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Sample records for inactivated aeromonas hydrophila

  1. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor for solar photocatalytic inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila: influence of water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sadia J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling fish disease is one of the major concerns in contemporary aquaculture. The use of antibiotics or chemical disinfection cannot provide a healthy aquaculture system without residual effects. Water quality is also important in determining the success or failure of fish production. Several solar photocatalytic reactors have been used to treat drinking water or waste water without leaving chemical residues. This study has investigated the impact of several key aspects of water quality on the inactivation of the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila using a pilot-scale thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR system. Results The level of inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined using a TFFBR with a photocatalytic area of 0.47 m2 under the influence of various water quality variables (pH, conductivity, turbidity and colour under high solar irradiance conditions (980–1100 W m-2, at a flow rate of 4.8 L h-1 through the reactor. Bacterial enumeration were obtained through conventional plate count using trypticase soy agar media, cultured in conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and under ROS-neutralised conditions to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive cells. The results showed that turbidity has a major influence on solar photocatalytic inactivation of A. hydrophila. Humic acids appear to decrease TiO2 effectiveness under full sunlight and reduce microbial inactivation. pH in the range 7–9 and salinity both have no major effect on the extent of photoinactivation or sub-lethal injury. Conclusions This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the TFFBR in the inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila under the influence of several water quality variables at high solar irradiance, providing an opportunity for the application of solar photocatalysis in aquaculture systems, as long as turbidity remains low.

  2. Inactivation kinetics of various chemical disinfectants on Aeromonas hydrophila planktonic cells and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Ha, Sang-Do

    2014-05-01

    The present article focuses on the inactivation kinetics of various disinfectants including ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and benzalkonium chloride against Aeromonas hydrophila biofilms and planktonic cells. Efficacy was determined by viable plate count and compared using a modified Weibull model. The removal of the biofilms matrix was determined by the crystal violet assay and was confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that all the experimental data and calculated Weibull α (scale) and β (shape) parameters had a good fit, as the R(2) values were between 0.88 and 0.99. Biofilms are more resistant to disinfectants than planktonic cells. Ethanol (70%) was the most effective in killing cells in the biofilms and significantly reduced (preduction as well as the effectiveness of chemical disinfectants on biofilms. The study showed that the Weibull model could successfully be used on food and food contact surfaces to determine the exact contact time for killing biofilms-forming foodborne pathogens.

  3. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR for solar photocatalytic inactivation of aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sadia J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of infectious diseases by microbial pathogens can cause substantial losses of stock in aquaculture systems. There are several ways to eliminate these pathogens including the use of antibiotics, biocides and conventional disinfectants, but these leave undesirable chemical residues. Conversely, using sunlight for disinfection has the advantage of leaving no chemical residue and is particularly suited to countries with sunny climates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is a photocatalyst that increases the effectiveness of solar disinfection. In recent years, several different types of solar photocatalytic reactors coated with TiO2 have been developed for waste water and drinking water treatment. In this study a thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR, designed as a sloping flat plate reactor coated with P25 DEGUSSA TiO2, was used. Results The level of inactivation of the aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined after travelling across the TFFBR under various natural sunlight conditions (300-1200 W m-2, at 3 different flow rates (4.8, 8.4 and 16.8 L h-1. Bacterial numbers were determined by conventional plate counting using selective agar media, cultured (i under conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and (ii under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (agar medium supplemented with the peroxide scavenger sodium pyruvate at 0.05% w/v, incubated under anaerobic conditions, to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive cells. The results clearly demonstrate that high sunlight intensities (≥ 600 W m-2 and low flow rates (4.8 L h-1 provided optimum conditions for inactivation of A. hydrophila ATCC 3564, with greater overall inactivation and fewer sub-lethally injured cells than at low sunlight intensities or high flow rates. Low sunlight intensities resulted in reduced overall inactivation and greater sub-lethal injury at all flow rates. Conclusions This

  4. Quorum Sensing Regulation in Aeromonas hydrophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Christian; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed results on the C4-HSL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulatory system of the opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium contains a particularly simple QS system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. In a model system (i.e., the Escheri......We present detailed results on the C4-HSL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulatory system of the opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium contains a particularly simple QS system that allows for a detailed modeling of kinetics. In a model system (i...

  5. Aquatically acquired Aeromonas hydrophila wound infection A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of Aeromonas hydrophila wound infections in healthy hosts after water-associated injury is being reported more frequently. This paper reports our experience with 3 such cases and outlines the importance of recognising the association between a water-related injury and, this organism.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of one hundred and twenty eight (128) stool samples were collected from patients attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria and Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, and screened for the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Out of the one hundred and twenty eight samples analyzed 4 ...

  7. Pan-genome analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii and Aeromonas caviae indicates phylogenomic diversity and greater pathogenic potential for Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sandeep; Blom, Jochen; Das, Samir; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Puro, Kekungu; Mawlong, Michael; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Sen, Arnab; Goesmann, Alexander; Kumar, Ashok; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Aeromonas species are important pathogens of fishes and aquatic animals capable of infecting humans and other animals via food. Due to the paucity of pan-genomic studies on aeromonads, the present study was undertaken to analyse the pan-genome of three clinically important Aeromonas species (A. hydrophila, A. veronii, A. caviae). Results of pan-genome analysis revealed an open pan-genome for all three species with pan-genome sizes of 9181, 7214 and 6884 genes for A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. caviae, respectively. Core-genome: pan-genome ratio (RCP) indicated greater genomic diversity for A. hydrophila and interestingly RCP emerged as an effective indicator to gauge genomic diversity which could possibly be extended to other organisms too. Phylogenomic network analysis highlighted the influence of homologous recombination and lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Aeromonas spp. Prediction of virulence factors indicated no significant difference among the three species though analysis of pathogenic potential and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes revealed greater hazards from A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the usefulness of whole genome analyses to infer evolutionary cues for Aeromonas species which indicated considerable phylogenomic diversity for A. hydrophila and hitherto unknown genomic evidence for pathogenic potential of A. hydrophila compared to A. veronii and A. caviae.

  8. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila

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    M. Martín Delgado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.

  9. Quantitative Recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila from Nsukka Sewage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sewage samples were analyzed for the recovery of Aeromonas hydrophila. The pH of the samples ranged from 8.2 - 9.6 and the temperature from 20.0 – 28.7. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water medium (pH 8.4) before plating on different selective media. Media tested for the recovery of Aeromonas ...

  10. Bacteremia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, A.; Afridi, F.I.; Farooqi, B.J.; Qureshi, A.; Hussain, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) is a low virulent organism but may cause devastating fatal infections in immunocompromised host especially in liver cirrhosis. It is rarely reported to cause septicemia in a patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). The mortality rate of septicemia due to A. hydrophila is 29% to 73%. We report a case of 59-year-old female patient who was a known case of ALL, presented with the complaints of fever, lethargy and generalized weakness for one month. After taking blood samples for investigations, empirical antimicrobial therapy was started. She did not improve after 48 hours of therapy. Meanwhile blood culture revealed pure growth of A. hydrophila. After sensitivity report was available, ciprofloxacin was started. Patient became afebrile after 48 hours of treatment with ciprofloxacin. It is very vital to correctly identified and treat bacteremia due to A. hydrophila especially in the underlying leukemic patient. (author)

  11. Aeromonas hydrophila disturbs water and electrolyte transport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... enterocytes with voluminous and spherical shape, disappearance of enterocyte brush border and lesions at ... (Paniagua et al., 1990) and causes different diseases. ... 22°C and the fish were fed on a standard diet composed of algae. ..... J (1998). Aeromonas hydrophila causes 'black diseases' in fairy.

  12. Aeromonas hydrophila disturbs water and electrolyte transport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish diseases create a menace to aquaculture farms. They provoke disastrous economic losses and sanitary risks for the consumer. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila on water and electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3 -) flux of Mugil cephalus (L, 1758) intestine. Anterior, middle ...

  13. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila Cellulitis following Leech Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Bobenchik, April M.; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Deville, Jaime G.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of surgical site infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila following leech therapy. Antimicrobial and genetic analyses of leech and patient isolates demonstrated that the resistant isolates originated from the leech gut microbiota. These data suggest that ciprofloxacin monotherapy as a prophylaxis regimen prior to leech therapy may not be effective in preventing infection. PMID:23363826

  14. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pita Toledo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost

  15. Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila Using Fiber Optic Microchannel Sensor

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    Samla Gauri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the detection of Aeromonas hydrophila using fiber optic microchannel biosensor. Microchannel was fabricated by photolithography method. The fiber optic was chosen as signal transmitting medium and light absorption characteristic of different microorganisms was investigated for possible detection. Experimental results showed that Aeromonas hydrophila can be detected at the region of UV-Vis spectra between 352 nm and 354 nm which was comparable to measurement provided by UV spectrophotometer and also theoretical calculation by Beer-Lambert Absorption Law. The entire detection can be done in less than 10 minutes using a total volume of 3 μL only. This result promises good potential of this fiber optic microchannel sensor as a reliable, portable, and disposable sensor.

  16. Virulence Factors of Aeromonas hydrophila: in the Wake of Reclassification

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    Cody R Rasmussen-Ivey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous jack-of-all-trades, Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by a lack of genomic data on other research strains. Collectively, these changes represent a fundamental gap in the literature on A. hydrophila and confirm the necessity of biochemical, molecular, and morphological techniques in the classification of research strains that are used as a foundation for future research. This review revisits what is known about virulence in A. hydrophila and the feasibility of using comparative genomics in light of this phylogenetic revision. Conflicting data between virulence factors, secretion systems, quorum sensing, and their effect on A. hydrophila pathogenicity appears to be an artifact of inappropriate taxonomic comparisons and/or be due to the fact that these properties are strain-specific. This review audits emerging data on dominant virulence factors that are present in both A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila in order to synthesize existing data with the aim of locating where future research is needed.

  17. POTENSI TUMBUHAN BANGKAL (Nauclea Orientalis UNTUK PENGENDALIAN BAKTERI Aeromonas Hydrophila (POTENTIAL PLANT BANGKAL (Nauclea orientalis FOR CONTROL Aeromonas Hydrophila

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    Siti Aisiah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah didapatkan metode pengendalian penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila pada budi daya ikan yang ramah lingkungan. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan uji sensitivitas terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila, uji minimal konsentrasi menghambat  bakteri A. hydrophila (uji MIC dan uji toksisitas terhadap ikan nila. Rancangan  yang digunakan untuk  uji toksisitas  adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan 4 perlakuan yaitu A  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 20%, B  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 40%,  C  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 80%, dan D  = Kontrol (ikan tidak disuntik, diulang sebanyak 3 kali. Perlakuan ini didapat dari hasil uji sensitivitas antibakteri bangkal yang mempunyai daya hambat dan daya bunuh paling besar terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila yaitu ekstrak daun bangkal dengan pelarut akuades. Pengujian MIC menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak bangkal-akuades memiliki daya hambat minimal  20 % terhadap aktivitas bakteri A. hydrophila. Hasil uji toksisitas yang dilakukan terhadap ikan nila dengan konsentrasi 20%, 40% dan 80%  mortalitas ikan nila dibawah 50 %. Pengamatan hematologis yaitu eretrosit, leokosit, plasma darah, hematokrit dan leokokrit pada masing-masing perlakuan sebagian besar masih berada dalam kisaran yang normal. Parameter kualitas air yaitu, kadar oksigen terlarut,  pH, amoniak, CO2 dan suhu masih dapat mendukung kehidupan normal ikan nila. The purpose of this study was obtained method of controlling diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in fish farming is environmentally friendly. In this study the sensitivity of the test  A. hydrophila, a minimum test konsentari inhibiting A. hydrophila (MIC test and toxicity test on  tilapia. The design used for toxicity tests is completely randomized design with 4 treatments it A = Fish injected with extracts bangkal concentration of 20 %,  B = Fish injected with extracts bangkal

  18. Classification of a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila pathotype responsible for epidemic outbreaks in warm-water fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish in the P...

