying the location, and potential health, safety and environmental hazards of uranium mine wastes together with recommendations, if any, for a program to eliminate the hazards. The approach taken to prepare this report was to develop model active and inactive mines and locate them in a typical mining area to estimate their environmental impact. The inactive mines were separated from the list and sorted into surface and underground categories. A literature search was conducted to obtain and consolidate available information concerning the environmental aspects of uranium mining and short-term field surveys and studies were conducted to augment this information base. Radioactivity emission rates were measured or estimated for each mining category and were entered into computer codes to assess population exposures and subsequent health risks. The general environmental condition of inactive uranium mines was determined by walk-through surveys in several mining areas

  1. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  2. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  3. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  4. Muscle inactivity and activity patterns after sedentary time--targeted randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Haakana, Piia; Havu, Marko; Sääkslahti, Arja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija

    2014-11-01

    Interventions targeting sedentary time are needed. We used detailed EMG recordings to study the short-term effectiveness of simple sedentary time-targeted tailored counseling on the total physical activity spectrum. This cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2011 and 2013 (InPact, ISRCTN28668090), and short-term effectiveness of counseling is reported in the present study. A total of 133 office workers volunteered to participate, from which muscle activity data were analyzed from 48 (intervention, n = 24; control, n = 24). After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding breaking up sitting periods and increasing family based physical activity. Primary outcome measures were assessed 11.8 ± 1.1 h before and a maximum of 2 wk after counseling including quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity time, sum of the five longest muscle inactivity periods, and light muscle activity time during work, commute, and leisure time. Compared with those in the controls, counseling decreased the intervention group's muscle inactivity time by 32.6 ± 71.8 min from 69.1% ± 8.5% to 64.6% ± 10.9% (whole day, P work, P activity time increased by 20.6 ± 52.6 min, from 22.2% ± 7.9% to 25.0% ± 9.7% (whole day, P work, P work time, average EMG amplitude (percentage of EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) (%EMG MVC)) increased from 1.6% ± 0.9% to 1.8% ± 1.0% (P activity. During work time, average EMG amplitude increased by 13%, reaching an average of 1.8% of EMG MVC. If maintained, this observed short-term effect may have health-benefiting consequences.

  5. Cold-active alkaline phosphatase is irreversibly transformed into an inactive dimer by low urea concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjörleifsson, Jens Guðmundur; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a homodimeric metallo-hydrolase where both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) are important for catalysis and stability. Cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase variants have high activity at low temperatures and lower thermal stability compared with variants from mesophilic hosts. The instability, and thus inactivation, could be due to loose association of the dimers and/or loosely bound Mg(2)(+) in the active site, but this has not been studied in detail for the cold-adapted variants. Here, we focus on using the intrinsic fluorescence of Trp in alkaline phosphatase from the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus (VAP) to probe for dimerization. Trp→Phe substitutions showed that two out of the five native Trp residues contributed mostly to the fluorescence emission. One residue, 15Å away from the active site (W460) and highly solvent excluded, was phosphorescent and had a distant role in substrate binding. An additional Trp residue was introduced to the dimer interface to act as a possible probe for dimerization. Urea denaturation curves indicated that an inactive dimer intermediate, structurally equivalent to the native state, was formed before dimer dissociation took place. This is the first example of the transition of a native dimer to an inactive dimer intermediate for alkaline phosphatase without using mutagenesis, ligands, or competitive inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic and multiple linear regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalent hypertension in physically inactive individuals and examine the association between physical activity and healthcare expenditure after controlling for confounders. Results: Hypertensive patients who were physically active accounted ...

  7. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  8. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  9. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  10. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  11. Inactive nurses: a source for alleviating the nursing shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberly A; Stotts, R Craig; Jacob, Susan R; Stegbauer, Cheryl C; Roussel, Linda; Carter, Donna

    2006-04-01

    This study seeks to provide an understanding of why inactive registered nurses chose to become inactive and what they would require for them to return to nursing. In 2000, a shortage of 110,000 (6%) registered nurses existed in the United States. If the current trends continue, the shortage is projected to grow to 29% by 2020. One solution to the nursing shortage may be attracting nurses with inactive licenses back into employment. This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. Inactive nurses (N = 428) younger than 60 years in 1 Southern state were surveyed. A major portion (27.6%) of these nurses left nursing because of a conflict between parenting duties and scheduling requirements (13.5%) at work and indicated that they would return to nursing if given the opportunity to work part-time, especially if shifts were flexible and shorter. Although the group of registered nurses younger than 60 years do not constitute a large percentage of nurses in this country, they are a potential source of alleviating, to some extent, the critical nursing shortage. Employers can encourage many of these nurses to return to work by providing more flexible work schedules, including part-time and shorter shifts, as well as decreased workloads.

  12. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size an...

  13. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal microbial properties of Japanese quails. Twenty-four (24) 1-day-old Japanese quails were obtained from a commercial hatchery. The birds were randomly divided into 2 groups. The dietary treatments ...

  14. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  15. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone L Reynolds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics.

  17. Do Running and Strength Exercises Reduce Daily Muscle Inactivity Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taija Finni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how a specific exercise changes daily activity patterns is important when designing physical activity interventions. We examined the effects of strength and interval running exercise sessions on daily activity patterns using recordings of quadriceps and hamstring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity and inactivity. Five male and five female subjects taking part in a 10-week training programme containing both strength and interval running training sessions were measured for daily muscle EMG activities during three days: on a strength day, an interval running day, and a day without exercise. EMG was measured using textile electrodes embedded into sport shorts that were worn 9.1 ± 1.4 hours/day and results are given as % of recording time. During the total measurement time the muscles were inactive 55 ± 26%, 53 ± 30% and 71 ± 12% during strength training day, interval running day, and day without exercise (n.s.. When compared to the day without exercise, the change in muscle inactivity correlated negatively with change in light muscle activity in strength (r = -0.971,p< 0.001 and interval running days (r = -0.965,p< 0.001. While interval running exercise bout induced a more systematic decrease in muscle inactivity time (from 62 ± 15% to 6 ± 6%,p< 0.001, reductions in muscle inactivity in response to strength exercise were highly individual (range 5–70 pp despite the same training programme. Strength, but not running exercise bout, increased muscle activity levels occurring above 50% MVC (p< 0.05 when compared to a similar period without exercise. The effect of strength exercise bout on totaldaily recording time increased the EMG amplitudes across the entire intensity spectrum. While strength and interval running exercise are effective in increasing muscle moderate-to-vigorous activity when compared to a similar period without exercise, it comprises only a small part of the day and does not seem to have a systematic effect

  18. The substrate-binding protein in bacterial ABC transporters: dissecting roles in the evolution of substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Abbas; Horler, Richard S P; Muller, Axel; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Wilson, Keith S; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, although being ubiquitous in biology, often feature a subunit that is limited primarily to bacteria and archaea. This subunit, the substrate-binding protein (SBP), is a key determinant of the substrate specificity and high affinity of ABC uptake systems in these organisms. Most prokaryotes have many SBP-dependent ABC transporters that recognize a broad range of ligands from metal ions to amino acids, sugars and peptides. Herein, we review the structure and function of a number of more unusual SBPs, including an ABC transporter involved in the transport of rare furanose forms of sugars and an SBP that has evolved to specifically recognize the bacterial cell wall-derived murein tripeptide (Mtp). Both these examples illustrate that subtle changes in binding-site architecture, including changes in side chains not directly involved in ligand co-ordination, can result in significant alteration of substrate range in novel and unpredictable ways. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  19. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  20. Performance Evaluation of INACT - INDECT Advanced Image Cataloguing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Michalek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the performance evaluation of INACT tool which is developed for cataloguing of high-level and low-level metadata of the evidence material. INACT tool can be used by police forces in the cases of prosecution of such crimes as as possession and distribution of child pornography (CP. In live forensic cases, the time to first hit (time when the first image containing e.g. CP is found is important, as then further legal actions are justified (such as arrest of the suspect and his hardware. The performance evaluation of first hit was performed on real data with the cooperation of Czech Police, Department of Internet Crime.

  1. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  2. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  3. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  4. The Cytolytically Inactive Terminal Complement Complex Activates Endothelial Cells to Express Adhesion Molecules and Tissue Factor Procoagulant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Francesco; Pausa, Mario; Nardon, Ermanno; Introna, Martino; Mantovani, Alberto; Dobrina, Aldo

    1997-01-01

    The membrane attack complex of complement (C) in sublytic concentrations stimulates endothelial cells (EC) to express adhesion molecules and to release biologically active products. We have examined the ability of a cytolytically inactive form of this complex, which is incapable of inserting into the cell membrane, to upregulate the expression of adhesion molecules and of tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity. The inactive terminal C complex (iTCC) was prepared by mixing C5b6, C7, C8, and C9 and was purified by fast protein liquid chromatography on a Superose 12 column. Binding of this complex to EC was found to be dose dependent and was inhibited by anti-C9 antibodies, as assessed both by ELISA using an mAb anti-C9 neoantigen and by measuring cell-bound 125I-labeled iTCC. Exposure of EC to iTCC resulted in a dose- and time-dependent expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 accompanied by increased levels of the corresponding mRNA, but not in the rapid expression of P-selectin. Inactive TCC also induced increased TF activity evaluated by a chromogenic assay that measures the formation of factor Xa. These effects were inhibited by anti-C9 antibodies. The data support the conclusion that iTCC may induce proinflammatory and procoagulant activities on EC. PMID:9151899

  5. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  6. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low

  7. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  8. Deletion of DXZ4 on the human inactive X chromosome alters higher-order genome architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Emily M.; Huntley, Miriam H.; Dudchenko, Olga; Stamenova, Elena K.; Durand, Neva C.; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Su-Chen; Sanborn, Adrian L.; Machol, Ido; Shamim, Muhammad; Seberg, Andrew P.; Lander, Eric S.; Chadwick, Brian P.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2016-01-01

    During interphase, the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is largely transcriptionally silent and adopts an unusual 3D configuration known as the “Barr body.” Despite the importance of X chromosome inactivation, little is known about this 3D conformation. We recently showed that in humans the Xi chromosome exhibits three structural features, two of which are not shared by other chromosomes. First, like the chromosomes of many species, Xi forms compartments. Second, Xi is partitioned into two huge intervals, called “superdomains,” such that pairs of loci in the same superdomain tend to colocalize. The boundary between the superdomains lies near DXZ4, a macrosatellite repeat whose Xi allele extensively binds the protein CCCTC-binding factor. Third, Xi exhibits extremely large loops, up to 77 megabases long, called “superloops.” DXZ4 lies at the anchor of several superloops. Here, we combine 3D mapping, microscopy, and genome editing to study the structure of Xi, focusing on the role of DXZ4. We show that superloops and superdomains are conserved across eutherian mammals. By analyzing ligation events involving three or more loci, we demonstrate that DXZ4 and other superloop anchors tend to colocate simultaneously. Finally, we show that deleting DXZ4 on Xi leads to the disappearance of superdomains and superloops, changes in compartmentalization patterns, and changes in the distribution of chromatin marks. Thus, DXZ4 is essential for proper Xi packaging. PMID:27432957

  9. DNA methylation profiles of human active and inactive X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew J; Stathaki, Elisavet; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Brahmachary, Manisha; Montgomery, Stephen B; Dupre, Yann; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2011-10-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation mechanism that silences the majority of genes on one X chromosome in each female cell. To characterize epigenetic changes that accompany this process, we measured DNA methylation levels in 45,X patients carrying a single active X chromosome (X(a)), and in normal females, who carry one X(a) and one inactive X (X(i)). Methylated DNA was immunoprecipitated and hybridized to high-density oligonucleotide arrays covering the X chromosome, generating epigenetic profiles of active and inactive X chromosomes. We observed that XCI is accompanied by changes in DNA methylation specifically at CpG islands (CGIs). While the majority of CGIs show increased methylation levels on the X(i), XCI actually results in significant reductions in methylation at 7% of CGIs. Both intra- and inter-genic CGIs undergo epigenetic modification, with the biggest increase in methylation occurring at the promoters of genes silenced by XCI. In contrast, genes escaping XCI generally have low levels of promoter methylation, while genes that show inter-individual variation in silencing show intermediate increases in methylation. Thus, promoter methylation and susceptibility to XCI are correlated. We also observed a global correlation between CGI methylation and the evolutionary age of X-chromosome strata, and that genes escaping XCI show increased methylation within gene bodies. We used our epigenetic map to predict 26 novel genes escaping XCI, and searched for parent-of-origin-specific methylation differences, but found no evidence to support imprinting on the human X chromosome. Our study provides a detailed analysis of the epigenetic profile of active and inactive X chromosomes.

  10. Inactive enzymatic mutant proteins (phosphoglycerate mutase and enolase as sugar binders for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Ashok

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon dioxide fixation bioprocess in reactors necessitates recycling of D-ribulose1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for continuous operation. A radically new close loop of RuBP regenerating reactor design has been proposed that will harbor enzyme-complexes instead of purified enzymes. These reactors will need binders enabling selective capture and release of sugar and intermediate metabolites enabling specific conversions during regeneration. In the current manuscript we describe properties of proteins that will act as potential binders in RuBP regeneration reactors. Results We demonstrate specific binding of 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA and 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (3PGAL from sugar mixtures by inactive mutant of yeast enzymes phosphoglycerate mutase and enolase. The reversibility in binding with respect to pH and EDTA has also been shown. No chemical conversion of incubated sugars or sugar intermediate metabolites were found by the inactive enzymatic proteins. The dissociation constants for sugar metabolites are in the micromolar range, both proteins showed lower dissociation constant (Kd for 3-phosphoglycerate (655–796 μM compared to 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (822–966 μM indicating higher affinity for 3PGA. The proteins did not show binding to glucose, sucrose or fructose within the sensitivity limits of detection. Phosphoglycerate mutase showed slightly lower stability on repeated use than enolase mutants. Conclusions The sugar and their intermediate metabolite binders may have a useful role in RuBP regeneration reactors. The reversibility of binding with respect to changes in physicochemical factors and stability when subjected to repeated changes in these conditions are expected to make the mutant proteins candidates for in-situ removal of sugar intermediate metabolites for forward driving of specific reactions in enzyme-complex reactors.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of choline-binding protein F from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rafael [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); González, Ana; Moscoso, Miriam; García, Pedro [Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stelter, Meike; Kahn, Richard [Institut de Biologie Structurale J.-P. Ebel CEA CNRS UJF, Laboratoire de Cristallographie Macromoléculaire, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 1 (France); Hermoso, Juan A., E-mail: xjuan@iqfr.csic.es [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-09-01

    The modular choline-binding protein F (CbpF) from S. pneumoniae has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A SAD data set from a gadolinium-complex derivative has been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Choline-binding protein F (CbpF) is a modular protein that is bound to the pneumococcal cell wall through noncovalent interactions with choline moieties of the bacterial teichoic and lipoteichoic acids. Despite being one of the more abundant proteins on the surface, along with the murein hydrolases LytA, LytB, LytC and Pce, its function is still unknown. CbpF has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Diffraction-quality orthorhombic crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.13, b = 114.94, c = 75.69 Å. A SAD data set from a Gd-HPDO3A-derivatized CbpF crystal was collected to 2.1 Å resolution at the gadolinium L{sub III} absorption edge using synchrotron radiation.

  12. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  13. Training increases the concentration of [3H]ouabain-binding sites in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K; Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    ]ouabain-binding-site concentration in the diaphragm, but in the heart ventricles, the K+-dependent 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity increased by 20% (P less than 0.001). Muscle inactivity induced by denervation, plaster immobilisation or tenotomy reduced the [3H]ouabain-binding-site concentration by 20-30% (P less than 0...

  14. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK) family proteins contain an inactive guanylate kinase (GK) domain, whose function has been elusive. Here, this domain is revealed as a new type of phospho-peptide-binding module, in which the GMP-binding site has evolved to accommodate phospho-serines or -threonines.

  15. Guidelines for cleanup of uranium tailings from inactive mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiences in Grand Junction, Colorado, have indicated the significance of uranium tailings as sources of nonoccupational exposure and suggest that current methods for perpetual care and isolation of the large areas covered by tailings piles at inactive mill locations may be inadequate for minimizing human exposure. This paper presents the rationale and the procedures used in reviewing the adequacy of proposed criteria for remedial action at these sites. Exposures due to aquatic, terrestrial, airborne, and direct contamination pathways were compared to determine the most important radionuclides in the pile and their pathways to man. It is shown that the most hazardous components of the tailings are 226 Ra and 230 Th. The long half-lives of these radionuclides require the consideration of continuous occupancy of the vacated site at some future time, even if the immediately projected land use does not anticipate maximum exposure

  16. [Physical inactivity in Galicia (Spain): trends and the impact of changes in the definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Rodríguez-Camacho, Elena; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure time in Galicia (Spain) between 2007 and 2011 and to assess the impact of including non-leisure time activities in the definition of physical inactivity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the population aged 16 years and older (n=19,235). Physical activity was assessed by the Minnesota Questionnaire. In 2011, inactivity was estimated by including daily activities. Between 2007 and 2011, the prevalence of inactivity in Galicia remained stable (p=0.249) and close to 50%. This prevalence was higher among women and those who worked or were in education. Inactivity decreased from 47% to 16% when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Between 2007 and 2011 in Galicia, the prevalence of inactivity remained high and stable. This prevalence was significantly decreased when non-leisure time activities were included in the definition. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  18. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2014-12-16

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  19. Linking Geology and Microbiology: Inactive Pockmarks Affect Sediment Microbial Community Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkamp, Thomas H. A.; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined...

  20. Madumycin II inhibits peptide bond formation by forcing the peptidyl transferase center into an inactive state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterman, Ilya A.; Khabibullina, Nelli F.; Komarova, Ekaterina S.; Kasatsky, Pavel; Kartsev, Victor G.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Konevega, Andrey L.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Polikanov, Yury S. (InterBioScreen); (UIC); (MSU-Russia); (Kurchatov)

    2017-05-13

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is limiting the effectiveness of commonly used antibiotics, which spurs a renewed interest in revisiting older and poorly studied drugs. Streptogramins A is a class of protein synthesis inhibitors that target the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) on the large subunit of the ribosome. In this work, we have revealed the mode of action of the PTC inhibitor madumycin II, an alanine-containing streptogramin A antibiotic, in the context of a functional 70S ribosome containing tRNA substrates. Madumycin II inhibits the ribosome prior to the first cycle of peptide bond formation. It allows binding of the tRNAs to the ribosomal A and P sites, but prevents correct positioning of their CCA-ends into the PTC thus making peptide bond formation impossible. We also revealed a previously unseen drug-induced rearrangement of nucleotides U2506 and U2585 of the 23S rRNA resulting in the formation of the U2506•G2583 wobble pair that was attributed to a catalytically inactive state of the PTC. The structural and biochemical data reported here expand our knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms by which peptidyl transferase inhibitors modulate the catalytic activity of the ribosome.

  1. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein can regulate obesity, a state of peripheral inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Yamawaki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Chronic inflammation in fat influences the development of obesity-related diseases. Many reports state that obesity increases the risk of morbidity in many diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and breast, prostate and colon cancers, leading to increased mortality. Obesity is also associated with chronic neuropathologic conditions such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. However, there is strong evidence that weight loss reduces these risks, by limiting blood pressure and improving levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol. Prevention and control of obesity is complex, and requires a multifaceted approach. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms driving fat metabolism (adipogenesis and lipolysis aims at developing clinical treatments to control obesity. We recently reported a new regulatory mechanism in fat metabolism: a protein phosphatase binding protein, phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP, regulates lipolysis in white adipocytes and heat production in brown adipocytes via phosphoregulation. Deficiency of PRIP in mice led to reduced fat accumulation and increased energy expenditure, resulting in a lean phenotype. Here, we evaluate PRIP as a new therapeutic target for the control of obesity.

  2. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  3. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; da Silva, Shana Ginar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares. PMID:26487291

  4. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Moraes Bielemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases.METHODS This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey. The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to.RESULTS In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%, whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions. Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity.CONCLUSIONS Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  5. Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. I. Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Regan, Michael W.; Mulchaey, John S.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2003-06-01

    The detailed morphology of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the central kiloparsec of galaxies is controlled by pressure and gravitation. The combination of these forces shapes both circumnuclear star formation and the growth of the central, supermassive black hole. We present visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images and color maps of 123 nearby galaxies that show the distribution of the cold ISM, as traced by dust, with excellent spatial resolution. These observations reveal that nuclear dust spirals are found in the majority of active and inactive galaxies and they possess a wide range in coherence, symmetry, and pitch angle. We have used this large sample to develop a classification system for circumnuclear dust structures. In spite of the heterogeneous nature of the complete sample, we only find symmetric, two-arm nuclear dust spirals in galaxies with large-scale bars, and these dust lanes clearly connect to dust lanes along the leading edges of the large-scale bars. Not all dust lanes along large-scale bars form two-arm spirals, however, and several instead end in nuclear rings. We find that tightly wound, or low pitch angle, nuclear dust spirals are more common in unbarred galaxies than barred galaxies. Finally, the extended narrow-line region in several of the active galaxies is well resolved. The connection between the ionized gas and circumnuclear dust lanes in four of these galaxies provides additional evidence that a significant fraction of their extended narrow-line region is ambient gas photoionized in situ by the active nucleus. In a future paper we will use our classification system for circumnuclear dust to identify differences between active and inactive galaxies, as well as barred and unbarred galaxies, in well-matched subsamples of these data. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in

  6. Radioactive spheres without inactive wall for lesion simulation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanez-Borgert, M.; Bundschuh, R.A.; Herz, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis, staging, therapy monitoring and radiotherapy planning, appropriate tools to simulate lesions in phantoms are important. Normally hollow spheres, made of plastic or glass, which can be filled with radioactive solutions, are used. As these spheres have an inactive wall they do not reflect the real situation in the patient and lead to quantification errors in the presence of background activity. We propose spheres made of radioactive wax, which are easy to produce, give a high flexibility to the user and a more accurate quantification. These wax spheres were evaluated for their applicability in PET phantoms and it was found that the activity is not diffusing into the surrounding water in relevant quantities, that they show a sufficient homogeneity, and that their attenuation properties are equivalent to water for photons of PET energies. Recovery coefficients for the wax spheres were measured and compared with those obtained for fillable plastic spheres for diameters of 28, 16, 10, and 6 mm in the presence of background activity. Recovery coefficients of the wax spheres were found to be up to 21% higher than for the fillable spheres. (orig.)

  7. Physical Activity, Inactivity and Health During Youth-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Alex V

    2017-02-01

    2016 has been an exciting year for research in physical activity, inactivity and health. Recognition of the importance of all physical behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time and sleep) across the 24-hr day continues to grow. Notable advances have included: applications of recent methodological innovations that account for the codependence of the behaviors in the finite 24-hr period showing that the balance of these behaviors is associated with health; methodological innovations focusing on the classification of behaviors and/or quantification of the 24-hr diurnal activity pattern; and a series of systematic reviews that helped provide the evidence base for the release of the innovative 24-hr movement guidelines earlier this year. This commentary focuses on just two of these papers: the first by Goldsmith and colleagues who demonstrate a new statistical method that exploits the time series nature of accelerometer data facilitating new insights into time-specific determinants of children's activity patterns and associations with health; the second by Tremblay and colleagues who describe the evidence base for associations between each physical behavior and children's health, the emerging evidence base for associations between the balance of behaviors and health, and development of the world's first 24-hr movement guidelines.

  8. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  10. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Willms, J D

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the relation among children's physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI), while controlling for sex, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Epidemiological study examining the relations among physical activity participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and television (TV)/video watching), and BMI on a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. A representative sample of Canadian children aged 7-11 (N=7216) from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used in the analysis. Physical activity and sport participation, sedentary behaviour (video game use and TV/video watching), and BMI measured by parental report. Both organized and unorganized sport and physical activity are negatively associated with being overweight (10-24% reduced risk) or obese (23-43% reduced risk), while TV watching and video game use are risk factors for being overweight (17-44% increased risk) or obese (10-61% increased risk). Physical activity and sedentary behaviour partially account for the association of high socioeconomic status and two-parent family structure with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. This study provides evidence supporting the link between physical inactivity and obesity of Canadian children.

  11. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  12. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  13. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P.C.E.; van Kuppevelt, D.; Pons, C.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  14. Childhood adversities and socioeconomic position as predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestilä, Laura; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Kunst, Anton E.; Borodulin, Katja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Prättälä, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists on how childhood social, health-related and economic circumstances predict adult physical inactivity. Our aim was a) to examine how various childhood adversities and living conditions predict leisure-time physical inactivity in early adulthood and b) to find out whether

  15. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  16. In Search of Lost Springs: A Protocol for Locating Active and Inactive Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Powell, O; Habermehl, M A

    2016-05-01

    Groundwater springs are significant landscape features for humans and the biota that occupies their habitat. Many springs become inactive where groundwater exploitation by humans has lowered the water table or artesian pressure. In order to assess this impact, it is important to identify and locate active, and with more difficulty, inactive springs. Using a variety of archival, environmental and field-based data, this study presents a protocol for the determination of the location and status of springs across the Great Artesian Basin of Australia. This protocol underpins a database of springs, which is not only important for the assessment of spring ecosystems, but also contributes to understand groundwater extraction impacts and hydrogeological processes. The database indicates that 30.0% of discharge (artesian) springs in the Great Artesian Basin are entirely inactive and another 11.8% are partially inactive. For the outcrop (gravity) springs of the Basin, only 1.9% are entirely inactive and 7.4% partially inactive, and for the outcrop springs in the Tertiary sandstone overlying the Basin 30.9% are inactive and 18.2% are partially inactive. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  17. validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of engaging in physical activity, sports or play. 3,12,15,27,39, .... and recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Percentage body fat was calculated using standard equations.11. Instruments. Physical activity/inactivity over a period of 7 days was as- sessed using a ..... benefits is required, particularly in children where inactivity and the ...

  18. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  19. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  20. Predictors of physical inactivity among elderly malaysians: recommendations for policy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Kaur, Gurpreet; Ho, Bee Kiau; Yao, Weng Keong; Salleh, Mohmad; Lim, Kuang Hock

    2015-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Regular moderate-intensity physical activity has significant benefits for health. To determine the socioeconomic predictors of physical inactivity among elderly Malaysian population. A nationwide community-based survey was conducted among 4831 respondents aged ≥60 years with a face-to-face questionnaire. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the elderly was 88.0%, highest in respondents aged older than 80 years (95.4%), females (90.1%), other Bumiputra (92.2%), earning household income less than RM1000 (87.9%), and residing in urban locality (88.4%). In the multivariate model, the predictors of physical inactivity were only sex, ethnicity, locality, and age group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3-3.6). The predictors of physical inactivity can identify the risk factors to develop policies that will reduce the public health burden of noncommunicable diseases. © 2014 APJPH.

  1. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  2. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  3. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  4. Motor-Driven (Passive) Cycling: A Potential Physical Inactivity Countermeasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, James E.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Melanson, Edward L.; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that motor-driven (passive) stationary cycling elevates energy expenditure (EE). Purpose To quantify how acute passive cycling affects glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and basic cognition compared to sitting and moderate-intensity active cycling. Methods Twenty-four physically inactive healthy males completed three trials in randomized order involving 30-minute conditions of sitting, passive cycling and moderate-intensity cycling. During each condition, EE was measured and participants performed cognitive tests. Following each condition, a 2-hour OGTT was performed. Results EE was significantly higher during the cycling conditions compared to sitting (1.36±0.58 and 6.50±1.73 kcal·min−1 greater than sitting for passive and moderate-intensity, respectively). A significant correlation was found between body fat percentage and post-sitting OGTT 2-h post plasma glucose (r2=0.30, pcycling lowered 2-h post plasma glucose (7.7±1.3 vs. 6.9±1.6mmol·L−1, respectively, pcycling had similar beneficial effects on 2-h post plasma glucose and WBISI. Cognitive performance did not significantly differ between the sitting and passive cycling conditions. Conclusion 2-h post plasma glucose was lower and WBISI following acute passive cycling was higher in non-lean participants. Given that and the increase in EE without changes in cognitive performance, we propose passive cycling as a promising intervention to counteract some of the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting in the workplace. PMID:27054677

  5. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  6. Comprehensive Management Strategies for Physical Inactivity in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYER, GREGORY D.; FAIGENBAUM, AVERY D.; STRACCIOLINI, ANDREA; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.; MICHELI, LYLE J.; BEST, THOMAS M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widely recognized benefits of daily play, recreation, sports, and physical education on the physical and psychosocial well-being of children and adolescents, many contemporary children and adolescents worldwide do not meet the recommendations for daily physical activity. The decline in physical activity seems to start early in life which leads to conditions characterized by reduced levels of physical activity in the pediatric population that are inconsistent with current public health recommendations. Unlike many other diseases and disorders in pediatrics, physical inactivity in youth is unique in that it currently lacks a clinical gold standard for diagnosis. This makes the diagnosis and treatment medically challenging, though no less important, as the resultant ramifications of a missed diagnosis are of significant detriment. Exercise deficient children need to be identified early in life and treated with developmentally appropriate exercise programs designed to target movement deficiencies and physical weaknesses in a supportive environment. Without such interventions early in life, children are more likely to become resistant to our interventions later in life and consequently suffer from adverse health consequences. Integrative approaches that link health care professionals, pediatric exercise specialists, school administrators, community leaders, and policy makers, may provide the best opportunity to promote daily physical activity, reinforce desirable behaviors, and educate parents about the exercise-health link. If health care providers miss the window of opportunity to identify exercise deficit disorder in youth and promote healthy lifestyle choices, the eventual decline and disinterest in physical activity will begin to take shape and new health care concerns will continue to emerge. PMID:23851413

  7. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  9. Steganography in inactive frames of VoIP streams encoded by source codec

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongfeng; Tang, Shanyu; Yuan, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel high capacity steganography algorithm for embedding data in the inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams encoded by G.723.1 source codec, which is used extensively in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). This study reveals that, contrary to existing thoughts, the inactive frames of VoIP streams are more suitable for data embedding than the active frames of the streams, that is, steganography in the inactive audio frames attains a larger data embedding capacit...

  10. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein participates in the autophagic elimination of Staphylococcus aureus infecting mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Harada-Hada

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intrinsic host defense system that recognizes and eliminates invading bacterial pathogens. We have identified microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3, a hallmark of autophagy, as a binding partner of phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP that was originally identified as an inositol trisphosphate-binding protein. Here, we investigated the involvement of PRIP in the autophagic elimination of Staphylococcus aureus in infected mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. We observed significantly more LC3-positive autophagosome-like vacuoles enclosing an increased number of S. aureus cells in PRIP-deficient MEFs than control MEFs, 3 h and 4.5 h post infection, suggesting that S. aureus proliferates in LC3-positive autophagosome-like vacuoles in PRIP-deficient MEFs. We performed autophagic flux analysis using an mRFP-GFP-tagged LC3 plasmid and found that autophagosome maturation is significantly inhibited in PRIP-deficient MEFs. Furthermore, acidification of autophagosomes was significantly inhibited in PRIP-deficient MEFs compared to the wild-type MEFs, as determined by LysoTracker staining and time-lapse image analysis performed using mRFP-GFP-tagged LC3. Taken together, our data show that PRIP is required for the fusion of S. aureus-containing autophagosome-like vacuoles with lysosomes, indicating that PRIP is a novel modulator in the regulation of the innate immune system in non-professional phagocytic host cells.

  11. Increasing and decreasing motor and cognitive output: a model of general action and inaction goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P

    2008-09-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as "action" and "rest." The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior.

  12. Using Two Disability Measures to Compare Physical Inactivity Among US Adults With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Dana Olzenak; Watson, Kathleen B; Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Susan A

    2018-01-18

    Prevalence of health behaviors among adults with disabilities may vary by disability measure. We used data from the 2011-2015 National Health Interview Survey to estimate prevalence of physical inactivity by disability status using 2 measures of disability: Basic Actions Difficulty questions (BADQ) and a standard 6-question measure (6Q). Disability prevalence (BADQ, 31.1%; 6Q, 17.5%) and inactivity prevalence among adults with disability (BADQ, 42.9%; 6Q, 52.5%) and without disability (BADQ, 24.3%; 6Q, 26.2%) varied by measure; however, both measures highlight inactivity disparities for adults with disability. Disability measures influence physical inactivity estimates and are important for guiding surveillance and health promotion activities for adults with disabilities.

  13. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  14. 38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diseases, Immune Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies § 4.89 Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary... the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and...

  15. Endocytosis of Integrin-Binding Human Picornaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Merilahti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9, echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1 has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses.

  16. Microtubule binding distinguishes dystrophin from utrophin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanto, Joseph J.; Mader, Tara L.; Eckhoff, Michael D.; Strandjord, Dana M.; Banks, Glen B.; Gardner, Melissa K.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Ervasti, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Dystrophin and utrophin are highly similar proteins that both link cortical actin filaments with a complex of sarcolemmal glycoproteins, yet localize to different subcellular domains within normal muscle cells. In mdx mice and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients, dystrophin is lacking and utrophin is consequently up-regulated and redistributed to locations normally occupied by dystrophin. Transgenic overexpression of utrophin has been shown to significantly improve aspects of the disease phenotype in the mdx mouse; therefore, utrophin up-regulation is under intense investigation as a potential therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here we biochemically compared the previously documented microtubule binding activity of dystrophin with utrophin and analyzed several transgenic mouse models to identify phenotypes of the mdx mouse that remain despite transgenic utrophin overexpression. Our in vitro analyses revealed that dystrophin binds microtubules with high affinity and pauses microtubule polymerization, whereas utrophin has no activity in either assay. We also found that transgenic utrophin overexpression does not correct subsarcolemmal microtubule lattice disorganization, loss of torque production after in vivo eccentric contractions, or physical inactivity after mild exercise. Finally, our data suggest that exercise-induced inactivity correlates with loss of sarcolemmal neuronal NOS localization in mdx muscle, whereas loss of in vivo torque production after eccentric contraction-induced injury is associated with microtubule lattice disorganization. PMID:24706788

  17. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  18. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  19. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  20. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Association of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody Levels with Disease Severity in the Chronic Inactive Stage of Graves' Orbitopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Jae; Jang, Sun Young; Lim, Tyler Hyung Taek; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2015-08-01

    To investigate associations between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) levels and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) activity/severity in chronic-stage GO and compare the performance of two newly-developed TRAb assays (third-generation TSH-binding inhibition immunoglobulin [TBII] assay versus Mc4 thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin [TSI] bioassay). This study is a retrospective review of medical charts and blood tests from Korean GO patients who first visited the departments of ophthalmology and endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine from January 2008 to December 2011, were diagnosed with GO and Graves' hyperthyroidism, and were followed up for ≥18 months. Third-generation M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI assays were performed in the chronic-inactive GO patients in whom euthyroidism status was restored. Patients' GO activity/severity clinical activity scores (CAS), and modified NOSPECS scores were examined for a correlation with TRAb assays. Fifty patients (mean age, 41.3 years; 41 females) were analyzed. The mean duration of Graves' hyperthyroidism symptom was 63 months (range, 18 to 401 months) and that of GO was 46 months (range, 18 to 240 months). All patients had been treated previously with anti-thyroid drugs for a median period of 52.3 months, and two patients underwent either radioiodine therapy or total thyroidectomy. Mean CAS and NOSPECS scores were 0.5 ± 0.9 (standard deviation) and 4.8 ± 3.1, respectively. Mean M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI values were 7.5 ± 10.2 IL/L and 325.9 ± 210.1 specimen-to-reference control ratio. TSI was significantly correlated with NOSPECS score (R = 0.479, p 0.05), because GO inflammatory activity subsided in the chronic stages of GO. In chronic-inactive GO after euthyroid restoration, GO activity score did not associate with serum levels of TRAb or TBII. However, levels of the functional antibody Mc4-TSI did correlate with GO severity. Therefore, the TSI bioassay is a clinically relevant measure of disease

  2. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  3. Characterization of the β-lactam binding site of penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli by structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, Wynand B.L.; Hensgens, Charles M.H.; Kroezinga, Els H.; de Vries, Erik; Floris, René; Laan, Jan-Metske van der; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2000-01-01

    The binding of penicillin to penicillin acylase was studied by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the enzyme–substrate complex was determined after soaking crystals of an inactive βN241A penicillin acylase mutant with penicillin G. Binding of the substrate induces a conformational change, in

  4. Characterization of the beta-lactam binding site of penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli by structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, WBL; Hensgens, CMH; Kroezinga, EH; de Vries, E; Floris, R; van der Laan, JM; Dijkstra, BW; Janssen, DB

    2000-01-01

    The binding of penicillin to penicillin acylase was studied by X-ray crystallography, The structure of the enzyme-substrate complex was determined after soaking crystals of an inactive beta N241A penicillin acylase mutant with penicillin G, Binding of the substrate induces a conformational change,

  5. Phosphorylation- and nucleotide-binding-induced changes to the stability and hydrogen exchange patterns of JNK1ß1 provide insight into its mechanisms of activation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Owen, GR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available binding on both inactive and active JNK1ß1 using the ATP analogue, 5'-adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). JNK1ß1 phosphorylation alters HX in regions involved in catalysis and substrate binding, changes that can be ascribed to functional modifications...