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Gallic Acid against Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria Through Damaging Membrane Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Zhenning; Ren, Mengrou; Huang, Guoren; Fang, Baochen; Bu, Xiujuan; Liu, Yanhui; Guan, Shuang

    In the study, we investigated the antibacterial activity and mechanism of gallic acid against Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria. Gallic acid showed strong antimicrobial activity against the two bacteria. Furthermore, the antibacterial mechanism of gallic acid (0, 3, 6, 12 mM) was performed by membrane integrity assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assay. The results showed that gallic acid notably increased the released material absorption value at 260, 280 nm and electric conductivity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the SEM assay showed that gallic acid induced severe shrink of bacterial intima and irregular morphology in a dose-dependent manner. The SDS-PAGE profiles further confirmed that gallic acid could damage bacterial cells. These results indicated gallic acid exhibited antibacterial effect by destroying membrane integrity of A. hydrophila and A. sobria. Hence, gallic acid has great potential as a new natural food preservative in food fresh-keeping and storage.

  20. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decolorisation of Congo Red by Aeromonas hydrophila Under Microaerophilic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gizawy, S.; Refae, R.A.; Abd El Kareem, H.; Gomaa, O.M.; Hamed, H.

    2009-01-01

    Among 22 local bacterial isolates, Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Bolti fish showed a remarkable ability to decolorize congo red under microaerophilic conditions (98.8% in 48 hrs) without prior adaptation. The bacterium had the ability to grow and decolorized high concentrations of congo red which varied from 50 to 1000 mg/l , the decolorisation was irrelevant to bacterial growth. The strain was capable of decolorizing congo red under a wide range of temperatures (20-40 degree C), ph (3-8), NaCl (0-200 mg/l) and also had the ability to decolorized mono, di and poly azo dyes. This bacterium is notable in its ability to decolorized the diazo congo red under extreme conditions of temperature, ph, salinity and high dye concentrations which makes it suitable for decolorisation under extreme industrial conditions

  2. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ragunathan, Latha; Kavitha, Kannaiyan; Raveendran, Vinod; Dhandapani, Senthil Pragash; Jaget, Nirmala; Kannivelu, Jayanthi

    2012-01-01

    A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection (UTI) at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidence of Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented.

  3. Aeromonas hydrophila urinary tract infection in pregnancy- Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Ragunathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of a pregnant woman without previous or concomitant disease, who developed an Aeromonas hydrophila urinarytract infection (UTI at 12 weeks gestation, is reported. A brief review of the literature on the association and incidenceof Aeromonas spp in urinary infections and also in association with pregnancy is presented. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;2(1: 26-28

  4. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from different food sources: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Stratev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, facultative, anaerobic, opportunistic aquatic pathogen. A. hydrophila produces virulence factors, such as hemolysins, aerolysins, adhesins, enterotoxins, phospholipase and lipase. In addition to isolation from aquatic sources, A. hydrophila has been isolated from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and vegetables. However, various studies showed that this opportunistic pathogen is resistant to commercial antibiotics. This is attributed to factors such as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in aquaculture, plasmids or horizontal gene transfer. In this report, we highlight the occurrence, prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of A. hydrophila isolated from different food samples. The presence of antimicrobial-resistant A. hydrophila in food poses threats to public and aquatic animal health. Keywords: A. hydrophila, Antimicrobial resistance, Microbial food safety

  6. Role of pH in oxidase variability of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, L K; Overman, T L; Otero, R B

    1981-01-01

    Some strains of Aeromonas hydrophila may be oxidase negative or only weakly oxidase positive by the Kovacs method taken from the surface of a differential medium, such as MacConkey agar. Six strains of A. hydrophila, two oxidase variable, one oxidase constant, and three weakly oxidase positive on MacConkey agar, were studied to determine the cause of oxidase variability. The bacteriostatic dyes in MacConkey agar were considered possible inhibitors of the oxidase reaction. The concentration of...

  7. Aminoglycoside-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as Part of a Polymicrobial Infection following a Traumatic Fall into Freshwater▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Joshua R.; Whitaker, Jennifer A.; Ribner, Bruce S.; Burd, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Amikacin is a first-line treatment for Aeromonas infection due to high efficacy. There are few reports of aminoglycoside-resistant Aeromonas spp. We report a soft tissue infection containing multiple pathogens, including a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, and multiple cephalosporins. PMID:21209173

  8. Aminoglycoside-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as part of a polymicrobial infection following a traumatic fall into freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Joshua R; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Ribner, Bruce S; Burd, Eileen M

    2011-03-01

    Amikacin is a first-line treatment for Aeromonas infection due to high efficacy. There are few reports of aminoglycoside-resistant Aeromonas spp. We report a soft tissue infection containing multiple pathogens, including a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, and multiple cephalosporins.

  9. Aeromonas hydrophila as cause of hemorrhagic septicemia in a ground-hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocholi, R A; Kalejaiye, J O

    1990-01-01

    An acute hemorrhagic septicemia in a captive ground-hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus) is reported. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from lungs, liver, kidney, and intestines. Postmortem lesions were characterized by hemorrhages in the internal organs. Microscopically, necrotic lesions were found in the liver, lungs, and kidney. Factors that might have contributed to the clinical disease condition are discussed.

  10. Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila wound pathotypes by comparative genomic and functional analyses of virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Christopher J; Kozlova, Elena V; Sha, Jian; Fitts, Eric C; van Lier, Christina J; Kirtley, Michelle L; Joseph, Sandeep J; Read, Timothy D; Burd, Eileen M; Tall, Ben D; Joseph, Sam W; Horneman, Amy J; Chopra, Ashok K; Shak, Joshua R

    2013-04-23

    Aeromonas hydrophila has increasingly been implicated as a virulent and antibiotic-resistant etiologic agent in various human diseases. In a previously published case report, we described a subject with a polymicrobial wound infection that included a persistent and aggressive strain of A. hydrophila (E1), as well as a more antibiotic-resistant strain of A. hydrophila (E2). To better understand the differences between pathogenic and environmental strains of A. hydrophila, we conducted comparative genomic and functional analyses of virulence-associated genes of these two wound isolates (E1 and E2), the environmental type strain A. hydrophila ATCC 7966(T), and four other isolates belonging to A. aquariorum, A. veronii, A. salmonicida, and A. caviae. Full-genome sequencing of strains E1 and E2 revealed extensive differences between the two and strain ATCC 7966(T). The more persistent wound infection strain, E1, harbored coding sequences for a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act), a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), flagella, hemolysins, and a homolog of exotoxin A found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Corresponding phenotypic analyses with A. hydrophila ATCC 7966(T) and SSU as reference strains demonstrated the functionality of these virulence genes, with strain E1 displaying enhanced swimming and swarming motility, lateral flagella on electron microscopy, the presence of T3SS effector AexU, and enhanced lethality in a mouse model of Aeromonas infection. By combining sequence-based analysis and functional assays, we characterized an A. hydrophila pathotype, exemplified by strain E1, that exhibited increased virulence in a mouse model of infection, likely because of encapsulation, enhanced motility, toxin secretion, and cellular toxicity. Aeromonas hydrophila is a common aquatic bacterium that has increasingly been implicated in serious human infections. While many determinants of virulence have been identified in Aeromonas, rapid identification of pathogenic versus nonpathogenic

  11. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbaş, Z. Y.; Vural, H.; Aytac, S. A.

    1996-07-01

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball.

  12. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaş, Z Y; Vural, H; Aytaç, S A

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball.

  13. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbaş, Z.Y.; Vural, H.; Aytac, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball

  14. Potential of Chromolaena odorata Leaf as A Cure of Aeromonas hydrophila on Giant Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy

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    Y. Hadiroseyani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the potency of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract as a medicine for skin eruption disease caused by  Aeromonas hydrophila in giant gouramy Osphronemus gouramy.  Leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata for in vitro test was 0 (as control, 13000, 15000, 17000, 19000 and 21000 ppm, poured onto TSA medium containing bacteria 103 cfu/ml, and then is incubated for 24 hours. In vivo test was performed by injecting bacteria 0.1 ml of 109 cfu/ml intramuscularly into giant gouramy (14 g weight, and then  fish were maintained in the water containing 15000 ppm of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract. In vitro study showed that prevention area of leaf extract against Aeromonas hydrophila was increase by increasing the concentration of leaf extract used, reached 9,33 mm.  Prevention zone of leaf extract by difusion tends to constant, reached 7,6 mm. By in vivo test, survival rate of giant gouramy infected by Aeromonas hydrophila was no significantly different between dosages of leaf extract.  All treated fish, excluded control died after 24 hours infection. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, Osphronemus gouramy, Chromolaena odorata   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui potensi daun kirinyuh Chromolaena odorata sebagai obat untuk penyakit cacar yang diakibatkan oleh Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan gurame Osphronemus gouramy. Konsentrasi ekstrak daun Chromolaena odorata untuk uji in vitro adalah 13000, 15000, 17000, 19000 dan 21000 serta 0 ppm sebagai kontrol, yang diletakkan di atas media TSA yang telah mengandung biakan bakteri 103 cfu/ml dan diinkubasi selama 24 jam. Uji in vivo dilakukan dengan menginjeksikan bakteri  sebanyak 0,1 ml (109 cfu/ml secara intramuskular ke ikan gurame (berat 14 g dan kemudian ikan dipelihara dalam air yang mengandung ekstrak daun kirinyuh 15000 ppm. Hasil uji in virto menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi ekstrak daun kirinyuh basah semakin efektif dalam menghambat perkembangan

  15. Hematologia e sinais clínicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente com Aeromonas hydrophila = Hematology and clinical signs of Piaractus mesopotamicus experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Flávio Ruas Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas hematológicas e a ocorrência de sinais clínico-patológicos de Piaractus mesopotamicus infectados experimentalmente por Aeromonas hydrophila. Foram utilizados 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus, com peso de 102,84 ±27,1 g, distribuídos em 27 caixas de 300 L de capacidade, sendo 14 peixes por caixa. Os peixes foram mantidos nas caixas durante um mês, recebendo dieta balanceada, período em que se evitou qualquer tipo de manejo estressante. Passado esse período, foram infectadoscom 6 x 106 UFC de A. hydrophila, injetada via intraperitoneal. As coletas e análises de sangue foram realizadas 24h antes da infecção experimental e 24h após a infecção. Os resultados permitem concluir que a infecção por A. hydrophila em P. mesopotamicus écaracterizada por escurecimento da derme e sinais clínicos-patológicos relacionados à hemorragia, anemia normocítica-hipocrômica, redução nos níveis de proteínas, globulinasplasmáticas e eosinófilos, leucopenia, linfopenia, trombocitopenia, neutrofilia e monocitose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hematological response and clinical sign of Piaractus mesopotamicus infected byAeromonas hydrophila. Were used 324 pacus, P. mesopotamicus weighing 102.84 ± 27.1 g distributed in 27 water tanks with 300 L of capacity, 14 fish per tank. The fish were kept in the water tanks during one month, receiving appropriate diet. In this period was avoidedstressing management. After this period, the fish were infected with 6 × 108 cfu of A. hydrophila fish-1, injected intraperitoneally. The blood collection was carried 24h before experimental infection and 24h after its. The A. hydrophila infection in P. mesopotamicus ischaracterized by dark skin and clinical signs related to hemorrhage, hypochromic normocytic anemia, decrease on plasmatic proteins and globulins levels, leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, neutrophilia and monocytosis.