  6. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.

  7. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  8. Testing the role of action and inaction anticipated regret on intentions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Tracy; Hutter, Russell; Richetin, Juliette; Conner, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Anticipated regret (AR) has been suggested as a useful addition to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that captures affective influences. However, previous research has generally (1) assessed the impact of AR in relation to one behaviour (action or inaction) when considering TPB variables in relation to the alternative behaviour, (2) not controlled for affective attitudes or past behaviour, and (3) examined only one or two behaviours. In two studies across several behaviours, the present research showed that even when controlling for affective attitudes, past behaviour, and other TPB variables towards action, action and inaction AR each added to the prediction of intentions across multiple behaviours. The two studies also showed that inaction regret was generally the stronger predictor, although action regret was important for some types of behaviour. Implications and issues for further research are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Unemployment, Employment and Inactivity in Denmark: An Analysis of Event History Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauzadyté, Agné

    In this paper I estimate a discrete time hazard model for the exits from the different labour market states - unemployment, employment and inactivity (or OLF) - in the Danish labour market. I find that women and individuals over fifty are more likely to experience the long-term unemployment...... and inactivity. The less educated and unskilled workers are found to be another risk group to face the marginalisation from the labour market. Being previously employed reduces the risk of OLF, and increases the re-entry to employment probability, while living in the biggest Danish cities makes persons...... disadvantaged. These give the evidence that the "Flexicurity"model makes the weakest individuals disadvantaged in the Danish labour market. And finally, I find that those, who survived in a job one year, tend to remain employed, while persons, longer than one year inactive, face much higher risk...

  10. Hydrolysis at One of the Two Nucleotide-binding Sites Drives the Dissociation of ATP-binding Cassette Nucleotide-binding Domain Dimers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi, Maria E.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

    2013-01-01

    The functional unit of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters consists of two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). ATP binding elicits association of the two NBDs, forming a dimer in a head-to-tail arrangement, with two nucleotides “sandwiched” at the dimer interface. Each of the two nucleotide-binding sites is formed by residues from the two NBDs. We recently found that the prototypical NBD MJ0796 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii dimerizes in response to ATP binding and dissociates completely following ATP hydrolysis. However, it is still unknown whether dissociation of NBD dimers follows ATP hydrolysis at one or both nucleotide-binding sites. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer to study heterodimers formed by one active (donor-labeled) and one catalytically defective (acceptor-labeled) NBD. Rapid mixing experiments in a stop-flow chamber showed that NBD heterodimers with one functional and one inactive site dissociated at a rate indistinguishable from that of dimers with two hydrolysis-competent sites. Comparison of the rates of NBD dimer dissociation and ATP hydrolysis indicated that dissociation followed hydrolysis of one ATP. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide-binding site drives NBD dimer dissociation. PMID:24129575

  11. Surveying Situation of Active and Inactive Elder Men Nutrition Health in Shiraz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaleh Zar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toady with growth of different sciences, amount of dies decrease and life hope is going to increase, so world population tends to old ages. In old ages physiologic changes effect on nutrition needs, therefore nutrition cares have the most important role in their health improvement. The goal of this study is the surveying situation of active and inactive elder men nutrition health in shiraz city. Methods & Materials: This study has a descriptive method and for these purpose, we randomly selected 156 elder men upper than 60 years old from 4 main park's of shiraz as statistical sample. They divided into two elder groups by their physical activities' active elder' and 'inactive elder'. We use of investigate health situation questioner as our instrument in this study. Results: Findings show that 34.61% of 156 elder men (35 active and 19 inactive elder have a suitable nutrition situation and 37.81% of them (28 active and 31 inactive elder are in average danger of malnutrition and 27.56% (15 active and 28 inactive elder of them are in high danger of malnutrition. Conclusion: Results of this study show that generally old ages don't have a satisfy nutrition situation, although active old age have a better level rather than inactive ones. Therefore physical activities could have a positive role in old age healthy nutrition. It is necessary to plan suitable strategies for protecting and educating old age nutrition in order to improve and correct their diet. Also propagation of physical activities by organization and vast media is suggested.

  12. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Geiss

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48. APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  13. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  14. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  15. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New Method for Determination of Electrically Inactive Phosphorus in n-type Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...

  17. Potential clinical translation of juvenile rodent inactivity models to study the onset of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Michael D.; Company, Joseph M.; Brown, Jacob D.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Booth, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention 17%, or 12.5 million, of children and adolescents aged 2–19 years in the United States are obese. Physical inactivity is designated as one of the actual causes of US deaths and undoubtedly contributes to the obesity epidemic in children and adults. Examining the effects of inactivity on physiological homeostasis during youth is crucial given that 58% of children between the ages 6–11 yr old fail to obtain the reco...

  18. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole

    2017-01-01

    -sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...

  19. Process and system for reducing the inactive salt concentration in waste solutions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, T.; Drozda, T.; Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.; Hanel, E.; Tilky, P.

    1987-01-01

    The method is based on a suitable combination of most modern separation measures as there are precipitation, filtration, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, evaporation and crystallization; in this method almost the total quantity of the components with radioactivity, except tritium, can be effectively separated from inactive salts. One part of the inactive salt (alkali nitrate) can be treated as industrial waste and the other part (boric acid) can be recycled. The method of the invention as well as the equipment used for its execution can considerably reduce the high costs of waste solution treatment in nuclear power stations. (orig./RB) [de

  20. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded....... It was hypothesized that active subjects had more efficient pain inhibition compared with inactive subjects. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study with 2 days of data collection. METHODS: Fifty-six (28 females) subjects participated in this study. Subjects were subgrouped into active (n = 30) and inactive (n = 26...

  1. Binding modes and pharmacophore modelling of thermolysin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M T H; Wuxiuer, Y; Sylte, I

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper 25 known thermolysin inhibitors were docked into thermolysin using the Internal Coordinate Mechanics (ICM) software. Pharmacophore models based on thermolysin binding modes and activity profiles were generated using the LigandScout program. The docking studies indicated that all 25 inhibitors coordinated the catalytic zinc in bidentate or monodentate geometry. A 'three-point' pharmacophore model was proposed which consisted of a hydrophobic group, a negative ionizable group and a hydrogen bond acceptor group. Finally the pharmacophore model has been tested against a small compound library containing 18 highly, moderately, less active as well as inactive compounds. The screening indicated that the pharmacophore model could, identify highly active compounds in front of inactive or less active ones.

  2. Who Are the "Lazy" Ants? The Function of Inactivity in Social Insects and a Possible Role of Constraint: Inactive Ants Are Corpulent and May Be Young and/or Selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Daniel; Poff, Corey; Nguyen, Hoan; Shin, Min C; Kierstead, Karen; Dornhaus, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Social insect colonies are commonly thought of as highly organized and efficient complex systems, yet high levels of worker inactivity are common. Although consistently inactive workers have been documented across many species, very little is known about the potential function or costs associated with this behavior. Here we ask what distinguishes these "lazy" individuals from their nestmates. We obtained a large set of behavioral and morphological data about individuals, and tested for consistency with the following evolutionary hypotheses: that inactivity results from constraint caused by worker (a) immaturity or (b) senescence; that (c) inactive workers are reproducing; that inactive workers perform a cryptic task such as (d) acting as communication hubs or (e) food stores; and that (f) inactive workers represent the "slow-paced" end of inter-worker variation in "pace-of-life." We show that inactive workers walk more slowly, have small spatial fidelity zones near the nest center, are more corpulent, are isolated in colony interaction networks, have the smallest behavioral repertoires, and are more likely to have oocytes than other workers. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that inactive workers are immature and/or storing food for the colony; they suggest that workers are not inactive as a consequence of senescence, and that they are not acting as communication hubs. The hypotheses listed above are not mutually exclusive, and likely form a "syndrome" of behaviors common to inactive social insect workers. Their simultaneous contribution to inactivity may explain the difficulty in finding a simple answer to this deceptively simple question. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. 37 CFR 11.19 - Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disciplinary jurisdiction; Jurisdiction to transfer to disability inactive status. 11.19 Section 11.19 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction...

  4. The cost of physical inactivity to a nation: the role of sports medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, etc.) is not well documented in. Africa, their meteoric rise is well publicised in the ... coded for by our genome. Furthermore, by delving into early man's patterns of nutrition, it appears that cycling periods of food availability programmed the body to respond to physical inactivity in a particular.

  5. 38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief...) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will...) Nonpulmonary disease. Determination of complete arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence of...

  6. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity and m...

  7. The cost of policy inaction : the case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.C.; Brink, ten P.; Klok, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    The COPI methodology and valuation database. Change in land use, climate, pollution, water use; change in biodiversity; change in ecosystem functions; change in ecosystem services contributes to change in economic value. The Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI) is described in monitory terms. The outcome

  8. Comparison of Static Balance in Active and Inactive Adult and Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Hajinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the static balance in active and inactive adult and elderly men. Methods & Materials: 55 active adult and elderly men and 49 inactive adult and elderly men participated in this cross sectional- comparative study. Static balance was measured by stork stand test with opened and closed eye. Gait velocity (time in active subjects was measured used Rockport walk test. Independent T-test was used to compare balance with opened and closed eye between two groups. To examine correlation between static balance with age and gait velocity, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software package. Results: The results showed that balance with opened and closed eye were significantly higher in active subjects and inactive active subjects. In active subjects, there was no significant correlation between gait velocity and balance with opened and closed eye. There was significant negative correlation between static balance and age, as with increase age static balance decrease significantly. Conclusion: The results indicated that active (walking and Morning sports-based adult and elderly men have better static balance than inactive adult and elderly men, as a result of using walking training program. It is possible that walking with the overload on information transfer through Improve somatosensory systems, May improve the balance.

  9. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    J. Genet. 82, 13–16]. Introduction. The hypothesis that methylation of cytosine residues in. DNA is a key step in the maintenance of the inactive state of the mammalian X chromosome (Holliday and. Pugh 1975; Riggs 1975) has found support from several types of experiment (Liskay and Evans 1980; Mohandas et al. 1981).

  10. 17 CFR 210.3-11 - Financial statements of an inactive registrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inactive entity as defined below, the financial statements required by this regulation for purposes of... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements of an... COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES...

  11. 2014 consensus statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) conference (Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M

    2014-06-01

    This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Sexual inactivity and occurrence of STIs in relation to weight status in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunge, Vibeke B; Juul, Kirsten E; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sexual inactivity and occurrence of selected sexually transmitted infections in relation to body mass index. We used data from two large Danish population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in 1991-1995 (HPV study: 6869 women, aged 22-32 years) and in 200...

  13. The association of physical inactivity with Type 2 diabetes among different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W. M.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; L de Munter, J. S.; Stronks, K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Holleman, F.

    2011-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 28, 668-672 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims  To study differences in the association between physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes among subjects from different ethnic groups. Methods  We analysed data on 508 Caucasian, 596 African-Surinamese and 339 Hindustani-Surinamese participants, aged

  14. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is ina...

  15. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Gobets, David; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  16. Validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of a self-report physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) measuring physical activity/inactivity in South African schoolgirls of different ethnic origins. Methods. Construct validity of the PAQ was tested against physical activity energy expenditure estimated from an ...

  17. Living near the port area is associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The impact of the port of Santos, Brazil, on the population’s health is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between living near the port area and physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 553 healthy adults were selected and their level of physical activity in daily life was assessed using accelerometers. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed using physical inactivity and sedentary behavior as the outcomes and living near the port area as the main risk factor, with adjustments for the main confounders. RESULTS: Among all the participants, 15% were resident near the port area. They took 699 steps/day and presented, weekly, 2.4% more sedentary physical activity, 2.0% less time in standing position and 0.9% more time lying down than residents of other regions. Additionally, living near the port area increased the risk of physical inactivity by 2.50 times and the risk of higher amounts of sedentary behavior (≥ 10 hours/day by 1.32 times. CONCLUSION: Living near the port of Santos is associated with physical inactivity and higher sedentary behavior among adults, regardless of confounders. The reasons for this association should be investigated in longitudinal studies.

  18. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J.; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on

  19. Artist-Teachers' In-Action Mental Models While Teaching Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2017-01-01

    Studies have examined the assumption that teachers have previous perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about learning (Cochran-Smith & Villegas, 2015). This study presented the In-Action Mental Model of twenty leading artist-teachers while teaching Visual Arts in three Israeli art institutions of higher Education. Data was collected in two…

  20. Contaminant transport, revegetation, and trace element studies at inactive uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables

  1. Supporting healthcare professionals to encourage patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Barbara Sassen

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of cardiovascular diseases are substantial and include increasing numbers of morbidity and mortality. With a population getting more and more inactive and having a sedentary lifestyle, the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes rises. This dissertation reports on people

  2. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity

  3. Emotional Outlook on Life Predicts Increases in Physical Activity among Initially Inactive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…

  4. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  5. Past-Year Sexual Inactivity among Older Married Persons and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Amelia; DeLamater, John

    2013-01-01

    Family scholars have focused on the onset of sexual activity early in the life course, but little is known about the cessation of sexual activity in relationships in later life. We use event-history analysis techniques and logistic regression to identify the correlates of sexual inactivity among older married men and women. We analyze data for…

  6. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 82; Issue 1-2. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5-methylcytosine to an unusual degree and appears to contain more of this modified nucleotide than the remainder of the genome. Deepti D. Deobagkar H. Sharat Chandra. Volume 82 Issue 1-2 ...

  7. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  8. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  9. Wheelchair-Specific Fitness of Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; de Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  10. Wheelchair-specific fitness of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Gobets, D.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.; Woldring, F.; Valent, L.; Slootman, H.; Faber, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, isometric strength and peak aerobic work capacity of physically inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury using outcomes of tests that are feasible for use in rehabilitation centres, and to determine associations among

  11. [Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in school children from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.

  13. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Johnsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.

  14. A national survey of 'inactive' physicians in the United States of America: enticements to reentry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brotherton Sarah E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians leaving and reentering clinical practice can have significant medical workforce implications. We surveyed inactive physicians younger than typical retirement age to determine their reasons for clinical inactivity and what barriers, real or perceived, there were to reentry into the medical workforce. Methods A random sample of 4975 inactive physicians aged under 65 years was drawn from the Physician Masterfile of the American Medical Association in 2008. Physicians were mailed a survey about activity in medicine and perceived barriers to reentry. Chi-square statistics were used for significance tests of the association between categorical variables and t-tests were used to test differences between means. Results Our adjusted response rate was 36.1%. Respondents were fully retired (37.5%, not currently active in medicine (43.0% or now active (reentered, 19.4%. Nearly half (49.5% were in or had practiced primary care. Personal health was the top reason for leaving for fully retired physicians (37.8% or those not currently active in medicine (37.8% and the second highest reason for physicians who had reentered (28.8%. For reentered (47.8% and inactive (51.5% physicians, the primary reason for returning or considering returning to practice was the availability of part-time work or flexible scheduling. Retired and currently inactive physicians used similar strategies to explore reentry, and 83% of both groups thought it would be difficult; among those who had reentered practice, 35.9% reported it was difficult to reenter. Retraining was uncommon for this group (37.5%. Conclusion Availability of part-time work and flexible scheduling have a strong influence on decisions to leave or reenter clinical practice. Lack of retraining before reentry raises questions about patient safety and the clinical competence of reentered physicians.

  15. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.

  16. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  17. Acute exercise is associated with reduced exhaled nitric oxide in physically inactive adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hayley A; Latham, Jennifer R; Callister, Robin; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Baines, Katherine; Saltos, Nick; Upham, John W; Wood, Lisa G

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise has multiple health benefits, relatively little attention has been paid to its potential therapeutic effects in those with asthma. To examine the effects of acute exercise on inflammation in physically inactive and active adults with asthma. Fourteen adults with asthma (n = 6 physically inactive, n = 8 physically active) completed (1) 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a treadmill and (2) 30 minutes of rest in random order, with 4 weeks between sessions. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured before and after the intervention (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours). Blood inflammatory mediators were measured before and after the intervention (0, 2, and 24 hours). Physically inactive participants had a significant decrease in eNO 4 hours after exercise (-4.8 ppb, -6.4 to -0.5 ppb, P = .028), which was not observed in physically active participants (P = .362). Interluekin-1 receptor antagonist increased in the physically inactive group 2 hours after exercise, with this increase strongly correlated with the decrease in eNO at 4 hours (R = -0.685, P = .007) and 24 hours (R = -0.659, P = .014) after exercise. Interleukin-6 was increased significantly 2 hours after exercise in physically inactive participants. Blood neutrophils and nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 gene expression were increased 2 hours after exercise in the overall cohort. This study demonstrates that acute moderate-intensity exercise is associated with decreased eNO in physically inactive adults with asthma and suggests that interluekin-1 receptor antagonist could have a role in mediating this effect. The attenuated response in physically active participants might be due to the sustained anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training. Future studies should investigate the impact of exercise intensity and exercise training on airway inflammation in those with asthma. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au), registration number ACTRN

  18. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  19. MAR elements regulate the probability of epigenetic switching between active and inactive gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbete, José Luis; Buceta, Montserrat; Mermod, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    Gene expression often cycles between active and inactive states in eukaryotes, yielding variable or noisy gene expression in the short-term, while slow epigenetic changes may lead to silencing or variegated expression. Understanding how cells control these effects will be of paramount importance to construct biological systems with predictable behaviours. Here we find that a human matrix attachment region (MAR) genetic element controls the stability and heritability of gene expression in cell populations. Mathematical modeling indicated that the MAR controls the probability of long-term transitions between active and inactive expression, thus reducing silencing effects and increasing the reactivation of silent genes. Single-cell short-terms assays revealed persistent expression and reduced expression noise in MAR-driven genes, while stochastic burst of expression occurred without this genetic element. The MAR thus confers a more deterministic behavior to an otherwise stochastic process, providing a means towards more reliable expression of engineered genetic systems.

  20. Physical inactivity among college students is associated with living in hostels: a study from Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity figures as an important modifiable factor for non-communicable diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess physical activity among college students in East Delhi region of Delhi, India. Of a total 297 students, 58.2% had high physical activity, 27.9% had moderate while 13.8% had low activity level. Low physical activity was significantly more among the students aged <20 years (p=0.002 and among those residing in hostel (p<0.001. There was no significant difference by gender (p=0.40. Residing in hostel emerged as significant factor in multivariate analysis. Hostellers had significantly lesser physical activity compared to the day scholars in the transport domain (p=0.048 and recreational domain (p<0.001. Hostel residents emerged as a specific at-risk group for physical inactivity.

  1. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  2. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  3. Dynamic characteristics of heat exchanger tubes vibrating in a tube support plate inactive mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contact all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimetnal quantities

  4. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables

  5. An optimization on strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, K.; Setayeshi, S.; Maragheh, M.Gh.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Kardan, M.R.; Banaem, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an experimental design using artificial neural networks for an optimization on the strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) is investigated. The goal is to optimize the separation parameters to achieve maximum amount of strontium that is separated from the fission products. The result of the optimization method causes a proper purity of Strontium-89 that was separated from the fission products. It is also shown that ANN may be establish a method to optimize the separation model.

  6. Screen time by different devices in adolescents: association with physical inactivity domains and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Leandro D; Dos Santos Silva, Diego A; Tebar, William R; Zanuto, Edner F; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Christofaro, Diego G

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behaviors in adolescents are associated with using screen devices, analyzed as the total daily time in television viewing, using the computer and video game. However, an independent and clustered analysis of devices allows greater understanding of associations with physical inactivity domains and eating habits in adolescents. Sample of adolescents aged 10-17 years (N.=1011) from public and private schools, randomly selected. The use of screen devices was measured by hours per week spent in each device: TV, computer, videogames and mobile phone/tablet. Physical inactivity domains (school, leisure and sports), eating habits (weekly food consumption frequency) and socioeconomic status were assessed by questionnaire. The prevalence of high use of mobile phone/tablet was 70% among adolescents, 63% showed high use of TV or computer and 24% reported high use of videogames. High use of videogames was greater among boys and high use of mobile phone/tablet was higher among girls. Significant associations of high use of TV (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.99), computer (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.02), videogames (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.13-2.69) and consumption of snacks were observed. High use of computer was associated with fried foods consumption (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75) and physical inactivity (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). Mobile phone was associated with consumption of sweets (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.80). Cluster using screen devices showed associations with high consumption of snacks, fried foods and sweets, even after controlling for confounding variables. The high use of screen devices was associated with high consumption of snacks, fried foods, sweets and physical inactivity in adolescents.

  7. The use of periodization in exercise prescriptions for inactive adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Strohacker

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although it is premature to conclude that periodized exercise is superior to non-periodized exercise for improving health outcomes, periodization appears to be a feasible means of prescribing exercise to inactive adults within an intervention setting. Further research is necessary to understand the effectiveness of periodizing aerobic exercise, the psychological effects of periodization, and the feasibility of implementing flexible non-linear methods.

  8. Physical inactivity, TV-watching hours and body composition in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça da; Silva, Renata D'Andrada Tenório Almeida; Oliveira, Bruno Almeida Viana de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo

    2010-08-01

    Physical inactivity is a predisposing factor to the onset/worsening of other cardiovascular risk factors, particularly obesity. To determine physical activity level (PAL) and daily number of hours of TV (HTV) and the association and/or correlation of these variables with age, gender, economic class, public/private school, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Cross sectional study, school-based population, public and private education, primary and secondary education. The sample was calculated based on the minimum expected prevalence of several variables, including physical inactivity. Cluster sampling. structured questionnaire, including Physical Activity for Older Children Questionnaire (PAQ-C) measurements of weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold (TSF). Chi-square, linear correlation. Among the 1,253 students, averaging 12.4 ± 2.9 years old, of which 549 were male, there was a prevalence of inactivity in 93.5%, more commonly found in female adolescents and there was no association between PAL and excess weight or body fat, soccer and dance were the most frequent activities in boys and girls, respectively; 60% of students did not have physical education classes. Average and median HTV were respectively 3.6 and 3 hours; there was a significant association between HTV and obesity and significant correlation between PAL and age (negative) and between BMI and TSF (positive). Physical inactivity is present in 93.5% of children and adolescents from Maceió. It is more commonly found among teenagers and females, with no association or correlation of this variable with excess weight or body fat; obesity was associated with ≥ 3 HTV.

  9. Radiation pathways and potential health impacts from inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    Radiation exposure pathways and potential health impacts were estimated as part of the evaluation of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the sites of inactive mills in eight western states. The purpose of this report is to describe in detail the methodology used in performing the pathway analysis and health effects estimations. In addition, specific parameters are presented for each of the 22 uranium mill sites that were evaluated. A computer program, RADAD, developed as part of this program, is described and listed

  10. LLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.

  11. Electrical stimulation of the abdomen preserves motor performance in the inactive elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Misa; Seki, Kazunori; Ito, Osamu; Handa, Yasunobu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    Abdominal muscle strength declines easily with the process of aging and/or disuse, and it is difficult to strengthen weak abdominal muscles in the inactive elderly. In the present study, we applied surface electrical stimulation (ES) to the abdomen of inactive elderly people to investigate its chronic effects. Twenty inactive elderly people (65-89 years) who spent most of the day in their bedroom participated in the study. The subjects were assigned to ES and non-ES groups in a random order. In addition to conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy, ES was applied to both sides of the flank of 10 subjects (ES group) for 8 weeks. For evaluation of the abdominal muscles, the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured with computed tomography and the electrical muscle activity (iEMG) was measured by electromyography. Functional examinations were performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the beginning of the study with the following parameters: grip strength; maximum walking speed (WS); movement time for sitting up (MSU); number of trunk flexions (NTF); flexibility of the trunk; sit-to-stand time (STS); and Barthel index (BI) score. In the ES group, the NTF and MSU were significantly improved at 4 weeks and thereafter. Furthermore, the STS and WS were also improved significantly after 8 weeks (p < 0.05). The CSA and iEMG both increased significantly (p < 0.05). However, the flexibility of the trunk and BI score did not change. In conclusion, ES to the abdomen has the potential to improve motor function in the inactive elderly.

  12. Arctic Ground Squirrels Limit Bone Loss during the Prolonged Physical Inactivity Associated with Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojda, Samantha J; Gridley, Richard A; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Hess, Ann; Kohl, Franziska; Barnes, Brian M; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) typically results in increased bone porosity, decreased mineral density, and decreased bone strength, leading to increased fracture risk in many mammals. However, bears, marmots, and two species of ground squirrels have been shown to preserve macrostructural bone properties and bone strength during long seasons of hibernation while they remain mostly inactive. Some small hibernators (e.g., 13-lined ground squirrels) show microstructural bone loss (i.e., osteocytic osteolysis) during hibernation, which is not seen in larger hibernators (e.g., bears and marmots). Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) are intermediate in size between 13-lined ground squirrels and marmots and are perhaps the most extreme rodent hibernator, hibernating for up to 8 mo annually with body temperatures below freezing. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of hibernation and inactivity on cortical and trabecular bone properties in arctic ground squirrels. Cortical bone geometrical properties (i.e., thickness, cross-sectional area, and moment of inertia) at the midshaft of the femur were not different in animals sampled over the hibernation and active seasons. Femoral ultimate stress tended to be lower in hibernators than in summer animals, but toughness was not affected by hibernation. The area of osteocyte lacunae was not different between active and hibernating animals. There was an increase in osteocytic lacunar porosity in the hibernation group due to increased lacunar density. Trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia was unexpectedly greater in the hibernation group than in the active group. This study shows that, similar to other hibernators, arctic ground squirrels are able to preserve many bone properties during hibernation despite being physically inactive for up to 8 mo.

  13. Antimicrobial and conformational studies of the active and inactive analogues of the protegrin-1 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Sylwia; Mickiewicz, Beata; Greber, Katarzyna; Sikorska, Emilia; Szultka, Lukasz; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Kamysz, Wojciech

    2010-02-01

    The natural antimicrobial cationic peptide protegrin-1 displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and rapidly kills pathogens by interacting with their cell membrane. We investigated the structure-activity relationships of three protegrin-1 analogues: IB-367 (RGGLCYCRGRFCVCVGR-NH(2)), BM-1 (RGLCYCRGRFCVCVG-NH(2)) and BM-2 (RGLCYRPRFVCVG-NH(2)). Our antimicrobial and antifungal activity studies of these peptides showed that BM-1 was much more active than IB-367 against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas BM-2 was inactive. The BM-1 peptide showed fourfold reduced haemolysis relative to IB-367, an additional advantage of this peptide. In addition, BM-1 was about 15% cheaper than IB-367 to synthesize. The absence of two cysteine residues in the BM-2 sequence could be the main reason for its unstable conformation and antimicrobial inactivity. The solution structures of these peptides were determined in dimethyl sulphoxide using two-dimensional NMR and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. IB-367 and BM-1 formed short, antiparallel, beta-hairpin structures connected by a type II' beta-turn. The shorter, inactive BM-2 analogue exhibited major and minor conformations (predominantly unordered) in the NMR spectra and was much more flexible.

  14. Inactive and active states and supramolecular organization of GPCRs: insights from computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Francesca; De Benedetti, Pier G.

    2006-08-01

    Herein we make an overview of the results of our computational experiments aimed at gaining insight into the molecular mechanisms of GPCR functioning either in their normal conditions or when hit by gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutations. Molecular simulations of a number of GPCRs in their wild type and mutated as well as free and ligand-bound forms were instrumental in inferring the structural features, which differentiate the mutation- and ligand-induced active from the inactive states. These features essentially reside in the interaction pattern of the E/DRY arginine and in the degree of solvent exposure of selected cytosolic domains. Indeed, the active states differ from the inactive ones in the weakening of the interactions made by the highly conserved arginine and in the increase in solvent accessibility of the cytosolic interface between helices 3 and 6. Where possible, the structural hallmarks of the active and inactive receptor states are translated into molecular descriptors useful for in silico functional screening of novel receptor mutants or ligands. Computational modeling of the supramolecular organization of GPCRs and their intracellular partners is the current challenge toward a deep understanding of their functioning mechanisms.

  15. CHANGES IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DURING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST EXPERIMENT

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    Tjaša Dimec Časar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated weightlessness by bed rest model represents an important method to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity on psychological distress, depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life of healthy male adults. Participants were ten volunteers, aged between 21 and 28 years who were subjected to a 35-day head-down bed rest. Psychological state of the participants was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Participants completed psychological inventories before, during and after the experiment. The results revealed no significant differences in mental health and satisfaction with life of participants following the head-down bed rest, however there was a tendency towards an increase in neurotic and depressive symptoms at the end of the experiment. The obtained results are interpreted in the light of stimulative living conditions in which the experiment was carried out, as well as the amount and quality of social interactions during the period of extended physical inactivity.

  16. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  17. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements

  18. Childhood and contemporaneous correlates of adolescent leisure time physical inactivity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila

    2009-03-01

    Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family "active-recreation" orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence, and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, body mass index, predicted VO(2 max), general health, television viewing, smoking, and alcohol use) and "persistent inactivity," "declining participation," or "persistent activity" during adolescence. In multivariate models, persistent inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watching less television during adolescence. This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with persistent inactivity, persistent activity and declining participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity.

  19. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 Europ...... interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.......Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years...

  20. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  1. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  2. Effects of exercise and inactivity on intravascular volume and cardiovascular control mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    Exercise, inactivity and confinement have been used as effective tools to assess the contributions of vascular volume and baroreflexes to orthostatic hypotension associated with exposure to microgravity. Prolonged exposure to bedrest, physical inactivity, or wheelchair confinement removes baroreceptor unloading caused by regular upright standing and induces attenuation of cardiovascular baroreflex responses. The magnitude of reduced baroreflex sensitivity following bedrest or wheelchair confinement is related to the degree of orthostatic hypotension. Reduction in vascular volume caused by bedrest or progressive hypovolemia does not affect carotid-cardiac baroreflex function. In contrast, intense exercise that increases arterial baroreceptor loading causes an acute increase in carotid baroreceptor sensitivity and has been associated with enhanced orthostatic stability following exposure to simulated microgravity. Endurance exercise training designed to enhance orthostatic stability was associated with increased blood volume and vasoconstrictive reserve, but no change in the carotid baroreflex response. Therefore, using models of exercise, inactivity and confinement, integrated and redundant roles for vascular volume and cardiovascular baroreflexes have been demonstrated as probable underlying mechanisms that contribute independently to the development of orthostatic hypotension following spaceflight. These data suggest that loading of arterial baroreceptors may be necessary to maintain baroreflex function.

  3. Patterns and Determinants of Physical Inactivity in Rural and Urban Areas in Peru: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Avilez, Jose L; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban). Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study's baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (transport-related physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood's safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%-94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%-10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%-43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.54). Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

  4. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  5. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsavan Philayrath

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4 aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4% of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97 and high household

  6. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity in older people with a history of hip fracture. Data were collected from 60- to 85-year-old (n = 78) community-dwelling people, 0.7-7.5 years after hip fracture. Physical activity was assessed with the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS). According to the YPAS summary index distribution, the participants were divided into the physically inactive and physically active groups. Musculoskeletal pain in the lower back, hip or knee region was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale. Pain was defined as severe pain if the subject rated the pain 66 mm or over (upper third of the scale) in at least one of the relevant body regions in the lower body. Thirty-three subjects (42%) experienced severe pain in the lower body, of whom 23 (70%) reported severe pain in the operated hip. Twenty-three patients (30%) used pain medication prescribed by a physician. The level of musculoskeletal pain was significantly higher in the physically inactive (62%) than in the physically active (31%) group (p = 0.011). Logistic regression analysis showed that people with severe pain had over three times (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.30-9.39) the risk for physical inactivity compared to those with less or no pain. Multivariate adjustments for balance confidence, time since fracture, number of chronic diseases and type of surgery did not materially change the estimate (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.00-9.30). Pain is an important associated factor of physical inactivity in older people with a hip fracture history. Pain management may be important in restoring and sustaining the level of physical activity after hip fracture. Further prospective and experimental studies are, however, needed to explore the causality between pain and

  7. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh S Gadave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH and xanthine oxidase (XO, catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m of 0.11 sec(-1 µM(-1 of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm of 46,000 M(-1 cm(-1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. CONCLUSION: A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  8. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadave, Kaustubh S; Panda, Santanu; Singh, Surender; Kalra, Shalini; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K; Kaushik, Jai K

    2014-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m) of 0.11 sec(-1) µM(-1) of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm) of 46,000 M(-1) cm(-1) suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum) were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+) entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  9. Feature Binding in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Neri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Binding operations are primarily ascribed to cortex or similarly complex avian structures. My experiments show that the zebrafish, a lower vertebrate lacking cortex, supports visual feature binding of form and motion for the purpose of social behavior. These results challenge the notion that feature binding may require highly evolved neural structures and demonstrate that the nervous system of lower vertebrates can afford unexpectedly complex computations.

  10. DNS & Bind Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Cricket

    2011-01-01

    The DNS & BIND Cookbook presents solutions to the many problems faced by network administrators responsible for a name server. Following O'Reilly's popular problem-and-solution cookbook format, this title is an indispensable companion to DNS & BIND, 4th Edition, the definitive guide to the critical task of name server administration. The cookbook contains dozens of code recipes showing solutions to everyday problems, ranging from simple questions, like, "How do I get BIND?" to more advanced topics like providing name service for IPv6 addresses. It's full of BIND configuration files that yo

  11. A protein phosphatase methylesterase (PME-1) is one of several novel proteins stably associating with two inactive mutants of protein phosphatase 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogris, E; Du, X; Nelson, K C; Mak, E K; Yu, X X; Lane, W S; Pallas, D C

    1999-05-14

    Carboxymethylation of proteins is a highly conserved means of regulation in eukaryotic cells. The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic (C) subunit is reversibly methylated at its carboxyl terminus by specific methyltransferase and methylesterase enzymes which have been purified, but not cloned. Carboxymethylation affects PP2A activity and varies during the cell cycle. Here, we report that substitution of glutamine for either of two putative active site histidines in the PP2A C subunit results in inactivation of PP2A and formation of stable complexes between PP2A and several cellular proteins. One of these cellular proteins, herein named protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1), was purified and microsequenced, and its cDNA was cloned. PME-1 is conserved from yeast to human and contains a motif found in lipases having a catalytic triad-activated serine as their active site nucleophile. Bacterially expressed PME-1 demethylated PP2A C subunit in vitro, and okadaic acid, a known inhibitor of the PP2A methylesterase, inhibited this reaction. To our knowledge, PME-1 represents the first mammalian protein methylesterase to be cloned. Several lines of evidence indicate that, although there appears to be a role for C subunit carboxyl-terminal amino acids in PME-1 binding, amino acids other than those at the extreme carboxyl terminus of the C subunit also play an important role in PME-1 binding to a catalytically inactive mutant.

  12. Topical thermal therapy with hot packs suppresses physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tatsuki; Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Mizumura, Kazue; Hori, Kiyomi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Koeda, Tomoko

    2017-10-12

    We focused on the analgesic effect of hot packs for mechanical hyperalgesia in physically inactive rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, physical inactivity (PI), PI + sham treatment (PI + sham), and PI + hot pack treatment (PI + hot pack) groups. Physical inactivity rats wore casts on both hind limbs in full plantar flexed position for 4 weeks. Hot pack treatment was performed for 20 min a day, 5 days a week. Although mechanical hyperalgesia and the up-regulation of NGF in the plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle were observed in the PI and the PI + sham groups, these changes were significantly suppressed in the PI + hot pack group. The present results clearly demonstrated that hot pack treatment was effective in reducing physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF in plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle.

  13. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  14. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (40 CFR 192). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. This document contains appendices to Attachment 3, Groundwater Hydrology Report included are calculations

  15. Mental health and physical inactivity during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study nested in the BRISA cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahasi, Eliana Harumi Morioka; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Barbieri, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and physical inactivity in 1,447 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Subjects answered the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and stress levels were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale, respectively. The rate of physical inactivity was lo...

  16. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  17. Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Fischetti, F; Maccagnano, G; Comes, R; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown the effectiveness of a few weekly pilates sessions as helping to reduce lower back pain (LBP). However many patients fear that physical activity can actually make the pain and disability worse. We carried out this observational prospective clinical study to look at the effects that taking part in daily pilates has one on side and on the other the effects of LBP management without physical exercise. The volunteers who participated in this study were recruited from among some local cultural associations. Patients affected by LBP were evaluated. The subjects were 60 volunteers (27 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 51.2 years who had chronic low back pain (CLBP). They were allocated to pilates group (N.=30) or inactivity control group (N.=30). The pilates group performed one-hour lesson of pilates exercise, 5 lessons per week during the following 6 months. The inactivity group continued with their normal daily activities. The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T1) and at 6 months (T2). At T2 improvements were observed in the pilates group with increases in physical and social functioning, general health and vitality (Ppilates. Some authors underlined the possible risk of a lack of adherence to an exercise program at home. This study suggests that a daily pilates program is effective for the management of CLBP. On the other hand, the inactivity contributes to further worsening, inducing a vicious cycle in which pain and physical activity intolerance follow each other.

  18. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  19. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernades de Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p170 Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present.

  20. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  1. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  2. DNS BIND Server Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  3. DNS BIND Server Configuratio

    OpenAIRE

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  4. DNS BIND Server Configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  5. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S; Fairchild, R G; Watts, K P; Greenberg, D; Hannon, S J

    1980-01-01

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed. (PSB)

  6. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, S.; Fairchild, R.G.; Watts, K.P.; Greenberg, D.; Hannon, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed

  7. Living in a Box or Call of the Wild? Revisiting Lifetime Inactivity and Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Critical Issues Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. Recent Advances While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In

  8. Structural characteristics of active and inactive glutamate dehydrogenases from the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum islandicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    The enzymes from hyperthermophiles are generally extremely thermostable and lose little or no activity during long periods under a variety conditions. This high stability is very attractive, in that it gives the enzymes potential for use in numerous bioprocesses. My research group has investigated this high stability from the viewpoint of the relationship between function and structure. In this review, I describe the molecular mechanism underlying the extreme stability of unboiled NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum islandicum. I also describe the activation of the inactive recombinant enzyme produced in mesophilic Escherichia coli from the viewpoint of the relationship between structure and activity.

  9. Radium-226 in plants and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites in the southwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marple, M.L.; Potter, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    The uptake and translocation of contaminants from uranium mill tailings piles and other similar wastes could be an important transport mechanism of these contaminants into the environment. The content of Ra-226, the radionuclide of most concern in this context, was investigated in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination. This study provides a basis for estimating intake levels for herbivores and for evaluating transfer coefficients

  10. Tank Waste Remediation System Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Program Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tank (IMUST) Program. The plan describes management, technical, and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the IMUSTs Program performance. The technical data to determine the IMUSTs status for inclusion in the Single Shell Tank Farm Controlled Clean and Stable (CCS) Program. The second is to identify and implement surveillance, characterization, stabilization, and modifications to support CCS prior to final closure

  11. Expression of genes from the human active and inactive X chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C J; Carrel, L; Willard, H F

    1997-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation results in the cis-limited inactivation of many, but not all, of the genes on one of the pair of X chromosomes in mammalian females. In addition to the genes from the pseudoautosomal region, which have long been anticipated to escape inactivation, genes from several other regions of the human X chromosome have now been shown to escape inactivation and to be expressed from both the active and inactive X chromosomes. The growing number of genes escaping inactivation em...

  12. Living in a box or call of the wild? Revisiting lifetime inactivity and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, John M; Hindle, Allyson

    2011-11-01

    The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In addition, aging shrews displayed a remarkable ability to

  13. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Combined Exercises on Humoral Immune and Hematological Index in Inactive Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Old age is associated with irregularities in many aspects of body immune system function. During this period, the immune responses decline with increasing age. In other words, with decreasing number of immune cells, which are responsible for detecting and direct attack to contaminated cells, the immune response decreases and results in failure of the immune system. As sports activities could affect the immune system and old age is associated with progressive immune failure, the study of the effects of exercise on the immune system function in old age becomes important. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of selected combined exercises (aerobic and resistance training on the serum level of cortisol and immunoglobulins in inactive elderly men. Methods & Materials: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method. Their age and body mass index ranged 60–70 years and 22–25 kg/m2, respectively. Then, they were randomly assigned into 2 groups (experimental [n=12] and control [n=12]. The experimental group started the combined training exercise, and the control group continued their inactive usual routines. The combined training exercise (aerobic-resistance included running on a treadmill for 20 minutes per session, 3 sessions per week, for 8 weeks, with an intensity of 60% to 70% HRR. Furthermore, the resistance training comprised 10 circling stationary movements of leg flexion, leg extension, leg press, scott, underarm stretch, chest press, iron cross with dumbbells, biceps flexion, triceps extension, and rowing motion with rope. This training included an intensity of 60% to 70% of one maximum repetition with extra load and 10 repetitions in 2 successive times with 30 seconds rest between each repetition and 2 minutes’ rest between each movement. In this study, the blood samples were taken 24 hours before the exercise and 24 hours after the last session of

  14. Flavonoid-induced conversion of catalase to its inactive form--Compound II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych, J; Gebicki, J L; Gebicka, L

    2014-11-01

    Flavonoids (FlaOHs), plant polyphenols, are ubiquitous components of human diet and are known as antioxidants. However, their prooxidant activity has also been reported. We have recently found that FlaOHs inhibit catalase, the heme enzyme which catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water and molecular oxygen. The catalytic cycle proceeds with the formation of the intermediate, Compound I (Cpd I), an oxoferryl porphyrin π-cation radical, the two-electron oxidation product of a heme group. Under conditions of low H2O2 fluxes and in the presence of an appropriate substrate, Cpd I can undergo one-electron reduction to inactive Compound II (Cpd II), oxoferryl derivative without radical site. Here we show that in vitro, under low fluxes of H2O2, FlaOHs reduce Cpd I to inactive Cpd II. Measurable amounts of Cpd II can be formed even in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) at concentration comparable with the investigated FlaOHs. Possible mechanisms of electron transfer from FlaOH molecule to the heme are discussed.

  15. On conditional residual lifetime and conditional inactivity time of k-out-of-n systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangar, Mahdi; Bairamov, Ismihan

    2015-01-01

    In designing structures of technical systems, the reliability engineers often deal with the reliability analysis of coherent systems. Coherent system has monotone structure function and all components of the system are relevant. This paper considers some particular models of coherent systems having identical components with independent lifetimes. The main purpose of the paper is to study conditional residual lifetime of coherent system, given that at a fixed time certain number of components have failed but still there are some functioning components. Different aging and stochastic properties of variables connected with the conditional residual lifetimes of the coherent systems are obtained. An expression for the parent distribution in terms of conditional mean residual lifetime is provided. The similar result is obtained for the conditional mean inactivity time of the failed components of coherent system. The conditional mean inactivity time of failed components presents an interest in many engineering applications where the reliability of system structure is important for designing and constructing of systems. Some illustrative examples with given particular distributions are also presented. - Highlights: • Comparisons of conditional residual lifetime of k-out-of-n systems are derived. • The behavior of the coherent system is explored for IHR distributions. • The parent distribution is expressed in terms of conditional MRL and MIT. • Some illustrative examples are given to clarify the results of the paper.

  16. Split2 Protein-Ligation Generates Active IL-6-Type Hyper-Cytokines from Inactive Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jens M; Wehmöller, Melanie; Frank, Nils C; Homey, Lisa; Baran, Paul; Garbers, Christoph; Lamertz, Larissa; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Galun, Eithan; Mootz, Henning D; Scheller, Jürgen

    2017-12-15

    Trans-signaling of the major pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 has the unique feature to virtually activate all cells of the body and is critically involved in chronic inflammation and regeneration. Hyper-IL-6 and Hyper-IL-11 are single chain designer trans-signaling cytokines, in which the cytokine and soluble receptor units are trapped in one complex via a flexible peptide linker. Albeit, Hyper-cytokines are essential tools to study trans-signaling in vitro and in vivo, the superior potency of these designer cytokines are accompanied by undesirable stress responses. To enable tailor-made generation of Hyper-cytokines, we developed inactive split-cytokine-precursors adapted for posttranslational reassembly by split-intein mediated protein trans-splicing (PTS). We identified cutting sites within IL-6 (E 134 /S 135 ) and IL-11 (G 116 /S 117 ) and obtained inactive split-Hyper-IL-6 and split-Hyper-IL-11 cytokine precursors. After fusion with split-inteins, PTS resulted in reconstitution of active Hyper-cytokines, which were efficiently secreted from transfected cells. Our strategy comprises the development of a background-free cytokine signaling system from reversibly inactivated precursor cytokines.

  17. Any link between sexual inactivity and treadle pump performance characteristics: The Malawi case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Chidanti-Malunga; Yamikani, Malunga

    In mitigating the effects of climate change in Malawi, government promotes the use of low cost irrigation technologies to small-scale farmers, especially in wetlands where water is available. The treadle pump is one such technology. The pump is a manual water lifting device operated by feet. Although the technology has been widely accepted by small-scale farmers, there are documented reports that some farmers abandon the technology, preferring other technologies such as river diversion. One theory for the abandonment is that female farmers claim that the technology makes their male counterparts sexually inactive. This research seeks to find an explanation to the misconception. The study analyzed the physical characteristics of the treadle pump and its users. The results show that the technology is male-dominated (30% were females out of a sample of 40). The results also show that the technology is labor-intensive with very small discharge rates (an average of 0.78 l/s) achieved regardless of the BMI of the operator. With such small discharge rates, in order to fulfill irrigation requirements of a crop, the operator has to pump for long hours. This exercise makes men naturally tired, perhaps making them sexually inactive as well.

  18. Overweight, obesity, and inactivity and urban design in rapidly growing Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen; Alfonzo, Mariela; Chen, Yufei; Guo, Zhan; Lee, Karen K

    2013-05-01

    China faces rising rates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among its citizens. Risk is highest in China's rapidly growing cities and urban populations. Current urban development practices and policies in China heighten this risk. These include policies that support decentralization in land use planning; practices of neighborhood gating; and policies and practices tied to motor vehicle travel, transit planning, and bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure. In this paper, we review cultural, political, and economic issues that influence overweight, obesity, and inactivity in China. We examine key urban planning features and policies that shape urban environments that may compromise physical activity as part of everyday life, including walking and bicycling. We review the empirical research to identify planning and design strategies that support physical activity in other high-density cities in developing and developed countries. Finally, we identify successful strategies to increase physical activity in another growing, high-density city - New York City - to suggest strategies that may have relevance for rapidly urbanizing Chinese cities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationships among physical inactivity, deconditioning, and walking impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Klaren, Rachel E; Motl, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    We have previously proposed a conceptual model of physical inactivity, physiological deconditioning, and walking impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) that suggests engaging in physical activity and improving physiological conditioning may lead to improvements in walking performance. This cross-sectional study examined the nature of associations among physical activity, aerobic capacity, and walking performance in persons with MS and healthy controls. The sample included 31 persons with MS and 31 controls matched by age, sex, height, and weight. Participants completed the 6-minute walk (6MW), wore an ActiGraph model GT3X accelerometer for 7 days as an objective measure of physical activity (expressed as time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]), and completed an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer as a measure of aerobic capacity (VO2peak). Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that MVPA and VO2peak partially explained group differences in 6MW performance (R = 0.782), although group remained a significant predictor of 6MW performance (β = 0.304; P deconditioning, perhaps occurring as a result of physical inactivity, may explain variability in walking impairment in persons with MS. These findings support the design and implementation of targeted interventions for improving walking impairment in this population. for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A93).

  20. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Interaction of anammox bacteria and inactive methanogenic granules under high nitrogen selective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Fessehaie, Anania; Lee, Po-Heng; Gao, Bao-Yu; Xu, Xing; Sung, Shihwu

    2010-09-01

    Granular anammox reactors usually adopted anaerobic/aerobic granules as source sludge, in which the washout of other species and enrichment of anammox biomass were very slow because of the competition of the coexisting bacteria. In this study, inactive methanogenic granules were proved to be suitable for rapid anammox granulation under high nitrogen concentrations by investigating their interaction with anammox bacteria. The start-up nitrite concentration was significantly higher than the published toxic level for anammox bacteria and other lab-scale studies. The nitrogen loading rate increased from 141 to 480 mg/L/d in 120 days operation with a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 96.0+/-0.6%. Anammox granules with a diameter of 1.3+/-0.4mm were observed over the course of three months. Molecular analysis showed that over 67% of the cells in the anammox granules were anammox bacteria after 90 days. The accommodations and proliferations of anammox bacteria in the inactive methanogenic granules might be the main reason for the high anammox purity in a short period. The important role of the extracellular polymer in the granule structure was observed via morphological observation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of (Inactivity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Damas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of (inactivity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (inactivity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  3. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH Receptor Structure and GnRH Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A. Flanagan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH regulates reproduction. The human GnRH receptor lacks a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail but has amino acid sequence motifs characteristic of rhodopsin-like, class A, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. This review will consider how recent descriptions of X-ray crystallographic structures of GPCRs in inactive and active conformations may contribute to understanding GnRH receptor structure, mechanism of activation and ligand binding. The structures confirmed that ligands bind to variable extracellular surfaces, whereas the seven membrane-spanning α-helices convey the activation signal to the cytoplasmic receptor surface, which binds and activates heterotrimeric G proteins. Forty non-covalent interactions that bridge topologically equivalent residues in different transmembrane (TM helices are conserved in class A GPCR structures, regardless of activation state. Conformation-independent interhelical contacts account for a conserved receptor protein structure and their importance in the GnRH receptor structure is supported by decreased expression of receptors with mutations of residues in the network. Many of the GnRH receptor mutations associated with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, including the Glu2.53(90 Lys mutation, involve amino acids that constitute the conserved network. Half of the ~250 intramolecular interactions in GPCRs differ between inactive and active structures. Conformation-specific interhelical contacts depend on amino acids changing partners during activation. Conserved inactive conformation-specific contacts prevent receptor activation by stabilizing proximity of TM helices 3 and 6 and a closed G protein-binding site. Mutations of GnRH receptor residues involved in these interactions, such as Arg3.50(139 of the DRY/S motif or Tyr7.53(323 of the N/DPxxY motif, increase or decrease receptor expression and efficiency of receptor coupling to G protein signaling, consistent with the

  4. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  5. [Inactive dumps in Santa Catarina's carboniferous area: analysis of risks to the public health and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Fernando Pagani; Viana, Ednilson; Schulz, Harry Edmar; de Costa, Marcel Madeira; Casagrande, Everson

    2007-01-01

    The existence of inactive dumps considerably increases the so-called "environmental liability"; so much so that the final destination of urban solid residues takes a prominent place on the list of environmental issues of societies(1). In the state of Santa Catarina, it can be said that, currently, the real conditions of the "final destination deposits", or simply the inactive dumps, is officially unknown. This is maybe most evident in the carboniferous area of the state that already suffers from the environmental impact of coal mining. This study attempts to make a survey of the inactive dumps in the carboniferous area of Santa Catarina, analysing the risks they represent to public health and to the environment. The results gathered show that, of the eleven municipal districts in the carboniferous area, nine have inactive dumps. In these nine districts, there are eleven inactive dumps that, according to the this evaluation, represent a large risk to public health and the environment when the parameters analysed are taken into acount.

  6. Sporting programs for inactive population groups: factors influencing implementation in the organized sports setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Linda; Veenhof, Cindy; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2015-01-01

    The organized sports sector has received increased attention as a setting to promote health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) to the general population. For significant public health impact, it is important that successful HEPA programs are widely adopted, implemented and continued as ongoing practice. The importance of evaluating the context in which programs are implemented has been identified as critical. However, little research has focused on understanding the organized sports implementation context, including factors facilitating and impeding implementation. In this study, the main factors influencing implementation of HEPA programs in the organized sports setting were studied. Fourteen sporting programs in the Netherlands aimed at increasing participation in sports by inactive population groups and funded within the National Action Plan for Sport and Exercise (NAPSE) were investigated. The programs were developed by ten Dutch National Sports Federations (NSFs) and implemented by different sports clubs in the Netherlands over a 3-year implementation period (June 2008-June 2011). The qualitative research component involved yearly face-to-face interviews (i.e. fourteen interviews each year, n = 12 program coordinators) and a group meeting with the program coordinators of the NSFs (n = 8). Cross-case comparisons and thematic analyses were performed to identify and categorize important facilitating and impeding factors respectively. The quantitative research component, used to identify the most important facilitating and impeding factors across all sporting programs, consisted of ranking of factors according to importance by the program coordinators (n = 12). Different factors act during six identified (implementation) phases. When comparing factors across phases, several key learnings were evident. Successful implementation relied, for example, on program design and enthusiastic individuals within sporting organizations. On the other hand, inactive

  7. Factors increasing the risk of inactivity among administrative, technical, and manual workers in Warszawa public institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research aims to assess the level of physical activity among administrative, technical, and manual workers employed in Warszawa public institutions and to analyze the factors that increase the risk of failing to meet World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Material and Methods: The study comprised 373 employees of randomly selected institutions. A short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. The correlation between the mean values of duration, days, MET-min/week of efforts, gender, and type of work was analyzed using the Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD test, while the correlation between the level of physical activity and the socio-demographic characteristics was assessed with the Chi2 test. The strength of the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and fulfilment of WHO standards was expressed by the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI. The significance level was p = 0.05. Results: High levels of physical activity were declared by 41.8% of the manual workers, 14.7% of the administration staff, and 7.3% of the technicians; 19%, 31.5% and 54.5%, respectively, reported low levels of physical activity. Factors determining the fulfilment of the WHO recommendations include: the nature of work (p = 0.003, education (p = 0.004, and income (p = 0.003. The risk of being inactive nearly doubles in the case of administration staff (31.5% and increases more than 4 times in the case of technicians (54.5%. Respondents with secondary school education (31.6% are exposed to a 3-fold higher risk of inactivity, while in respondents with higher education (37.2%, the level of the risk is 4-fold higher. Compared to those in the highest income group (23.4%, people who earn less (34.1% are inactive almost twice as often. Conclusions: Urgent intervention is necessary in all studied groups: increased energy expenditure for recreation and locomotion, educational offers

  8. Depression, smoking, physical inactivity and season independently associated with midnight salivary cortisol in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Eva O; Thunander, Maria; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Hillman, Magnus; Thulesius, Hans O

    2014-09-16

    Disturbances of the circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion are associated with depression, coronary calcification, and higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.The primary aim of this study was to test the associations between midnight salivary cortisol (MSC), depression and HbA1c, and control for behavioural, environmental and intra individual factors with possible impact on cortisol secretion, like smoking, physical inactivity, season, medication, diabetes duration, severe hypoglycemia episodes, age and gender in patients with type 1 diabetes. Secondary aims were to present MSC levels for a reference group of non-depressed type 1 diabetes patients with a healthy life style (physically active and non-smoking), and to explore seasonal variations. A cross-sectional population based study of 196 patients (54% men and 46% women) aged 18-59 years that participated in a randomized controlled trial targeting depression in type 1 diabetes. Depression was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression subscale. MSC, HbA1c, serum-lipids, blood pressure, waist circumference and data from medical records and the Swedish National Diabetes Registry were collected. Thirty four patients (17%) had MSC ≥9.3 nmol/L, which was associated with smoking (AOR 5.5), spring season (AOR 4.3), physical inactivity (AOR 3.9), self-reported depression (AOR 3.1), and older age (per year) (AOR 1.08). HbA1c >70 mmol/mol (>8.6%) (AOR 4.2) and MSC ≥9.3 nmol/L (AOR 4.4) were independently linked to self-reported depression. Season was strongly associated with MSC levels and no other variables studied showed seasonal variations. In a reference group of 137 non-depressed patients with a healthy life style (physically active, non-smoking) the median MSC level was 4.6 nmol/L (range 1.9-23.0). In this study of patients with type 1 diabetes high MSC was linked to smoking, physical inactivity, depression, season and older age. Thus a high cortisol value identified three major

  9. Physical inactivity among physiotherapy undergraduates: exploring the knowledge-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Sigera, Chathurani; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Ayodya C R; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a common risk factor for several non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Increasing physical activity could reduce the burden of disease due to major NCDs and increase life expectancy. Undergraduate physiotherapy students represent a group of young-adults expected to have a good knowledge of physical activity. We evaluated physical activity levels of undergraduate physiotherapy students of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and determined their motives and barriers for participation in physical activity. All physiotherapy undergraduates studying at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka in 2013 were invited for the study. Phase one was a quantitative study to evaluate the physical activity levels and phase two was a qualitative study to identify motives and barriers for physical activity and sports in the same cohort. Physical activity levels (phase 1) were assessed using the interviewer administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long-version). The qualitative study (phase 2) was conducted in the same population using Focus Group Discussions ( n  = 3) and individual In-depth Interviews ( n  = 5). Sample size in phase 1 and phase 2 were 113 (response rate = 98%; [N-115]) and 87 (response rat = 97%; [N-90]) respectively. Mean age (±SD) of participants was 23.4 ± 1 years. The mean weekly total MET minutes (±SD) of the study population was 1791.25 ± 3097. According to the IPAQ categorical score a higher percentage of participants were 'inactive' (48.7%), while only 15.9% were in the 'Highly active' group. Lack of support and encouragement received during childhood to engage in sports activity seem to have played an important role in continuing their exercise behavior through to the adult life. Academic activities were given priority by both parents and teachers. The environment and support from teachers, family and friends were important to initiate and adhere to sports and physical activity. A higher

  10. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.J.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site a Naturita, Colorado, conducted in May 1976, are presented. The spread of tailings was detected in the area surrounding the site by means of direct above ground gamma measurements and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples. Radiochemical analyses of water samples in the vicinity of the tailings pile indicate local surface water contamination immediately downstream from the pile, although the 226 Ra concentration in the water at that point as well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The calculated subsoil distribution of 226 Ra in onsite holes is presented graphically. The tailings at this site were removed and reprocessed at another location. This operation was completed and reclamation of the site was conducted in 1978. Consequently the information in this report documents radiological conditions that no longer exist

  11. Impact of inactive dopants in chemical vapor deposition layers on photomodulated optical reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanowicz, Janusz [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Electrical Engineering Department, INSYS, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: Janusz.Bogdanowicz@imec.be; Dortu, Fabian [Multitel, rue Pierre et Marie Curie 2, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Clarysse, Trudo [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, Wilfried [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Shaughnessy, Derrick; Salnik, Alex; Nicolaides, Lena [KLA-Tencor Corp., 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, CA 95134 (United States)

    2008-12-05

    The ITRS roadmap stresses the electrical characterization of the active doping profiles for sub-32 nm structures as a key challenge for future CMOS technology. Earlier work has shown the promising capabilities of non-destructive photomodulated optical reflectance (PMOR) techniques, based on the localized detection of variations in the reflectivity of the sample, due to thermal and plasma (excess carrier) effects as can be generated by a modulated pump laser such as the Therma-Probe (TP) system. In this work, we study the impact of the inactive dopant atoms in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) layers both on PMOR and DC reflectance signals. In particular, with the help of numerical simulations, this work shows that, by taking into account the combined degradation of the thermal diffusivity and the recombination lifetime as well as the enhancement of the absorption coefficient, the theory may be rendered semi-quantitative.

  12. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Soil placed over any sealant/barrier system can provide a protective mantle if the soil is not lost by erosion. Vegetation is an attractive choice for controlling erosion because it can provide an economic self-renewing cover that serves to reduce erosion by both wind and water. Vegetation alone, however, may not adequately stabilize the surface in extremely arid areas. In those areas, a properly designed surface treatment of rock cover, perhaps in conjunction with vegetation, may be necessary to stabilize the tailings surfaces. The objective of this program is to establish guidelines for surface stabilization that are compatible with sealant/barrier systems and that are suited to soils and climates at inactive uranium mill tailings sites. These guidelines will provide the means to estimate potential vegetation cover, potential erosion, effects of surface treatments on sealant/barrier systems, and costs of vegetation and rock covers. Methods for establishing vegetation on sealed tailings will also be provided

  13. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  14. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    High surface soil concentrations of 226 Ra and high above-ground measurements of gamma-ray intensity in the vicinity of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat show both wind and water erosion of the tailings. The former mill area, occupied by a trade school at the time of this survey, shows a comparatively high level of contamination, probably from unprocessed ore on the surface of the ore storage area near the location of the former mill buildings. However, the estimated health effect of exposure to gamma rays during a 2000-hr work year in the area represents an increase of 0.1% in the risk of death from cancer. Exposure of less than 600 persons within 1.6 km of the tailings to radon daughters results in an estimated 0.2%/year increase in risk of lung cancer

  15. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Lantz, P.M.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium-mill tailings at an inactive site near Shiprock, New Mexico, contain an estimated 950 curies (Ci) of /sup 226/Ra together with its radioactive daughters. A radiological survey was conducted at this site in February 1976. Decontamination work and tailings stabilization performed at the site since that time have greatly changed conditions there and little effort was applied to quantification of potential health effects in comparison to the earlier consideration of the site at Salt Lake City. The present report delineates the radiological conditions that existed at the time of the survey including information on the surface and below-surface distribution of /sup 226/Ra. The data presented support the conclusion that diffusion of radon and inhalation of radon daughters is the principal mode of exposure of offsite population groups.

  17. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The findings of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Gunnison, Colorado, conducted in May 1976, are presented. Results of surface soil sample analyses and direct gamma radiation measurements indicate limited spread of tailings off the site. The only significant above background measurements off the site were obtained in an area previously covered by the tailings pile. There was little evidence of contamination of the surface or of unconfined groundwater in the vicinity of the tailings pile; however, the hydrologic conditions at the site indicate a potential for such contamination. The concentration of 226 Ra in all water samples except one from the tailings pile was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The subsurface distribution of 226 Ra in 14 bore holes located on and around the tailings pile was calculated from gamma ray monitoring data obtained jointly with Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc

  18. The concentration of active and inactive strontium in some Danube river samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshutich, K.; Lulich, S.

    1985-01-01

    The following fish species were investigated: Barbus barbus, Acipencer ruthenus, Abramis brama, Stizostedion lucioperca, Silurus glanis, Cyprinus caprio. The samples were collected during 1981. The inactive strontium in the water residue (after evaporation), sediment and fishes ewrw determined by nondestructive neutron activation analysis by using gamma couting system consisted of a 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) semiconductor rystal attached to a 4096-channel pulsehight analyser. The standard solution contained 5x10 -5 g of strontium per 100 lambda. Radioactive strontium was measured after several separation procedures. 90 SrCO 3 in equilibrium with its daughter 90 Y was detected in the β-low-level counting anticoincident system with gas-flow detector. The results confirmed the literature data that the sediment concentrations of the total strontium and the active 90 Sr are several times greater than those in water

  19. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Ellis, B.S.

    1980-03-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings near Maybell, Colorado are presented. Measurements of external gamma exposure rate at 1 m above the tailings ranged 16 to 340 ..mu..R/hr with an average value of 65 ..mu..R/hr. Radionuclide analysis of offsite soil and sediment samples, as well as above-ground gamma exposure rate measurements defined the spread of contamination around the tailings pile. This spread is greatest toward the east, in the direction of surface water runoff. Calculated concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in all of the holes drilled in the tailngs, based on gamma monitoring data, showed maximum concentrations in the range 100 to 800 pCi/g.

  20. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed

  1. Release from control of inactive material from decommissioning the ASTRA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.; Kurz, H.; Meyer, F.; Karacson, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf have been operating a 10 MW ASTRA research reactor from 1960 until 1999. After that date, a submission of the intention to decommission the reactor has been provided to the Competent Authorities. After completion of an Environmental Impact Study by the Competent Authorities and modification of the Permissions for Site Use, the reactor finally entered the decommissioning phase in 2003. Inactive materials from the decommissioning site are expected to be released from control. The procedure for such a release from control agreed upon between the Competent Authorities and ARC Seibersdorf involves a four-step measurement, verification, and certification process detailed in this paper. By September 2003, this four-step procedure has been completed for 16500 kg of steel re-enforced concrete and for 5500 kg of other materials; the release from control of 3000 kg of paraffin and 10000 kg of graphite from the thermal column are planned for the near future. (author)

  2. LOXL2 catalytically inactive mutants mediate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva P. Cuevas

    2014-01-01

    Lysyl-oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2 is a member of the lysyl oxidase family that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagens or elastins in the extracellular matrix, thus regulating the tensile strength of tissues. However, many reports have suggested different intracellular roles for LOXL2, including the ability to regulate gene transcription and tumor progression. We previously reported that LOXL2 mediates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT by Snail1-dependent and independent mechanisms, related to E-cadherin silencing and downregulation of epidermal differentiation and cell polarity components, respectively. Whether or not the catalytic activity of LOXL2 is required to induce/sustain EMT is actually unknown. Here we show that LOXL2 catalytic inactive mutants collaborate with Snail1 in E-cadherin gene repression to trigger EMT and, in addition, promote FAK/Src pathway activation to support EMT. These findings reveal a non-conventional role of LOXL2 on regulating epithelial cell plasticity.

  3. Prevalence and distribution of inactivity and weight excess in Spanish scholar children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aims to study the distribution of leisure time physical activity pattern and weight status of Spanish schoolchildren. The sample corresponds to 6,803 school-aged children (3,491 boys and 3,312 girls, who took part in the Spanish National Health Survey 2006, being representative of the Spanish scholar population. It has assessed their pattern of physical activity and weight status through international body mass index cut offs. The relationship between the variables studied has been established through a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Physical inactivity is more prevalent in children that exceed a healthy weight, and there are regional differences in the distribution of a sedentary lifestyle and weight excess, as well as in different age groups and sex. Globally, 49.7% of Spanish schoolchildren have an unhealthy leisure time physical activity pattern, and 28.9% of them exceed the recommended weight for their age.

  4. Safety issue resolution strategy plan for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Powers, T.B.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this strategy plan is to identify, confirm, and resolve safely issues associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) using a risk-based priority approach. Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations including risk ranking and cost effectiveness. This plan specifies work scope and recommends schedules for activities related to resolving safety issues, such as collecting historical data, searching for authorization documents, performing Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening and evaluation, identifying safety issues, imposing operational controls and monitoring, characterizing waste contents, mitigating and resolving safety issues, and fulfilling other remediation requirements consistent with the overall Tank Waste Remediation System strategy. Recommendations for characterization and remediation are also recommended according to the order of importance and practical programmatic consideration

  5. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila; Jeppesen, Rikke Schou; Krustrup, Birgitte Rejkjær

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories (“I,”“we” and “they”) as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical......). The study also points to the importance of the activity itself for internal bonding illustrated through we- and they-stories. Our data indicate that team sports, such as football, may have an advantage over individual sports in the development of social capital....... exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks...

  6. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Ellis, B.S.; Chou, K.D.

    1980-03-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Durango, Colorado, conducted in April 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented together with descriptions of the instruments and techniques used to obtain the data. Direct above-ground gamma measurements and analysis of surface soil and sediment samples indicate movement of tailings from the piles toward Lightner Creek on the north and the Animas River on the east side of the piles. The concentration of 226 Ra in the former raffinate pond area is only slightly above the background level. Two structures in Durango were found to contain high concentrations of airborne radon daughters, where tailings are known to have been utilized in construction. Near-background concentrations of radon daughters were found in a well-ventilated building close to the tailings

  7. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, L; Jeppesen, R S; Krustrup, B R

    2010-04-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories ("I,"we" and "they") as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks). The study also points to the importance of the activity itself for internal bonding illustrated through we- and they-stories. Our data indicate that team sports, such as football, may have an advantage over individual sports in the development of social capital.

  8. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A

    2016-01-01

    of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing.......03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P......=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and increase in quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that an Internet...

  9. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Lantz, P.M.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium-mill tailings at an inactive site near Shiprock, New Mexico, contain an estimated 950 curies (Ci) of 226 Ra together with its radioactive daughters. A radiological survey was conducted at this site in February 1976. Decontamination work and tailings stabilization performed at the site since that time have greatly changed conditions there and little effort was applied to quantification of potential health effects in comparison to the earlier consideration of the site at Salt Lake City. The present report delineates the radiological conditions that existed at the time of the survey including information on the surface and below-surface distribution of 226 Ra. The data presented support the conclusion that diffusion of radon and inhalation of radon daughters is the principal mode of exposure of offsite population groups

  10. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation

  11. Transition from physical activity to inactivity increases skeletal muscle miR-148b content and triggers insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastebois, Caroline; Chanon, Stéphanie; Rome, Sophie; Durand, Christine; Pelascini, Elise; Jalabert, Audrey; Euthine, Vanessa; Pialoux, Vincent; Blanc, Stéphane; Simon, Chantal; Lefai, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated miR-148b as a potential physiological actor of physical inactivity-induced effects in skeletal muscle. By using animal and human protocols, we demonstrated that the early phase of transition toward inactivity was associated with an increase in muscle miR-148b content, which triggered the downregulation of NRAS and ROCK1 target genes. Using human myotubes, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-148b decreased NRAS and ROCK1 protein levels, and PKB phosphorylation and glucose uptake in response to insulin. Increase in muscle miR-148b content might thus participate in the decrease in insulin sensitivity at the whole body level during the transition toward physical inactivity. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    ) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical......The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984 and 1989. Analyses were conducted with physical inactivity as an independent variable (accumulated and separately for each point in time...