  16. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Qorie Astria; Sri Nuryati; Kukuh Nirmala; Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%). Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hyd...

  17. Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Inconspicuous Infection of Aeromonas hydrophila in an Immunocompromised Host

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    Kuo-Chun Liao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of serious necrotizing fasciitis due to Aeromonas hydrophila without a suggestive history of routes of pathogen invasion in a 60-year-old male. Despite prompt broad-spectrum antibiotic and extensive surgical therapies, the patient died within 72 hours following initial presentation. Our experience suggests clinicians be highly alert to the disease when an immunocompromised patient featured fulminant soft-tissue infection in the endemic area.

  18. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Belém-Costa,Andréa; Cyrino,José Eurico Possebon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  19. Effectiveness of ambon banana stem juice as immunostimulatory against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in catfish Clarias gariepinus

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    Qorie Astria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Outbreaks of infectious diseases due to Aeromonas hydrophila in catfish can cause high death rates (80–100%. Fish disease control can be done using phytopharmaceutical to prevent or treat diseases of fish. One of the phytopharmaceutical that known to prevent the fish diseases is ambon banana stem Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of catfish immersion using banana stem juice as an immunostimulant against bacterial infections A. hydrophila. The observed parameters were a total performance of production, hematological test, and water quality. Immersion of catfish seeds with stem juice was performed at a concentration of 5 mL/L, 13 mL/L, and 21 mL/L for 30 minutes. Each treatment consisted of three replications. A  total of 15 fishes were immersed in 1.5 L water. At day-9 after immersion, fish was infected by A. hydrophila bacteria at a dose of 104 cfu/mL. The results showed that fish treated with banana stem juice at a concentration of 13 mL/L had the survival rate of 53.33±6.67% which is higher than positive control (33.33±6.67%. Based on hematology observations on the 3rd day post-challenge test (H12 with A. hydrophila, total erythrocytes, hemoglobin, total leukocytes, phagocytic activity, differential leukocyte, and lysozyme activity was highest in treatment13 mL/L. Lower feed conversion ratio (1.08±0.04 were also obtained in treatment 13 mL/L. Thus Immersion of seeds in stem juice can boost the immune system against infections A. hydrophila. Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, ambon banana stem juice, soaking, catfish, immune system  ABSTRAK Wabah penyakit akibat infeksi Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan lele dapat menyebabkan tingkat kematian yang tinggi (80–100%. Penanggulangan penyakit ikan dapat dilakukan menggunakan fitofarmaka untuk mencegah ataupun mengobati penyakit ikan. Salah satu fitofarmaka yang dapat digunakan dalam upaya pencegahan penyakit ikan adalah batang

  20. Phytochemical analysis of Binahong (Anredera Cordifolia) leaves extract to inhibit In Vitro growth of Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, Mohammad; Ginting, Prita Yulianti Anasta Br; Lesmana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Binahong (Anredera cordifolia) is one of the medicinal plants commonly used to treat the disease of living organisms. The secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves has been shown antibacterial activity. This study aimed to investigate the secondary metabolite of A. cordifolia leaves showing antibacterial and analysis the effectiveness of antibacterial to inhibit the growth of bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. A paper disc soaked in a solution of A. cordifolia leaves extract was used to test in vitro at a concentration of 0% (w/v), 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and positive control of antibiotic (oxytetracycline), respectively. The extracts then placed on a tryptone soy agar (TSA) medium containing bacteria A. hydrophila and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. In vitro test showed that A. cordifolia leaves extract inhibited the growth of bacteria A. hydrophila with an inhibition area around the paper disc. The inhibition growth of A. hydrophila increased with the increasing of extract concentration. Bacterial growth was inhibited in the diameter zone of A. hydrophila under different levels of the extracts were 0 mm (0 % negative control), 8.4 mm (0.2 %), 9.4 mm (0.4 %), 10.5 mm (0.6 %), 11.9 mm (0.8 %), 27.5 mm (positive control), respectively. Phytochemical screening of A. cordifolia leaves extract indicated that the extracts contained flavonoid, phenol, saponin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, and β-sitosterol. Our in vitro study demonstrated the inhibition growth of A. hydrophila that caused the disease of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS).

  1. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Dunhua Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS, caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh, is emerging as a major disease in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that predispose catfish to vAh infection and establish a waterborne challenge model that mimics natural occurrence of MAS. Results of this study indicated that wounding on the fish body surface was one of the key factors that predisposed catfish to vAh infection via waterborne route. Relatively uniform wounds were created by clipping part of the fish adipose fin. Adipose fin clipped (Af-clipped fish behaved normally in terms of swimming and feeding and no mortality occurred in the control treatment (a mock challenge. When subjected to challenge in vAh-infected water, Af-clipped fish were highly susceptible, showing typical symptoms of MAS observed in the field. The mortality rate of Af-clipped fish was significantly associated with vAh concentration, challenge time and water temperature. About 90% mortality occurred within 48 h when Af-clipped fish were challenged for 1 h with vAh at the concentration of 2 × 107 colony forming units per mL of water (27 ± 1 °C. The waterborne challenge model was further tested using four field isolates including A. hydrophila and A. veronii. All vAh isolates caused about 90% mortality of Af-clipped fish and one isolate of Aeromonas veronii caused no mortality under the same challenge conditions. The waterborne challenge model described in this study would facilitate urgently-needed studies of MAS prevention (such as wound avoidance and healing and control (such as prophylactic vaccination; antibiotics treatment and probiotics screening. Keywords: Adipose fin, Channel catfish, Motile Aeromonas septicemia, Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, Waterborne challenge

  2. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

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    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  3. The LBP Gene and Its Association with Resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Tilapia

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    Gui Hong Fu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p < 0.05 of two of the three SNPs with the resistance to A. hydrophila, but not with the resistance to S. agalactiae or growth performance. These results suggest that the LBP gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to the bacterial infections, and the responses to the two bacterial pathogens are different. The two SNPs associated with the resistance to A. hydrophila may be useful in the selection of tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila.

  4. Establishment of infection models in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio to study the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila.

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    Paolo Roberto Saraceni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of fish and terrestrial animals. In humans, A. hydrophila mainly causes gastroenteritis, septicaemia and tissue infections. The mechanisms of infection, the main virulence factors and the host immune response triggered by A. hydrophila have been studied in detail using murine models and adult fish. However, the great limitation of studying adult animals is that the animal must be sacrificed and its tissues/organs extracted, which prevents the study of the infectious processes in the whole living animal.Zebrafish larvae are being used for the analysis of several infectious diseases, but their use for studying the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila has never been explored. The great advantage of zebrafish larvae is their transparency during the first week after fertilization, which allows detailed descriptions of the infectious processes using in vivo imaging techniques such as differential interferential contrast (DIC and fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the availability of fluorescent pathogens and transgenic reporter zebrafish lines expressing fluorescent immune cells, immune marker genes or cytokines/chemokines allows the host-pathogen interactions to be characterized.The present study explores the suitability of zebrafish larvae to study the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila and the interaction mechanisms between the bacterium and the innate immune responses through an infection model using different routes for infection. We used an early-embryo infection model at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf through the microinjection of A. hydrophila into the duct of Cuvier, caudal vein, notochord or muscle and two bath infection models using 4 dpf healthy and injured larvae. The latter resembled the natural conditions under which A. hydrophila produces infectious diseases in animals. We compared the cellular processes after infection in each anatomical site by confocal fluorescence imaging and

  5. [Real-time PCR in rapid diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing soft tissue infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Izumi, Yoko; Ushita, Misuzu; Niinou, Norio; Koshizaki, Masayuki; Yamamori, Yuji; Kaneko, Sakae; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing soft tissue infection and sepsis followed by a patient's death. We suspected Vibrio vulnificus infection because the patient's underlying disease was cirrhosis and the course extremely rapid. No microbe had been detected at death. We extracted DNA from a blood culture bottle. SYBR green I real-time PCR was conducted but could not detect V. vulnificus vvh in the DNA sample. Aeromonas hydrophila was cultured and identified in blood and necrotized tissue samples. Real-time PCR was conducted to detect A. hydrophila ahh1, AHCYTOEN and aerA in the DNA sample extracted from the blood culture bottle and an isolated necrotized tissue strain, but only ahh1 was positive. High-mortality in necrotizing soft tissue infections makes it is crucial to quickly detect V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila. We found real-time PCR for vvh, ahh1, AHCYTOEN, and aerA useful in detecting V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila in necrotizing soft tissue infections.

  6. Assessment of Skin Pathological Responses in the Yellowfin Seabream (Acanthopagrus latus under the Aeromonas hydrophila Exposure

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    Fatemeh Azadbakht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial diseases in cultured fish are considered the main problem to aquaculture system. Skin is the structure that covers the body in fish. Skin histopatological alterations were used to assess the effects of Aeromonas hydrophila exposure on the yellowfin seabream Acanthopagrus latus(. Methods: In this regard, 90 A. latus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of A. hydrophila (103,106 CFU/ml for 3 weeks. Results: Some more severe alternations found in the skin of fish exposed. The most frequent histopathological changes detected in the skin including hyperplasia of epidermis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucosal cells and dermis edema. Some more severe alternations found in the skin of fish exposed to higher level of A. hydrophila (106 CFU/ml included telangiectasia of dermis layer. In addition, according to the results of histometrical studies in treated fish compared to control group showed that thickness of epidermis and dermis layers were increased significantly (P<0.05. Conclusion: A. hydrophila can cause major histophatological changes in the skin of A. latus. In addition, histopathological changes of the skin provide helpful information about the environmental conditions and as particular biomarkers may provide imminent into evaluating the general health and stress status of fish.

  7. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase ...

  8. Isolation of bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and therapeutic effects of medicinal plants on its invasion

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    Md. Tareq-Uz-Zaman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila, a bacterial pathogen, was isolated form Pangasius hypophthalmus. For pathogenicity test, different doses were injected intramuscularly in Barbonymus gonionotus. Crude extracts were prepared from various parts Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, C. zedoaria, and Callotropis gigentia and applied to B. gonionotus for 7 days. Bath treatment was done up to their tolerance level and well ventilation was confirmed for aeration and 50% water was exchanged daily. Minimum inhibitory dose was detected as 7 mg/ml. High inhibitory effect was observed in case of A. indica and mixed extract of A. indica and C. gigentia. Both A. indica and C. gigentia showed the best result with 90-95% recovery of infected fish at a dose of 7 mg/l. C. zedoaria showed moderate to weak effect with 50-60% recovery at the same dose. The present study showed that medicinal plants would be an effective control measure against A. hydrophila.

  9. Effect of Gamma Radiation and Microwave Cooking on Aeromonas Hydrophila in Bolti Fish Fillet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, W.S.; Megahed, A.A.; El-Ghaiaty, H.A.; Hafez, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the bactericidal effect of gamma and microwave radiation on Aeromonas hydrophila inoculated in fish fillets. The study revealed that treatment of fish fillets with a dose of 1 kGy gamma radiation reduced the population of A.hydrophila by 104 cfu/g, while the dose of 2 and 3 kGy completely eliminated the microorganism. Treatment of fish fillets with microwave cooking for 1 and 2 minutes completely eliminated the microorganism. The physical examination of fish after gamma radiation treatment revealed that the used doses had no significant changes on fish fillets. The changes in protein profile (amino acids %) depended on radiation dose and period of cooking in microwave alongside controls while the total protein content was not affected.

  10. Crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein from Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Minglian; Li, Zhenguo; Zheng, Wei; Lou, Zhiyong [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang, E-mail: chengq@stu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China)

    2006-08-01

    The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from A. hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins (phasins) were discovered in PHA-accumulating bacteria. They play a crucial role as a structural protein during initial PHA-granule formation and granule growth and also serve as interfaces for granule stabilization in vivo. The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from Aeromonas hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single crystals were cryocooled for X-ray diffraction analysis. The phasin crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.8, b = 108.9, c = 134.4 Å.

  11. A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, Guizhou, China, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Shi, Guo-Qing; Tang, Guang-Peng; Zou, Zhi-Tin; Yao, Guang-Hai; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-01

    On 12 May 2012, over 200 college students with acute diarrhoea were reported to the Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We conducted an investigation to identify the agent and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures. A suspected case was a person at the college with onset of ≥ two of the following symptoms: diarrhoea (more than three loose stools in 24 hours), abdominal pain, vomiting or fever (> 37.5C) between 6 and 15 May 2012. A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. A retrospective-cohort study of 902 students compared attack rates (AR) by dining place, meals and food history. We reviewed the implicated premise, its processes and preparation of implicated food. We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14%) and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. Students who ate in cafeteria A were more likely to be ill compared to those eating in other places (relative risk [RR]: 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-4.8). The cohort study implicated cold cucumber (RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.0-3.3) and houttuynia dishes (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.3). Environmental investigation showed that vegetables were washed in polluted water from a tank close to the sewage ditch, then left at 30 °C for two hours before serving. The Escherichia coli count of the tank was well above the standard for drinking-water. This outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila was most probably caused by salad ingredients washed in contaminated tank water. We recommended enhancing training of foodhandlers, ensuring tanks and sewerage systems comply with appropriate standards and adequate monitoring of drinking-water sources.

  12. A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, Guizhou, China, 2012

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    Guang Zeng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: On 12 May 2012, over 200 college students with acute diarrhoea were reported to the Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We conducted an investigation to identify the agent and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures.Methods: A suspected case was a person at the college with onset of more than two of the following symptoms: diarrhoea (more than three loose stools in 24 hours, abdominal pain, vomiting or fever (> 37.5C between 6 and 15 May 2012. A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. A retrospective-cohort study of 902 students compared attack rates (AR by dining place, meals and food history. We reviewed the implicated premise, its processes and preparation of implicated food.Results: We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14% and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. Students who ate in cafeteria A were more likely to be ill compared to those eating in other places (relative risk [RR]: 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–4.8. The cohort study implicated cold cucumber (RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.0–3.3 and houttuynia dishes (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.3. Environmental investigation showed that vegetables were washed in polluted water from a tank close to the sewage ditch, then left at 30°C for two hours before serving. The Escherichia coli count of the tank was well above the standard for drinking water.Conclusion: This outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila was most probably caused by salad ingredients washed in contaminated tank water. We recommended enhancing training of foodhandlers, ensuring tanks and sewerage systems comply with appropriate standards and adequate monitoring of drinking water sources.

  13. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

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    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  14. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3, isolated from catfish and antagonistic against hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3 was isolated from a catfish that survived from lethal challenge with hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). When assayed in vitro, the bacterium showed antagonism against vAh. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome of P. mosselii Gil3 encodes numerous aromatic metabo...

  15. Surface protein composition of Aeromonas hydrophila strains virulent for fish: identification of a surface array protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, J.S.G.; Trust, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The surface protein composition of members of a serogroup of Aeromonas hydrophila was examined. Immunoblotting with antiserum raised against formalinized whole cells of A. hydrophila TF7 showed a 52K S-layer protein to be the major surface protein antigen, and impermeant Sulfo-NHS-Biotin cell surface labeling showed that the 52K S-layer protein was the only protein accessible to the Sulfo-NHS-Biotin label and effectively masked underlying outer membrane (OM) proteins. In its native surface conformation the 52K S-layer protein was only weakly reactive with a lactoperoxidase 125 I surface iodination procedure. A UV-induced rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant of TF7 was found to produce an intact S layer, but a deep rough LPS mutant was unable to maintain an array on the cell surface and excreted the S-layer protein into the growth medium, indicating that a minimum LPS oligosaccharide size required for A. hydrophila S-layer anchoring. The native S layer was permeable to 125 I in the lactoperoxidase radiolabeling procedure, and two major OM proteins of molecular weights 30,000 and 48,000 were iodinated. The 48K species was a peptidoglycan-associated, transmembrane protein which exhibited heat-modifiable SDS solubilization behavior characteristic of a porin protein. A 50K major peptidoglycan-associated OM protein which was not radiolabeled exhibited similar SDS heat modification characteristics and possibly represents a second porin protein

  16. The LBP Gene and Its Association with Resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Xia, Jun Hong; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp) of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila. PMID:25470022

  17. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii DAN Eucheuma denticullatum TERHADAP BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila DAN Vibrio harveyii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Rumput Laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dan Eucheuma denticullatum Terhadap Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila dan Vibrio harveyii dilakukan, mengingat banyak dijumpai  penyakit pada usaha budidaya ikan dan udang, terutama bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila dan Vibrio harveyii. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas senyawa bioaktif rumput laut K. alvarezii dan E. denticullatum yang diekstrak menggunakan pelarut metanol dan etanol sebagai antibakteri terhadap A. hydrophila dan V. harveyii.  Penelitian dilakukan sebanyak dua tahap, yaitu: (1 Uji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak rumput laut; dan (2 Analisa senyawa bioaktif yang terdapat pada ekstrak rumput laut, dimana masing-masing tahapan dianalisis menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, dua jenis ekstrak rumput laut dengan pelarut metanol dan etanol, mempunyai daya antibakteri terhadap A. hydrophila dan V. harveyii. Ekstrak E. denticullatum dengan pelarut metanol memiliki daya hambat lebih luas dibanding ekstrak K. alvarezii dengan pelarut metanol terhadap A. hydrophila (19.43±0,55 mm. Ekstrak E. denticullatum dengan pelarut metanol memiliki daya hambat lebih luas dibanding ekastrak K. alvarezii dengan pelarut metanol terhadap V. harveyii (19.85±0,23 mm. Asam heksadekanoat merupakan senyawa paling dominan dijumpai pada ekstrak rumput laut K. alvarezii, dan E. denticullatum yang diekstrak menggunakan pelarut metanol. Kata Kunci : Aktivitas Antibakteri, Rumput laut K. alvarezii dan E. denticullatum,  Bakteri A.  hydrophila dan V. harveyii. 

  18. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from motile Aeromonas septicemia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, R.; Rozi; Dinda, N. D.; Nurjanah, I.

    2018-04-01

    Fish suffer, from bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites or by physical ailments. Gurami (Osphronemus gouramy), nila (Oreochromis niloticus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), catfish (Clarias sp.) were the most reported infections caused by Aeromonas are bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia or Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS). Antibiotics are drugs of natural or synthetic origin that have the capacity to kill or to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms included MAS. However, the use of antibiotics in the long term can cause negative impacts, among others, feared the occurrence of bacterial resistance in certain antibiotics. The results showed five of isolates were sensitive to antibiotics of chloramphenicol, gentamycin, oxytetracycline, cefradoxil and nalidixic acid but resistant to vancomycin colistin sulphate, rifampisin, cephalosporin and novobiocin.

  19. Aspects of constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotescu, Carmen; Israil, Anca; Radu, Roxana; Alexandru, Ionela; Dobre, Georgeta

    2003-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the literature pointed out the implications of Aeromonas species in human pathology. These species were described as being involved in intestinal (several outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis of choleric/dysenteric form or chronic diarrhoea, ulcerative colitis, etc.) in normal adults or children, as well as in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. This last aspect included a large range of cutaneous injuries (micronecrosis, abscesses, bums, cellulites, furunculosis), joint, bones, respiratory, urinary tract, ocular infections up to meningitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, hepatobilliary disease, endotoxic shock and septicemia (as consequence of leech microvascular surgery). During the last decade, the literature reported a high mortality in Aeromonas infections determined by certain phenospecies (A. hydrophila and A. veronii) especially in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised patients. In microbiologists' opinion this high rate of mortality was probably due to poor knowledge concerning the aspects of antibioresistance in Aeromonas strains, to empiric treatments with antibiotics to which these bacteria exhibiting constitutive resistance lead to insuccessful results, and at last to the increasing trend of aeromonads resistance to certain antibiotics after 1996. The literature mentioned also that for a great number of Beta-lactamase producing Aeromonas strains, the use of microdilution method (by comparison to disk diffusion in agar medium) giving false results made more difficult the true knowledge of Aeromonas antibioresistance patterns. At the same time, in 2002, the literature mentioned 4 ecological compartments considered as "reservoirs for dissemination and transfer of microbial antibioresistance i.e. humans, animals, plants and natural soil and water. In the last time, more and more data of the literature revealed that some bacteria with role of reservoir of antibioresistance in the natural environment, even

  20. Detection and analysis of hemolysin genes in Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozi; Rahayu, K.; Daruti, D. N.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this study was to detect of Aeromonas hydrophila carrying the hlyA gene in guramy by PCR assay. A total of 5 A. hydrophila strains were isolated from gouramy with different location and furthermore genotypic of all A. hydrophila strains havedetected by PCR assay for 16S rRNA gene. The primers used in the PCR targeted a 592-bp fragment of the hlyA gene coding for the hemolysin gene. Particularly hlyA genes are responsible for haemolysin toxins production in this genus. After gel electrophoresis, the amplicons from representative strains of the A. hydrophila were purified using extraction kit and were subjected to the DNA sequencing analysis. The results showed that: (i) the 592bp amplicon of the hlyA gene was detected in 5/6 of the A. hydrophila; (ii) the nucleotide blast results of hemolysin gene sequences of the strains of A. hydrophila revealed a high homology of 90-97 % with published sequences, and;(iii) the protein blast showed 95-98 % homology when compared to the published sequences. The PCR clearly identified the haemolysin-producing strains of A. hydrophila by detection in hlyA genes and may have application as a rapid species-specific virulence test.

  1. Knockout of the alanine racemase gene in Aeromonas hydrophila HBNUAh01 results in cell wall damage and enhanced membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Lu; Xue, Wen; Wang, Yaping; Ju, Jiansong; Zhao, Baohua

    2015-07-01

    This study focused on the alanine racemase gene (alr-2), which is involved in the synthesis of d-alanine that forms the backbone of the cell wall. A stable alr-2 knockout mutant of Aeromonas hydrophila HBNUAh01 was constructed. When the mutant was supplemented with d-alanine, growth was unaffected; deprivation of d-alanine caused the growth arrest of the starved mutant cells, but not cell lysis. No alanine racemase activity was detected in the culture of the mutant. Additionally, a membrane permeability assay showed increasing damage to the cell wall during d-alanine starvation. No such damage was observed in the wild type during culture. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed deficiencies of the cell envelope and perforation of the cell wall. Leakage of UV-absorbing substances from the mutants was also observed. Thus, the partial viability of the mutants and their independence of d-alanine for growth indicated that inactivation of alr-2 does not impose an auxotrophic requirement for d-alanine. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Melanization and Pathogenicity in the Insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system

  3. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  4. A DNA biosensor for molecular diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila using zinc sulfide nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Negahdary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, identification of pathogenic bacteria using modern and accurate methods is inevitable. Integration in electrochemical measurements with nanotechnology has led to the design of efficient and sensitive DNA biosensors against bacterial agents. Here, efforts were made to detect Aeromonas hydrophila using aptamers as probes and zinc sulfide (ZnS nanospheres as signal enhancers and electron transfer facilitators. After modification of the working electrode area (in a screen-printed electrode with ZnS nanospheres through electrodeposition, the coated surface of a modified electrode with ZnS nanospheres was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The size of synthesized ZnS nanospheres was estimated at about 20–50 nm and their shape was in the form of porous plates in microscopic observations. All electrochemical measurements were performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and constant potential amperometry (CPA techniques. The designed DNA biosensor was able to detect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA of Aeromonas hydrophila in the range 1.0  ×  10−4 to 1.0  ×  10−9 mol L−1; the limit of detection (LOD in this study was 1  ×  10−13 mol L−1. This DNA biosensor showed satisfactory thermal and pH stability. Reproducibility for this DNA biosensor was measured and the relative standard deviation (RSD of the performance of this DNA biosensor was calculated as 5 % during 42 days.