  13. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  14. Survey of active and inactive mines for possible use as in situ test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    A survey of active and inactive mines which might be useful for radioactive waste storage in situ test experiments was conducted. It was performed for Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Office of Waste Isolation. The report covers available information gathered from literature, U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Mining Enforcement and Safety Agency, and a limited number of personal contacts with constructors or operators of facilities. This survey is preliminary in nature and the objective is to develop potential candidate facilities for in situ experiments which warrant further investigation. Included are descriptions of 244 facilities, with all the data about each one which was available within the time restraint of the study. These facility descriptions are additionally indexed by depth of mine, nature of the country rock, mineral mined, and type of entry. A total of 14 inactive mines and 34 active mines has been selected as those most worthy of further investigation for possible service as nuclear waste isolation test facilities. This investigation, being preliminary and having been performed in a very short time period, must be qualified, and the description of the qualification is presented in the body of this report. Qualifications deal primarily with the hazard of having omitted facilities and having incomplete data in some instances. Results indicate sedimentary rock mines of minerals of evaporite origin as a first ranking of preference for in situ testing, followed by other sedimentary rocks and then by mines producing minerals from any type rock where the mine is above the local water table. These are general rules and of course there can be exceptions to them

  15. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  16. Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in inactive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Leah M; Jones, Kelly R; Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3 days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5 days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5 day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5 day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation.

  18. A physically active occupation does not result in compensatory inactivity during out-of-work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigbe, William W; Lean, Michael E J; Granat, Malcolm H

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in non-occupational physical activity behaviour in workers who engage in high and low occupational physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of 112 otherwise comparable volunteers in active (56 walking postal delivery workers) or inactive (56 administrative postal workers) occupations in Glasgow (Scotland) in 2007. Twenty four-hour physical activity (steps and time standing, walking and sedentary) patterns were measured using activPAL™ for seven days. Comparisons were made during 8-hour work-shifts, during non-work hours on work-days and during the 2 non-work days. Age and body mass index of delivery and office staff, respectively, were (means (SD)) 38 (9) years versus 40 (7) years and 26.3 (3) kg m(-2) versus 27.4 (4) kg m(-2). Delivery staff spent substantially longer time than office staff upright (6.0 (1.1) h versus 3.9 (1.5) h) and walking (3.1 (0.7) h versus 1.6 (0.7) h) and amassed more steps (16,035 (4264) versus 6709 (2808)) during 8-hour work-shifts and over 24h on work days. During non-work hours of work-days and during non-work days, there were no significant differences in physical activity between the groups. The results were unchanged when the 15 women were excluded. Having a more active occupation is not associated with more inactivity during non-work hours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interleukin-18 and interleukin-18 Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eDinarello

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-18 (IL 18 is a member of the IL 1 family of cytokines. Increasing reports have expanded the role of IL 18 in mediating inflammation in animal models of disease using IL 18 deficient mice, neutralization of IL 18 or deficiency in the IL 18 receptor alpha chain. Similar to IL 1β, IL 18 is synthesized as an inactive precursor requiering processing by caspase 1 into an active cytokine but unlike IL 1β, the IL 18 precursor is constitutively present in nearly all cells in healthy humans and animals. The activity of IL 18 is balanced by the presence of a high-affinity naturally occuring IL 18 binding protein (IL 18BP. In humans, disease increased disease severity can be associated with an imbalance of IL 18 to IL 18BP such that the levels of free IL 18 are elevated in the circulation. A role for IL 18 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, myocardial function, emphysema, metabolic syndromes, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, hemophagocytic syndromes, macrophage activation syndrome, sepsis and acute kidney injury, although in some diseases, IL 18 is protective. IL 18 plays a major role in the production of interferon-g from natural killer cells. The IL 18BP has been used safely in humans and clinical trials of IL 18BP as well as neutralizing anti-IL 18 antibodies are in clinical trials. This review updates the biology of IL 18 as well as its role in human disease

  20. Immune biomarkers and anti-HIV activity in the reproductive tract of sexually active and sexually inactive adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Mimi; Jais, Mariel; Biswas, Roshni; Jarin, Jason; Daniels, Jason; Joy, Christopher; Juzumaite, Monika; Emmanuel, Vanessa; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2018-03-13

    Adolescent girls are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, accounting for 22% of all new HIV infections globally. Yet little is known regarding the immune microenvironment of the adolescent female reproductive tract, especially regarding differences among sexually active and inactive girls, a critical parameter to evaluate HIV susceptibility associated with young age and sexual debut. Cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) was collected from sexually active (10) and inactive (8) girls aged 11-19 years and analyzed by ELISA for inflammation-associated biomarkers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MIP-3α, IL-1α, IL-1β, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, as well as anti-HIV mediators, Elafin, SLPI, human beta-defensin 2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) 1 and 2. Cervical ectopy was analyzed using Volocity. Anti-HIV activity was determined by TZM-bl assay. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism and R. Sexually inactive girls had significantly higher levels of TNF-α (P = .029) in CVL compared to sexually active girls. In contrast, sexually active girls showed a trend toward higher levels of IL-1α (P = .051) compared to the sexually inactive girls. Heat-map correlations between cervical ectopy and immune biomarkers were also distinct between the 2 populations with significant positive associations between % ectopy and inflammation-associated biomarkers IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, MIP-3α, MMP-8, and MMP-9 observed in the sexually inactive but not sexually active group. Higher pro-inflammatory biomarker TNF-α, as well as a distinct inflammation-associated immune clustering in sexually inactive girls, can potentially increase risk for infections including HIV upon sexual debut. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to characterize the immune parameters associated with sexual activity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of the topoisomerase II-inactive bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-161 as a protectant against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, E.; Thougaard, A.V.; Grauslund, M.

    2009-01-01

    of topoisomerase II, resulting in the risk of additional myelosuppression in patients receiving ICRF-187 as a cardioprotectant in combination with doxorubicin. The development of a topoisomerase II-inactive iron chelating compound thus appeared attractive. In the present paper we evaluate the topoisomerase II......-inactive 3 carbon linker bisdioxopiperazine analog ICRF-161 as a cardioprotectant. We demonstrate that this compound does chelate iron and protects against doxorubicin-induced LDH release from primary rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, similarly to ICRF-187. The compound does not target topoisomerase II in vitro...... chelation alone does not appear to be sufficient for protection against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/8...

  2. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  3. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and insulin signaling is altered by physical inactivity and exercise training in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Gerwen; Poelkens, Fleur; van Duijnhoven, Noortje T L; Pardoel, Elisabeth M; Hoenderop, Joost G; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopman, Maria T E

    2012-11-15

    Physical deconditioning is associated with the development of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise training effectively counteracts these developments, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To gain more insight into these mechanisms, muscular gene expression levels were assessed after physical deconditioning and after exercise training of the lower limbs in humans by use of gene expression microarrays. To exclude systemic effects, we used human models for local physical inactivity (3 wk of unilateral limb suspension) and for local exercise training (6 wk of functional electrical stimulation exercise of the extremely deconditioned legs of individuals with a spinal cord injury). The most interesting subset of genes, those downregulated after deconditioning as well as upregulated after exercise training, contained 18 genes related to both the "insulin action" and "adipocytokine signaling" pathway. Of these genes, the three with strongest up/downregulation were the muscular fatty acid-binding protein-3 (FABP3), the fatty acid oxidizing enzyme hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HADH), and the mitochondrial fatty acid transporter solute carrier 25 family member A20 (SLC25A20). The expression levels of these genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR. The results of the present study indicate an important role for a decreased transport and metabolism of fatty acids, which provides a link between physical activity levels and insulin signaling.

  4. Ergothioneine prevents copper-induced oxidative damage to DNA and protein by forming a redox-inactive ergothioneine-copper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Mao, Li; Fan, Rui-Mei; Zhu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Ying-Nan; Wang, Jing; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Frei, Balz

    2011-01-14

    Ergothioneine (2-mercaptohistidine trimethylbetaine) is a naturally occurring amino acid analogue found in up to millimolar concentrations in several tissues and biological fluids. However, the biological functions of ergothioneine remain incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of ergothioneine in copper-induced oxidative damage to DNA and protein, using two copper-containing systems: Cu(II) with ascorbate and Cu(II) with H(2)O(2) [0.1 mM Cu(II), 1 mM ascorbate, and 1 mM H(2)O(2)]. Oxidative damage to DNA and bovine serum albumin was measured as strand breakage and protein carbonyl formation, respectively. Ergothioneine (0.1-1.0 mM) provided strong, dose-dependent protection against oxidation of DNA and protein in both copper-containing systems. In contrast, only limited protection was observed with the purported hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethyl sulfoxide and mannitol, even at concentrations as high as 100 mM. Ergothioneine also significantly inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate and competed effectively with histidine and 1,10-phenanthroline for binding of cuprous copper, but not cupric copper, as demonstrated by UV-visible and low-temperature electron spin resonance techniques. We conclude that ergothioneine is a potent, natural sulfur-containing antioxidant that prevents copper-dependent oxidative damage to biological macromolecules by forming a redox-inactive ergothioneine-copper complex.

  5. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L; LeBlanc, Francis

    2015-09-23

    Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on pain, function, disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults experiencing neck pain with or without radicular symptoms and cervicogenic headache (CGH) at immediate- to long-term follow-up. When appropriate, to assess the influence of treatment characteristics (i.e. technique, dosage), methodological quality, symptom duration and subtypes of neck disorder on treatment outcomes. Review authors searched the following computerised databases to November 2014 to identify additional studies: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, checked references, searched citations and contacted study authors to find relevant studies. We updated this search in June 2015, but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) undertaken to assess whether manipulation or mobilisation improves clinical outcomes for adults with acute/subacute/chronic neck pain. Two review authors independently selected studies, abstracted data, assessed risk of bias and applied Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods (very low, low, moderate, high quality). We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs). We included 51 trials (2920 participants, 18 trials of manipulation/mobilisation versus control; 34 trials of manipulation/mobilisation versus another treatment, 1 trial had two comparisons). Cervical manipulation versus inactive control: For subacute and chronic neck pain, a single manipulation (three trials, no meta

  6. binding protein (HABP1)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    adsorbed on carbon coated copper grid (400 mesh) for. 5 min at room temperature. The grids were subsequently .... and inhibition by GAGs and DMA were determined on polystyrene wells of microtitre plates (Costar, ... for binding inhibition assays was carried out by mixing equal volumes of the conjugate and the inhibitor at ...

  7. Quarkeosynthesis Binding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Bill

    2009-05-01

    Quarkeosynthesis shows that the binding energy of a nucleus is the difference between the relativistic kinetic energies of its threesome of Jumbo Quarks and that of its building block quarks from neutrons and protons. There is no involvement of a nuclear strong force or gluon material.

  8. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  9. binding protein (HABP1)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of HA in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting its multiligand affinity amongst carbohydrates. rHABP1 shows differential affinity ... site is seen to correspond to the carbohydrate-binding site in E-selectin, which has similarity in the ... adsorbed on carbon coated copper grid (400 mesh) for. 5 min at room temperature.

  10. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Tinucci

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present. Resumo A prática de atividades físicas tem sido recomendada para a prevenção e reabilitação cardíacas. Porém, quando feita de maneira inadequada, o que ocorre mais freqüentemente na ausência de supervisão em locais públicos, esta prática pode se associar ao aumento do risco de acometimentos cardiovasculares. Comparar o risco cardiovascular de freqüentadores de parques p

  11. Level trend analysis summary report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities have produced liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that is radioactive and/or hazardous. Storage tanks have been used to collect and store these wastes. Most of the collection system, including the tanks, is located below the ground surface. Many of the systems have been removed from service (i.e., are not inactive) but contain residual amounts of waste liquid and sludges. A plan of action has been developed by DOE to ensure that environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive tanks system are minimized. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) does not require any type of testing or monitoring for the inactive LLLW tanks that are removed from service but does require waste characterization of tanks contents, risk characterization of tanks removed from service, and remediation of the inactive tanks and their contents. This report is form information only and is not required by the FFA. It includes a description of the methodology and results of level trend analyses for the Category D tanks listed in the FFA that currently belong to the Environmental Restoration Program

  12. Taking Part Counts: Adolescents' Experiences of the Transition from Inactivity to Active Participation in School-Based Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Fiona; Magnusson, Josefine

    2006-01-01

    Identifying ways to increase and sustain active living among young people represents a priority for health promotion interventions. This qualitative study explored the experiences of adolescent boys and girls in the United Kingdom (aged 14-15 years) who had made the transition from inactivity to active participation in physical education (PE). The…

  13. Meta-Analyses of the Effects of Habitual Running on Indices of Health in Physically Inactive Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespanhol, L.C.; Pillay, J.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to implement running to promote physical activity, it is essential to quantify the extent to which running improves health. Objective: The aim was to summarise the literature on the effects of endurance running on biomedical indices of health in physically inactive adults. Data

  14. Bacterial and archaeal communities in the deep-sea sediments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Xu, Jian; Shuai, Yinjie; Zhou, Xiaojian; Yang, Zhihui; Ma, Kesen

    2016-05-01

    Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents harbor abundant thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms. However, microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents have not been well documented. Here, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in the two deep-sea sediments (named as TVG4 and TVG11) collected from inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest India Ridge using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq2500 platform. Based on the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, sequence analysis showed that bacterial communities in the two samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Furthermore, archaeal communities in the two samples were dominated by Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Comparative analysis showed that (i) TVG4 displayed the higher bacterial richness and lower archaeal richness than TVG11; (ii) the two samples had more divergence in archaeal communities than bacterial communities. Bacteria and archaea that are potentially associated with nitrogen, sulfur metal and methane cycling were detected in the two samples. Overall, we first provided a comparative picture of bacterial and archaeal communities and revealed their potentially ecological roles in the deep-sea environments of inactive hydrothermal vents in the Southwest Indian Ridge, augmenting microbial communities in inactive hydrothermal vents.

  15. Jarid2 Is Implicated in the Initial Xist-Induced Targeting of PRC2 to the Inactive X Chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Boeva, Valentina; Escamilla-Del-Arenal, Martin

    2014-01-01

    During X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is thought to participate in the early maintenance of the inactive state. Although Xist RNA is essential for the recruitment of PRC2 to the X chromosome, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate...

  16. Mental health and physical inactivity during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study nested in the BRISA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahasi, Eliana Harumi Morioka; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Barbieri, Marco Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and physical inactivity in 1,447 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Subjects answered the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and stress levels were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale, respectively. The rate of physical inactivity was low (39.8%). The prevalence rates of symptoms of severe depression and severe levels of anxiety were 28.8% and 16.9%, respectively. The average perceived stress score was 24.9. An association was found between physical inactivity and not living with a partner (OR = 1.28), having a manual occupation (OR = 0.71) and, unexpectedly, normal and low levels of anxiety (OR = 1.46 and OR = 1.44, respectively). No association was observed between physical inactivity and symptoms of severe depression and perceived stress. It is plausible to assume that the majority of physical activity practiced by these women was attributable to housework or occupation which may in turn be associated with high levels of anxiety.

  17. Mental health and physical inactivity during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study nested in the BRISA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Harumi Morioka Takahasi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and physical inactivity in 1,447 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Subjects answered the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and stress levels were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale, respectively. The rate of physical inactivity was low (39.8%. The prevalence rates of symptoms of severe depression and severe levels of anxiety were 28.8% and 16.9%, respectively. The average perceived stress score was 24.9. An association was found between physical inactivity and not living with a partner (OR = 1.28, having a manual occupation (OR = 0.71 and, unexpectedly, normal and low levels of anxiety (OR = 1.46 and OR = 1.44, respectively. No association was observed between physical inactivity and symptoms of severe depression and perceived stress. It is plausible to assume that the majority of physical activity practiced by these women was attributable to housework or occupation which may in turn be associated with high levels of anxiety.

  18. The Foci of In-Action Professional Judgement and Decision-Making in High-Level Adventure Sports Coaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2017-01-01

    This article continues a theme of previous investigations by the authors and examines the focus of in-action reflection as a component of professional judgement and decision-making (PJDM) processes in high-level adventure sports coaching. We utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of…

  19. Prevalence and time trends in diabetes and physical inactivity among adult West African populations: the epidemic has arrived

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abubakari, A. R.; Lauder, W.; Jones, M. C.; Kirk, A.; Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of, and trends in, physical inactivity and diabetes in adult West African populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature searches were conducted using four electronic databases. Journal hand searches and examination of citations of relevant

  20. Inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity: protecting the drive to breathe in disorders that reduce respiratory neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strey, K A; Baertsch, N A; Baker-Herman, T L

    2013-11-01

    Multiple forms of plasticity are activated following reduced respiratory neural activity. For example, in ventilated rats, a central neural apnea elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude upon resumption of respiratory neural activity, forms of plasticity called inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF), respectively. Here, we provide a conceptual framework for plasticity following reduced respiratory neural activity to guide future investigations. We review mechanisms giving rise to iPMF and iHMF, present new data suggesting that inactivity-induced plasticity is observed in inspiratory intercostals (iIMF) and point out gaps in our knowledge. We then survey conditions relevant to human health characterized by reduced respiratory neural activity and discuss evidence that inactivity-induced plasticity is elicited during these conditions. Understanding the physiological impact and circumstances in which inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity is elicited may yield novel insights into the treatment of disorders characterized by reductions in respiratory neural activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity: Protecting the drive to breathe in disorders that reduce respiratory neural activity☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strey, K.A.; Baertsch, N.A.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple forms of plasticity are activated following reduced respiratory neural activity. For example, in ventilated rats, a central neural apnea elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude upon resumption of respiratory neural activity, forms of plasticity called inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF), respectively. Here, we provide a conceptual framework for plasticity following reduced respiratory neural activity to guide future investigations. We review mechanisms giving rise to iPMF and iHMF, present new data suggesting that inactivity-induced plasticity is observed in inspiratory intercostals (iIMF) and point out gaps in our knowledge. We then survey conditions relevant to human health characterized by reduced respiratory neural activity and discuss evidence that inactivity-induced plasticity is elicited during these conditions. Understanding the physiological impact and circumstances in which inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity is elicited may yield novel insights into the treatment of disorders characterized by reductions in respiratory neural activity. PMID:23816599

  2. 42 CFR 407.32 - Prejudice to enrollment rights because of Federal Government misrepresentation, inaction, or error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prejudice to enrollment rights because of Federal Government misrepresentation, inaction, or error. 407.32 Section 407.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT Individual Enrollment and Entitlement for SMI § 407.32 Prejudice to...

  3. Social identity, perceived urban neighborhood quality, and physical inactivity: A comparison study of China, Taiwan, and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan-Rung; Lin, Yi-Ching

    2016-09-01

    Asian countries are currently witnessing unprecedented increase in physical inactivity and subsequent negative health outcomes; however, few cross-country studies documenting this trend exist. This paper presents the findings of a nationally representative sample, based on the East Asian Social Survey in 2011. The study sought to examine the association of social identity factors, such as objective socio-economic position, perceived social status and neighborhood quality with physical inactivity, while controlling for psychosocial and physical health. A sample of 5222 adults living in urban areas across China, Taiwan, and South Korea were surveyed. Multivariate nested logistic regressions were constructed. Perceived social status was positively associated with physical activity. Gender difference in physical activity was significant, and this difference widened as educational levels increased. Class division in physical activity was also found. Perceived physical and social features of neighborhood such as suitability for walking and jogging, air quality, and help from neighbors were to different degrees associated with physical inactivity. Gender, marital status, education and perceived social status were common factors associated with physical inactivity in East Asian countries. Perceived urban neighborhood quality is particularly important for Chinese people to stay physically active. Cultural-behavioral norms for physical activity associated with gender and social status call for more studies on cultural perspective for health behaviors in cross-cultural contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity during Leisure-Time and Commuting among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA has well-documented health benefits helping to prevent development of non-communicable diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity during leisure-time (LTPA and commuting (CPA among adult social assistance beneficiaries in Piotrkowski district. The studied sample consisted of 1817 respondents. Over 73% of the study population did not meet the recommended levels of LTPA. Fifty two % of the respondents had none leisure-time physical activity and 21.5% exercised occasionally. Main reasons for not taking up LTPA included: high general physical activity (36.4%, lack of time (28.1%, no willingness to exercise (25.4%. Close to 82% of the surveyed population did not practice commuting physical activity (CPA. The men had higher risk for inactivity during LTPA compared to the women (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11–1.65; p ≤ 0.05. Higher odds of CPA inactivity were associated with unemployment, moderate and heavy drinking and having a number of health problems. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the social assistance recipients is much higher than it is in the general population. Promotion of an active lifestyle should take into consideration substantial differences between the general population and disadvantaged individuals and their various needs.

  5. Analysis of Published Criteria for Clinically Inactive Disease in a Large Juvenile Dermatomyositis Cohort Shows That Skin Disease Is Underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Beverley; Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Arnold, Katie; Pilkington, Clarissa A; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Nistala, Kiran

    2015-09-01

    The Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO) recently published criteria for classification of patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) as having clinically inactive disease. The criteria require that at least 3 of 4 conditions be met, i.e., creatine kinase level ≤150 units/liter, Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale score ≥48, Manual Muscle Testing in 8 muscles score ≥78, and physician's global assessment of overall disease activity (PGA) ≤0.2. The present study was undertaken to test these criteria in a UK cohort of patients with juvenile DM. We assessed 1,114 patient visits for the 4 items in the PRINTO criteria for clinically inactive disease. Each visit was analyzed to determine whether skin disease was present. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) for juvenile DM was determined in 59 patients. At 307 of the 1,114 visits, clinically inactive disease was achieved based on the 3 muscle criteria (but with a PGA of >0.2); rash was present at 65.8% of these visits and nailfold capillary abnormalities at 35.2%. When PGA ≤0.2 was one of the 3 criteria that were met, the frequency of skin signs was significantly lower (rash in 23.1% and nailfold capillary abnormalities in 8.7%). If PGA was considered an essential criterion for clinically inactive disease (P-CID), patients with active skin disease were less likely to be categorized as having clinically inactive disease (a median DAS skin score of 0 [of a possible maximum of 9] in visits where the PGA was ≤0.2, versus a median DAS skin score of 4 in patients meeting the 3 muscle criteria [with a PGA of >0.2]; P < 0.001). Use of the P-CID led to improvements in the positive predictive value and the positive likelihood ratio (85.4% and 11.0, respectively, compared to 72.9% and 5.1 with the current criteria). There was a high frequency of skin disease among patients with juvenile DM who did not meet the PGA criterion for inactive disease but met the other 3 criteria. Incorporating PGA as

  6. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub

  7. Obesity, physical inactivity, and colonic diverticular disease requiring hospitalization in women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjern, Fredrik; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas

    2012-02-01

    Lifestyle factors other than dietary fiber intake and risk for colonic diverticular disease have only been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and physical inactivity and diverticular disease in a population-based cohort of women. This was a prospective population-based cohort study. In all, 36,592 women, born 1914-1948, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort were followed 1997-2009. Body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), physical activity, diet, smoking, and other lifestyle factors were collected at baseline through questionnaires. Cases of diverticular disease were identified from the Swedish Patient and Death Registers. Relative risks (RRs) of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (or being the cause of death) according to BMI and physical activity were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. The multivariable models were adjusted for age; intake of dietary fiber; diabetes; hypertension; use of acetylsalicylate acid, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, or steroid medication; alcohol consumption; smoking; and educational level. During 12 years, 626 cases of incident diverticular disease requiring hospitalization were found. Two women were registered in the National Death Register only. In multivariable analysis, women with BMI 25-29.99 had 29% increased risk (RR=1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.54) and obese women (BMI≥30) had 33% (1.33; 95% CI: 1.03-1.72) increased risk of diverticular disease compared to women with BMI 20-24.99. Exercise ≤30 min/day increased the risk for disease with 42% (1.42; 95% CI: 1.18-1.69) compared with exercise >30 min/day in multivariable analysis. Ninety-eight subjects were hospitalized due to complications; perforation or abscess. Women with BMI≥30 had a twofold (RR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.08-3.73; P=0.028) increased risk for complicated disease. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among women increase diverticular disease requiring

  8. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub.

  9. Southern high latitude dune fields on Mars: Morphology, aeolian inactivity, and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, L.K.; Hayward, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    In a study area spanning the martian surface poleward of 50?? S., 1190 dune fields have been identified, mapped, and categorized based on dune field morphology. Dune fields in the study area span ??? 116400km2, leading to a global dune field coverage estimate of ???904000km2, far less than that found on Earth. Based on distinct morphological features, the dune fields were grouped into six different classes that vary in interpreted aeolian activity level from potentially active to relatively inactive and eroding. The six dune field classes occur in specific latitude zones, with a sequence of reduced activity and degradation progressing poleward. In particular, the first signs of stabilization appear at ???60?? S., which broadly corresponds to the edge of high concentrations of water-equivalent hydrogen content (observed by the Neutron Spectrometer) that have been interpreted as ground ice. This near-surface ground ice likely acts to reduce sand availability in the present climate state on Mars, stabilizing high latitude dunes and allowing erosional processes to change their morphology. As a result, climatic changes in the content of near-surface ground ice are likely to influence the level of dune activity. Spatial variation of dune field classes with longitude is significant, suggesting that local conditions play a major role in determining dune field activity level. Dune fields on the south polar layered terrain, for example, appear either potentially active or inactive, indicating that at least two generations of dune building have occurred on this surface. Many dune fields show signs of degradation mixed with crisp-brinked dunes, also suggesting that more than one generation of dune building has occurred since they originally formed. Dune fields superposed on early and late Amazonian surfaces provide potential upper age limits of ???100My on the south polar layered deposits and ???3Ga elsewhere at high latitudes. No craters are present on any identifiable dune

  10. Rethinking exercise identity: a qualitative study of physically inactive cancer patients' transforming process while undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Christina; Lillelund, Christian; Bloomquist, Kira; Møller, Tom

    2017-08-23

    To explore physically inactive breast and colon cancer patients' prediagnosis exercise history and attitudes to physical activity (PA) and experiences in initiating PA while undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. An explorative qualitative study guided the interpretive analysis of semistructured, open-ended interviews conducted at initiation of chemotherapy and after 12 weeks. The study was embedded in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Participants were recruited from the Oncological Department at a hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. 33 patients with cancer, median age 49 years: 25 patients with breast cancer and 8 with colon cancer, 72% with a low cardiac respiratory fitness level and the majority with a high level of education. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, oncologist's PA recommendation and exercise, cancer nurse specialist's counselling prior to allocation to PA interventions or waitlist control group. Prediagnosis exercise had been excluded from patients' daily lives due to perceptions of exercise as boring, lack of discipline and stressful work conditions for both genders. Recommendations from oncologists and nurses inspired the patients to reconsider their attitudes and behaviour by accepting recruitment and participation in PA interventions during chemotherapy. Despite extensive side effects, most patients adhered to their PA commitment due to their perception of the bodily, emotional and social benefits and support of healthcare professionals, peers and family. The patients' attitude towards exercise transformed from having no priority in patients' daily lives prediagnosis to being highly prioritised. This study identified four important phases in the exercise transformation process during the patients' treatment trajectory of relevance to clinicians in identifying, motivating and supporting physically inactive patients with cancer at long-term risk. Clinicians should address young, highly educated patients with cancer at onset of adjuvant

  11. A dynamically coupled allosteric network underlies binding cooperativity in Src kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Zachariah H.; Shan, Yibing; Kim, Eric T.; Shaw, David E.; Seeliger, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases are attractive drug targets because many human diseases are associated with the deregulation of kinase activity. However, how the catalytic kinase domain integrates different signals and switches from an active to an inactive conformation remains incompletely understood. Here we identify an allosteric network of dynamically coupled amino acids in Src kinase that connects regulatory sites to the ATP- and substrate-binding sites. Surprisingly, reactants (ATP and peptide substrates) bind with negative cooperativity to Src kinase while products (ADP and phosphopeptide) bind with positive cooperativity. We confirm the molecular details of the signal relay through the allosteric network by biochemical studies. Experiments on two additional protein tyrosine kinases indicate that the allosteric network may be largely conserved among these enzymes. Our work provides new insights into the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases and establishes a potential conduit by which resistance mutations to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors can affect their activity.

  12. Cooperative Binding and Activation of Fibronectin by a Bacterial Surface Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjenberg, Zoe R.; Ellis, Ian R.; Hagan, Robert M.; Prabhakaran, Sabitha; Höök, Magnus; Talay, Susanne R.; Potts, Jennifer R.; Staunton, David; Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Integrin-dependent cell invasion of some pathogenic bacteria is mediated by surface proteins targeting the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN). Although the structural basis for bacterial FN recognition is well understood, it has been unclear why proteins such as streptococcal SfbI contain several FN-binding sites. We used microcalorimetry to reveal cooperative binding of FN fragments to arrays of binding sites in SfbI. In combination with thermodynamic analyses, functional cell-based assays show that SfbI induces conformational changes in the N-terminal 100-kDa region of FN (FN100kDa), most likely by competition with intramolecular interactions defining an inactive state of FN100kDa. This study provides insights into how long range conformational changes resulting in FN activation may be triggered by bacterial pathogens. PMID:21059652

  13. A dynamically coupled allosteric network underlies binding cooperativity in Src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Zachariah H; Shan, Yibing; Kim, Eric T; Shaw, David E; Seeliger, Markus A

    2015-01-20

    Protein tyrosine kinases are attractive drug targets because many human diseases are associated with the deregulation of kinase activity. However, how the catalytic kinase domain integrates different signals and switches from an active to an inactive conformation remains incompletely understood. Here we identify an allosteric network of dynamically coupled amino acids in Src kinase that connects regulatory sites to the ATP- and substrate-binding sites. Surprisingly, reactants (ATP and peptide substrates) bind with negative cooperativity to Src kinase while products (ADP and phosphopeptide) bind with positive cooperativity. We confirm the molecular details of the signal relay through the allosteric network by biochemical studies. Experiments on two additional protein tyrosine kinases indicate that the allosteric network may be largely conserved among these enzymes. Our work provides new insights into the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases and establishes a potential conduit by which resistance mutations to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors can affect their activity.

  14. Balance between hydration enthalpy and entropy is important for ice binding surfaces in Antifreeze Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauperl, Michael; Podewitz, Maren; Ortner, Teresa S; Waibl, Franz; Thoeny, Alexander; Loerting, Thomas; Liedl, Klaus R

    2017-09-19

    Antifreeze Proteins (AFPs) inhibit the growth of an ice crystal by binding to it. The detailed binding mechanism is, however, still not fully understood. We investigated three AFPs using Molecular Dynamics simulations in combination with Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory, exploring their hydration thermodynamics. The observed enthalpic and entropic differences between the ice-binding sites and the inactive surface reveal key properties essential for proteins in order to bind ice: While entropic contributions are similar for all sites, the enthalpic gain for all ice-binding sites is lower than for the rest of the protein surface. In contrast to most of the recently published studies, our analyses show that enthalpic interactions are as important as an ice-like pre-ordering. Based on these observations, we propose a new, thermodynamically more refined mechanism of the ice recognition process showing that the appropriate balance between entropy and enthalpy facilitates ice-binding of proteins. Especially, high enthalpic interactions between the protein surface and water can hinder the ice-binding activity.

  15. Glutaraldehyde pretreatment blocks temperature-induced high-affinity [3H] tryptamine binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serikyaku, S.; Ishitani, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of glutaraldehyde (and Azure A) on temperature-sensitive high-affinity [ 3 H] tryptamine binding was investigated in rat brain synaptic plasma membranes. In the 0.01-0.1 % concentration range, the glutaraldehyde pretreatment preferentially inhibited only the above-mentioned portion of the binding, whereas the posttreatment of this reagent had no effect. On the other hand, in cases of pretreatment or posttreatment, a concentration of glutaraldehyde as high as 0.1 % was inactive on the basal [ 3 H] ligand binding capacity of the membranes. Furthermore, it was revealed that the Scatchard plot of [ 3 H] tryptamine binding in membranes pretreated with glutaraldehyde conformed to a straight line, as did a similar plot of temperature-independent binding. And, it was interesting to find that the binding parameters (K/sub D/ and B/sub max/ values) of both samples corresponded closely to each other. On the contrary, in all concentrations, Azure A affected nonspecifically both the temperature-dependent and the independent [ 3 H] tryptamine binding to the same degree, regardless of whether or not there was pretreatment or posttreatment. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  16. Active over 45: a step-up jogging programme for inactive female hospital staff members aged 45+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschung Pfister, Pierrette; Niedermann, Karin; Sidelnikov, Eduard; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2013-10-01

    Inactive individuals face motivational obstacles for becoming and remaining physically active. Therefore, sustainable physical activity promotion programmes tailored to reach inactive individuals are needed. The aim of this study was to test the role of motivation and the effect and feasibility of a training programme. We enrolled physically inactive female hospital staff members aged 45 and older in an uncontrolled exercise trial. Follow-up assessments were at 3 and 12 months. The primary outcome was running distance (Cooper test). Secondary outcomes were level of physical activity (Freiburger Physical Activity Questionnaire) and body mass index. Out of 1249 female hospital staff, 275 classified themselves as inactive and 250 (91%) of them were interested in the exercise programme. Of these, 68 (27%; mean age 53.2 years) agreed to participate in our study and 47 (69%) completed the programme. Average running distance increased by 255.70 m [95% confidence interval (CI) 208.09-303.31] at 3-month follow-up with a sustained benefit at 12-month follow-up (194.02; 95% CI 143.75-244.47). Physical activity level increased by 1152.52 kcal week(-1) (95% CI 703.73-1601.32) at 3 months with a sustained benefit (1279.10 kcal week(-1), 95% CI 826.80-1731.40) after 12 months. Notably, baseline motivation to become physically active was not associated with change in physical performance or physical activity level during the programme. The 3-month step-up jogging programme is a feasible and effective exercise intervention for physically inactive, middle-aged female hospital staff members. The intervention leads to sustained benefits independently of motivation to become more physically active.

  17. Physical inactivity and associated factors in Iranian children and adolescents: the Weight Disorders Survey of the CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Djalalinia, Shirin; Sheidaei, Ali; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Safiri, Saeid; Asayesh, Hamid; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to assess the associated factors of physical inactivity among Iranian children and adolescents at national level. The second objective is to assess the relationship of physical inactivity with anthropometric measures. Methods: Along with a national surveillance program, this survey on weight disorders was conducted among a nationally-representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years. Students were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) was used to assess physical activity (PA). Using PAQ-A instrument, PA of past week categorized as; low PA level, that included those who scored between 1 to 1.9 on the PAQ-A instrument and high PA level that included participants with estimated scores between 2-5 PAQ-A. Results: Participants were 23183 school students (50.8% boys) with a mean age of 12.55 ± 3.3 years, without significant difference in terms of gender. Totally, 23.48% of participants (13.84% of boys and 33.42% of girls) were physically inactive. In multivariate logistic regression model, with increased age in children and adolescence, the odds of a physically inactivity increased (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07-1.10). The odds of prevalence of both obesity and underweight were high in children and adolescents with low PA. There was a decreasing trend in PA in higher school grades. Conclusion: We found a considerably high prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian children and adolescents, with higher rates among girls and older ages. However, we did not find correlation between PA and socioeconomic status (SES). Because of the positive relationship between PA and ST, future studies should consider the complex interaction of these two items. Multidisciplinary policies should be considered in increasing PA programs among children and adolescents.

  18. Assessment of active and inactive sacroiliitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis using quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengchao; Zhou, Le; Huang, Ning; Zeng, Hong; Liu, Songyan; Liu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to differentiate the active and inactive stage of sacroiliitis and the correlation between quantitative parameters and disease activity as measured by clinical scores. Forty-two patients with ankylosing spondylitis underwent DCE-MRI on a 3.0T MRI unit. According to the results of the blood sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the patients were grouped into inactive and active groups. Pharmacokinetic models were used to generate the semiquantitative and quantitative hemodynamic parameters of DCE-MRI. The between-group differences were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, and the correlations between the pharmacokinetic parameters and BASDAI score were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The efficacies of different parameters in differentiating the active and inactive phase of sacroiliitis were evaluated and compared using receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. K trans , K ep , V e , time to peak (TTP), max concentration (MAX Conc), and area under the curve (AUC) of the active group were significantly higher than those of the inactive stage group (P 0.05), except between AUC and MAX Conc (P = 0.0012). Quantitative DCE-MRI parameters can differentiate between active and inactive ankylosing spondylitis. Among those, K trans had the highest correlation coefficient with the BASDAI score. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:71-78. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Latest Quaternary rapid river incision across an inactive fold in the northern Chinese Tian Shan foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Honghua; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Tianqi; Lü, Yanwu; Zhao, Junxiang; Li, Youli; Zheng, Xiangmin

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the incision process over the Tuostai anticline, a fold of the proximal structure Belt I in the northern Chinese Tian Shan foreland, where the Sikeshu River has incised deeply into the alluvial gravels and the fold's underlying bedrock strata. Field investigation and geomorphic mapping define five terraces of the Sikeshu River (designated as T1 to T5 from oldest to youngest) preserved within the Tuostai anticline. 10Be surface exposure dating and optically stimulated luminescence dating constrain stabilization of the highest three terrace surfaces at about 80 ka (T1), 16 ka (T2), and 15 ka (T3), respectively. Around 16 ka, the calculated river incision rates significantly increase from 6 mm/yr. Undeformed longitudinal profiles of terraces T2, T3 and T4 over the Tuostai anticline suggest that this structure may have been tectonically inactive since stabilization of these three terraces. We thus think that the observed rapid river incision over the Tuostai anticline has not been largely forced by tectonic uplift. Instead, the progressively warmer and wetter palaeoclimatic condition within the Tian Shan range and its surrounding area during the period of ∼20-10 ka may have enhanced river incision across the Tuostai anticline. A reduced sediment/water ratio might have lowered the gradient of the Sikeshu River.

  20. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  1. Consequences, norms, and generalized inaction in moral dilemmas: The CNI model of moral decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Bertram; Armstrong, Joel; Conway, Paul; Friesdorf, Rebecca; Hütter, Mandy

    2017-09-01

    Research on moral dilemma judgments has been fundamentally shaped by the distinction between utilitarianism and deontology. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consequences; the principle of deontology states that the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, researchers have investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e.g., trolley problem). However, the conceptual meaning of responses in this paradigm is ambiguous, because the central aspects of utilitarianism and deontology-consequences and norms-are not manipulated. We illustrate how this shortcoming undermines theoretical interpretations of empirical findings and describe an alternative approach that resolves the ambiguities of the traditional paradigm. Expanding on this approach, we present a multinomial model that allows researchers to quantify sensitivity to consequences (C), sensitivity to moral norms (N), and general preference for inaction versus action irrespective of consequences and norms (I) in responses to moral dilemmas. We present 8 studies that used this model to investigate the effects of gender, cognitive load, question framing, and psychopathy on moral dilemma judgments. The findings obtained with the proposed CNI model offer more nuanced insights into the determinants of moral dilemma judgments, calling for a reassessment of dominant theoretical assumptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Description of radiological problems at inactive uranium mill sites and formerly utilized MED/AEC sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Dickson, H.W.

    1979-02-01

    During the early years of development of the nuclear program in the United States, more than a hundred sites were used by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), and/or its uranium suppliers. Many of these sites are no longer used for such activities, but in many cases, the real estate remains contaminated with radioactivity and can be a potential source of exposure to members of the general public. In addition, 22 inactive uranium mill tailings sites exist in the western part of the United States. Radioactive contamination conditions range from slight contamination on the surfaces of buildings and equipment to extensive contamination of the subsoil. The Department of Energy is conducting a program to assure that adequate precautions are taken in the management of these properties to provide the cost-effective protection of public health while permitting further use of land and other resources. Several issues which should be considered in the development of an effective policy for long-term management of such properties are identified.

  3. Prognostic signature and clonality pattern of recurrently mutated genes in inactive chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A M; Chen-Liang, T-H; Przychodzen, B; Hamedi, C; Muñoz-Ballester, J; Dienes, B; García-Malo, M D; Antón, A I; Arriba, F de; Teruel-Montoya, R; Ortuño, F J; Vicente, V; Maciejewski, J P; Jerez, A

    2015-01-01

    An increasing numbers of patients are being diagnosed with asymptomatic early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with no treatment indication at baseline. We applied a high-throughput deep-targeted analysis, especially designed for covering widely TP53 and ATM genes, in 180 patients with inactive disease at diagnosis, to test the independent prognostic value of CLL somatic recurrent mutations. We found that 40/180 patients harbored at least one acquired variant with ATM (n=17, 9.4%), NOTCH1 (n=14, 7.7%), TP53 (n=14, 7.7%) and SF3B1 (n=10, 5.5%) as most prevalent mutated genes. Harboring one ‘sub-Sanger' TP53 mutation granted an independent 3.5-fold increase of probability of needing treatment. Those patients with a double-hit ATM lesion (mutation+11q deletion) had the shorter median time to first treatment (17 months). We found that a genomic variable: TP53 mutations, most of them under the sensitivity of conventional techniques; a cell phenotypic factor: CD38-positive expression; and a classical marker as β2-microglobulin, remained as the unique independent predictors of outcome. The high-throughput determination of TP53 status, particularly in this set of patients frequently lacking high-risk chromosomal aberrations, emerges as a key step, not only for prediction modeling, but also for exploring mutation-specific therapeutic approaches and minimal residual disease monitoring

  4. Annual status report on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Assessments of inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States led to the designation of 25 processing sites for remedial action under the provisions of Section 102(a) Public Law 95-604. The Department of Energy assessed the potential health effects to the public from the residual radioactive materials on or near the 25 sites; and, with the advice of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary established priorities for performing remedial action. In designating the 25 sites and establishing the priorities for performing remedial action, the Department of Energy consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of the Interior, governors of the affected States, Navajo Nation, and appropriate property owners. Public participation in this process was encouraged. During Fiscal Year 1980, Department of Energy will be conducting surveys to verify the radiological characterization at the designated processing sites; developing cooperative agreements with the affected States; and initiating the appropriate National Environmental Policy Act documentation prior to conducting specific remedial actions.

  5. Description of radiological problems at inactive uranium mill sites and formerly utilized MED/AEC sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Dickson, H.W.

    1979-02-01

    During the early years of development of the nuclear program in the United States, more than a hundred sites were used by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), and/or its uranium suppliers. Many of these sites are no longer used for such activities, but in many cases, the real estate remains contaminated with radioactivity and can be a potential source of exposure to members of the general public. In addition, 22 inactive uranium mill tailings sites exist in the western part of the United States. Radioactive contamination conditions range from slight contamination on the surfaces of buildings and equipment to extensive contamination of the subsoil. The Department of Energy is conducting a program to assure that adequate precautions are taken in the management of these properties to provide the cost-effective protection of public health while permitting further use of land and other resources. Several issues which should be considered in the development of an effective policy for long-term management of such properties are identified

  6. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-12-01

    Results of a radiological survey that was conducted at the inactive uranium-mill site at Monument Valley, Arizona, in March 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented. Consideration of these data and of previously published information on radiological conditions at the site lead to the conclusion that potential health effects from exposure to radionuclides in the mill tailings are relatively small. The occupants of three residences within 0.8 km (0.5 mile) of the tailings constitute the principal population at risk, but direct gamma-exposure rate measurements near the two residences closest to the tailings and calculations of radon dispersion indicate that the tailings do not raise either pathway of radiation exposure significantly above the background level. Data are not available to evaluate fully other possible exposure pathways, but the available information indicates that it is unlikely that doses through these pathways will add significantly to the total population dose. The low estimates of potential health effects from exposure to direct radiation and to exposure to radionuclides in the Monument Valley tailings piles are ascribed to the low /sup 226/Ra inventory, to almost complete absence of small particles that are readily moved by wind and water, and to a small population in the vicinity of the tailings.

  7. Small molecule stabilization of the KSR inactive state antagonizes oncogenic Ras signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Neil S; Scopton, Alex P; Dar, Arvin C

    2016-09-01

    Deregulation of the Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a MAPK scaffold that is subject to allosteric regulation through dimerization with RAF. Direct targeting of KSR could have important therapeutic implications for cancer; however, testing this hypothesis has been difficult owing to a lack of small-molecule antagonists of KSR function. Guided by KSR mutations that selectively suppress oncogenic, but not wild-type, Ras signalling, we developed a class of compounds that stabilize a previously unrecognized inactive state of KSR. These compounds, exemplified by APS-2-79, modulate KSR-dependent MAPK signalling by antagonizing RAF heterodimerization as well as the conformational changes required for phosphorylation and activation of KSR-bound MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). Furthermore, APS-2-79 increased the potency of several MEK inhibitors specifically within Ras-mutant cell lines by antagonizing release of negative feedback signalling, demonstrating the potential of targeting KSR to improve the efficacy of current MAPK inhibitors. These results reveal conformational switching in KSR as a druggable regulator of oncogenic Ras, and further suggest co-targeting of enzymatic and scaffolding activities within Ras-MAPK signalling complexes as a therapeutic strategy for overcoming Ras-driven cancers.

  8. Outcome of pregnancy in patients with inactive systemic lupus erythromatosus and minimal proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshohaib Saad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease. This study was under-taken to assess the outcome of pregnancies in patients with inactive SLE. We prospectively studied 20 female patients with diagnosis of stable class IV Lupus nephritis followed up at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2008. Before each pregnancy all the patients had their blood pressure, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serology for SLE and 24-hour urine protein excretion measured and then repeated at monthly intervals during the pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Despite having negative antinuclear antibody (ANA significant complications were observed during pregnancy. The daily proteinuria during 34-36 weeks′ gestation was significantly higher (P< 0.05 than during 32 weeks. Two patients had abortions one stillbirth and 2 required termination of the pregnancy; one due to severe hypertension, and other due to renal impairment. One patient developed HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome. 14 patients had a successful preg-nancy, including 4 requiring a cesarian section. In conclusion, although no clinical evidence of lupus disease activity was demonstrated pre-conception proteinuria significantly increased during pregnancy along with maternal and fetal complications. Pregnant females with diagnosis of SLE need a multidisciplinary care during the pregnancy and post-partum period.

  9. Factors associated with leisure time physical inactivity in black individuals: hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. A number of studies have shown that the black population exhibits higher levels of leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI, but few have investigated the factors associated with this behavior.Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze associated factors and the explanatory model proposed for LTPI in black adults.Methods. The design was cross-sectional with a sample of 2,305 adults from 20–96 years of age, 902 (39.1% men, living in the city of Salvador, Brazil. LTPI was analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. A hierarchical model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPI, distributed in distal (age and sex, intermediate 1 (socioeconomic status, educational level and marital status, intermediate 2 (perception of safety/violence in the neighborhood, racial discrimination in private settings and physical activity at work and proximal blocks (smoking and participation in Carnival block rehearsals. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR using logistic regression.Results. The variables inversely associated with LTPI were male gender, socioeconomic status and secondary/university education, although the proposed model explains only 4.2% of LTPI.Conclusions. We conclude that male gender, higher education and socioeconomic status can reduce LTPI in black adults.

  10. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970's and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D ampersand RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program

  11. Alternative Path Communication in Wide-Scale Cluster-Tree Wireless Sensor Networks Using Inactive Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Erico; Montez, Carlos; Moraes, Ricardo; Portugal, Paulo; Vasques, Francisco

    2017-05-06

    The IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee cluster-tree topology is a suitable technology to deploy wide-scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). These networks are usually designed to support convergecast traffic, where all communication paths go through the PAN (Personal Area Network) coordinator. Nevertheless, peer-to-peer communication relationships may be also required for different types of WSN applications. That is the typical case of sensor and actuator networks, where local control loops must be closed using a reduced number of communication hops. The use of communication schemes optimised just for the support of convergecast traffic may result in higher network congestion and in a potentially higher number of communication hops. Within this context, this paper proposes an Alternative-Route Definition (ARounD) communication scheme for WSNs. The underlying idea of ARounD is to setup alternative communication paths between specific source and destination nodes, avoiding congested cluster-tree paths. These alternative paths consider shorter inter-cluster paths, using a set of intermediate nodes to relay messages during their inactive periods in the cluster-tree network. Simulation results show that the ARounD communication scheme can significantly decrease the end-to-end communication delay, when compared to the use of standard cluster-tree communication schemes. Moreover, the ARounD communication scheme is able to reduce the network congestion around the PAN coordinator, enabling the reduction of the number of message drops due to queue overflows in the cluster-tree network.

  12. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258 completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction.

  13. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The inactive uranium-mill tailings pile at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, contains approximately 1520 Ci of 226 Ra in 2.4 million metric tons of tailings covering an area of 43 hectares. All of the former mill buildings were intact and, at the time of this survey, several were in use. The tailings have not been stabilized, but the crusty surface is reported to be resistant to wind erosion. The average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the tailings is 720 μR/h while the average rate in the former mill area is 150 μR/h. The adjacent area, between the mill site, ponds, and tailings pile, has an average exposure rate of 230 μR/h. Gamma radiation measurements outside these areas, as well as the results of analyses of surface or near-surface sediment and soil samples, show fairly wide dispersion of contamination around the site. The subsurface distribution of 226 Ra in 18 holes drilled at the site, calculated from gamma-ray monitoring data, is presented graphically and compared with measured concentrations in two holes

  14. Physical inactivity: a risk factor and target for intervention in renal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Dorien M; Klaassen, Gerald; van Adrichem, Edwin; Bakker, Stephan J L; Corpeleijn, Eva; Navis, Gerjan

    2017-03-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with an increased quality of life and reduced morbidity and mortality in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscle mass decrease even in the early stages of CKD, and continue to decrease with disease progression; notably, full recovery is generally not achieved with transplantation. The combined effects of uraemia and physical inactivity drive the loss of muscle mass. Regular physical activity benefits cardiometabolic, neuromuscular and cognitive function across all stages of CKD, and therefore provides an approach to address the multimorbidity of the CKD population. Interestingly, maintenance of muscle health is associated with renoprotective effects. Despite evidence of its benefits, physical activity and exercise management are not routinely addressed in the care of these patients. Although studies defining the optimum frequency, duration and intensity of physical activity are lacking, evidence from related fields can guide practical approaches to the care of patients with renal disease. Optimization of metabolic and nutritional status alongside promotion of physical activity is recommended. Behavioural approaches are now recognized as crucial in helping patients to adopt lifestyle changes and might prove valuable in integrating physical activity into renal care.

  15. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  16. Factors associated with leisure time physical inactivity in black individuals: hierarchical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Lessa, Ines; Barbosa, Paulo José B; Barbosa, Simone Janete O; Costa, Maria Cecília; Lopes, Adair da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Background. A number of studies have shown that the black population exhibits higher levels of leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI), but few have investigated the factors associated with this behavior. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze associated factors and the explanatory model proposed for LTPI in black adults. Methods. The design was cross-sectional with a sample of 2,305 adults from 20-96 years of age, 902 (39.1%) men, living in the city of Salvador, Brazil. LTPI was analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A hierarchical model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPI, distributed in distal (age and sex), intermediate 1 (socioeconomic status, educational level and marital status), intermediate 2 (perception of safety/violence in the neighborhood, racial discrimination in private settings and physical activity at work) and proximal blocks (smoking and participation in Carnival block rehearsals). We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) using logistic regression. Results. The variables inversely associated with LTPI were male gender, socioeconomic status and secondary/university education, although the proposed model explains only 4.2% of LTPI. Conclusions. We conclude that male gender, higher education and socioeconomic status can reduce LTPI in black adults.

  17. Decision-tree approach to evaluating inactive uranium-processing sites for liner requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.

    1983-03-01

    Recently, concern has been expressed about potential toxic effects of both radon emission and release of toxic elements in leachate from inactive uranium mill tailings piles. Remedial action may be required to meet disposal standards set by the states and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In some cases, a possible disposal option is the exhumation and reburial (either on site or at a new location) of tailings and reliance on engineered barriers to satisfy the objectives established for remedial actions. Liners under disposal pits are the major engineered barrier for preventing contaminant release to ground and surface water. The purpose of this report is to provide a logical sequence of action, in the form of a decision tree, which could be followed to show whether a selected tailings disposal design meets the objectives for subsurface contaminant release without a liner. This information can be used to determine the need and type of liner for sites exhibiting a potential groundwater problem. The decision tree is based on the capability of hydrologic and mass transport models to predict the movement of water and contaminants with time. The types of modeling capabilities and data needed for those models are described, and the steps required to predict water and contaminant movement are discussed. A demonstration of the decision tree procedure is given to aid the reader in evaluating the need for the adequacy of a liner

  18. Violence against children in South Africa: the cost of inaction to society and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Celia; Fry, Deborah; Ward, Catherine L; Ganz, Gary; Casey, Tabitha; Zheng, Xiaodong; Fang, Xiangming

    2018-01-01

    Despite the extent and magnitude of violence against children in South Africa, political and financial investments to prevent violence against children remain low. A recent costing study investigating the social burden and economic impact of violence against children in South Africa found notable reductions to mental and physical health outcomes in the population if children were prevented from experiencing violence, neglect and witnessing family violence. The results showed, among others, that drug abuse in the entire population could be reduced by up to 14% if sexual violence against children could be prevented, self-harm could be reduced by 23% in the population if children did not experience physical violence, anxiety could be reduced by 10% if children were not emotionally abused, alcohol abuse could be reduced by 14% in women if they did not experience neglect as children, and lastly, interpersonal violence in the population could be reduced by 16% if children did not witness family violence. The study further estimated that the cost of inaction in 2015 amounted to nearly 5% of the country's gross domestic product. These findings show that preventing children from experiencing and witnessing violence can help to strengthen the health of a nation by ensuring children reach their full potential and drive the country's economy and growth. The paper further discusses ways in which preventing and ending violence against children may be prioritised in South Africa through, for instance, intersectoral collaboration and improving routine monitoring data, such as through the sustainable development goals.

  19. Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: health effects and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Michele; Sassi, Franco; Lauer, Jeremy A; Lee, Yong Y; Guajardo-Barron, Veronica; Chisholm, Daniel

    2010-11-20

    The obesity epidemic is spreading to low-income and middle-income countries as a result of new dietary habits and sedentary ways of life, fuelling chronic diseases and premature mortality. In this report we present an assessment of public health strategies designed to tackle behavioural risk factors for chronic diseases that are closely linked with obesity, including aspects of diet and physical inactivity, in Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. England was included for comparative purposes. Several population-based prevention policies can be expected to generate substantial health gains while entirely or largely paying for themselves through future reductions of health-care expenditures. These strategies include health information and communication strategies that improve population awareness about the benefits of healthy eating and physical activity; fiscal measures that increase the price of unhealthy food content or reduce the cost of healthy foods rich in fibre; and regulatory measures that improve nutritional information or restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods to children. A package of measures for the prevention of chronic diseases would deliver substantial health gains, with a very favourable cost-effectiveness profile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Burden, J.E.; Ellis, B.S.; Loy, E.T.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The results of the radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Lakeview, Oregon, show that the average gamma-ray exposure rate 1 m above the tailings pile and the evaporation pond area (now dry) is close to the average background level for the area (11 μR/hr). The 226 Ra concentration in most of the surface soil and sediment samples is also at or below the average background value for surface soil samples in the area (0.8 pCi/g). Calculated 226 Ra concentrations, based on gamma radiation measurements in shallow (1-m-deep) holes, are in agreement with the results of surface soil and sediment analyses and with gamma-ray exposure rate measurements. The tailings at this site have been stabilized by the addition of 46 to 60 cm (18 to 24 in.) of soil that supports vigorous growth of vegetation. This treatment, coupled with a low-level inventory of 226 Ra in the tailings (50 Ci), has resulted in limited spread of tailings by wind and water

  1. Low-Intensity Wheelchair Training in Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Fitness, Wheelchair Skill Performance and Physical Activity Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Tepper, M.; Faber, W.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Inactive manual wheelchair

  2. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Veeger, DirkJan H.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Inactive manual wheelchair

  3. Antidiabetic Bis-Maltolato-OxoVanadium(IV): Conversion of inactive trans- to bioactive cis-BMOV for possible binding to target PTP-1B

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Scior; Hans-Georg Mack; José Antonio Guevara García; Wolfhard Koch

    2008-01-01

    Thomas Scior1, Hans-Georg Mack2, José Antonio Guevara García3, Wolfhard Koch41Departamento de Farmacia. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Colonia San Manuel, Puebla, Mexico; 2Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; 3Laboratorio de Investigación en Bioinorgánica y Biorremediación (LIByB). Departam...

  4. Substitution of aspartic acid-686 by histidine or asparagine in the human androgen receptor leads to a functionally inactive protein with altered hormone-binding characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ris-Stalpers, C.; Trifiro, M. A.; Kuiper, G. G.; Jenster, G.; Romalo, G.; Sai, T.; van Rooij, H. C.; Kaufman, M.; Rosenfield, R. L.; Liao, S.

    1991-01-01

    We have identified two different single nucleotide alterations in codon 686 (GAC; aspartic acid) in exon 4 of the human androgen receptor gene in three unrelated families with the complete form of androgen insensitivity. One mutation (G----C) results in an aspartic acid----histidine substitution

  5. Changing educational inequalities in sporting inactivity among adults in Germany: a trend study from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Jens; Finger, Jonas D; Kuntz, Benjamin; Kroll, Lars E; Manz, Kristin; Lange, Cornelia; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-06-06

    Social inequalities in health can be explained in part by the social patterning of leisure-time physical activity, such as non-participation in sports. This study is the first to explore whether absolute and relative educational inequalities in sporting inactivity among adults have changed in Germany since the early 2000s. Data from four cross-sectional national health surveys conducted in 2003 (n = 6890), 2009 (n = 16,418), 2010 (n = 17,145) and 2012 (n = 13,744) were analysed. The study population was aged 25-69 years in each survey. Sporting inactivity was defined as no sports participation during the preceding 3 months. The regression-based Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated to estimate the extent of absolute and relative educational inequalities in sporting inactivity, respectively. Sporting inactivity was consistently more prevalent in less-educated groups. The overall prevalence of sporting inactivity declined significantly over time. However, the decline was observed only in the high and medium education groups, while no change was observed in the low education group. Both absolute and relative educational inequalities in sporting inactivity were found to have widened significantly between 2003 (SII = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.25-0.35; RII = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.83-2.38) and 2012 (SII = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.37-0.45; RII = 3.44, 95% CI = 3.03-3.91). Interaction analysis showed that these increases in inequalities were larger in the younger population under the age of 50 than among the elderly. The findings suggest that the gap in sports participation between adults with high and low educational attainment has widened in both absolute and relative terms because of an increase in sports participation among the better educated. Health-enhancing physical activity interventions specifically targeted to less-educated younger adults are needed to prevent future increases in social inequalities in health.

  6. Megalin binds and mediates cellular internalization of folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Zhai, Xiaoyue; Holm, Jan

    2005-01-01

    to express high levels of megalin, is inhibitable by excess unlabeled FBP and by receptor associated protein, a known inhibitor of binding to megalin. Immortalized rat yolk sac cells, representing an established model for studying megalin-mediated uptake, reveal (125)I-labeled FBP uptake which is inhibited...... to bind and mediate cellular uptake of FBP. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows binding of bovine and human milk FBP to immobilized megalin, but not to low density lipoprotein receptor related protein. Binding of (125)I-labeled folate binding protein (FBP) to sections of kidney proximal tubule, known...

  7. Binding matrix: a novel approach for binding site recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jan T; Gewehr, Jan E; Martinetz, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    Recognition of protein-DNA binding sites in genomic sequences is a crucial step for discovering biological functions of genomic sequences. Explosive growth in availability of sequence information has resulted in a demand for binding site detection methods with high specificity. The motivation of the work presented here is to address this demand by a systematic approach based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation. A general framework is developed in which a large class of binding site detection methods can be described in a uniform and consistent way. Protein-DNA binding is determined by binding energy, which is an approximately linear function within the space of sequence words. All matrix based binding word detectors can be regarded as different linear classifiers which attempt to estimate the linear separation implied by the binding energy function. The standard approaches of consensus sequences and profile matrices are described using this framework. A maximum likelihood approach for determining this linear separation leads to a novel matrix type, called the binding matrix. The binding matrix is the most specific matrix based classifier which is consistent with the input set of known binding words. It achieves significant improvements in specificity compared to other matrices. This is demonstrated using 95 sets of experimentally determined binding words provided by the TRANSFAC database.

  8. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Chantale; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Mac Habée-Séguin, Gabrielle

    2014-05-14

    Pelvic floor muscle training is the most commonly used physical therapy treatment for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). It is sometimes also recommended for mixed and, less commonly, urgency urinary incontinence. To determine the effects of pelvic floor muscle training for women with urinary incontinence in comparison to no treatment, placebo or sham treatments, or other inactive control treatments. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1999 onwards), MEDLINE (1966 onwards) and MEDLINE In-Process (2001 onwards), and handsearched journals and conference proceedings (searched 15 April 2013) and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials in women with stress, urgency or mixed urinary incontinence (based on symptoms, signs, or urodynamics). One arm of the trial included pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Another arm was a no treatment, placebo, sham, or other inactive control treatment arm. Trials were independently assessed by two review authors for eligibility and methodological quality. Data were extracted then cross-checked. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Data were processed as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Trials were subgrouped by diagnosis of urinary incontinence. Formal meta-analysis was undertaken when appropriate. Twenty-one trials involving 1281 women (665 PFMT, 616 controls) met the inclusion criteria; 18 trials (1051 women) contributed data to the forest plots. The trials were generally small to moderate sized, and many were at moderate risk of bias, based on the trial reports. There was considerable variation in the interventions used, study populations, and outcome measures. There were no studies of women with mixed or urgency urinary incontinence alone.Women with SUI who were in the PFMT groups were 8 times more likely

  9. Investigating structural changes induced by nucleotide binding to RecA using difference FTIR.

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Blaine C; Hanchett, Ross H; Rafailov, Helena; MacDonald, Gina

    2002-01-01

    Nucleotide binding to RecA results in either the high-DNA affinity form (Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-bound) or the more inactive protein conformation associated with a lower affinity for DNA (Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-bound). Many of the key structural differences between the RecA-ATP and RecA-ADP bound forms have yet to be elucidated. We have used caged-nucleotides and difference FTIR in efforts to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the molecular changes induced by nucleotide b...

  10. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings. Vitro site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    This report is a summary of a parent report (issued under separate cover) entitled Engineering Assessment of Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings for Vitro Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Vitro site in order to revise the April 1976 assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Salt Lake City, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Vitro site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option 1), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $36,400,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $91,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 85 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Vitro tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $130/lb by conventional plant processes. Spot market price for uranium was $28.00 in November 1980. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears to be economically unattractive at present.

  11. Employment status and health: understanding the health of the economically inactive population in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Judith

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the association between health and unemployment has been well examined, less attention has been paid to the health of the economically inactive (EI population. Scotland has one of the worst health records compared to any Western European country and the EI population account for 23% of the working age population. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the health outcomes and behaviours of the employed, unemployed and the EI populations (further subdivided into the permanently sick, looking after home and family [LAHF] and others in Scotland. Methods Using data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey, the differences in health and health behaviours among the employed, unemployed and the subgroups of the EI population were examined. Results Both low educational attainment and residence in a deprived community were more likely in the permanently sick group. The LAHF and the unemployed showed worse self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness compared to the employed but no significant differences were observed between these groups. The permanently sick group had significantly poorer health outcomes than all the other economic groups. Similar to the unemployed and LAHF they are more likely to smoke than the employed but less likely (along with LAHF and ‘others’ to exhibit heavy alcohol consumption. Interestingly, the LAHF showed better mental health than the rest of the EI group, but a similar mental health status to the unemployed. On the physical health element of lung function, the LAHF were no worse than the employed. Conclusion While on-going health promotion and vocational rehabilitation efforts need to be directed towards all, our data suggests that the EI group is at higher risk and policies and strategies directed at this group may need particular attention.

  12. The effect of exercise intensity on endothelial function in physically inactive lean and obese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Hallmark

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of exercise intensity on acute changes in endothelial function in lean and obese adults.Sixteen lean (BMI 30, age 26 ± 6 yr physically inactive adults were studied during 3 randomized admissions [control (C, no exercise, moderate-intensity exercise (M, @ lactate threshold (LT and high-intensity exercise (H, midway between LT and VO2peak (30 min]. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 h post-exercise.RM ANCOVA revealed significant main effects for group, time, and group x condition interaction (p<0.05. A diurnal increase in FMD was observed in lean but not obese subjects. Lean subjects exhibited greater increases in FMD than obese subjects (p = 0.0005. In the obese group a trend was observed for increases in FMD at 2- and 4-hr after M (p = 0.08. For lean subjects, FMD was significantly elevated at all time points after H. The increase in FMD after H in lean subjects (3.2 ± 0.5% was greater than after both C (1.7 ± 0.4%, p = 0.015 and M (1.4 ± 0.4%, p = 0.002. FMD responses of lean and obese subjects significantly differed after C and H, but not after M.In lean young adults, high-intensity exercise acutely enhances endothelial function, while moderate-intensity exercise has no significant effect above that seen in the absence of exercise. The FMD response of obese adults is blunted compared to lean adults. Diurnal variation should be considered when examining the effects of acute exercise on FMD.

  13. Physical activity and inactivity in primary and secondary school boys' and girls' daily program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Hubáčková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children's and youth education is becoming more and more demanding. In conjunction with development of information technology, this fact negatively affects lifestyle of children and youth. Apart from families, schools should play a crucial role in healthy lifestyle promotion in children and youth. Objective: The present study aimed to assess differences in physical activity (PA and physical inactivity (PI among primary and secondary school boys and girls in specific segments of a school day. Methods: The research was conducted between 2010 and 2014 at 15 secondary schools (SS and 9 primary schools (PS in the Silesia-Katowice region in Poland. In total, 86 boys and 71 girls at PS and 125 boys and 113 girls at SS took part in the research. We recorded 587 school days, in total. The ActiTrainer accelerometer was used for PA and PI monitoring. Results: PS boys and girls were more physically active than SS boys and girls. Before school, we observed SS boys to have higher energy expenditure than PS boys (p < .001 and also than SS girls (p < .001. During the school time, 73% of PS boys (40% at SS and 58% of PS girls (42% at SS met the recommendation of 500 steps/hour. Within the entire school day monitoring, 44% of PS boys (29% at SS and 41% of PS girls (34% at SS met the recommended 11,000 steps/day. Conclusions: The results of our study confirmed the facts that PS boys and girls are more physically active than SS boys and girls and, furthermore, that boys are more physically active than girls at both types of schools.

  14. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.; Stansfield, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either /sup 90/Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites.

  15. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either 90 Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites

  16. Electrically-inactive phosphorus re-distribution during low temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Ana; Youssef, Amanda; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Akey, Austin; Peters, Ian Marius; Hahn, Giso; Buonassisi, Tonio; del Cañizo, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    An increased total dose of phosphorus (P dose) in the first 40 nm of a phosphorus diffused emitter has been measured after Low Temperature Annealing (LTA) at 700 °C using the Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry technique. This evidence has been observed in three versions of the same emitter containing different amounts of initial phosphorus. A stepwise chemical etching of a diffused phosphorus emitter has been carried out to prepare the three types of samples. The total P dose in the first 40 nm increases during annealing by 1.4 × 1015 cm-2 for the sample with the highly doped emitter, by 0.8 × 1015 cm-2 in the middle-doped emitter, and by 0.5 × 1015 cm-2 in the lowest-doped emitter. The presence of surface dislocations in the first few nanometers of the phosphorus emitter might play a role as preferential sites of local phosphorus gettering in phosphorus re-distribution, because the phosphorus gettering to the first 40 nm is lower when this region is etched stepwise. This total increase in phosphorus takes place even though the calculated electrically active phosphorus concentration shows a reduction, and the measured sheet resistance shows an increase after annealing at a low temperature. The reduced electrically active P dose is around 0.6 × 1015 cm-2 for all the emitters. This can be explained with phosphorus-atoms diffusing towards the surface during annealing, occupying electrically inactive configurations. An atomic-scale visual local analysis is carried out with needle-shaped samples of tens of nm in diameter containing a region of the highly doped emitter before and after LTA using Atom Probe Tomography, showing phosphorus precipitates of 10 nm and less before annealing and an increased density of larger precipitates after annealing (25 nm and less).

  17. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  18. [Obesity, physical activity and inactivity among adolescents in Morelos, Mexico: a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Claudia; Hernández, Bernardo; Moreno, Hortensia; Hernández-Girón, Carlos; Campero, Lourdes; Cruz, Aurelio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence has increased in Mexico. This increase can be explained partly by a decrease in physical activity. The objective of this study was to assess the association between the prevalence of obesity and overweight with physical activity and inactivity among Mexican adolescents. We analyzed data from a longitudinal study with baseline and follow-up measures in 446 adolescents 12 to 17 years old, attending public schools in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. We collected information on weight, physical activity and demographic characteristics. Obesity and overweight were determined using as indicador the body mass index, and the cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The baseline prevalence of obesity or overweight was 37.22% (42.99% for males and 30.95% for females), and in the final measure 34.30% (38.46% for males and 32.28% for females). The median time of TV viewing was 3.90 h/d, with 0.73 h/d dedicated to vigorous physical activity and 0.58 h/d to moderate physical activity. Using logistic regression, after adjustment for obesity in the baseline measure, sex and clustering by school, we found no significant associations between the prevalence of obesity or overweight with time dedicated to TV viewing, vigorous or moderate physical activity. However, when conducting the analysis with an interaction term by sex, we found significantly lower risk of obesity or overweight associated with an increase in vigorous physical activity among males only (beta = 0.22, 95% CI (0.05, 0.89). Results suggest that vigorous physical activity may reduce the risk of obesity or overweight among male adolescents.

  19. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings. Vitro site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This report is a summary of a parent report (issued under separate cover) entitled Engineering Assessment of Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings for Vitro Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Vitro site in order to revise the April 1976 assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Salt Lake City, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Vitro site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option 1), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $36,400,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $91,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 85 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Vitro tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $130/lb by conventional plant processes. Spot market price for uranium was $28.00 in November 1980. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears to be economically unattractive at present

  20. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Mair

    Full Text Available Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14 and middle-aged (n = 14 females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1 and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm. Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool.