  5. Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila Wound Pathotypes by Comparative Genomic and Functional Analyses of Virulence Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Christopher J.; Kozlova, Elena V.; Sha, Jian; Fitts, Eric C.; van Lier, Christina J.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Joseph, Sandeep J.; Read, Timothy D.; Burd, Eileen M.; Tall, Ben D.; Joseph, Sam W.; Horneman, Amy J.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Shak, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aeromonas hydrophila has increasingly been implicated as a virulent and antibiotic-resistant etiologic agent in various human diseases. In a previously published case report, we described a subject with a polymicrobial wound infection that included a persistent and aggressive strain of A. hydrophila (E1), as well as a more antibiotic-resistant strain of A. hydrophila (E2). To better understand the differences between pathogenic and environmental strains of A. hydrophila, we conducted comparative genomic and functional analyses of virulence-associated genes of these two wound isolates (E1 and E2), the environmental type strain A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T, and four other isolates belonging to A. aquariorum, A. veronii, A. salmonicida, and A. caviae. Full-genome sequencing of strains E1 and E2 revealed extensive differences between the two and strain ATCC 7966T. The more persistent wound infection strain, E1, harbored coding sequences for a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act), a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), flagella, hemolysins, and a homolog of exotoxin A found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Corresponding phenotypic analyses with A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T and SSU as reference strains demonstrated the functionality of these virulence genes, with strain E1 displaying enhanced swimming and swarming motility, lateral flagella on electron microscopy, the presence of T3SS effector AexU, and enhanced lethality in a mouse model of Aeromonas infection. By combining sequence-based analysis and functional assays, we characterized an A. hydrophila pathotype, exemplified by strain E1, that exhibited increased virulence in a mouse model of infection, likely because of encapsulation, enhanced motility, toxin secretion, and cellular toxicity. PMID:23611906

  6. Functional genomic characterization of virulence factors from necrotizing fasciitis-causing strains of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Christopher J; Kozlova, Elena V; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C; Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Tiner, Bethany L; Erova, Tatiana E; Joseph, Sandeep J; Read, Timothy D; Shak, Joshua R; Joseph, Sam W; Singletary, Ed; Felland, Tracy; Baze, Wallace B; Horneman, Amy J; Chopra, Ashok K

    2014-07-01

    The genomes of 10 Aeromonas isolates identified and designated Aeromonas hydrophila WI, Riv3, and NF1 to NF4; A. dhakensis SSU; A. jandaei Riv2; and A. caviae NM22 and NM33 were sequenced and annotated. Isolates NF1 to NF4 were from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Two environmental isolates (Riv2 and -3) were from the river water from which the NF patient acquired the infection. While isolates NF2 to NF4 were clonal, NF1 was genetically distinct. Outside the conserved core genomes of these 10 isolates, several unique genomic features were identified. The most virulent strains possessed one of the following four virulence factors or a combination of them: cytotoxic enterotoxin, exotoxin A, and type 3 and 6 secretion system effectors AexU and Hcp. In a septicemic-mouse model, SSU, NF1, and Riv2 were the most virulent, while NF2 was moderately virulent. These data correlated with high motility and biofilm formation by the former three isolates. Conversely, in a mouse model of intramuscular infection, NF2 was much more virulent than NF1. Isolates NF2, SSU, and Riv2 disseminated in high numbers from the muscular tissue to the visceral organs of mice, while NF1 reached the liver and spleen in relatively lower numbers on the basis of colony counting and tracking of bioluminescent strains in real time by in vivo imaging. Histopathologically, degeneration of myofibers with significant infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells due to the highly virulent strains was noted. Functional genomic analysis provided data that allowed us to correlate the highly infectious nature of Aeromonas pathotypes belonging to several different species with virulence signatures and their potential ability to cause NF. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila Atividade antimicrobiana de condimentos do sul da India sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Indu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Myristica fragrans (nutmeg, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Allium cepa (onion and Piper nigrum (pepper has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against E. coli and Salmonella were serotype dependent. Both garlic and nutmeg extracts were effective against A. hydrophila. Extracts of ginger showed inhibitory activity against two serogroups of E. coli: as O8 (enterotoxigenic E. coli and O88 only. Extracts of onion and pepper did not show any antibacterial activity against the test organisms.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de alho (Allium sativum, noz-moscada (Mysritica frangrans, gengibre (Zingiber officinale cebola (Allium cepa e pimenta do reino (Piper nigrum sobre 20 sorotipos de Escherichia coli, 8 sorotipos de Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila. O alho apresentou atividade antimicrobiana excelente sobre todos os microrganismos testados, excepto L. monocytogenes. A noz-moscada apresentou boa atividade antilisteria, emboara atividade sobre E. coli e Salmonella tenha sido sorotipo-dependente. Tanto alho como noz-moscada foram eficientes contra A. hydrophila. O extrato de gengibre apresentou atividade inibitória sobre dois sorotipos de E. coli: 08 (enterotoxigenico e 088. Os extratos de cebola e pimenta do reino não apresentaram nenhuma atividade contra os microrganismos testados.

  8. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of Aeromonas hydrophila infections of centrarchids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    During the current contract year, the following results were obtained: (1) Data from field-generated studies have shown that hematocrit, hemoglobin, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and cortisol levels are significantly affected in largemouth bass with body conditions < 2.0, suggesting that stress, body condition, and the probability of bass acquiring red-sore disease are related. Laboratory studies appear to at least partially confirm these results. (2) Chemotaxis studies show that Aeromonas hydrophila is attracted to specific sugars and amino acids and that there appears to be a strain-related affect of fish mucous on A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions. (3) Immunologic and serologic tests suggest that A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions on bass from one lake system will not cross-react with antibodies in sera isolated from bass in another lake system, suggesting the existence of different strains in different lakes

  9. Effects of naturally occurring aquatic organic fractions on 241Am uptake by Scenedesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae) and Aeromonas hydrophila (Pseudomonadaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesy, J.P. Jr.; Paine, D.

    1977-01-01

    Naturally occurring organics were extracted from water collected from Skinface Pond near Aiken, S.C. Organics were separated into four nominal diameter size fractions (I, greater than 0.0183; II, 0.0183 to 0.0032; III, 0.0032 to 0.0009; IV, less than 0.0009 μm) by membrane ultrafiltration and introduced into Scenedesmus obliquus and Aeromonas hydrophila cultures to determine their effects on 241 Am availability for uptake. Effects on 241 Am uptake were determined in actively growing S. obliquus cultures after 96 h of growth and in dense cultures of nongrowing cells after 4 h. Uptake by A. hydrophila was determined after 4 and 24 h in actively growing cultures. All organic fractions stimulated S. obliquus growth, with the most pronounced effects due to larger organic fractions, whereas no apparent growth stimulation of A. hydrophila was observed for any organic fraction. For both long-term and short-term studies, cellular 241 Am concentration (picocuries/cell) increased with increasing 241 Am concentration for S. obliquus and A. hydrophila. Fraction IV increased 241 Am uptake by both S. obliquus and A. hydrophila during 4-h incubations. During 96-h incubations fraction I was flocculated and cosedimented, with S. obliquus and A. hydrophila cells causing an apparent increase in 241 Am uptake. Fractions II and III reduced apparent 241 Am uptake by S. obliquus as a result of biological dilution caused by increased algal growth due to the organics. Fraction IV caused a reduction in 241 Am uptake by S. obliquus not attributable to biological dilution. Organics increased 241 Am uptake by A. hydrophila during 4- and 24-h incubations. A. hydrophila also caused flocculation of fraction I during 96-h incubations

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of various Ficus species against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated locally from infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum with the aim of providing scientific rationale for the use of the plant in the treatment of bacterial infections induced by Aeromonas spp. in fish. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar with the disc diffusion method. In the present study, most ethanolic extracts proved effective against the A. hydrophila tested, with 10-12 mm inhibition zones observed. A. hydrophila demonstrated the highest susceptibility to F. pumila. Among various species of Ficus with moderate activity against A. hydrophila, the highest antibacterial activities were noted for F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea, F. hispida, and F. lyrata. Thus, Ficus can be used as a natural antiseptic and antimicrobial agent in veterinary practice. Further investigations need to be conducted to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds that can then be subjected to detailed pharmacological studies and the development of clinical applications. The alarming rate of increasing resistance in bacterial pathogens in aquaculture environments means that medicinal plants with antibacterial properties are very important as natural resources of new active compounds.

  11. Vaccination in Nile tilapia broodstock with whole cell vaccine and disease resistance in its fry against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukenda Sukenda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the effectivity of vaccination in Nile tilapia broodstock with whole cell vaccine and disease resistance in fry tilapia against Aeromonas hydrophila. Tilapia Nirwana strain that used for this had average body weight of 185±13.23 g and were maintained in ponds sizing of (2.5×2.5×1 m3. Vaccinations that has been done through intraperitoneal injection using dose of 0.1 mL/fish, meanwhile the fish for control was injected by phosphate buffered saline (PBS. This study used complete randomized design with two treatments and three replications. Antibody level was measured by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method in the broodstock, egg, and fry.  Challenge test in fry tilapia performed at the age of 5, 10, and 15 days. The results showed that vaccination in tilapia broodstock delivered a significant antibody level in broodstock, eggs, and fry (P<0.05 compared to the control. Relative percent survival of offspring at 5, 10, and 15 days were 78.26%, 70.59%, and 65.52%, respectively.  As a conclusion, vaccination in tilapia broodstock was effective to improve specific and non-specific immunity, and protect fry tilapia from A. hydrophila infection through maternal immunity. Keywords: vaccination, antibody, maternal immunity, tilapia, Aeromonas hydrophila  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efikasi vaksinasi pada induk nila dengan vaksin sel utuh dan ketahanan benih yang dihasilkan terhadap Aeromonas hydrophila. Ikan nila stain Nirwana yang digunakan dalam penelitian memiliki bobot rata-rata 185±13,23 g dan ikan dipelihara dalam kolam (2,5×2,5×1 m3. vaksinasi dilakukan melalui penyuntikan intraperitoneal dengan dosis 0,1 mL/ikan, sementara itu ikan kontrol disuntik dengan phosphate buffered saline (PBS. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Tingkat antibodi diukur dengan menggunakan metode indirect enzyme

  12. Lethal dose and clinical signs of Aeromonas hydrophila in Arapaima gigas (Arapaimidae), the giant fish from Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcia K R; Sampaio, Luciana S; Proietti-Junior, Aldo A; Yoshioka, Eliane T O; Rodrigues, Dália P; Rodriguez, Anselmo F R; Ribeiro, Ricardo A; Faria, Fernando S E D V; Ozório, Rodrigo O A; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-05-30

    Aeromonas hydrophila is causing substantial economic losses in world aquaculture. This study determined the tolerance limit (LD50-96h) of A. hydrophila in Arapaima gigas, and also investigated the clinical signs after intradermal inoculation. Arapaima gigas fingerlings were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0 (control), 1.0×10(5), 1.0×10(6), 1.0×10(7), 1.0×10(9) and 1.0×10(10)CFU/mL of A. hydrophila for the determination of LD50-96h, which was 1.8×10(8)CFU/mL. In another trial with intradermal inoculation of 1.8×10(8)CFU/mL A. hydrophila, there was a 91.6% of mortality between 8 and 23h, and several clinical signs were found. As follows: depigmentation in the tegument, lesions in the tail and fins, loss of balance, reduction of respiratory movements, hemorrhagic foci, necrotic hemorrhages in the kidney, liver and swim bladder, splenomegaly, ascites in the abdominal cavity and hyperemia, enlargement of the gall bladder, among other clinical signs observed. The results showed that A. gigas has a relative tolerance to A. hydrophila when compared to other Neotropical fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish.