  1. Reliability of smartphone-based gait measurements for quantification of physical activity/inactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, Takeshi; Azuma, Ryohei; Shoji, Naoto; Matsukawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kurihara, Takahiro; Yamada, Shota

    2017-11-25

    Objective measurements using built-in smartphone sensors that can measure physical activity/inactivity in daily working life have the potential to provide a new approach to assessing workers' health effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics and reliability of built-in step counting sensors on smartphones for development of an easy-to-use objective measurement tool that can be applied in ergonomics or epidemiological research. To evaluate the reliability of step counting sensors embedded in seven major smartphone models, the 6-minute walk test was conducted and the following analyses of sensor precision and accuracy were performed: 1) relationship between actual step count and step count detected by sensors, 2) reliability between smartphones of the same model, and 3) false detection rates when sitting during office work, while riding the subway, and driving. On five of the seven models, the inter-class correlations coefficient (ICC (3,1) ) showed high reliability with a range of 0.956-0.993. The other two models, however, had ranges of 0.443-0.504 and the relative error ratios of the sensor-detected step count to the actual step count were ±48.7%-49.4%. The level of agreement between the same models was ICC (3,1) : 0.992-0.998. The false detection rates differed between the sitting conditions. These results suggest the need for appropriate regulation of step counts measured by sensors, through means such as correction or calibration with a predictive model formula, in order to obtain the highly reliable measurement results that are sought in scientific investigation.

  2. Fitness, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Symptoms of Depression, and Cognition in Inactive Overweight Children: Mediation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika M K; Montoya, Amanda K; Drescher, Christopher F; Newberry, Andrew; Sultan, Zain; Williams, Celestine F; Pollock, Norman K; Davis, Catherine L

    We used mediation models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationships among physical fitness, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), symptoms of depression, and cognitive functioning. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the cohorts involved in the 2003-2006 project PLAY (a trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on health and cognition) and the 2008-2011 SMART study (a trial of the effects of exercise on cognition). A total of 397 inactive overweight children aged 7-11 received a fitness test, standardized cognitive test (Cognitive Assessment System, yielding Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, and Full Scale scores), and depression questionnaire. Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. We used bootstrapped mediation analyses to test whether SDB mediated the relationship between fitness and depression and whether SDB and depression mediated the relationship between fitness and cognition. Fitness was negatively associated with depression ( B = -0.041; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02) and SDB ( B = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.001). SDB was positively associated with depression ( B = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.67) after controlling for fitness. The relationship between fitness and depression was mediated by SDB (indirect effect = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.0004). The relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition was independently mediated by SDB (indirect effect = 0.058; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.13) and depression (indirect effect = -0.071; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.17). SDB mediates the relationship between fitness and depression, and SDB and depression separately mediate the relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition.

  3. An initial report of sleep disturbance in inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie; Stepanski, Edward J; Ranjbaran, Ziba; Benson, Laura M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2006-10-15

    There is an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, peptic ulcer disease, and colon cancer in night-shiftworkers, whose sleep is commonly disrupted. Sleep complaints are an extrapyramidal symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Sleep disruption may contribute to increased medical morbidity by weakening the ability of the immune system to protect against endotoxins-this pathway could be of potential importance to the pathogenesis and/or clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic immunoinflammatory gastrointestinal disorder associated with marked reductions in quality of life. This is the first study to comprehensively examine sleep concerns in patients with IBD. Sixteen patients with biopsy-proven inactive IBD (8 with Crohn disease and 8 with ulcerative colitis), 9 patients with IBS, and 7 healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, SF-12, and a single overnight polysomnogram. Polysomnography and arousals were scored according to standard criteria. Multivariate analyses were used to compare subjective and objective sleep parameters between groups and to identify associations between sleep complaints and quality of life. Patients with IBD did not seem to significantly differ from patients with IBS, who have established sleep complaints. On polysomnography, total sleep time differentiated the 3 groups well, with the IBS and IBD groups appearing numerically similar. Whereas IBS and IBD groups were similar with respect to observed sleep parameters, IBS patients did report the most concerns, consistent with earlier research suggesting that hyperarousal and perceptual differences may contribute to symptom reporting. Sleep parameters greatly influenced quality of life in both groups and highlight the need to address sleep concerns as part of IBD management.

  4. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B

    2017-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactive...... middle-aged women were separated into a soccer training group (n=19; SOC) and a control group (n=12; CON). SOC performed 128±29 (±SD) one-h small-sided soccer training sessions over one year. Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post.......2±0.2 mmol·L-1 ) and HDL cholesterol increased more (0.2±0.7 vs -0.2±0.2 mmol·L-1 ) in SOC than in CON (Ptraining resulted...

  5. Oil the possible relationship between the Matsushiro earthquake swarm and the inactivity of Asama-yama Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HÉDERVÀRI

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available During the famous Matsushiro earthquake swarm more t h a n 700 000 (volcanic earthquakes were observed. At (he same time remarkable contortion of the ground also took place together with other strange geophysical phenomena. In the course of these events, volcano Asama-yama (one of the most active volcanoes of the world showed a perfect inactivity. This volcano is situated at a distance of about 30 km measured from Matsushiro, that is very near the site of the events. In the paper a causal relationship is suggested between the geophysical phenomena at .Matsushiro and the inactivity of Asama-yama. Two alternative possibilites are t r e a t e d briefly. The hypothetical character of these ideas is strongly emphasized by the author, however both possibilities appear to be physically real and can explain all the important geophysical events observed on the spot.

  6. Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Rossier, Jérôme; Preisig, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

  7. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    usual clinical care. Frequency of physical exercise (>= 30 minutes with at least some shortness of breath, sweating) is queried with 4 response options: >= 3 times weekly, 1-2 times weekly, 1-2 times monthly, and no exercise. Results. Between January 2005 and April 2007, a total of 5,235 patients from...... 58 sites in 21 countries were enrolled in QUEST-RA: 79% were women, >90% were white, mean age was 57 years, and mean disease duration was 11.6 years. Only 13.8% of all patients reported physical exercise >= 3 times weekly. The majority of the patients were physically inactive with no regular weekly...... exercise: >80% in 7 countries, 60-80% in 12 countries, and 45% and 29% in 2 countries, respectively. Physical inactivity was associated with female sex, older age, lower education, obesity, comorbidity, low functional capacity, and higher levels of disease activity, pain, and fatigue. Conclusion. In many...

  8. Evaluation of the topoisomerase II-inactive bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-161 as a protectant against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, E.; Thougaard, A.V.; Grauslund, M.

    2009-01-01

    Anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy is a major problem in anti-cancer therapy. The only approved agent for alleviating this serious dose limiting side effect is ICRF-187 (dexrazoxane). The current thinking is that the ring-opened hydrolysis product of this agent, ADR-925, which is formed inside...... of topoisomerase II, resulting in the risk of additional myelosuppression in patients receiving ICRF-187 as a cardioprotectant in combination with doxorubicin. The development of a topoisomerase II-inactive iron chelating compound thus appeared attractive. In the present paper we evaluate the topoisomerase II......-inactive 3 carbon linker bisdioxopiperazine analog ICRF-161 as a cardioprotectant. We demonstrate that this compound does chelate iron and protects against doxorubicin-induced LDH release from primary rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, similarly to ICRF-187. The compound does not target topoisomerase II in vitro...

  9. Molecular Determinants Underlying Binding Specificities of the ABL Kinase Inhibitors: Combining Alanine Scanning of Binding Hot Spots with Network Analysis of Residue Interactions and Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Amanda; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying binding specificity and drug resistance of protein kinase inhibitors is of fundamental importance and remains highly challenging due to complex interplay of structural and thermodynamic factors. In this work, molecular simulations and computational alanine scanning are combined with the network-based approaches to characterize molecular determinants underlying binding specificities of the ABL kinase inhibitors. The proposed theoretical framework unveiled a relationship between ligand binding and inhibitor-mediated changes in the residue interaction networks. By using topological parameters, we have described the organization of the residue interaction networks and networks of coevolving residues in the ABL kinase structures. This analysis has shown that functionally critical regulatory residues can simultaneously embody strong coevolutionary signal and high network centrality with a propensity to be energetic hot spots for drug binding. We have found that selective (Nilotinib) and promiscuous (Bosutinib, Dasatinib) kinase inhibitors can use their energetic hot spots to differentially modulate stability of the residue interaction networks, thus inhibiting or promoting conformational equilibrium between inactive and active states. According to our results, Nilotinib binding may induce a significant network-bridging effect and enhance centrality of the hot spot residues that stabilize structural environment favored by the specific kinase form. In contrast, Bosutinib and Dasatinib can incur modest changes in the residue interaction network in which ligand binding is primarily coupled only with the identity of the gate-keeper residue. These factors may promote structural adaptability of the active kinase states in binding with these promiscuous inhibitors. Our results have related ligand-induced changes in the residue interaction networks with drug resistance effects, showing that network robustness may be compromised by targeted mutations of key mediating

  10. Arsenic Directly Binds to and Activates the Yeast AP-1-Like Transcription Factor Yap8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nallani Vijay; Yang, Jianbo; Pillai, Jitesh K.; Rawat, Swati; Solano, Carlos; Kumar, Abhay; Grøtli, Morten; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosen, Barry P.; Tamás, Markus J.

    2015-12-28

    The AP-1-like transcription factor Yap8 is critical for arsenic tolerance in the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the mechanism by which Yap8 senses the presence of arsenic and activates transcription of detoxification genes is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Yap8 directly binds to trivalent arsenite [As(III)]in vitroandin vivoand that approximately one As(III) molecule is bound per molecule of Yap8. As(III) is coordinated by three sulfur atoms in purified Yap8, and our genetic and biochemical data identify the cysteine residues that form the binding site as Cys132, Cys137, and Cys274. As(III) binding by Yap8 does not require an additional yeast protein, and Yap8 is regulated neither at the level of localization nor at the level of DNA binding. Instead, our data are consistent with a model in which a DNA-bound form of Yap8 acts directly as an As(III) sensor. Binding of As(III) to Yap8 triggers a conformational change that in turn brings about a transcriptional response. Thus, As(III) binding to Yap8 acts as a molecular switch that converts inactive Yap8 into an active transcriptional regulator. This is the first report to demonstrate how a eukaryotic protein couples arsenic sensing to transcriptional activation.

  11. Carboplatin binding to histidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanley, Simon W. M. [University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diederichs, Kay [University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J. [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Levy, Colin [University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom); Schreurs, Antoine M. M. [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Helliwell, John R., E-mail: john.helliwell@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-29

    An X-ray crystal structure showing the binding of purely carboplatin to histidine in a model protein has finally been obtained. This required extensive crystallization trials and various novel crystal structure analyses. Carboplatin is a second-generation platinum anticancer agent used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Previous X-ray crystallographic studies of carboplatin binding to histidine (in hen egg-white lysozyme; HEWL) showed the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin owing to the high NaCl concentration used in the crystallization conditions. HEWL co-crystallizations with carboplatin in NaBr conditions have now been carried out to confirm whether carboplatin converts to the bromine form and whether this takes place in a similar way to the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin observed previously in NaCl conditions. Here, it is reported that a partial chemical transformation takes place but to a transplatin form. Thus, to attempt to resolve purely carboplatin binding at histidine, this study utilized co-crystallization of HEWL with carboplatin without NaCl to eliminate the partial chemical conversion of carboplatin. Tetragonal HEWL crystals co-crystallized with carboplatin were successfully obtained in four different conditions, each at a different pH value. The structural results obtained show carboplatin bound to either one or both of the N atoms of His15 of HEWL, and this particular variation was dependent on the concentration of anions in the crystallization mixture and the elapsed time, as well as the pH used. The structural details of the bound carboplatin molecule also differed between them. Overall, the most detailed crystal structure showed the majority of the carboplatin atoms bound to the platinum centre; however, the four-carbon ring structure of the cyclobutanedicarboxylate moiety (CBDC) remained elusive. The potential impact of the results for the administration of carboplatin as an anticancer agent are described.

  12. Ribosomal binding site switching: an effective strategy for high-throughput cloning constructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbo Hu

    Full Text Available Direct cloning of PCR fragments by TA cloning or blunt end ligation are two simple methods which would greatly benefit high-throughput (HTP cloning constructions if the efficiency can be improved. In this study, we have developed a ribosomal binding site (RBS switching strategy for direct cloning of PCR fragments. RBS is an A/G rich region upstream of the translational start codon and is essential for gene expression. Change from A/G to T/C in the RBS blocks its activity and thereby abolishes gene expression. Based on this property, we introduced an inactive RBS upstream of a selectable marker gene, and designed a fragment insertion site within this inactive RBS. Forward and reverse insertions of specifically tailed fragments will respectively form an active and inactive RBS, thus all background from vector self-ligation and fragment reverse insertions will be eliminated due to the non-expression of the marker gene. The effectiveness of our strategy for TA cloning and blunt end ligation are confirmed. Application of this strategy to gene over-expression, a bacterial two-hybrid system, a bacterial one-hybrid system, and promoter bank construction are also verified. The advantages of this simple procedure, together with its low cost and high efficiency, makes our strategy extremely useful in HTP cloning constructions.

  13. Optical Binding of Nanowires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simpson, Stephen Hugh; Zemánek, Pavel; Marago, O.M.; Jones, P.H.; Hanna, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2017), s. 3485-3492 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) CNR-16-12 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical binding nanowires * Brownian motion * self -organization * non-equilibrium thermodynamics * non-equilibrium steady state * spin-orbit coupling * emergent phenomena Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 12.712, year: 2016

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE HONEYBEES’ HAEMOLYMPH (A. M. CARPATHICA COLLECTED IN THE INACTIVE SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGRIPINA SAPCALIU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical analyses of the blood are largely used for the routine diagnosis and especially for the metabolic survey in farm animals. These facts conduct us to the idea that similar analyses, applied on honeybee hemolymph, could be used IN monitoring the healthy state of honeybee colonies. The present studies represent preliminary researches, which aimed to investigate the variability of the main biochemical parameters in the hemolymph of the healthy honeybees (Apis mellifera in inactive season. The researches were carried out on honeybee samples collected from 5 honeybee colonies belonging to a breeding apiary of the Institute for Beekeeping Research and Development from Bucharest. In order to perform the biochemical analyses, the honeybees samples, consisting in 50 individuals on sample (10 individuals/colony were randomly collected and their haemolimph collected, at different time intervals, in inactive season (fall-winter. Totally, there were collected 250 haemolyph samples in a 2 years interval and the following 21 biochemical parameters were analysed: GLU, HDL-c, ALP, T-cho, Tprot, Alb., BUN, LDH, CPK,, Mg, IP, GGT, GOT, GPT, Ca, Cre,, Amy, T–BIL, TG, UA.. The test was carried out after the collection and processing of the samples using the SPOTCHEM EZSP4430, equipment with dry kits, the slides technique, respectively .During the 2nd part of the inactive season, the values of most biochemical parameters increase in different proportions, their levels being maintained also in the first part of the active seasons (April, May, June.The values obtained for the main studied biochemical parameters in the haemolymph of the healthy honeybees collected from honeybee colonies kept in natural conditions show a highly variable evolution in the two consecutive years of experiments during the inactive season.

  15. Redox-inactive metal ions promoted the catalytic reactivity of non-heme manganese complexes towards oxygen atom transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Cholho; Yang, Ling; Lv, Zhanao; Mo, Wanling; Chen, Zhuqi; Li, Guangxin; Yin, Guochuan

    2015-05-21

    Redox-inactive metal ions can modulate the reactivity of redox-active metal ions in a variety of biological and chemical oxidations. Many synthetic models have been developed to help address the elusive roles of these redox-inactive metal ions. Using a non-heme manganese(II) complex as the model, the influence of redox-inactive metal ions as a Lewis acid on its catalytic efficiency in oxygen atom transfer was investigated. In the absence of redox-inactive metal ions, the manganese(II) catalyst is very sluggish, for example, in cyclooctene epoxidation, providing only 9.9% conversion with 4.1% yield of epoxide. However, addition of 2 equiv. of Al(3+) to the manganese(II) catalyst sharply improves the epoxidation, providing up to 97.8% conversion with 91.4% yield of epoxide. EPR studies of the manganese(II) catalyst in the presence of an oxidant reveal a 16-line hyperfine structure centered at g = 2.0, clearly indicating the formation of a mixed valent di-μ-oxo-bridged diamond core, Mn(III)-(μ-O)2-Mn(IV). The presence of a Lewis acid like Al(3+) causes the dissociation of this diamond Mn(III)-(μ-O)2-Mn(IV) core to form monomeric manganese(iv) species which is responsible for improved epoxidation efficiency. This promotional effect has also been observed in other manganese complexes bearing various non-heme ligands. The findings presented here have provided a promising strategy to explore the catalytic reactivity of some di-μ-oxo-bridged complexes by adding non-redox metal ions to in situ dissociate those dimeric cores and may also provide clues to understand the mechanism of methane monooxygenase which has a similar diiron diamond core as the intermediate.

  16. Health impacts of the built environment: within-urban variability in physical inactivity, air pollution, and ischemic heart disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Physical inactivity and exposure to air pollution are important risk factors for death and disease globally. The built environment may influence exposures to these risk factors in different ways and thus differentially affect the health of urban populations. We investigated the built environment's association with air pollution and physical inactivity, and estimated attributable health risks. We used a regional travel survey to estimate within-urban variability in physical inactivity and home-based air pollution exposure [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone (O3)] for 30,007 individuals in southern California. We then estimated the resulting risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD) using literature-derived dose-response values. Using a cross-sectional approach, we compared estimated IHD mortality risks among neighborhoods based on "walkability" scores. The proportion of physically active individuals was higher in high- versus low-walkability neighborhoods (24.9% vs. 12.5%); however, only a small proportion of the population was physically active, and between-neighborhood variability in estimated IHD mortality attributable to physical inactivity was modest (7 fewer IHD deaths/100,000/year in high- vs. low-walkability neighborhoods). Between-neighborhood differences in estimated IHD mortality from air pollution were comparable in magnitude (9 more IHD deaths/100,000/year for PM2.5 and 3 fewer IHD deaths for O3 in high- vs. low-walkability neighborhoods), suggesting that population health benefits from increased physical activity in high-walkability neighborhoods may be offset by adverse effects of air pollution exposure. Currently, planning efforts mainly focus on increasing physical activity through neighborhood design. Our results suggest that differences in population health impacts among neighborhoods are similar in magnitude for air pollution and physical activity. Thus, physical activity and exposure to

  17. Physical inactivity and associated factors in Iranian children and adolescents: the Weight Disorders Survey of the CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: We found a considerably high prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian children and adolescents, with higher rates among girls and older ages. However, we did not find correlation between PA and socioeconomic status (SES. Because of the positive relationship between PA and ST, future studies should consider the complex interaction of these two items. Multidisciplinary policies should be considered in increasing PA programs among children and adolescents.

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  19. Metaphase chromosome analysis by ligation-mediated PCR: heritable chromatin structure and a comparison of active and inactive X chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hershkovitz, M; Riggs, A D

    1995-01-01

    We report that ligation-mediated PCR (LMPCR) can be used for high-resolution study of metaphase chromosomes, and we discuss the role of metaphase chromatin structure in the preservation of differentiated cell states. The X chromosome-linked human PGK1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1) promoter region was investigated, and euchromatic active X chromosome (Xa) metaphase chromatin was compared with interphase Xa chromatin and to heterochromatic inactive X chromosome (Xi) metaphase and interphase chrom...

  20. Climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. An RETD position paper on the costs of inaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Hagenstad, Marca; Frantzis, Lisa

    2011-07-15

    The Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD) agreement initiated this project to advance the understanding of the ''Costs of Inaction'', i.e. the costs of climate change adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence. A quantitative estimate was developed as well as a better understanding of the knowledge gaps and research needs. The project also included some conceptual work on how to better integrate the analyses of mitigation, adaptation, damages and fossil fuel dependence in energy scenario modelling.

  1. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  2. Microbial community differentiation between active and inactive sulfide chimneys of the Kolumbo submarine volcano, Hellenic Volcanic Arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Christos A; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Kristoffersen, Jon Bent; Lampridou, Danai; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decades, there has been growing interest about the ecological role of hydrothermal sulfide chimneys, their microbial diversity and associated biotechnological potential. Here, we performed dual-index Illumina sequencing of bacterial and archaeal communities on active and inactive sulfide chimneys collected from the Kolumbo hydrothermal field, situated on a geodynamic convergent setting. A total of 15,701 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were assigned to 56 bacterial and 3 archaeal phyla, 133 bacterial and 16 archaeal classes. Active chimney communities were dominated by OTUs related to thermophilic members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Aquificae and Deltaproteobacteria. Inactive chimney communities were dominated by an OTU closely related to the archaeon Nitrosopumilus sp., and by members of Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes. These lineages are closely related to phylotypes typically involved in iron, sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen and methane cycling. Overall, the inactive sulfide chimneys presented highly diverse and uniform microbial communities, in contrast to the active chimney communities, which were dominated by chemolithoautotrophic and thermophilic lineages. This study represents one of the most comprehensive investigations of microbial diversity in submarine chimneys and elucidates how the dissipation of hydrothermal activity affects the structure of microbial consortia in these extreme ecological niches.

  3. Early loss of Xist RNA expression and inactive X chromosome associated chromatin modification in developing primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Napoles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The inactive X chromosome characteristic of female somatic lineages is reactivated during development of the female germ cell lineage. In mouse, analysis of protein products of X-linked genes and/or transgenes located on the X chromosome has indicated that reactivation occurs after primordial germ cells reach the genital ridges.We present evidence that the epigenetic reprogramming of the inactive X-chromosome is initiated earlier than was previously thought, around the time that primordial germ cells (PGCs migrate through the hindgut. Specifically, we find that Xist RNA expression, the primary signal for establishment of chromosome silencing, is extinguished in migrating PGCs. This is accompanied by displacement of Polycomb-group repressor proteins Eed and Suz(12, and loss of the inactive X associated histone modification, methylation of histone H3 lysine 27.We conclude that X reactivation in primordial germ cells occurs progressively, initiated by extinction of Xist RNA around the time that germ cells migrate through the hindgut to the genital ridges. The events that we observe are reminiscent of X reactivation of the paternal X chromosome in inner cell mass cells of mouse pre-implantation embryos and suggest a unified model in which execution of the pluripotency program represses Xist RNA thereby triggering progressive reversal of epigenetic silencing of the X chromosome.

  4. Modification of the ATP inhibitory site of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase results in the stabilization of an inactive T state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.S.J.; Cook, P.F.; Harris, B.G. (Univ. of North Texas, Fort Worth (United States))

    1991-10-15

    Treatment of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase (PFK) with 2{prime},3{prime}-dialdehyde ATP (oATP) results in an enzyme form that is inactive. The conformational integrity of the active site, however, is preserved, suggesting that oATP modification locks the PFK into an inactive T state that cannot be activated. A rapid, irreversible first-order inactivation of the PFK is observed in the presence of oATP. The rate of inactivation is saturable and gives a K{sub oATP} of 1.07 {plus minus} 0.27 mM. Complete protection against inactivation is afforded by high concentrations of ATP. This desensitized enzyme incorporates only 0.2-0.3 mol of ({sup 3}H)oATP/subunit, suggesting that in te native enzyme inactivation perhaps results from the modification of the ATP inhibitory site rather than the catalytic site. Modification of an active-site thiol by 4,4{prime}-dithiodipyridine is prevented yb ATP before and after oATP treatment. Finally, gel filtration HPLC studies show that the oATP-modified enzyme retains its tetrameric state and neither the tryptophan fluorescence nor the circular dichroic spectra of the modified enzyme are affected by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, suggesting that the enzyme is locked into a tetrameric inactive T state.

  5. Structures of the inactive and active states of RIP2 kinase inform on the mechanism of activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Innate immune receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial peptidoglycans leading to recruitment of adaptor kinase RIP2, which, upon phosphorylation and ubiquitination, becomes a scaffold for downstream effectors. The kinase domain (RIP2K is a pharmaceutical target for inflammatory diseases caused by aberrant NOD2-RIP2 signalling. Although structures of active RIP2K in complex with inhibitors have been reported, the mechanism of RIP2K activation remains to be elucidated. Here we analyse RIP2K activation by combining crystal structures of the active and inactive states with mass spectrometric characterization of their phosphorylation profiles. The active state has Helix αC inwardly displaced and the phosphorylated Activation Segment (AS disordered, whilst in the inactive state Helix αC is outwardly displaced and packed against the helical, non-phosphorylated AS. Biophysical measurements show that the active state is a stable dimer whilst the inactive kinase is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, consistent with the observed structural differences at the dimer interface. We conclude that RIP2 kinase auto-phosphorylation is intimately coupled to dimerization, similar to the case of BRAF. Our results will help drug design efforts targeting RIP2 as a potential treatment for NOD2-RIP2 related inflammatory diseases.

  6. Impact of poor sleep quality and physical inactivity on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakubo, Sho; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Hotta, Ryo; Bae, Seongryu; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the combination of subjective sleep quality and physical activity is associated with cognitive performance among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional data on 5381 older adults who participated in part of the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology - Study of Geriatric Syndromes were analyzed. We assessed general cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination, and also assessed story memory, attention, executive function and processing speed using the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Functional Assessment Tool. Physical activity was assessed using two questionnaires, and participants were categorized as active or inactive. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and participants were categorized as having poor (PS) or good sleep quality (GS). Participants in the inactive + PS group had worse performances than those in the active + GS group in all cognitive measures (Mini-Mental State Examination: P = 0.008, story memory: P = 0.007, other cognitive measures: P sleep quality were associated with poor cognitive performance among community-dwelling older adults. The combination of poor sleep quality and physical inactivity also worsened cognitive performance. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1823-1828. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Food withdrawal lowers energy expenditure and induces inactivity in long-chain fatty acid oxidation-deficient mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Eugene F; van Weeghel, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Visser, Gepke; Houten, Sander M

    2014-07-01

    Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Patients with VLCAD deficiency may present with hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, cardiomyopathy, and myopathy. Although several mouse models have been developed to aid in the study of the pathogenesis of long-chain FAO defects, the muscular phenotype is underexposed. To address the muscular phenotype, we used a newly developed mouse model on a mixed genetic background with a more severe defect in FAO (LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/-)) in addition to a validated mouse model (LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/+)) and compared them with wild-type (WT) mice. We found that both mouse models show a 20% reduction in energy expenditure (EE) and a 3-fold decrease in locomotor activity in the unfed state. In addition, we found a 1.7°C drop in body temperature in unfed LCAD(-/-); VLCAD(+/+) mice compared with WT body temperature. We conclude that food withdrawal-induced inactivity, hypothermia, and reduction in EE are novel phenotypes associated with FAO deficiency in mice. Unexpectedly, inactivity was not explained by rhabdomyolysis, but rather reflected the overall reduced capacity of these mice to generate heat. We suggest that mice are partly protected against the negative consequence of an FAO defect.-Diekman, E. F., van Weeghel, M., Wanders, R. J. A., Visser, G., Houten, S. M. Food withdrawal lowers energy expenditure and induces inactivity in long-chain fatty acid oxidation-deficient mouse models. © FASEB.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF PROLONGED PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN HEALTHY MALE PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that physical activity beneficially influences cognitive functioning. Less thoroughly investigated are the cognitive outcomes of reduced physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity induced by bed rest on the participant’s cognitive functioning. Bed rest is a well-accepted method by which an acute stage of human adaptation to weightlessness in space flights is simulated, as well as an important model to study the consequences of extreme physical inactivity in humans. The subjects participating in the study consisted of fifteen healthy males aged between 19 and 65 years who were exposed to 14-day horizontal bed rest in a strict hospital environment. To assess the cognitive functions of the participants, a neuropsychological test battery was administered before and after the bed rest experiment. There was no significant impairment in cognitive performance after the 14-day bed rest on all tests, except in the measurements of delayed recall in the group of older adults. The results suggest that cognitive functions remained relatively stable during the period of physical immobilization. The obtained results have been discussed taking the possible contributing factors into account such as the practice effect, the relatively short duration of bed rest, and the choice of the cognitive measures administered. The study also provides evidence that favourable living and psychosocial conditions can protect one against cognitive decline in the case of extreme physical inactivity.

  9. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP regulates lipolysis in adipose tissue by modulating the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Okumura

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and perilipin by protein kinase A (PKA promotes the hydrolysis of lipids in adipocytes. Although activation of lipolysis by PKA has been well studied, inactivation via protein phosphatases is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP, a binding partner for protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, is involved in lipolysis by regulating phosphatase activity. PRIP knockout (PRIP-KO mice displayed reduced body-fat mass as compared with wild-type mice fed with standard chow ad libitum. Most other organs appeared normal, suggesting that mutant mice had aberrant fat metabolism in adipocytes. HSL in PRIP-KO adipose tissue was highly phosphorylated compared to that in wild-type mice. Starvation of wild-type mice or stimulation of adipose tissue explants with the catabolic hormone, adrenaline, translocated both PRIP and PP2A from the cytosol to lipid droplets, but the translocation of PP2A was significantly reduced in PRIP-KO adipocytes. Consistently, the phosphatase activity associated with lipid droplet fraction in PRIP-KO adipocytes was significantly reduced and was independent of adrenaline stimulation. Lipolysis activity, as assessed by measurement of non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol, was higher in PRIP-KO adipocytes. When wild-type adipocytes were treated with a phosphatase inhibitor, they showed a high lipolysis activity at the similar level to PRIP-KO adipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that PRIP promotes the translocation of phosphatases to lipid droplets to trigger the dephosphorylation of HSL and perilipin A, thus reducing PKA-mediated lipolysis.

  10. IGF binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Leon A

    2017-12-18

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1-6 bind IGFs but not insulin with high affinity. They were initially identified as serum carriers and passive inhibitors of IGF actions. However, subsequent studies showed that, although IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions in many circumstances, they may also potentiate these actions. IGFBPs are widely expressed in most tissues, and they are flexible endocrine and autocrine/paracrine regulators of IGF activity, which is essential for this important physiological system. More recently, individual IGFBPs have been shown to have IGF-independent actions. Mechanisms underlying these actions include (i) interaction with non-IGF proteins in compartments including the extracellular space and matrix, the cell surface and intracellularly; (ii) interaction with and modulation of other growth factor pathways including EGF, TGF- and VEGF; and (iii) direct or indirect transcriptional effects following nuclear entry of IGFBPs. Through these IGF-dependent and IGF-independent actions, IGFBPs modulate essential cellular processes including proliferation, survival, migration, senescence, autophagy and angiogenesis. They have been implicated in a range of disorders including malignant, metabolic, neurological and immune diseases. A more complete understanding of their cellular roles may lead to the development of novel IGFBP-based therapeutic opportunities.

  11. Leisure-time physical inactivity and association with body mass index: a Finnish Twin Study with a 35-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Waller, Katja; Heikkilä, Kauko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Kujala, Urho M; Ropponen, Annina

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the stability and change of leisure-time physical inactivity in adult men and women during a 35-year follow-up. We also analysed the impact of long-term physical inactivity on the development of body mass index (BMI). : In this population-based cohort study, 5254 Finnish twin individuals (59% women) participated in four surveys in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011. Mean age at baseline was 23.9 years. Individual long-term leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was categorized into seven classes varying from 'persistently inactive' to 'persistently active'. We used the multivariate multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model and paired-sample t-test in the analyses. Co-twin control design was used for examining within-pair associations. : Of men 11%, and of women 8%, were persistently inactive. Among both sexes, the mean BMI slope trajectories were steeper among the persistently inactive and those who became inactive than among those who were persistently active. Overall, the inactive participants gained 1.4 kg/m 2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 1.7] more in weight than did the active participants from 1975 to 2011. Among twin pairs discordant for LTPA, the corresponding difference was 1.4 kg/m 2 (95% CI 0.83 to 2.0) in dizygotic pairs and 0.68 kg/m 2 (95% CI 0.05 to1.3) in monozygotic pairs. Over a 35-year time span from young adulthood, persistently inactive participants and those who had become inactive had greater weight increases than those who were persistently active. This association was also found in twin-pair analyses, although attenuated in monozygotic pairs. This may support the importance of LTPA in weight management, although further causal inference is required. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  12. Studies on folate binding and a radioassay for serum and whole-blood folate using goat milk as binding agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyasena, R.D.; Weerasekera, D.A.; Hettiaratchi, N.; Wikramanayake, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Preparations of cow, goat, buffalo and human milk in addition to pig plasma were tested for folate binding properties. Of these, only pig plasma and goat milk showed sufficient binding to enable them to be used as binding agents in a radioassay for serum and whole-blood folate. The binding of folate by cow milk preparations in particular was found to be very poor. Goat milk was preferred to pig plasma as a binder for folate radioassay for reasons of convenience, economy and greater stability, and because pteroylglutamic acid (PGA) can be used both as tracer and standard. Where pig plasma is used with the inclusion of folate-free serum in the standard tubes, differences were observed between the standard and serum blanks which themselves varied from sample to sample. By contrast, with goat milk, all blank readings were normally 3% or less. Five out of eight samples of goat milk were seen to contain 'releasing factor' necessary to liberate folate from endogenous binder (FABP). Where present, the factor was found to be stable for at least three months when the partially purified milk was stored freeze dried at 4 0 C. Goat milk binder was found unable to distinguish between PGA and methyltetrahydrofolic acid (MTFA) at pH9.3. This enabled PGA rather than the more unstable MTFA to be used as tracer and standard. The assay employs a one-step incubation procedure at room temperature. It is sensitive to about 0.1 ng of PGA and is reproducible to less than 5% variation. The mean % recovery of inactive added folate was 101+-4%. (author)

  13. Characterization of the hormone-binding domain of the chicken c-erbA/thyroid hormone receptor protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, A; Zenke, M; Gehring, U

    1988-01-01

    To identify and characterize the hormone-binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor, we analyzed the ligand-binding capacities of proteins representing chimeras between the normal receptor and P75gag-v-erbA, the retrovirus-encoded form deficient in binding ligand. Our results show that several...... mutations present in the carboxy-terminal half of P75gag-v-erbA co-operate in abolishing hormone binding, and that the ligand-binding domain resides in a position analogous to that of steroid receptors. Furthermore, a point mutation that is located between the putative DNA and ligand-binding domains of P75......gag-v-erbA and that renders it biologically inactive fails to affect hormone binding by the c-erbA protein. These results suggest that the mutation changed the ability of P75gag-v-erbA to affect transcription since it also had no effect on DNA binding. Our data also suggest that hormone...