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    Mohammad J Hossain

    Full Text Available To investigate the molecular basis of the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila responsible for an epidemic outbreak of motile aeromonad septicemia of catfish in the Southeastern United States, we sequenced 11 A. hydrophila isolates that includes five reference and six recent epidemic isolates. Comparative genomics revealed that recent epidemic A. hydrophila isolates are highly clonal, whereas reference isolates are greatly diverse. We identified 55 epidemic-associated genetic regions with 313 predicted genes that are present in epidemic isolates but absent from reference isolates and 35% of these regions are located within genomic islands, suggesting their acquisition through lateral gene transfer. The epidemic-associated regions encode predicted prophage elements, pathogenicity islands, metabolic islands, fitness islands and genes of unknown functions, and 34 of the genes encoded in these regions were predicted as virulence factors. We found two pilus biogenesis gene clusters encoded within predicted pathogenicity islands. A functional metabolic island that encodes a complete pathway for myo-inositol catabolism was evident by the ability of epidemic A. hydrophila isolates to use myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Testing of A. hydrophila field isolates found a consistent correlation between myo-inositol utilization as a sole carbon source and the presence of an epidemic-specific genetic marker. All epidemic isolates and one reference isolate shared a novel O-antigen cluster. Altogether we identified four different O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters within the 11 sequenced A. hydrophila genomes. Our study reveals new insights into the evolutionary changes that have resulted in the emergence of recent epidemic A. hydrophila strains.

  14. Identifikasi Gen Aerolysin dan Sensitivitas Antibiotik Aeromonas Hydrophila Penyebab Kematian Tukik (Lepidochelys olivacea di Pulau Serangan, Bali

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    Rima Ratnanggana Prasetya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathogene of Aeromonas hydrophila genes (Aerolysin as the cause of Lepidochelys olivacea death and to perform the antibiotic sensitivity test for antibiotic that often used in order to provide the best antibiotic treatment in the field case. The method used was the identification test using primary cultures on Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA and Mac Conkey Agar (MCA medium, then followed by Gram staining, oxidase, catalase, and biochemical tests. Then, aerolysin genes detection was performed by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method, while oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and kanamycin were tested for their sensitivity. From five samples of dead Lepidochelys olivacea, bleeding on the liver and intestine were observed. The identification result of bacteria was found A. hydrophila, and identified the gene encoding aerolysin. The antibiotic sensitivity test showed a sensitive category of A. hydrophila with a sensitivity level were oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and streptomycin. The main cause of Lepidochelys olivacea death in Turtle Conservation and Education Centre, Serangan Island, Bali was A. hydrophila which contains aerolysin genes, in which oxytetracycline seems to be the most effective drug for the treatment. ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuktikan adanya gen patogen (Aerolysin pada Aeromonas hydrophila sebagai penyebab kematian tukik penyu abu-abu serta mengetahui kepekaan obat antibiotic yang sering digunakan sehingga dapat memberikan terapi yang tepat pada kasus di lapangan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah uji identifikasi menggunakan kultur primer pada media Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA dan Mac Conkey Agar (MCA, dilanjutkan uji pewarnaan Gram, uji oksidase, uji katalase, dan uji biokimiawi. Setelah itu dilakukan deteksi gen aerolysin menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, serta dilakukan uji sensitivitas antibiotik oxytetracycline

  15. Concentração inibitória mínima de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas Hydrophila obtidos de diferentes fontes Minimal inhibitory concentration to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas Hydrophila strains isolated from different sources

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    Delton José Pereira Júnior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de oxitetraciclina para isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila obtidos de pescado, água de cultivo de peixes e casos de septicemia hemorrágica em peixes. Foi determinado MIC de 100 isolados de A. hydrophila, oriundos de 12 pisciculturas localizadas nos Estados de Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul, utilizando a técnica de macrodiluição em caldo. Os resultados demonstraram que 14 isolados apresentaram MIC>100 µg/mL (resistentes e 86 apresentaram MICThe aim of this paper was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC to oxitetracycline in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water of piscicultures and fish suffering hemorrhagic septicemia. These strains were obtained from 12 different piscicultures from Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul states. It was determined the MIC to 100 strains, using the broth macrodilution method, and the results showed that 86 strains shown value of MIC100µg/mL (classified as resistant. No differences were observed among strains isolated from marketed fish, pond water and disease outbreaks. I was concluded that the variation detected may represent a risk of selection of resistant bacterial strains in aquatic environments under use of oxitetracycline.

  16. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  17. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis

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    S. W. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms. Materials and Methods: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA. Susceptibility testing of present bacterial isolates to 16 types of antibiotics (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, compound sulfonamides, doxycycline, tetracycline, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, erythromycin, ampicillin, spiramycin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin and four types of heavy metals (mercury, chromium, copper, and zinc were carried out using disk diffusion and two-fold agar dilution method, respectively. Results: Three hundred isolates of A. hydrophila and E. tarda were successfully identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing results showed that 42.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to compound sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and oxolinic acid. On the other hand, 41.6% of these isolates were resistant to novobiocin, ampicillin, spiramycin, and chloramphenicol, which resulted for multiple antibiotic resistance index values 0.416. Among tested heavy metals, bacterial isolates exhibited resistant pattern of Zn2+ > Cr6+ > Cu2+ > Hg2+. Conclusion: Results from this study indicated that A. hydrophila and E. tarda isolated from coinfected farmed red hybrid tilapia were multi-resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals. These resistant profiles could be useful information to fish farmers to avoid unnecessary use of

  18. Molecular detection of Aeromonas hydrophila in the aquarium gold fish and cultured rainbow trout in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province

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    firouz Fadaeifard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophilia   is the etiologic agent of motile aeromonas septicaemia, one of the most important bacterial diseases of fresh and marine water fishes. The aim of the present study was detection of A. hydrophilia in the aquarium goldfish and cultured rainbow trout in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province.  In this study 50 goldfish from aquarium fish shops and 60 rainbow trouts suspected of having the disease from 6 farms (10 fish in each farm were randomly collected. The average weight in goldfish and rainbow trout samples were 3-5 g and 10-20 g, respectively. Sampling was performed from kidney and liver, and inoculated into blood agar and incubated at 22°C for 24 hours. Pure colonies which are grown on the mediums were tested by catalase, oxidase and gram staining, then those of gram-negative, catalase and oxidase positive were diagnosed, and cultured on Shotts-Rimler medium (as selective medium for A. hydrophila. These mediums were incubated at 22 °C for 24-48 h. The typical colonies were tested by using oligonucleotide primers of lip gene by PCR method. In light of molecular analysis of all specimens, 9 and 6 isolates from rainbow trout and gold fishes were identified as A. hydrophila respectively. Due to the detection of A. hydrophila in both cultured rainbow trout and aquarium goldfish, the bacteria can lead to septicemia with mortality if the health management principles are not observed in fish farming.

  19. The Efficacy of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Broodstock and Larval Immunization against Streptococcus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Wesly Pasaribu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila have been recognized as the causative agents of mortality in tilapia larvae with single infection and coinfection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of maternal transfer and offspring protection from the immunization of monovalent and bivalent vaccines on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus broodstock and larval immunization. Four groups of broodstock were intraperitoneally injected with formalin killed whole-cells of S. agalactiae (Sa group, A. hydrophila (Ah group, the bivalent mixed vaccine of them (Biv group, and phosphate-buffered saline as a control (Pbs group. Immunization of the larvae produced from immunized broodstock with a bivalent vaccine (Biv1 group and Pbs (Pbs1 group was performed by immersion at 20 days after hatch. Larvae produced from the Pbs group were unvaccinated as the control (Pbs2 group. Changes in the specific antibody and relative percent survival were measured. The Sa and Ah groups that could increase specific antibodies and protection against pathogenic bacteria were challenged with the homologous bacteria. The Biv group stimulated and protected against both S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila. The specific antibody of the Biv1 group was higher than the Pbs1 and Pbs2 groups. The last observation in this study showed that the relative percent survival of the Biv group after challenged S. agalactiae, A. hydrophila, and coinfection were 74.74 ± 3.18%, 73.81 ± 8.58%, and 71.48 ± 5.70%, respectively. The use of bivalent vaccines on the broodstock and larvae may be a strategy to reduce mortality in Nile tilapia larvae caused by single pathogen infection of S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, or coinfection with both S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila.

  20. The Influences of Bacillus subtilis on the Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Expression of luxS Gene of Both Bacteria Under Co-cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuwei; Li, Sisi; Wu, Zhixin; Zhou, Chengchong; Zhang, Ding; Chen, Xiaoxuan

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of Bacillus subtilis CH9 on Aeromonas hydrophila SC2005. The transcription level of virulence genes of A. hydrophila SC2005 and its hemolysin activity as well as its cytotoxicity were analyzed when B. subtilis CH9 and A. hydrophila SC2005 were co-cultured. The results indicated that the transcription levels of four virulence genes of A. hydrophila, including aer, ahyB, hcp, and emp, decreased when A. hydrophila was cultured with B. subtilis CH9. Furthermore, the extracellular products of A. hydrophila showed attenuated hemolysin activity as well as cytotoxicity when A. hydrophila was cultured with B. subtilis CH9. Finally, the transcriptional levels of luxS genes of B. subtilis CH9 and A. hydrophila SC2005 were determined when these two species were co-cultured. RT-qPCR results suggested that the transcription level of A. hydrophila was down-regulated significantly. On the contrary, the transcription level of B. subtilis CH9 was up-regulated significantly. These results suggested that the probiotic role of B. subtilis CH9 is related to the inhibition of growth and virulence of A. hydrophila SC2005, and quorum sensing may be involved.

  1. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow ( Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila . The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities and plasma creatinine levels in fish fed 10 g marshmallow extract per kg feed. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly decreased on day 60. The fish fed 2.50 g marshmallow extract per kg feed indicated increased levels of total protein and globulin. There were no significant changes in albumin levels ( p > 0.05). 2.50 and 5.00 g marshmallow significantly decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and increased glucose levels ( p Marshmallow extract at 5.00 and 10.00 g can adjust plasma biochemical parameters in fish challenged with A. hydrophila . The results of preclinical studies and pharmaceutical toxicity of marshmallow extract revealed that dietary levels lower than 5.00 g were safe and effective. The results of this clinical study demonstrated that marshmallow extract (5.00 g kg -1 feed) can protect fish against A. hydrophila .

  2. Hesperidin Inhibits Inflammatory Response Induced by Aeromonas hydrophila Infection and Alters CD4+/CD8+ T Cell Ratio

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    Abdelaziz S. A. Abuelsaad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is associated with a number of human diseases. Hesperidin (HES has been reported to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of HES treatment on inflammatory response induced by A. hydrophila infection in murine. Methods. A. hydrophila-infected mice were treated with HES at 250 mg/kg b.wt./week for 4 consecutive weeks. Phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, and CD14 expression on intestinal infiltrating monocytes were evaluated. The expression of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on stimulated HUVECs and RAW macrophage was evaluated. Results. Percentage of CD4+ T cells in the intestinal tissues of infected treated mice was highly significantly increased; however, phagocytic index, ROS production, CD8+ T cells percentage, and CD14 expression on monocytes were significantly reduced. On the other hand, HES significantly inhibited A-LPS- and A-ECP-induced E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression on HUVECs and ICAM-1 expression on RAW macrophage. Conclusion. Present data indicated that HES has a potential role in the suppression of inflammatory response induced by A. hydrophila toxins through downmodulation of ROS production and CD14 and adhesion molecules expression, as well as increase of CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio.