  14. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms are risk factors for obesity and physical inactivity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalife, Natasha; Kantomaa, Marko; Glover, Vivette; Tammelin, Tuija; Laitinen, Jaana; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rodriguez, Alina

    2014-04-01

    To prospectively investigate the association and directionality between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and obesity from childhood to adolescence in the general population. We examined whether obesogenic behaviors, namely, physical inactivity and binge eating, underlie the potential ADHD symptom-obesity association. We explored whether childhood conduct disorder (CD) symptoms are related to adolescent obesity/physical inactivity. At 7 to 8 years (n = 8,106), teachers reported ADHD and CD symptoms, and parents reported body mass index (BMI) and physically active play. At 16 years (n = 6,934), parents reported ADHD symptoms; adolescents reported physical activity (transformed to metabolic equivalent of task [MET] hours per week) and binge eating; BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured via clinical examination. Obesity was defined using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs for BMI and the 95th percentile cut-off for WHR. Childhood ADHD symptoms significantly predicted adolescent obesity, rather than the opposite. Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 8 years were associated with indices of obesity at 16 years (obese BMI: odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-3.33; 95th percentile WHR: OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.78), adjusted for gender, baseline BMI, physical activity, family structure change, and maternal education. Child CD symptoms associated with indices of adolescent obesity. Reduced physically active play in childhood predicted adolescent inattention (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.16-2.24). Childhood ADHD and CD symptoms were linked with physical inactivity in adolescence (inattention-hyperactivity; OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.20-2.13), but not binge eating. Physical inactivity mediated the associations. Children with ADHD or CD symptoms are at increased risk for becoming obese and physically inactive adolescents. Physical activity may be beneficial for both behavior problems and obesity

  15. Active and Inactive Leg Hemodynamics during Sequential Single-Leg Interval Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nicole; Abbiss, Chris R; Ihsan, Mohammed; Maiorana, Andrew J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2018-01-11

    Leg order during sequential single-leg cycling (i.e. exercising both legs independently within a single session) may affect local muscular responses potentially influencing adaptations. This study examined the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle hemodynamic responses during double-leg and sequential single-leg cycling. Ten young healthy adults (28 ± 6 y) completed six 1-min double-leg intervals interspersed with one minute of passive recovery and, on a separate occasion, 12 (six with one leg followed by six with the other leg) 1-min single-leg intervals interspersed with one minute of passive recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood volume and power output were measured throughout each session. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and power output were not different between sets of single-leg intervals but the average of both sets was lower than the double-leg intervals. Mean arterial pressure was higher during double-leg compared with sequential single-leg intervals (115 ± 9 mmHg vs. 104 ± 9 mmHg; p<0.05) and higher during the initial compared with second set of single-leg intervals (108 ± 10 mmHg vs. 101 ± 10 mmHg; p<0.05). The increase in muscle blood volume from baseline was similar between the active single-leg and double-leg (267 ± 150 μM[BULLET OPERATOR]cm vs. 214 ± 169 μM[BULLET OPERATOR]cm; p=0.26). The pattern of change in muscle blood volume from the initial to second set of intervals was significantly different (p<0.05) when the leg was active in the initial (-52.3 ± 111.6%) compared with second set (65.1 ± 152.9%). These data indicate that the order in which each leg performs sequential single-leg cycling influences the local hemodynamic responses, with the inactive muscle influencing the stimulus experienced by the contralateral leg.

  16. A recombinant fusion toxin based on enzymatic inactive C3bot1 selectively targets macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Dmochewitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The C3bot1 protein (~23 kDa from Clostridium botulinum ADP-ribosylates and thereby inactivates Rho. C3bot1 is selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages but not of other cell types such as epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Most likely, the internalization occurs by a specific endocytotic pathway via acidified endosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested whether enzymatic inactive C3bot1E174Q serves as a macrophage-selective transport system for delivery of enzymatic active proteins into the cytosol of such cells. Having confirmed that C3bot1E174Q does not induce macrophage activation, we used the actin ADP-ribosylating C2I (∼50 kDa from Clostridium botulinum as a reporter enzyme for C3bot1E174Q-mediated delivery into macrophages. The recombinant C3bot1E174Q-C2I fusion toxin was cloned and expressed as GST-protein in Escherichia coli. Purified C3bot1E174Q-C2I was recognized by antibodies against C2I and C3bot and showed C2I-specific enzyme activity in vitro. When applied to cultured cells C3bot1E174Q-C2I ADP-ribosylated actin in the cytosol of macrophages including J774A.1 and RAW264.7 cell lines as well as primary cultured human macrophages but not of epithelial cells. Together with confocal fluorescence microscopy experiments, the biochemical data indicate the selective uptake of a recombinant C3-fusion toxin into the cytosol of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrated that C3bot1E174Q can be used as a delivery system for fast, selective and specific transport of enzymes into the cytosol of living macrophages. Therefore, C3-based fusion toxins can represent valuable molecular tools in experimental macrophage pharmacology and cell biology as well as attractive candidates to develop new therapeutic approaches against macrophage-associated diseases.

  17. Structures of inactive retinoblastoma protein reveal multiple mechanisms for cell cycle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Jason R.; Hura, Greg L.; Rubin, Seth M. (UCSC); (LBNL)

    2012-07-18

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) phosphorylation of the Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) drives cell proliferation through inhibition of Rb complexes with E2F transcription factors and other regulatory proteins. We present the first structures of phosphorylated Rb that reveal the mechanism of its inactivation. S608 phosphorylation orders a flexible 'pocket' domain loop such that it mimics and directly blocks E2F transactivation domain (E2F{sup TD}) binding. T373 phosphorylation induces a global conformational change that associates the pocket and N-terminal domains (RbN). This first multidomain Rb structure demonstrates a novel role for RbN in allosterically inhibiting the E2F{sup TD}-pocket association and protein binding to the pocket 'LxCxE' site. Together, these structures detail the regulatory mechanism for a canonical growth-repressive complex and provide a novel example of how multisite Cdk phosphorylation induces diverse structural changes to influence cell cycle signaling.

  18. Interconversion of active and inactive conformations of urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhuo; Kromann-Hansen, Tobias; Lund, Ida K.

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic activity of serine proteases depends on a salt-bridge between the amino group of residue 16 and the side chain of Asp194. The salt-bridge stabilizes the oxyanion hole and the S1 specificity pocket of the protease. Some serine proteases exist in only partially active forms, in which...... active state. Both a monoclonal antibody (mU3) and a peptidic inhibitor (mupain-1--16) stabilize the active state. The epitope of mU3 is located in the 37- and 70-loops at a site homologous to exosite I of thrombin. The N-terminus((Ile16)) of muPA((16--243)) was less exposed upon binding of mU3 or mupain......-1--16. In contrast, introduction of the mutations F40Y or E137A into muPA((16--243)) increased exposure of the N-terminus((Ile16)) and resulted in large changes in the thermodynamic parameters for mupain-1--16 binding. We conclude that the distorted state of muPA((16--243)) is conformationally...

  19. Evolutionarily conserved domain of heat shock transcription factor negatively regulates oligomerization and DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Azumi; Enoki, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Noritaka; Sawai, Maki; Sakurai, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) regulates the expression of genes encoding molecular chaperones and stress-responsive proteins. Conversion of HSF from a monomer to a homotrimer or heterotrimer is essential for its binding to heat shock elements (HSEs) comprised of inverted repeats of the pentamer nGAAn. Here, we constructed various human HSF1 derivatives and analyzed their transcriptional activity through the continuously and discontinuously arranged nGAAn units. We identified a short stretch of amino acids that inhibits the activation ability of HSF1, especially through discontinuous HSEs. This stretch is conserved in HSFs of various organisms, interacts with the hydrophobic repeat regions that mediate HSF oligomerization, and impedes homotrimer formation and DNA binding. This conserved domain plays an important role in maintaining HSF in an inactive monomeric form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between education and future leisure-time physical inactivity: a study of Finnish twins over a 35-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Piirtola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is associated with health related lifestyle choices including leisure-time physical inactivity. However, the longitudinal associations between education and inactivity merit further studies. We investigated the association between education and leisure-time physical inactivity over a 35-year follow-up with four time points controlling for multiple covariates including familial confounding. Methods This study of the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort consisted of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945–1957 (59 % women, of which 1604 were complete same-sexed twin pairs. Data on leisure-time physical activity and multiple covariates was available from four surveys conducted in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011 (response rates 72 to 89 %. The association between years of education and leisure-time physical inactivity (<1.5 metabolic equivalent hours/day was first analysed for each survey. Then, the role of education was investigated for 15-year and 35-year inactivity periods in the longitudinal analyses. The co-twin control design was used to analyse the potential familial confounding of the effects. All analyses were conducted with and without multiple covariates. Odds Ratios (OR with 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI were calculated using logistic and conditional (fixed-effects regression models. Results Each additional year of education was associated with less inactivity (OR 0.94 to 0.95, 95 % CI 0.92, 0.99 in the cross-sectional age- and sex-adjusted analyses. The associations of education with inactivity in the 15- and 35-year follow-ups showed a similar trend: OR 0.97 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.00 and OR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91, 0.98, respectively. In all co-twin control analyses, each year of higher education was associated with a reduced likelihood of inactivity suggesting direct effect (i.e. independent from familial confounding of education on inactivity. However, the point estimates were lower than in the individual

  1. Association between education and future leisure-time physical inactivity: a study of Finnish twins over a 35-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Ropponen, Annina

    2016-08-04

    Education is associated with health related lifestyle choices including leisure-time physical inactivity. However, the longitudinal associations between education and inactivity merit further studies. We investigated the association between education and leisure-time physical inactivity over a 35-year follow-up with four time points controlling for multiple covariates including familial confounding. This study of the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort consisted of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945-1957 (59 % women), of which 1604 were complete same-sexed twin pairs. Data on leisure-time physical activity and multiple covariates was available from four surveys conducted in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011 (response rates 72 to 89 %). The association between years of education and leisure-time physical inactivity (<1.5 metabolic equivalent hours/day) was first analysed for each survey. Then, the role of education was investigated for 15-year and 35-year inactivity periods in the longitudinal analyses. The co-twin control design was used to analyse the potential familial confounding of the effects. All analyses were conducted with and without multiple covariates. Odds Ratios (OR) with 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic and conditional (fixed-effects) regression models. Each additional year of education was associated with less inactivity (OR 0.94 to 0.95, 95 % CI 0.92, 0.99) in the cross-sectional age- and sex-adjusted analyses. The associations of education with inactivity in the 15- and 35-year follow-ups showed a similar trend: OR 0.97 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.00) and OR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91, 0.98), respectively. In all co-twin control analyses, each year of higher education was associated with a reduced likelihood of inactivity suggesting direct effect (i.e. independent from familial confounding) of education on inactivity. However, the point estimates were lower than in the individual-level analyses. Adjustment for multiple covariates did not

  2. Recurrent De Novo Mutations Disturbing the GTP/GDP Binding Pocket of RAB11B Cause Intellectual Disability and a Distinctive Brain Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Ideke J C; Reijnders, Margot R F; Venselaar, Hanka; Kraus, Alison; Jansen, Sandra; de Vries, Bert B A; Houge, Gunnar; Gradek, Gyri Aasland; Seo, Jieun; Choi, Murim; Chae, Jong-Hee; van der Burgt, Ineke; Pfundt, Rolph; Letteboer, Stef J F; van Beersum, Sylvia E C; Dusseljee, Simone; Brunner, Han G; Doherty, Dan; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Roepman, Ronald

    2017-11-02

    The Rab GTPase family comprises ∼70 GTP-binding proteins, functioning in vesicle formation, transport and fusion. They are activated by a conformational change induced by GTP-binding, allowing interactions with downstream effectors. Here, we report five individuals with two recurrent de novo missense mutations in RAB11B; c.64G>A; p.Val22Met in three individuals and c.202G>A; p.Ala68Thr in two individuals. An overlapping neurodevelopmental phenotype, including severe intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, and hypotonia was observed in all affected individuals. Additionally, visual problems, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and microcephaly were present in the majority of cases. Re-evaluation of brain MRI images of four individuals showed a shared distinct brain phenotype, consisting of abnormal white matter (severely decreased volume and abnormal signal), thin corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, optic nerve hypoplasia and mild ventriculomegaly. To compare the effects of both variants with known inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound RAB11B mutants, we modeled the variants on the three-dimensional protein structure and performed subcellular localization studies. We predicted that both variants alter the GTP/GDP binding pocket and show that they both have localization patterns similar to inactive RAB11B. Evaluation of their influence on the affinity of RAB11B to a series of binary interactors, both effectors and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), showed induction of RAB11B binding to the GEF SH3BP5, again similar to inactive RAB11B. In conclusion, we report two recurrent dominant mutations in RAB11B leading to a neurodevelopmental syndrome, likely caused by altered GDP/GTP binding that inactivate the protein and induce GEF binding and protein mislocalization. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...... subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity....

  4. Revised cutoff values of ALT and HBV DNA level can better differentiate HBeAg (-) chronic inactive HBV patients from active carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Bushra; Ahmad, Waqar; Javed, Fouzia T; Gull, Sana; Hassan, Sajida

    2011-02-27

    ELISA is still used as primary test for diagnosis HBV disease. However, ELISA-positive patients were marked as HBV inactive after confirmation with PCR and vice versa. Our aim was to assess the performance of new cut-off value of ALT, HBV DNA load and significance of AST as screening tool for HBeAg (-) chronic active or inactive patients in Pakistani population. In a cross-sectional, cohort study, 567 HBeAg (-) patients followed for one year were selected. Patients with persistent elevated ALT than normal and HBV DNA ≥ 100,000 copies/mL were taken as active chronic. Diagnostic values for ALT, AST and HBV DNA load in HBV HBeAg (-) chronic active and inactive patients compared using receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves. Of 567 HBeAg (-) patients, 228 were classified as chronic inactive and 339 as active. HBV infection was dominant in male. Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA levels showed significant and high AUROC to differentiate chronic HBeAg (-) inactive patients from active. AUROC for Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA were observed 0.997, 0.969 and 1.000, respectively. For revised cut off value for ALT (30 IU/L for male and 19 IU/L for female) and HBV DNA load ≥100,000 copies/mL, a PPV of 97%, NPV of 94%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 92% was observed to discriminate active carriers from inactive carriers. We also observed 93.5% specificity, 83.1% sensitivity, 82% PPV and 89.5% NPV for AST ≤20 IU/L to differentiate inactive carriers from active ones in our study group. Revised cut off value of ALT and NIH derived HBV DNA value can better discriminate between HBeAg (-) chronic active and inactive patients.

  5. Prevalence of Sexual Concerns and Sexual Dysfunction among Sexually Active and Inactive Men and Women with Screen‐Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mette Bjerggaard, MD; Morten Charles, MD, PhD; Ellids Kristensen, MD; Torsten Lauritzen, MD, DrMedSci; Annelli Sandbæk, MD, PhD; Annamaria Giraldi, MD, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Type 2 diabetes negatively impacts sexual health. Only limited information is available regarding sexual health among sexually inactive patients with type 2 diabetes. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexual concerns among sexually active and sexually inactive men and women with type 2 diabetes and of sexual dysfunction (SD) among sexually active. Methods Data from the Anglo?Danish?Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen?Detected...

  6. Prevalence of physical inactivity and barriers to physical activity among obese attendants at a community health-care center in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuwaja Ali Khan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are significant public health problems worldwide with serious health consequences. With increasing urbanization and modernization there has been an increase in prevalence of obesity that is attributed to reduced levels of physical activity (PA. However, little is known about the prevalence of physical inactivity and factors that prohibit physical activity among Pakistani population. This cross-sectional study is aimed at estimating the prevalence of physical inactivity, and determining associated barriers in obese attendants accompanying patients coming to a Community Health Center in Karachi, Pakistan. Findings PA was assessed by using international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ. Barriers to PA were also assessed in inactive obese attendants. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 350 obese attendants. Among 350 study participants 254 (72.6% were found to be physically inactive (95% CI: 68.0%, 77.2%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age greater than 33 years, BMI greater than 33 kg/m2 and family history of obesity were independently and significantly associated with physical inactivity. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between family structure and gender; females living in extended families were about twice more likely to be inactive, whereas males from extended families were six times more likely to be inactive relative to females from nuclear families. Lack of information, motivation and skills, spouse & family support, accessibility to places for physical activity, cost effective facilities and time were found to be important barriers to PA. Conclusions Considering the public health implications of physical inactivity it is essential to promote PA in context of an individual's health and environment. Findings highlight considerable barriers to PA among obese individuals that need to be addressed during counseling sessions

  7. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borodina

    Full Text Available Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A. All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST. Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy.

  8. Molecular analysis of an inactive aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster in Aspergillus oryzae RIB strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Mihoko; Lee, Yun-Hae; Hayashi, Risa; Suzuki, Yuji; Yamada, Osamu; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Gotoh, Kuniyasu; Akita, Osamu

    2006-01-01

    To help assess the potential for aflatoxin production by Aspergillus oryzae, the structure of an aflatoxin biosynthesis gene homolog cluster in A. oryzae RIB 40 was analyzed. Although most genes in the corresponding cluster exhibited from 97 to 99% similarity to those of Aspergillus flavus, three genes shared 93% similarity or less. A 257-bp deletion in the aflT region, a frameshift mutation in norA, and a base pair substitution in verA were found in A. oryzae RIB 40. In the aflR promoter, two substitutions were found in one of the three putative AreA binding sites and in the FacB binding site. PCR primers were designed to amplify homologs of aflT, nor-1, aflR, norA, avnA, verB, and vbs and were used to detect these genes in 210 A. oryzae strains. Based on the PCR results, the A. oryzae RIB strains were classified into three groups, although most of them fell into two of the groups. Group 1, in which amplification of all seven genes was confirmed, contained 122 RIB strains (58.1% of examined strains), including RIB 40. Seventy-seven strains (36.7%) belonged to group 2, characterized by having only vbs, verB, and avnA in half of the cluster. Although slight expression of aflR was detected by reverse transcription-PCR in some group 1 strains, including RIB 40, other genes (avnA, vbs, verB, and omtA) related to aflatoxin production were not detected. aflR was not detected in group 2 strains by Southern analysis.

  9. Association between long-term smoking and leisure-time physical inactivity: a cohort study among Finnish twins with a 35-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri; Svedberg, Pia; Korhonen, Tellervo; Ropponen, Annina

    2017-09-01

    To investigate longitudinal associations of smoking and a change in smoking status with leisure-time physical inactivity. In addition, to control whether familial confounding (genetics and shared environment) influences the associations. Data were based on the population-based Finnish Adult Twin Cohort of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945-1957 (41% men) and who participated in all four surveys over a 35-year follow-up (1975-2011). Logistic and conditional logistic regression models with multiple covariates were used for analyses. Compared to never-smokers, long-term daily smokers (1975-1990) had the highest likelihood for both long-term inactivity and to change into inactive by 2011. Recurrent smoking was associated with long-term inactivity. Instead, in comparison to persistent daily smokers, quitting smoking decreased the likelihood of becoming physically inactive at leisure time. The associations remained in the analyses which accounted for multiple covariates and/or familial confounding. Daily smoking increases the likelihood of remaining or becoming physically inactive over the decades. Our results emphasize not only the importance of preventing smoking initiation, but also to support early smoking cessation in promotion of lifelong physical activity.

  10. Mortality and years of life lost by colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil (1990-2015): Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Souza, Maria de Fatima Marinho de; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate all-cause and cause-specific mortality and years of life lost, investigated by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil and in the states; to analyze the temporal trend of these estimates over 25 years (1990-2015) compared with global estimates and according to the socioeconomic status of states of Brazil. Databases from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) for Brazil, Brazilian states and global information were used. It was estimated the total number and the age-standardized rates of deaths and DALYs for colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in the years 1990 and 2015. We used the Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI). Physical inactivity was responsible for a substantial number of deaths (1990: 1,302; 2015: 119,351) and DALYs (1990: 31,121; 2015: 87,116) due to colorectal cancer in Brazil. From 1990 to 2015, the mortality and DALYs due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity increased in Brazil (0.6% and 0.6%, respectively) and decreased around the world (-0.8% and -1.1%, respectively). The Brazilian states with better socioeconomic indicators had higher rates of mortality and morbidity by colorectal cancer due to physical inactivity (pBrazil. Over 25 years, the Brazilian population showed more worrisome results than around the world. Actions to combat physical inactivity and greater cancer screening and treatment are urgent in the Brazilian states.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Bout of Circuit Resistance Exercise With Moderateintensity in Inactive Obese Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari Jafarabadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a state characterized by a low-grade inflammation that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess serum interleukin-18 (IL-18, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in response to circuit resistance exercise in obese and normal-weight subjects with different levels of physical activity. Methods: Thirty-two healthy male students participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their BMI and level of physical activity: active obese (n=8, active non-obese (n=8, inactive obese (n=8, and inactive non-obese (n=8. To determine serum IL-6, IL-18, CRP, glucose and insulin concentrations, fasting and post-exercise blood samples were obtained. Subjects performed a bout of circuit resistance exercise in 2 sets with 10 repetitions at 60% of 1RM. Results: Obese subjects comparing non-obese ones showed significant increase in IL-6 and significant decrease in IL-18 concentrations in response to exercise (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between active normal and inactive normal subjects in response to exercise. Also, there were not significant differences in four groups in response to exercise. Discussion: The significant decrease in IL-18 concentration in the obese group comparing normal group in response to exercise was probably due to anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Also, recommending this kind of exercise for obese persons with low level of physical activity can improve insulin resistance.

  12. Environmental monitoring report on the US Department of Energy's inactive millsite facility, Monticello, Utah, for calendar year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The inactive Monticello Millsite is located in San Juan County, Utah, just south of the town of Monticello. Environmental monitoring at the site is funded by the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) and focuses on releases due to preexistent mill tailings. All contaminant discharges result from the leaching of uranium-mill-tailings-related elements by ground water and surface water, and from the release of radon gas and particulate matter into the atmosphere. Pathways facilitating the migration of contaminants from the Monticello site include ground water in the shallow alluvial aquifer underlying the inactive facility, surface water running across the site, and the surrounding atmosphere. Extensive measurement of radon contamination from the tailings piles was conducted during 1984, 1985, and to a lesser extent during 1986 and 1987. On-pile, site-boundary, and off-site atmospheric radon measurements, as well as on- and off-pile radon-flux measurements, were taken. Results of these measurements demonstrate that the EPA standard for radon emissions from inactive uranium processing sites is exceeded at all four tailings piles at the Monticello site. Air particulate monitoring was conducted during 1987 at two on-site locations and at one background location using high-volume Sierra-Anderson model 300 air particulate samplers. So that only the inhalable particles would be collected, 10-micron-size screens were added to the samplers. The maximum airborne concentrations of radium-226, thorium-230, and uranium were all several orders of magnitude below the regulatory limits specified by DOE Order 5480.1. 22 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Poor muscle strength and function in physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus despite very mild disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jéssica Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare muscle strength (i.e. lower- and upper-body strength and function between physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (C-SLE and healthy controls (CTRL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the sample consisted of 19 C-SLE (age between 9 and 18 years and 15 CTRL matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity levels (assessed by accelerometry. Lower- and upper-body strength was assessed by the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM test. Isometric strength was assessed through a handgrip dynamometer. Muscle function was evaluated by the timed-stands test (TST and the timed-up-and-go test (TUG. Results: When compared with CTRL, C-SLE showed lower leg-press and bench-press 1-RM (p = 0.026 and p = 0.008, respectively, and a tendency toward lower handgrip strength (p = 0.052. C-SLE showed lower TST scores (p = 0.036 and a tendency toward higher TUG scores (p = 0.070 when compared with CTRL. Conclusion: Physically inactive C-SLE patients with very mild disease showed reduced muscle strength and functionality when compared with healthy controls matched by physical activity levels. These findings suggest C-SLE patients may greatly suffer from a physically inactive lifestyle than healthy controls do. Moreover, some sub-clinical “residual” effect of the disease or its pharmacological treatment seems to affect C-SLE patients even with a well-controlled disease.

  14. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  15. Inactivity Is Nycthemeral, Endogenously Generated, Homeostatically Regulated, and Melatonin Modulated in a Free-Living Platyhelminth Flatworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Shauni; Ly, Linh M T; Beaton, Russell; Storm, Jonathan J; Hale, Matthew W; Lesku, John A

    2017-10-01

    Sleep either appeared once early in the evolution of animals, or at multiple instances over evolutionary time. Understanding whether sleep is a diagnostic trait for members of the kingdom Animalia has important implications for our understanding of the evolution of sleep and sleep functions. Unfortunately, knowledge on the phylogenetic breadth of sleep is restricted to vertebrates, a few arthropods and molluscs, and one species of nematode. There is a dearth of information on the other 30 or so animal phyla. Here, we provide original data on a previously unstudied group of animals with respect to sleep: platyhelminth flatworms. These free-living animals are relatively simple, with a rudimentary central nervous system and absence of many other specialized physiological systems. Despite this simplicity, inactive flatworms appeared to be sleeping. Specifically, quiescence was organized in a circadian manner, occurring largely during the daytime. This basic rhythm persisted under constant darkness, suggesting that it was endogenously generated. Active flatworms responded more readily to stimulation, and flatworms recovered lost sleep by sleeping longer after a 3-hour period of inactivity deprivation. We were also able to increase inactivity in a dose-dependent manner with exposure to melatonin, a hormone that increases sleep in diurnal animals. Taken together, these data expand our understanding of the phylogenetic extent of sleep and reinforce the idea that sleep evolved early in the evolutionary history of animals. However, additional studies on other types of animals are required for a comprehensive understanding of the origin(s) and evolution of sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zembron-Lacny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP and oxidized LDL (oxLDL, in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years and 17 young males (20-24 years participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001. In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL, hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men.

  17. Pictorial binding: endeavor to classify

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the classification of bindings of the 1-19th centuries with a unique and untypical book binding decoration technique (encaustic, tempera and oil paintings. Analysis of design features, materials and techniques of art decoration made it possible to identify them as a separate type - pictorial bindings and divide them into four groups. The first group consists of Coptic bindings, decorated with icon-painting images in encaustic technique. The second group is made up of leather Western bindings of the 13-14th centuries, which have the decoration and technique of ornamentation close to iconography. The third group involves parchment bindings, ornamentation technique of which is closer to the miniature. The last group comprises bindings of East Slavic origin of the 15-19th centuries, decorated with icon-painting pictures made in the technique of tempera or oil painting. The proposed classification requires further basic research as several specific kinds of bindings have not yet been investigated

  18. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Boiadjiev, Vassil I.; Hawk, John E.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Rohana Wijewardhana, L. C.

    2008-03-01

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  19. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A; Boiadjiev, Vassil I; Hawk, John E; Gehl, Anthony C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6122 (United States); Fernando, Gayanath W [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Wijewardhana, L C Rohana [Physics Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2008-03-12

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  20. Remedial Action Plan and final design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.L.; Alkema, K.

    1991-03-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Green River, Utah. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the site. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of Utah and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of Utah, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix 8 of the Cooperative Agreement

  1. The diseasome of physical inactivity--and the role of myokines in muscle--fat cross talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2009-01-01

    with the occurrence of the diseases within the diseasome. Physical inactivity appears to be an independent and strong risk factor for accumulation of visceral fat, which again is a source of systemic inflammation. Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis...... of exercise. The finding that muscles produce and release myokines provides a conceptual basis to understand the mechanisms whereby exercise influences metabolism and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. According to our theory, contracting skeletal muscles release myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion...

  2. Metal binding by food components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning

    For calcium binding: Electrochemical method (calcium ion selective electrode) combined with quantum mechanical calculations (density functional theory) were used to investigate the calcium binding affinity of the amino acids and small glycine peptides. The effects of the ionic strength and p......, synergistic effect in calcium binding was found for the small glycine peptide rather than amino acids mixtures with the enhanced driving force up to -6 kJ/mol. Such study provides useful information for the future development of calcium supplements. For zinc binding: Isothermal titration calorimetry...... titration calorimetry and quantum mechanical calculations. This is due to the zinc binding affinity of the relatively softer ligands (investigated food components) will become much stronger than citrate or phytate when they present together in aqueous solution. This mechanism indicates these food components...

  3. Overcoming the risk of inaction from emissions uncertainty in smallholder agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, N. J.; Ryan, C. M.

    2013-03-01

    The potential for improving productivity and increasing the resilience of smallholder agriculture, while also contributing to climate change mitigation, has recently received considerable political attention (Beddington et al 2012). Financial support for improving smallholder agriculture could come from performance-based funding including sale of carbon credits or certified commodities, payments for ecosystem services, and nationally appropriate mitigation action (NAMA) budgets, as well as more traditional sources of development and environment finance. Monitoring the greenhouse gas fluxes associated with changes to agricultural practice is needed for performance-based mitigation funding, and efforts are underway to develop tools to quantify mitigation achieved and assess trade-offs and synergies between mitigation and other livelihood and environmental priorities (Olander 2012). High levels of small scale variability in carbon stocks and emissions in smallholder agricultural systems (Ziegler et al 2012) mean that data intensive approaches are needed for precise and unbiased mitigation monitoring. The cost of implementing such monitoring programmes is likely to be high, and this introduces the risk that projects will not be developed in areas where there is the greatest need for agricultural improvements, which are likely to correspond with areas where existing data or research infrastructure are lacking. When improvements to livelihoods and food security are expected as co-benefits of performance-based mitigation finance, the risk of inaction is borne by the rural poor as well as the global climate. In situ measurement of carbon accumulation in smallholders' soils are not usually feasible because of the costs associated with sampling in a heterogeneous landscape, although technological advances could improve the situation (Milori et al 2012). Alternatives to in situ measurement are to estimate greenhouse gas fluxes by extrapolating information from existing

  4. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B; Weihe, P; Uth, J; Mortensen, J; Mohr, M

    2017-12-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactive middle-aged women were separated into a soccer training group (n=19; SOC) and a control group (n=12; CON). SOC performed 128±29 (±SD) one-h small-sided soccer training sessions over one year. Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. Over one year, mean arterial pressure decreased more in SOC than in CON (-5±7 vs +4±5 mmHg; Psoccer training resulted in broad-spectrum improvements in the health profile of untrained, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and musculo-skeletal benefits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation are differentially expressed following intermittent vs. sustained neural apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertsch, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal motor output known as inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF, respectively). We hypothesized that, similar to other forms of respiratory plasticity, iPMF and iHMF are pattern sensitive. Central respiratory neural activity was reversibly reduced in ventilated rats by hyperventilating below the CO2 apneic threshold to create brief intermittent neural apneas (5, ∼1.5 min each, separated by 5 min), a single brief massed neural apnea (7.5 min), or a single prolonged neural apnea (30 min). Upon restoration of respiratory neural activity, long-lasting (>60 min) iPMF was apparent following brief intermittent and prolonged, but not brief massed, neural apnea. Further, brief intermittent and prolonged neural apnea elicited an increase in the maximum phrenic response to high CO2, suggesting that iPMF is associated with an increase in phrenic dynamic range. By contrast, only prolonged neural apnea elicited iHMF, which was transient in duration (apnea all elicited a modest transient facilitation of respiratory frequency. These results indicate that iPMF, but not iHMF, is pattern sensitive, and that the response to respiratory neural inactivity is motor pool specific. PMID:23493368

  6. Catalysis by Glomerella cingulata cutinase requires conformational cycling between the active and inactive states of its catalytic triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyon, Mun Peak; Rice, David W; Berrisford, John M; Hounslow, Andrea M; Moir, Arthur J G; Huang, Huazhang; Nathan, Sheila; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Craven, C Jeremy

    2009-01-09

    Cutinase belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters and triglycerides. Structural studies on the enzyme from Fusarium solani have revealed the presence of a classic catalytic triad that has been implicated in the enzyme's mechanism. We have solved the crystal structure of Glomerella cingulata cutinase in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitors E600 (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and PETFP (3-phenethylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one) to resolutions between 2.6 and 1.9 A. Analysis of these structures reveals that the catalytic triad (Ser136, Asp191, and His204) adopts an unusual configuration with the putative essential histidine His204 swung out of the active site into a position where it is unable to participate in catalysis, with the imidazole ring 11 A away from its expected position. Solution-state NMR experiments are consistent with the disrupted configuration of the triad observed crystallographically. H204N, a site-directed mutant, was shown to be catalytically inactive, confirming the importance of this residue in the enzyme mechanism. These findings suggest that, during its catalytic cycle, cutinase undergoes a significant conformational rearrangement converting the loop bearing the histidine from an inactive conformation, in which the histidine of the triad is solvent exposed, to an active conformation, in which the triad assumes a classic configuration.

  7. Factors associated with physical inactivity among school-going adolescents: data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Azli; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Cheong, Siew Man; Ying, Chan Ying; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2014-09-01

    The importance of physical activity to health is well recognized. Good health habits should begin from a young age. This article aims to explore physical activity among Malaysian school adolescents and factors associated with it. Data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey (MSNS), comprising a nationally representative sample of school-going children aged 10 to 17 years, were used. The overall prevalence of physically inactive adolescents was 57.3%. Age in years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.23), gender - females (adjusted odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.66-3.10), afternoon school session, breakfast consumption (no breakfast and irregular breakfast), body mass index status (obese and underweight), and body weight perception (underweight perceivers) were significant factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, there is evidence that programs to promote physical activity in this group should consider the combination of the aforementioned factors at the household, school, and community levels. © 2014 APJPH.

  8. Highly Conductive, Mechanically Robust, and Electrochemically Inactive TiC/C Nanofiber Scaffold for High-Performance Silicon Anode Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yan

    2011-10-25

    Silicon has a high specific capacity of 4200 mAh/g as lithium-ion battery anodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to >300% volume expansion and pulverization presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a core-shell TiC/C/Si inactive/active nanocomposite for Si anodes demonstrating high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling. The amorphous silicon layer serves as the active material to store Li+, while the inactive TiC/C nanofibers act as a conductive and mechanically robust scaffold for electron transport during the Li-Si alloying process. The core-shell TiC/C/Si nanocomposite anode shows ∼3000 mAh g-1 discharge capacity and 92% capacity retention after 100 charge/discharge cycles. The excellent cycling stability and high rate performance could be attributed to the tapering of the nanofibers and the open structure that allows facile Li ion transport and the high conductivity and mechanical stability of the TiC/C scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Effect of Endurance, Strength and Combined Training on Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Inactive Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Ramezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, Iranian lifestyles are changing, especially children may be effected by the increase of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that different methods of exercise are the most important determinants of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to survey the lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels following eight weeks of endurance, strength and combined training in inactive obese children. Methods: The present quasi-experimental field was conducted on Sixty obese male children (age: 8-12 years, BMI between 30-35 kg/m2 according to the World Health Organization who were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 individuals including endurance exercise, resistance exercise, combined exercise and control. Exercise training programs were performed four times a week for eight weeks. To assess variable changes, ANOVA with repeated measurement and one way ANOVA was used. Results: Results showed that after three types of exercise training  the BMI, total chlostrol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and insulin resistance significantly decreased in experimental groups compared to control group (P=0.001. Serum HDL and adiponectin was significantly increased after different training in experimental groups in comparison to control group (P=0.001.  Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested that among three types of exercise applied in this study, particularly, endurance training is use to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity-related disorders in inactive obese children. .

  10. Physical inactivity is associated with low self efficacy and social support among patients with hypertension in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, O A; Adeniyi, A F; Atijosan, O J; Ogwumike, O O

    2013-06-01

    BACKGROUND Physical inactivity is a major factor in the development of many chronic illnesses, including hypertension. Evidence highlighting links among physical activity participation and psychosocial constructs such as self efficacy, social support and perceived barriers among hypertensive patients in the Nigerian population is scarce. This study explored the associations between physical activity and each of self efficacy, social support and perceived barriers. METHODS Two hundred and twelve patients receiving treatment in two tertiary health institutions located in Ekiti State, Nigeria were surveyed cross-sectionally. Physical activity level, self efficacy, social support and perceived barriers were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Medical Outcomes Social Support Scale and Exercise Benefits and Barrier Scale respectively. RESULTS Level of physical activity was significantly associated with self efficacy (r(s) = 0.67, p physically inactive. However, no association was found between physical activity level and perceived barriers (r(s) = 0.07, p > 0.01, = 0.005). CONCLUSION Most of the hypertensive patients presented with low levels of physical activity. Physical activity was associated with psychosocial constructs including self efficacy and social support but not with perceived barriers.