  3. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Infected by Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Lei Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that play key roles in regulation of various biological processes. In order to better understand the biological significance of miRNAs in the context of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Megalobrama amblycephala, small RNA libraries obtained from fish liver at 0 (non-infection, 4, and 24 h post infection (poi were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 11,244,207, 9,212,958, and 7,939,157 clean reads were obtained from these three RNA libraries, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified 171 conserved miRNAs and 62 putative novel miRNAs. The existence of ten randomly selected novel miRNAs was validated by RT-PCR. Pairwise comparison suggested that 61 and 44 miRNAs were differentially expressed at 4 and 24 h poi, respectively. Furthermore, the expression profiles of nine randomly selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. MicroRNA target prediction, gene ontology (GO annotation, and Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis indicated that a variety of biological pathways could be affected by A. hydrophila infection. Additionally, transferrin (TF and transferrin receptor (TFR genes were confirmed to be direct targets of miR-375. These results will expand our knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the immune response of M. amblycephala to A. hydrophila infection, and facilitate the development of effective strategies against A. hydrophila infection in M. amblycephala.

  4. Protective effect of probiotic diets on haematobiochemical and histopathology changes of Mystus montanus (Jerdon 1849 against Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Gurusamy Chelladurai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the protective effect of probiotic diets on haemotobiochemical and histopathology changes of Mystus montanus against Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila. Methods: Three experimental groups of fish were fed with a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus (Sporolac, comprising about 0.1 g, 0.2 g and 0.3 g. Control group of fish were fed without L. acidophilus. After 60 d of feeding the fishes in experimental group were injected with 1 mL of A. hydrophila and were supplemented with probiotic diets. The control group fishes were injected with 1 mL of physiological saline solution alone. Results: Blood samples were collected for haematobiochemical analysis, while samples of the liver, and gills were examined for path histology after 7 d of infection. The result showed that the growth parameters, weight gain, specific growth rate were better in infected group maintained on the probiotic diet compared to those in control group. The haematology parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, red blood cell, white blood cell, total serum protein, Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl, glucose, cholesterol and total immunoglobulin concentration and the pathohistology of the liver, gills were better in the infected fish maintained on the probiotic diet than those in the group fed the control diet. Conclusions: The result of the present study showed that L. acidophilus is useful as a probiotic agent in Mystus montanus against A. hydrophila.

  5. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

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    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  6. Understanding effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Chung-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bor-Yann, E-mail: bychen@niu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Yen, Chia-Yi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    This novel comparative study tended to disclose how the molecular structures present in seven azo dyes including two types of azo dyes (i.e., naphthol type azo dyes - Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Blue 171 (RB 171), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Red 141 (RR141) and non-naphthol type azo dyes - Direct Yellow 86 (DY86), Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84)) affected color removal capability of Aeromonas hydrophila. Generally speaking, the decolorization rate of naphthol type azo dye with hydroxyl group at ortho to azo bond was faster than that of non-naphthol type azo dye without hydroxyl group, except of RG19. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group in RR198, RB5 and RR141) would be easier to be decolorized than the azo dyes with the electron-releasing groups (e.g., -NH-triazine in RB171 and RG19). In addition, the azo dyes containing more electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) showed significantly faster rate of decolorization. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group) at para and ortho to azo bond (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) could be more preferred for color removal than those at meta (e.g., DY86 and RY84). The former azo dyes with para and ortho sulfo group provided more effective resonance effects to withdraw electrons from azo bond, causing azo dyes to be highly electrophilic for faster rates of reductive biodecolorization. However, since the ortho substituent caused steric hindrance near azo linkage(s), azo dyes with para substituent could be more favorable (e.g., SO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}{sup -} in RR198 and RB5) than those with ortho substituent (e.g., sulfo group at RR141) for decolorization. Thus, the ranking of the position for the electron-withdrawing substituent in azo dyes to escalate decolorization was para > ortho > meta. This study suggested that both the positions of substituents on the aromatic ring and the electronic characteristics of

  7. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

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    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  8. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  9. White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

  10. PEMBERIAN PROBIOTIK LACTOBACILLUS BREVIS DAN PREBIOTIK OLIGOSAKARIDA PADA BENIH PATIN SIAM (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus YANG DIINFEKSI Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Yuke Eliyani

    2013-08-01

    Lactobacillus brevis, prebiotik oligosakarida dan sinbiotiknya terhadap jumlah bakteri Lactobacillus sp. dan total bakteri dalam usus, total eritrosit, total leukosit, diferensial leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, tingkat pertumbuhan, serta FCR benih ikan patin siam yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Hasil uji karakteristik menunjukkan bahwa jenis probiotik dan patogen adalah Lactobacillus sp. dan Aeromonas hydrophila. Pada uji in vivo digunakan lima perlakuan yang terdiri atas K(+, K(-, probiotik (pro, prebiotik (pre serta sinbiotik (sin. Bakteri Lactobacillus sp. ditemukan di usus pada perlakuan probiotik dan sinbiotik dengan kisaran jumlah sekitar 101 sampai 106 (CFU/g. Total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan kontrol pada beberapa waktu pengamatan. Tingkat sintasan terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan K(+ sebesar 43,33±11,55; sedangkan empat perlakuan lainnya memperoleh nilai 100%. Tingkat pertumbuhan harian berbeda nyata antar perlakuan, nilai terbaik dicapai pada perlakuan pemberian sinbiotik sebesar 3,370±0,14. Nilai FCR perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik menunjukkan beda nyata dengan kontrol. Perlakuan sin, pre, pro memberikan nilai yang lebih baik pada total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, pertumbuhan, dan FCR dibandingkan kontrol.

  11. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  12. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and AHL lactonase on the control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in tilapia.

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    Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Liu, Zhi; Gao, Qian; Xu, Shude; Ringø, Einar; Myklebust, Reidar; Gu, Zemao; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-08-01

    This study addressed the effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum or/and N-acylated homoserine lactonase (AHL lactonase) on controlling Aeromonas  hydrophila infection in juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus♀ × O. aureus ♂). Fish were fed Lb. plantarum subsp. plantarum strain JCM1149 (10(8)  CFU/g feed) or/and AHL lactonase AIO6 (4 U/g) and were exposed to a chronic challenge of A. hydrophila NJ-1 (10(5)  cells/mL) for 14 days. Intestinal (foregut) alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activities were evaluated 1 day post challenge to reflect the resistance of fish against A. hydrophila infection. Parallel groups of fish with the same dietary assignments while unchallenged were also included to investigate the effect of dietary Lb. plantarum or/and AIO6 supplementation on gut health of tilapia. The results showed that IAP activity was significantly lower in fish fed with diets supplemented with Lb. plantarum JCM1149 or the combination of Lb. plantarum JCM1149 and AIO6, indicating enhanced resistance against A. hydrophila. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images of foregut revealed damage caused by A. hydrophila NJ-1, but dietary Lb. plantarumJCM1149 or/and AIO6 significantly alleviated the damages. Compared to the fish immersed in A. hydrophila NJ-1, dietary Lb. plantarum JCM1149 or AIO6 could maintain the microvilli length in the foregut of tilapia. However, among the unchallenged groups of fish, the microvilli length in the foregut of tilapia fed AIO6 (singly or combination) and the microvilli density of tilapia fed AIO6 (singly) were significantly lower than those of the control, though the microvilli density in the combination treatment was significantly improved. Additionally, the dietary Lb. plantarum JCM1149 could down-regulate the expression of stress-related gene in the gut after the acute phase. In conclusion, the dietary Lb. plantarum JCM1149 is recommended to control the A. hydrophila infection in

  13. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle Linn UNTUK MENGHAMBAT BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila DAN TOKSISITASNYA PADA IKAN PATIN (Pangasius hypophthalmus (THE USE OF PIPER BETLE LINN EXTRACT ON AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA TO OBSTRUCT AND THE TOKSISITY TO PANGASIUS HYPOPHTHALMUS

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    Siti Aisiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui   daya  hambat  daun  sirih   yang  paling  besar  terhadap  bakteri Aeromonas Hydrophila, mengetahui konsentrasi minimal ekstrak daun sirih yang mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri  A. hydrophila  dan mengetahui toksisitas konsentrasi efektif dari  ekstrak daun sirih terhadap ikan patin. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan untuk  uji toksisitas  adalah rancangan acak lengkap, terdiri dari 4 perlakuan yaitu A  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 75%, B  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 25%, C  = Kontrol positif (ikan disuntik dengan akuades steril dan D  = Kontrol negatif (ikan tidak disuntik, diulang 3 kali. Hasil uji sensitivitas antibakteri daun sirih yang mempunyai daya hambat dan daya bunuh paling besar terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila adalah ekstrak daun sirih-metanol. Pengujian MIC menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun sirih-metanol memiliki daya hambat minimal 25 % terhadap aktivitas bakteri A. hydrophila. Hasil uji toksisitas yang dilakukan terhadap ikan patin dengan konsentrasi 75% dan 25% menunjukkan bahwa mortalitas yang terjadi tidak mencapai 50%. Pengamatan hematologis pada masing-masing perlakuan menunjukkan hasil yang berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap kesehatan ikan patin. Parameter kualitas air pada penelitian ini yaitu, , kadar oksigen terlarut,  pH, amoniak, CO2 dan suhu masih dapat mendukung kehidupan ikan patin. This research was aimed a finding the part of Piper betle Linn  which had the biggest resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria and to know the minimal concentrate which could obstruct the growth of A. hydrophila  bacteria and to know effective concentrate toxicity of P. betle Linn  to Pangasius hypophthalmus.  The random sampling used proportionate stratified random sampling. In toxicity test, it had be done 4 treatment, which was given to fish, those were : A = fish was injected with 25 % concentrate of extract  P

  14. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  15. Evaluation of traditional plant extracts for innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance against fish bacterial Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardi, E. H.; Saptiani, G.; Kusuma, I. W.; Suwinarti, W.; Nugroho, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate effect of ethanol herbal extracts of Boesenbergia pandurata, Solanum ferox and Zingimber zerumbet on Tilapia (Oreochromis nilaticus) innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas sp. Fish were intramuscularly injected with 0.1 mL/fish (1010 CFU mL-1) of each bacterium on the day 6th of post treatment using extract by several methods (injection, oral administration and immersion). The doses of extract were 600 ppm of B. pandurata, 900 ppm S. ferox and 200 ppm of Z. zerumbet. The percentage mortality, Relative Percent Survival (RPS) and innate immune response were assessed on weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4. All the methods were effective to enhance the immune parameters after 2 weeks application and the RPS of treatment reached more than 90 %. The results showed that the injection method of extracts was the most effective method to control A. hydrophila and Pseudomonas sp. The result indicated that all the doses of extracts could be significantly influence the immune response and protect the health status of tilapia against A. hydrophila and Pseudomonas sp. infections.