  11. The 4D nucleome: Evidence for a dynamic nuclear landscape based on co-aligned active and inactive nuclear compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion; Hübner, Barbara; Strickfaden, Hilmar; Smeets, Daniel; Popken, Jens; Sterr, Michael; Markaki, Yolanda; Rippe, Karsten; Cremer, Christoph

    2015-10-07

    Recent methodological advancements in microscopy and DNA sequencing-based methods provide unprecedented new insights into the spatio-temporal relationships between chromatin and nuclear machineries. We discuss a model of the underlying functional nuclear organization derived mostly from electron and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy studies. It is based on two spatially co-aligned, active and inactive nuclear compartments (ANC and INC). The INC comprises the compact, transcriptionally inactive core of chromatin domain clusters (CDCs). The ANC is formed by the transcriptionally active periphery of CDCs, called the perichromatin region (PR), and the interchromatin compartment (IC). The IC is connected to nuclear pores and serves nuclear import and export functions. The ANC is the major site of RNA synthesis. It is highly enriched in epigenetic marks for transcriptionally competent chromatin and RNA Polymerase II. Marks for silent chromatin are enriched in the INC. Multi-scale cross-correlation spectroscopy suggests that nuclear architecture resembles a random obstacle network for diffusing proteins. An increased dwell time of proteins and protein complexes within the ANC may help to limit genome scanning by factors or factor complexes to DNA exposed within the ANC. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical self-esteem and personality traits in Swedish physically inactive female high school students: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlin, Yvonne; Werner, Suzanne; Edman, Gunnar; Raustorp, Anders; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity provides fundamental health benefits and plays a positive role in physical well-being. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether a 6-month physical activity program could influence physical self-esteem and frequency of physical activity in physically inactive female high school students in short- and long-term periods and whether personality traits were related to physical activity behaviour and compliance with the program. The study was a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study including 104 physically inactive female high school students aged 16-19 years, 60 females in an intervention group and 44 females in a control group. The intervention group exercised at sport centres at least once per week during a 6-month period. Questionnaires were used for evaluation. At a 6-month follow up, the intervention group improved physical self-perception in all subdomains and significantly improved physical condition, physical self-worth and self-related health compared to the control group. At 1-year follow up, 25 females out of 53 females were still physically active, and all ratings remained almost the same as at the 6-month follow up. There were no particular personality traits that were dominant in the groups. A 6-month physical activity program can positively influence physical self-esteem and the frequency of physical activity, both from a short- and long-term perspective.

  13. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from former uranium processing activities at inactive uranium processing sites (40 CFR 192). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has decided that each assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA groundwater protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include: Definition of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the environment, including hydrostratigraphy, aquifer parameters, areas of aquifer recharge and discharge, potentiometric surfaces, and groundwater velocities. Definition of background groundwater quality and comparison with the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. Evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant source and/or residual radioactive materials. Definition of existing groundwater contamination by comparison with the EPA groundwater protection standards. Description of the geochemical processes that affect the downward migration of the source contaminants at the processing site. Description of water resource utilization, including availability, current and future use and value, and alternate water supplies

  14. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoff, A.R.; Lacker, D.K.

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas

  15. Distinct nuclear arrangement of active and inactive c-myc genes in control and differentiated colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnicarova, Andrea; Kozubek, Stanislav; Pachernik, Jiri; Krejci, Jana; Bartova, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Using sequential RNA-DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, the nuclear arrangement of both the active and inactive c-myc gene as well as its transcription was investigated in colon cancer HT-29 cells induced to differentiate into enterocytes. Cytogenetic studies revealed the presence of two chromosomes 8 in HT-29 cells, of which the one containing c-myc gene amplicons was substantially larger and easily distinguished from the normal chromosome. This observation enabled detection of both activity and nuclear localization of c-myc genes in single cells and in individual chromosome territories. Similar transcriptional activity of the c-myc gene was observed in both the normal and derivative chromosome 8 territories showing no influence of the amplification on the c-myc gene expression. Our experiments demonstrate strikingly specific nuclear and territorial arrangements of active genes as compared with inactive ones: on the periphery of their territories facing to the very central region of the cell nucleus. Nuclear arrangement of c-myc genes and transcripts was conserved during cell differentiation and, therefore, independent of the level of differentiation-specific c-myc gene expression. However, after the induction of differentiation, a more internal territorial location was found for the single copy c-myc gene of normal chromosome 8, while amplicons conserved their territorial topography

  16. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado

  17. Levels and correlates of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office jobs in Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2016-06-20

    Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.

  18. Pro DNS and BIND 10

    CERN Document Server

    Aitchison, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Pro DNS and BIND 10 guides you through the challenging array of features surrounding DNS with a special focus on the latest release of BIND, the world's most popular DNS implementation. This book unravels the mysteries of DNS, offering insight into origins, evolution, and key concepts like domain names and zone files. This book focuses on running DNS systems based on BIND 10, the first stable release that includes support for the latest DNSSEC standards. Whether you administer a DNS system, are thinking about running one, or you simply want to understand the DNS system, then this book for you.

  19. Protein binding of psychotropic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon fluorescence measurements, protein binding of some psychotropic agents (chlorpromazine, promethazine, and trifluoperazine) to human IgG and HSA was studied in aqueous cacodylate buffer, PH7. The interaction parameters determined from emission quenching of the proteins. The interaction parameters determined include the equilibrium constant (K), calculated from equations derived by Borazan and coworkers, the number of binding sites (n) available to the monomer molecules on a single protein molecule. The results revealed a high level of affinity, as reflected by high values of K, and the existence of specific binding sites, since a limited number of n values are obtained. 39 tabs.; 37 figs.; 83 refs

  20. Inactive methyl indole-3-acetic acid ester can be hydrolyzed and activated by several esterases belonging to the AtMES esterase family of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Richard; Ma, Choong-Je; Vlot, A Corina; Klessig, Daniel F; Pichersky, Eran

    2008-07-01

    The plant hormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) is found both free and conjugated to a variety of carbohydrates, amino acids, and peptides. We have recently shown that IAA could be converted to its methyl ester (MeIAA) by the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) enzyme IAA carboxyl methyltransferase 1. However, the presence and function of MeIAA in vivo remains unclear. Recently, it has been shown that the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protein SABP2 (salicylic acid binding protein 2) hydrolyzes methyl salicylate to salicylic acid. There are 20 homologs of SABP2 in the genome of Arabidopsis, which we have named AtMES (for methyl esterases). We tested 15 of the proteins encoded by these genes in biochemical assays with various substrates and identified several candidate MeIAA esterases that could hydrolyze MeIAA. MeIAA, like IAA, exerts inhibitory activity on the growth of wild-type roots when applied exogenously. However, the roots of Arabidopsis plants carrying T-DNA insertions in the putative MeIAA esterase gene AtMES17 (At3g10870) displayed significantly decreased sensitivity to MeIAA compared with wild-type roots while remaining as sensitive to free IAA as wild-type roots. Incubating seedlings in the presence of [(14)C]MeIAA for 30 min revealed that mes17 mutants hydrolyzed only 40% of the [(14)C]MeIAA taken up by plants, whereas wild-type plants hydrolyzed 100% of absorbed [(14)C]MeIAA. Roots of Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtMES17 showed increased sensitivity to MeIAA but not to IAA. Additionally, mes17 plants have longer hypocotyls and display increased expression of the auxin-responsive DR5:beta-glucuronidase reporter gene, suggesting a perturbation in IAA homeostasis and/or transport. mes17-1/axr1-3 double mutant plants have the same phenotype as axr1-3, suggesting MES17 acts upstream of AXR1. The protein encoded by AtMES17 had a K(m) value of 13 microm and a K(cat) value of 0.18 s(-1) for MeIAA. AtMES17 was expressed at the highest levels in shoot

  1. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... Syndrome CME. Medscape From Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism [On-line information]. Available online at http://www. ...

  2. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong

    2017-01-01

    solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...

  3. Pixel-by-pixel analysis of DCE-MRI curve shape patterns in knees of active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemke, Robert; Lavini, Cristina; Maas, Mario; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Dolman, Koert M.; Rossum, Marion A.J. van

    2014-01-01

    To compare DCE-MRI parameters and the relative number of time-intensity curve (TIC) shapes as derived from pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis between knees of clinically active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. DCE-MRI data sets were prospectively obtained. Patients were classified into two clinical groups: active disease (n = 43) and inactive disease (n = 34). Parametric maps, showing seven different TIC shape types, were created per slice. Statistical measures of different TIC shapes, maximal enhancement (ME), maximal initial slope (MIS), initial area under the curve (iAUC), time-to-peak (TTP), enhancing volume (EV), volume transfer constant (K trans ), extravascular space fractional volume (V e ) and reverse volume transfer constant (k ep ) of each voxel were calculated in a three-dimensional volume-of-interest of the synovial membrane. Imaging findings from 77 JIA patients were analysed. Significantly higher numbers of TIC shape 4 (P = 0.008), median ME (P = 0.015), MIS (P = 0.001) and iAUC (P = 0.002) were observed in clinically active compared with inactive patients. TIC shape 5 showed higher presence in the clinically inactive patients (P = 0.036). The pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis method proved capable of differentiating clinically active from inactive JIA patients by the difference in the number of TIC shapes, as well as the descriptive parameters ME, MIS and iAUC. (orig.)

  4. Structural Plasticity of Malaria Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Allows Selective Binding of Diverse Chemical Scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Gujjar, Ramesh; El Mazouni, Farah; Kaminsky, Werner; Malmquist, Nicholas A.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Phillips, Margaret A.; (UWASH); (UTSMC)

    2010-01-20

    Malaria remains a major global health burden and current drug therapies are compromised by resistance. Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) was validated as a new drug target through the identification of potent and selective triazolopyrimidine-based DHODH inhibitors with anti-malarial activity in vivo. Here we report x-ray structure determination of PfDHODH bound to three inhibitors from this series, representing the first of the enzyme bound to malaria specific inhibitors. We demonstrate that conformational flexibility results in an unexpected binding mode identifying a new hydrophobic pocket on the enzyme. Importantly this plasticity allows PfDHODH to bind inhibitors from different chemical classes and to accommodate inhibitor modifications during lead optimization, increasing the value of PfDHODH as a drug target. A second discovery, based on small molecule crystallography, is that the triazolopyrimidines populate a resonance form that promotes charge separation. These intrinsic dipoles allow formation of energetically favorable H-bond interactions with the enzyme. The importance of delocalization to binding affinity was supported by site-directed mutagenesis and the demonstration that triazolopyrimidine analogs that lack this intrinsic dipole are inactive. Finally, the PfDHODH-triazolopyrimidine bound structures provide considerable new insight into species-selective inhibitor binding in this enzyme family. Together, these studies will directly impact efforts to exploit PfDHODH for the development of anti-malarial chemotherapy.

  5. Uncoupling of stem cell inhibition from monocyte chemoattraction in MIP-1alpha by mutagenesis of the proteoglycan binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, G J; Wilkinson, P C; Nibbs, R J; Lowe, S; Kolset, S O; Parker, A; Freshney, M G; Tsang, M L; Pragnell, I B

    1996-12-02

    We have studied the role of proteoglycans in the function of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), a member of the proteoglycan binding chemokine family. Sequence and peptide analysis has identified a basic region within MIP-1alpha which appears to be the major determinant of proteoglycan binding and we have now produced a mutant of MIP-1alpha lacking the basic charges on two of the amino acids within this proteoglycan binding site. This mutant (Hep Mut) appears to have lost the ability to bind to proteoglycans. Bioassay of Hep Mut indicates that it has retained stem cell inhibitory properties but has a compromised activity as a monocyte chemoattractant, thus suggesting uncoupling of these two properties of MIP-1alpha. Receptor studies have indicated that the inactivity of Hep Mut on human monocytes correlates with its inability to bind to CCR1, a cloned human MIP-1alpha receptor. In addition, studies using proteoglycan deficient cells transfected with CCR1 have indicated that the proteoglycan binding site in MIP-1alpha is a site that is also involved in the docking of MIP-1alpha to the monocyte receptor. The site for interaction with the stem cell receptor must therefore be distinct, suggesting that MIP-1alpha utilizes different receptors for these two different biological processes.

  6. Remedial Action Plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Spook, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, M L [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States). Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office; Sullivan, M [Wyoming State Government, Cheyenne, WY (United States)

    1990-04-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at an inactive uranium processing site northeast of Casper, Wyoming, and referred to as the Spook site. It provides a characterization of the present conditions at the site and also serves to document the concurrence of the State of Wyoming and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the State of Wyoming, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  7. Insulin resistance induced by physical inactivity is associated with multiple transcriptional changes in skeletal muscle in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibegovic, A C; Sonne, M P; Højbjerre, L

    2010-01-01

    resistance, bed rest resulted in a paradoxically increased response to acute insulin stimulation in the general expression of genes, particularly those involved in inflammation and endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress. Furthermore, bed rest changed gene expressions of several insulin resistance and diabetes...... contribute to the development of insulin resistance induced by bed rest. Lack of complete normalization of changes after 4 wk of retraining underscores the importance of maintaining a minimum of daily physical activity.......Physical inactivity is a risk factor for insulin resistance. We examined the effect of 9 days of bed rest on basal and insulin-stimulated expression of genes potentially involved in insulin action by applying hypothesis-generating microarray in parallel with candidate gene real-time PCR approaches...

  8. Remedial Action Plan for stabilization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This remedial action plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and near Bowman (at the former Griffin town site), North Dakota. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the sites. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of North Dakota and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of North Dakota and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement

  9. Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs

  10. Comparison of confirmed inactive and randomly selected compounds as negative training examples in support vector machine-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-07-22

    The choice of negative training data for machine learning is a little explored issue in chemoinformatics. In this study, the influence of alternative sets of negative training data and different background databases on support vector machine (SVM) modeling and virtual screening has been investigated. Target-directed SVM models have been derived on the basis of differently composed training sets containing confirmed inactive molecules or randomly selected database compounds as negative training instances. These models were then applied to search background databases consisting of biological screening data or randomly assembled compounds for available hits. Negative training data were found to systematically influence compound recall in virtual screening. In addition, different background databases had a strong influence on the search results. Our findings also indicated that typical benchmark settings lead to an overestimation of SVM-based virtual screening performance compared to search conditions that are more relevant for practical applications.

  11. Inactive Tanks Remediation Program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Remediation Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed fimn service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA and CERCLA requirements. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) will be addressed in choosing a remediation alternative. Preference will be given to remedies that are highly reliable and provide long-term protection. Efforts will be directed toward permanently and significantly reducing the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants associated with the tank systems. Where indicated by operational or other restraints, interim measures short of full and complete remediation may be taken to maintain human health and ecological risks at acceptable levels until full remediation can be accomplished

  12. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    usual clinical care. Frequency of physical exercise (>= 30 minutes with at least some shortness of breath, sweating) is queried with 4 response options: >= 3 times weekly, 1-2 times weekly, 1-2 times monthly, and no exercise. Results. Between January 2005 and April 2007, a total of 5,235 patients from......Objective. Regular physical activity is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been advised to limit physical exercise. We studied the prevalence of physical activity and associations with demographic and disease...... 58 sites in 21 countries were enrolled in QUEST-RA: 79% were women, >90% were white, mean age was 57 years, and mean disease duration was 11.6 years. Only 13.8% of all patients reported physical exercise >= 3 times weekly. The majority of the patients were physically inactive with no regular weekly...

  13. Remedial Action Plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Spook, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.L.

    1990-04-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at an inactive uranium processing site northeast of Casper, Wyoming, and referred to as the Spook site. It provides a characterization of the present conditions at the site and also serves to document the concurrence of the State of Wyoming and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the State of Wyoming, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement

  14. Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs.

  15. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old, Danish men. Relation to sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, Kristian; Brixen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old men and to analyze whether sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status are independent correlates of obesity and physical inactivity. DESIGN: Population-based, cross...... men and the 2042 questionnaire respondents matched the background population demographically. The 783 men matched the questionnaire respondents as regards BMI, physical activity, chronic disease, medication, smoking, sociodemography and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity...... significantly with age and correlated inversely with WC, but not with BMI. Occupation, geography, partner status, fatherhood and tobacco exposure were independently related with obesity and physical inactivity. Obesity was also related to musculoskeletal complaints, whereas chronic diseases and low educational...

  16. Prevalence of Sexual Concerns and Sexual Dysfunction among Sexually Active and Inactive Men and Women with Screen‐Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Bjerggaard, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Sexual inactivity is highly prevalent among middle‐aged and older men and women with early type 2 diabetes and these patients often have sexual concerns. The high exclusion rates when assessing SD using the FSFI‐R and IIEF‐5 instruments makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the prevalence. Sexual health should be broadly assessed in both sexually active and sexually inactive people with type 2 diabetes. Bjerggaard M, Charles M, Kristensen E, Lauritzen T, Sandbæk A, and Giraldi A. Prevalence of sexual concerns and sexual dysfunction among sexually active and inactive men and women with screen‐detected type 2 diabetes. Sex Med 2015;3:302–310.

  17. Studies on the Formation of Murein-Bound Lipoprotein in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-15

    Nagoya University (Nagoya, Japan). M13 mp18 phage used in oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was purchased from the BioRad Lab Corp (Richmond, CA...mutagenesis and subcloning of the mutant IRQ alleles are shown in Fig. 6. M13 lnB phage was constructed by subcloning the leg structural gene from the...plasmid pJG02 (Giam ~ AI., I984a) to MI3 mpI8 phage . Plasmid pJG02 DNA was digested with restriction enzymes XbaI and HQAI , and the RF DNA of M13

  18. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Interaction of the phosphorylated DNA-binding domain in nuclear receptor CAR with its ligand-binding domain regulates CAR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Ryota; Min, Jungki; Sobhany, Mack; Pedersen, Lars C; Mutoh, Shingo; Negishi, Masahiko

    2018-01-05

    The nuclear protein constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR or NR1I3) regulates several liver functions such as drug and energy metabolism and cell growth or death, which are often involved in the development of diseases such as diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma. CAR undergoes a conversion from inactive homodimers to active heterodimers with retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), and phosphorylation of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) at Thr-38 in CAR regulates this conversion. Here, we uncovered the molecular mechanism by which this phosphorylation regulates the intramolecular interaction between CAR's DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD), enabling the homodimer-heterodimer conversion. Phosphomimetic substitution of Thr-38 with Asp increased co-immunoprecipitation of the CAR DBD with CAR LBD in Huh-7 cells. Isothermal titration calorimetry assays also revealed that recombinant CAR DBD-T38D, but not nonphosphorylated CAR DBD, bound the CAR LBD peptide. This DBD-LBD interaction masked CAR's dimer interface, preventing CAR homodimer formation. Of note, EGF signaling weakened the interaction of CAR DBD T38D with CAR LBD, converting CAR to the homodimer form. The DBD-T38D-LBD interaction also prevented CAR from forming a heterodimer with RXRα. However, this interaction opened up a CAR surface, allowing interaction with protein phosphatase 2A. Thr-38 dephosphorylation then dissociated the DBD-LBD interaction, allowing CAR heterodimer formation with RXRα. We conclude that the intramolecular interaction of phosphorylated DBD with the LBD enables CAR to adapt a transient monomer configuration that can be converted to either the inactive homodimer or the active heterodimer.

  20. A single daily meal at the beginning of the active or inactive period inhibits food deprivation-induced fatty liver in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Natsumi; Yoshida, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Ryosuke; Ando, Midori; Nakamura, Kaai; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-07-01

    Food deprivation (FD) induces hepatic steatosis in both rodents and humans. Although body composition, age, and sex influence hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels after FD, whether feeding patterns affect FD-induced liver TG increases is unknown. We hypothesized that restricted feeding (RF) of 1 meal per day during the active or inactive period (especially the inactive period) augments FD-induced elevation of liver TGs because RF in the inactive period impairs the circadian rhythm. Triglyceride levels and the expression of genes related to TG metabolism in the liver were examined by a bioassay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. In the first experiment, when compared to nonfasted mice, mice that fasted for 24 hours showed a 1.5-fold (FD starting during the inactive period) to 3-fold (FD started during the active period) increase in liver TG levels. This experiment showed that TG levels depend upon the starting time of FD. In the second experiment, mice were given free access to food for 3 hours at the beginning of either the inactive ("supper-only") or the active ("breakfast-only") period for 2 weeks. Restricted feeding inhibited the FD-induced increases in liver and serum TG levels, serum free fatty acids, and the expression of genes related to fatty acid uptake in the liver, including fatty acid transport protein 1 (Fatp1) and 4 (Fatp4). Unexpectedly, compared to free feeding, RF during the active or inactive period resulted in resistance to FD-induced fatty liver. This is the first study to demonstrate that feeding patterns affect FD-induced TG accumulation in the mouse liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suspected motor problems and low preference for active play in childhood are associated with physical inactivity and low fitness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Purtsi, Jarno; Taanila, Anja M; Remes, Jouko; Viholainen, Helena; Rintala, Pauli; Ahonen, Timo; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2011-01-18

    This prospective longitudinal study investigates whether suspected motor problems and low preference for active play in childhood are associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. The study sample consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) composed of 5,767 children whose parents responded to a postal inquiry concerning their children's motor skills at age 8 years and who themselves reported their physical activity at age 16 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a cycle ergometer test at age 16 years. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the level of physical activity and fitness were obtained from multinomial logistic regression and adjusted for socio-economic position and body mass index. Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity (boys: OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.42-4.53; girls: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.36-2.36) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.27-2.74; girls: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09-2.11) in adolescence. Suspected gross (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.33-3.49) and fine (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.35-2.60) motor problems were associated with physical inactivity among boys. Children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Furthermore, children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Identification of children who do not prefer active play and who have motor problems may allow targeted interventions to support their motor learning and participation in active play and thereby promote their physical activity and fitness in later life.

  2. Suspected motor problems and low preference for active play in childhood are associated with physical inactivity and low fitness in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko T Kantomaa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective longitudinal study investigates whether suspected motor problems and low preference for active play in childhood are associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence.The study sample consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986 composed of 5,767 children whose parents responded to a postal inquiry concerning their children's motor skills at age 8 years and who themselves reported their physical activity at age 16 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a cycle ergometer test at age 16 years. Odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the level of physical activity and fitness were obtained from multinomial logistic regression and adjusted for socio-economic position and body mass index. Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity (boys: OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.42-4.53; girls: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.36-2.36 and low cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.27-2.74; girls: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09-2.11 in adolescence. Suspected gross (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.33-3.49 and fine (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.35-2.60 motor problems were associated with physical inactivity among boys. Children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence.Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Furthermore, children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Identification of children who do not prefer active play and who have motor problems may allow targeted interventions to support their motor learning and participation in active play and thereby promote their physical activity and fitness in later life.

  3. Screening for physical inactivity among adults: the value of distance walked in the six-minute walk test. A cross-sectional diagnostic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Accelerometry provides objective measurement of physical activity levels, but is unfeasible in clinical practice. Thus, we aimed to identify physical fitness tests capable of predicting physical inactivity among adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Diagnostic test study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 188 asymptomatic subjects underwent assessment of physical activity levels through accelerometry, ergospirometry on treadmill, body composition from bioelectrical impedance, isokinetic muscle function, postural balance on a force platform and six-minute walk test. We conducted descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression including age, sex, oxygen uptake, body fat, center of pressure, quadriceps peak torque, distance covered in six-minute walk test and steps/day in the model, as predictors of physical inactivity. We also determined sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp and area under the curve of the main predictors by means of receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity was 14%. The mean number of steps/day (≤ 5357 was the best predictor of physical inactivity (S = 99%; Sp = 82%. The best physical fitness test was a distance in the six-minute walk test and ≤ 96% of predicted values (S = 70%; Sp = 80%. Body fat > 25% was also significant (S = 83%; Sp = 51%. After logistic regression, steps/day and distance in the six-minute walk test remained predictors of physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: The six-minute walk test should be included in epidemiological studies as a simple and cheap tool for screening for physical inactivity.

  4. Water binding in legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    The physical status of water in seeds has a pivotal role in determining the physiological reactions that can take place in the dry state. Using water sorption isotherms from cotyledon and axis tissue of five leguminous seeds, the strength of water binding and the numbers of binding sites have been estimated using van't Hoff analyses and the D'Arcy/Watt equation. These parameters of water sorption are calculated for each of the three regions of water binding and for a range of temperatures. Water sorption characteristics are reflective of the chemical composition of the biological materials as well as the temperature at which hydration takes place. Changes in the sorption characteristics with temperature and hydration level may suggest hydration-induced structural changes in cellular components.

  5. Interleukin-18 and IL-18 Binding Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinarello, C.A.; Novick, D.; Kim, S.; Kaplanski, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Similar to IL-1beta, IL-18 is synthesized as an inactive precursor requiring processing by caspase-1 into an active cytokine but unlike IL-1beta, the IL-18 precursor is constitutively present in nearly all cells in healthy humans

  6. Mutations that silence constitutive signaling activity in the allosteric ligand-binding site of the thyrotropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Ann-Karin; Kleinau, Gunnar; Hoyer, Inna; Neumann, Susanne; Furkert, Jens; Rutz, Claudia; Schülein, Ralf; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Krause, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) exhibits elevated cAMP signaling in the basal state and becomes fully activated by thyrotropin. Previously we presented evidence that small-molecule ligands act allosterically within the transmembrane region in contrast to the orthosteric extracellular hormone-binding sites. Our goal in this study was to identify positions that surround the allosteric pocket and that are sensitive for inactivation of TSHR. Homology modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis and functional characterization revealed seven mutants located in the allosteric binding site that led to a decrease of basal cAMP signaling activity. The majority of these silencing mutations, which constrain the TSHR in an inactive conformation, are found in two clusters when mapped onto the 3D structural model. We suggest that the amino acid positions identified herein are indicating locations where small-molecule antagonists, both neutral antagonists and inverse agonists, might interfere with active TSHR conformations.

  7. Structural basis of activation-dependent binding of ligand-mimetic antibody AL-57 to integrin LFA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongmin; Liu, Jin-huan; Yang, Wei; Springer, Timothy; Shimaoka, Motomu; Wang, Jia-huai; (CH-Boston); (DFCI)

    2010-09-21

    The activity of integrin LFA-1 ({alpha}{sub L}{beta}{sub 2}) to its ligand ICAM-1 is regulated through the conformational changes of its ligand-binding domain, the I domain of {alpha}{sub L} chain, from an inactive, low-affinity closed form (LA), to an intermediate-affinity form (IA), and then finally, to a high-affinity open form (HA). A ligand-mimetic human monoclonal antibody AL-57 (activated LFA-1 clone 57) was identified by phage display to specifically recognize the affinity-upregulated I domain. Here, we describe the crystal structures of the Fab fragment of AL-57 in complex with IA, as well as in its unligated form. We discuss the structural features conferring AL-57's strong selectivity for the high affinity, open conformation of the I domain. The AL-57-binding site overlaps the ICAM-1 binding site on the I domain. Furthermore, an antibody Asp mimics an ICAM Glu by forming a coordination to the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). The structure also reveals better shape complementarity and a more hydrophobic interacting interface in AL-57 binding than in ICAM-1 binding. The results explain AL-57's antagonistic mimicry of LFA-1's natural ligands, the ICAM molecules.

  8. Isolation of Panels of Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments Binding All Nine Neuraminidase Subtypes of Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Koch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza A virus comprises sixteen hemagglutinin (HA and nine neuraminidase (NA subtypes (N1–N9. To isolate llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs against all N subtypes, four llamas were immunized with mixtures of influenza viruses. Selections using influenza virus yielded predominantly VHHs binding to the highly immunogenic HA and nucleoprotein. However, selection using enzymatically active recombinant NA (rNA protein enabled us to isolate NA binding VHHs. Some isolated VHHs cross-reacted to other N subtypes. These were subsequently used for the capture of N subtypes that could not be produced as recombinant protein (rN6 or were enzymatically inactive (rN1, rN5 in phage display selection, yielding novel VHHs. In total we isolated 188 NA binding VHHs, 64 of which were expressed in yeast. Most VHHs specifically recognize a single N subtype, but some VHHs cross-react with other N-subtypes. At least one VHH bound to all N subtypes, except N4, identifying a conserved antigenic site. Thus, this work (1 describes methods for isolating NA binding VHHs, (2 illustrates the suitability of llama immunization with multiple antigens for retrieving many binders against different antigens and (3 describes 64 novel NA binding VHHs, including a broadly reactive VHH, which can be used in various assays for influenza virus subtyping, detection or serology.

  9. Auto-estima na forma inativa da oftalmopatia de Graves Inactive Graves' ophthalmopathy and self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Toledo Magalhães

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a auto-estima dos pacientes com oftalmopatia de Graves na fase inativa. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes portadores de oftalmopatia de Graves, eutireoideanos, na fase inativa, com idade variando entre 26 e 65 anos, média 43 ± 11,0 anos, denominado grupo estudo e 39 indivíduos que não apresentavam oftalmopatia de Graves, com idade variando entre 18 e 67 anos, média de 41 ± 13,4 anos, selecionados na população geral denominado grupo controle. Para avaliar a auto-estima foi utilizada a escala de auto-estima Rosenberg Unifesp-EPM aplicada por meio de entrevista. Os valores dos escores de auto-estima nos dois grupos estudados foram comparados pelo teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. O mesmo teste foi aplicado com objetivo de comparar os resultados obtidos no grupo oftalmopatia de Graves considerando a gravidade da doença. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada alteração com significância estatística na auto-estima dos pacientes com oftalmopatia de Graves (p=0,057. O grupo estudo apresentou, em média, valores inferiores de auto-estima, comparado ao grupo controle. Não houve diferença da auto-estima entre os pacientes dos subgrupos leve e moderado-grave (P=0,2710. CONCLUSÃO: A oftalmopatia de Graves na fase inativa não afetou a auto-estima dos pacientes, no grupo estudado.PURPOSE: To assess the self-esteem of Graves' ophthalmopathy patients in the inactive phase. METHODS: Thirty euthyroid patients were evaluated in the inactive phase of disease with age ranging from 26 to 65 years, average of 43 ± 11,0 years, called study group and 39 individuals without Graves' ophthalmopathy with age ranging from 18 to 67 years, average of 41 ± 13,4 years, selected from the general population called control group. To evaluate the self-esteem the Rosenberg UNIFESP/EPM self-esteem scale, applied by means of an interview, was utilized. The self-esteem scores in the two studied groups were compared by means of the non

  10. When is protein binding important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Jules; Schmidt, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-09-01

    The present paper is an ode to a classic citation by Benet and Hoener (2002. Clin Pharm Ther 71(3):115-121). The now classic paper had a huge impact on drug development and the way the issue of protein binding is perceived and interpreted. Although the authors very clearly pointed out the limitations and underlying assumptions for their delineations, these are too often overlooked and the classic paper's message is misinterpreted by broadening to cases that were not intended. Some members of the scientific community concluded from the paper that protein binding is not important. This was clearly not intended by the authors, as they finished their paper with a paragraph entitled: "When is protein binding important?" Misinterpretation of the underlying assumptions in the classic work can result in major pitfalls in drug development. Therefore, we revisit the topic of protein binding with the intention of clarifying when clinically relevant changes should be considered during drug development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  12. Molecular Basis of Inactive B-RAF(WT) and B-RAF(V600E) Ligand Inhibition, Selectivity and Conformational Stability: An in Silico Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratev, Filip Filipov; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Mihaylova, E.

    2009-01-01

    The B-RAF kinase plays an important role both in tumor induction and maintenance in several cancers. The molecular basis of the inactive B-RAF(WT) and B-RAF(V600E) inhibition and selectivity of a series of inhibitors was examined with a combination of molecular dynamics (MD), free energy MM-PBSA ...

  13. Economically inactive, unemployed and employed suicides in Australia by age and sex over a 10-year period: what was the impact of the 2007 economic recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Morrell, Stephen; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is higher among economically inactive and unemployed persons than employed persons. This paper investigates differences in this relationship by sex and age over the period 2001 to 2010 in Australia. It also examines changes in suicide among employed, unemployed and economically inactive persons during the recession of 2007-09. Suicide data from the National Coroners Information System were utilised for this retrospective study. Negative binomial and Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between suicide and employment status and to investigate differences in suicide rates over the period of the recession (2007-09) compared with the year before the recession (2006). Results suggest that during 2001-10 economically inactive/unemployed males had a suicide rate ratio (RR) of 4.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.10, 5.19; Peffects of the economic recession on the working age population. Particularly, these should target unemployed and economically inactive men and women in Australia, who may be at higher risk of suicide than previously thought. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  14. The effect of supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts on the colour, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and astringency of a model wine solution and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Royo, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays supplementing red wines with commercial inactive dry yeasts is a widespread practice in winemaking because it leads to better balanced wines through increased mouthfeel and smooth astringency. The aim of this article is to study, in a red wine and in a model wine solution, how supplementation with three commercial inactive dry yeasts affects chemical composition and astringency. This will give us a better understanding of the action mechanism involved. The results suggest that this action mechanism is related to two different phenomena. The first is that inactive yeasts release polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which can increase mouthfeel and inhibit interactions between salivary protein and tannins. The second is that they have a direct effect on the precipitation or absorption of proanthocyanidins, especially the larger polymers, which have been described as the most astringent. It can be concluded that supplementation with inactive yeasts is indeed a useful tool for smoothing the astringency of red wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents: results of the E-MOVO project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croezen, S.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Bogt, ter N.C.W.; Veling, M.L.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective/Background: To investigate the association between skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity with overweight and obesity in adolescents. The design comprises cross-sectional electronic health survey (E-MOVO). Subjects/Methods: Over 35 000 Dutch adolescents in grade 2

  16. (Ingezonden en geaccepteerd) Effect of switching off unidirectional downflow systems of operating theaters during prolonged inactivity on the period before the operating theater can safely be used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, A.A.L.; Bottenheft, C.; Heumen, S.P.M. van; Goedhart, C.A.; Vos, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Switching off air handling systems in operating theaters during periods of prolonged inactivity (eg, nights, weekends) can produce a substantial reduction of energy expenditure. However, little evidence is available regarding the effect of switching off the air handling system during

  17. Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents : results of the E-MOVO project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croezen, S.; Visscher, T. L. S.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Veling, M. L.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    Objective/Background: To investigate the association between skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity with overweight and obesity in adolescents. The design comprises cross-sectional electronic health survey (E-MOVO). Subjects/Methods: Over 35 000 Dutch adolescents in grade 2

  18. Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents: results of the E-MOVO project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croezen, S.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Ter Bogt, N.C.W.; Veling, M.L.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective/Background: To investigate the association between skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity with overweight and obesity in adolescents. The design comprises cross-sectional electronic health survey (E-MOVO). Subjects/Methods: Over 35000 Dutch adolescents in grade 2

  19. Predictors of increase in physical activity during a 6-month follow-up period among overweight and physically inactive healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mutikainen

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: A strong sense of meaningfulness and better recovery from stress predict an increase in PA among physically inactive and overweight young adults. Therefore, participants with a low sense of meaningfulness and low recovery from stress may require support from other interventions to be able to increase their PA.

  20. A school-based intervention to reduce overweight and inactivity in children aged 6–12 years : Study design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Jansen (Wilma); H. Raat (Hein); E. Joosten-van Zwanenburg (Evelien); I. Reuvers (Ivo); R. Walsem, van (Ron); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground Effective interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in children are urgently needed especially in inner-city neighbourhoods where prevalence of overweight and inactivity among primary school children is high. A school based intervention was developed aiming at the