  16. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

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    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  17. Isolation and Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Floating cages in Bozem Moro Krembangan Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, Rahayu; Kismiyati; Sudarno; Kurniawan, Hendi; Teguh Prayogi, Yudha

    2017-02-01

    Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is one of the familiar freshwater fish cultured in Indonesia farmer. One of the reason is the high mortality of the catfish infected by Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) is a common bacterial disease, caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which affects freshwater fish. In Southeast Asia, the outbreak of this disease was firstly reported from West Java in 1980, when a total of 82.5 tons a month of catfish were lost, while in Central Java in 1984, the total loss was 1.6 tons. Saprolegniosis can cause economic loss due to high mortality from its case reaching 10% to 50%. This research aimed to identify and determine the percentage of A. hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. the catfish farmed in bozem Moro Krembangan, Surabaya, East Java. Meanwhile, a supporting parameter in this research is the value of water quality parameter including pH, temperature, ammonia and dissolved oxygen that were measured during sampling. The results showed that of the 20 samples taken from the two cages, 19 fish were positively infected by A. drophila. percentage of infections of A. hydrophila that infect umbo catfish in Moro Krembangan, was 95%, while the percentage Saprolegnia sp. was 90%.

  18. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of cathepsin C in Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus after Aeromonas hydrophila infection

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    Zisheng Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cathepsin C (CTSC (dipeptidyl peptidase I, DPPI, is a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases and involves in a variety of host reactions. However, the information of CTST in Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, an amphibian species with important evolutionary position and economic values, remained unclear. Results: The full-length salamander CTSC cDNA contained a 96 bp of 5′-UTR, a 1392 bp of ORF encoding 463 amino acids, and a 95 bp of 3′-UTR. The salamander CTSC possessed several sequence features similar to other reported CTSCs such as a signal peptide, a propeptide and a mature peptide. The active site triad of Cys, His and Asn were also found existing in salamander CTSC. Salamander CTSC mRNA was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues with significantly variant expression level. The highest expression of CTSC was in intestine, followed with stomach, spleen, lung and brain. Following Aeromonas hydrophila infection for 12 h, salamander CTSC was significantly up-regulated in several tissues including lung, spleen, brain, kidney, heart, stomach and skin. Conclusion: CTSC plays roles in the immune response to bacterial infection, which provided valuable information for further studying the functions of CTSC in salamander. Keywords: cDNA, CTSC, Dipeptidyl peptidase I, Gene expression, Hydrophila, Immune, Peptide, Sequence, Tissue

  19. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Histopathology of red-sore disease (aeromonas hydrophila) in naturally and experimentally infected largemouth bass micropterus salmoides(lacepede)

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    Huizinga, H W [Illinois State Univ., Normal; Esch, G W; Hazen, T C

    1979-01-01

    The histopathology of red-sore disease, caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila, is described for largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. Externally, lesions range from those affecting a few scales (pin-point), to those associated with extensive chronic ulcerations; there is focal hemorrhage, oedema and dermal necrosis which exposes underlying muscles producing infiltration of mononuclear and granulocytic inflammatory cells. Internally, the liver and kidneys are foci for toxic products produced by A. hydrophila with, in the most severe cases, complete destruction of the structural integrity of both organs. Pathological changes were not serious in either the spleen or heart, even in cases with massive damage in the liver and kidney. Internal and external lesions were similar in both natural and experimentally induced infections. The pathobiology of red-sore disease in bass was postulated to be linked to elevated water temperature stimulating increased metabolism, decreased body condition and stress, leading to the increased production of corticosteroids and the concommitant rise in susceptibility to infection.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

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    Yunfei Dang

    Full Text Available The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs. 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens.

  2. Eficácia do florfenicol e da oxitetraciclina no controle de Aeromonas hydrophila em pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

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    S.P. Carraschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a concentração eficaz de oxitetraciclina (OTC e florfenicol (FFC no tratamento de Aeromonas hydrophila em pacu (Piaractus. mesopotamicus. Os pacus foram submetidos à captura duas vezes ao dia por quatro dias e em seguida foram infectados com A. hydrophila (2,4x10(7 bactéria mL-1. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: controle sem infecção (CSI, controle com infecção (CCI e tratados com 110,0; 140,0 e 170,0mgOTC.kg-1, e 5,0; 10,0 e 15,0mgFFC.kg-1. As variáveis de qualidade da água foram monitoradas diariamente. Após o tratamento, no CSI dos dois testes, ocorreu 100% de sobrevivência. Nos testes com OTC, no CCI, a sobrevivência foi de 29,2%; em 110,0mg.kg-1, 37,5%; em 140,0mg.kg-1, 29,2%; e em 170,0mg.kg-1, 50,0%. Nos testes com FFC, foi eficaz com 10,0mg.kg-1, e no CCI a sobrevivência foi de 76,9%; em 5,0mg.kg-1, 81,81%; em 10,0mg/L.kg-1, 100% e em 15,0mg.kg-1, 87,5%. A OTC, em concentrações de até 170,0mg.kg-1 de ração, não é eficaz para o controle de A. hydrophila em pacu, e o FFC é eficaz na concentração de 10,0mg.kg-1 e ambos não alteram as variáveis de qualidade de água.

  3. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH.

  4. Label-free proteomic analysis of intestinal mucosa proteins in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guilan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjing; Zhou, Chuanjiang; Naeem, Sajid; Li, Li; Kong, Xianghui

    2017-07-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases in common carp Cyprinus carpio, a major cultured fish in northern regions of China, constantly result in significant economic losses. Until now, information proteomic on immune defence remains limited. In the present study, a profile of intestinal mucosa immune response in Cyprinus carpio was investigated after 0, 12, 36 and 84 h after challenging tissues with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1.4 × 10 8  CFU/mL. Proteomic profiles in different samples were compared using label-free quantitative proteomic approach. Based on MASCOT database search, 1149 proteins were identified in samples after normalisation of proteins. Treated groups 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) were first clustered together and then clustered with control (C group). The distance between C and treated group 3 (T3) represented the maxima according to hierarchical cluster analysis. Therefore, comparative analysis between C and T3 was selected in the following analysis. A total of 115 proteins with differential abundance were detected to show conspicuous expressing variances. A total of 52 up-regulated proteins and 63 down-regulated proteins were detected in T3. Gene ontology analysis showed that identified up-regulated differentially expressed proteins in T3 were mainly localised in the hemoglobin complex, and down-regulated proteins in T3 were mainly localised in the major histocompatibility complex II protein complex. Forty-six proteins of differential abundance (40% of 115) were involved in immune response, with 17 up-regulated and 29 down-regulated proteins detected in T3. This study is the first to report proteome response of carp intestinal mucosa against A. hydrophila infection; information obtained contribute to understanding defence mechanisms of carp intestinal mucosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptome differences between enrofloxacin-resistant and enrofloxacin-susceptible strains of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengjiao; Yang, Zongying; Zhang, Yiliu; Hu, Kun; Fang, Wenhong

    2017-01-01

    Enrofloxacin is the most commonly used antibiotic to control diseases in aquatic animals caused by A. hydrophila. This study conducted de novo transcriptome sequencing and compared the global transcriptomes of enrofloxacin-resistant and enrofloxacin-susceptible strains. We got a total of 4,714 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 4,122 were annotated. A total of 3,280 unigenes were assigned to GO, 3,388 unigenes were classified into Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) using BLAST and BLAST2GO software, and 2,568 were mapped onto pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes Pathway database. Furthermore, 218 unigenes were deemed to be DEGs. After enrofloxacin treatment, 135 genes were upregulated and 83 genes were downregulated. The GO terms biological process (126 genes) and metabolic process (136 genes) were the most enriched, and the terms for protein folding, response to stress, and SOS response were also significantly enriched. This study identified enrofloxacin treatment affects multiple biological functions of A. hydrophila. Enrofloxacin resistance in A. hydrophila is closely related to the reduction of intracellular drug accumulation caused by ABC transporters and increased expression of topoisomerase IV.

  6. LD5o of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus DL5o da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus

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    Sarah Ragonha de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the lethal dose (96-h LD50 of the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila to matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, to be applied in challenge tests, 90 fish (63.23 ± 6.39 g were divided into five treatments, with different bacterial solutions: T1 - Control (0.9% NaCl saline solution; T2 (4 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 cells/ mL; T4 (1.36 x 10(12 cells/ mL and T5 (3.06 x 10(12 cells/ mL. Fish were previously anesthetized with benzocaine (60 mg L-1, inoculated in the peritoneal cavity with the bacterial suspensions and then distributed into fifteen 80-L test chambers, where the water variables were monitored and fish mortality was observed. The experiment was randomly designed in three replicates and the 96-h LD50 was estimated according to the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Water quality variables remained within adequate ranges for fish health and performance. Fish mortality rate increased with the bacterial concentrations of A. hydrophila (T1 = 0%; T2 = 16.66%; T3 = 44.44%; T4 = 72.22% and T5 = 100%, and the first mortalities were observed after 57 h, although the signs of the bacterial infection were already observed 24 h after the inoculation. The results indicate that the 96-h LD50 value of A. hydrophila to matrinxã is 6.66 x 10(11 cells/ mL.Para determinar a dose letal (DL50 96-h da bactéria Aeromonas hydrophila para o matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, com aplicabilidade para testes de desafio, foram utilizados 90 peixes (63,23 ± 6,39 g, divididos em cinco tratamentos, com diferentes soluções bacterianas: T1 - Controle (solução salina 0,9% NaCl; T2 (4 x 10(11 células/ mL; T3 (5 x 10(11 células/ mL-1; T4 (1,36 x 10(12 células/mL-1 e T5 (3,06 x 10(12 células/ mL-1. Os peixes foram previamente anestesiados com benzocaína (60 mg L-1, inoculados na cavidade peritoneal com as suspensões bacterianas e distribuídos em 15 aquários de vidro de 80 L de capacidade, com aeração constante. O experimento teve duração de 96 h, no

  7. Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila DNA oligonucleotide sequence using a biosensor design based on Ceria nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide and Fast Fourier transform square wave voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, Safiye [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush, E-mail: faridbodf@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular and Cellular Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular and Cellular Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ajloo, Davood [School of Chemistry, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh [Department of Microbial Biotechnology, School of Biology and Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, College of Science, University of Tehran, 14155-6455 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular and Cellular Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    A new strategy was introduced for ssDNA immobilization on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrode surface was modified using polyaniline and chemically reduced graphene oxide decorated cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO{sub 2}NPs-RGO). A single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was immobilized on the modified electrode surface. Fast Fourier transform square wave voltammetry (FFT-SWV) was applied as detection technique and [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+/3+} redox signal was used as electrochemical marker. The hybridization of ssDNA with its complementary target caused a dramatic decrease in [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+/3+} FFT-SW signal. The proposed electrochemical biosensor was able to detect Aeromonas hydrophila DNA oligonucleotide sequence encoding aerolysin protein. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor showed excellent selectivity toward complementary sequence in comparison with noncomplementary and two-base mismatch sequences. The dynamic linear range of this electrochemical DNA biosensor for detecting 20-mer oligonucleotide sequence of A. hydrophila was from 1 × 10{sup −15} to 1 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}. The proposed biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of DNA extracted from A. hydrophila in fish pond water up to 0.01 μg mL{sup −1} with RSD of 5%. Besides, molecular docking was applied to consider the [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+/3+} interaction with ssDNA before and after hybridization. - Highlights: • New DNA biosensor is designed for sub-femtomolar detection of Aeromonas hydrophila DNA sequence. • Reduced graphene oxide decorated Ceria nanoparticles was used as a new immobilization platform. • Biosensor was successfully used to detect A. hydrophila DNA sequence in fish pond water.

  8. Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila DNA oligonucleotide sequence using a biosensor design based on Ceria nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide and Fast Fourier transform square wave voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, Safiye; Faridbod, Farnoush; Norouzi, Parviz; Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Ajloo, Davood; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    A new strategy was introduced for ssDNA immobilization on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrode surface was modified using polyaniline and chemically reduced graphene oxide decorated cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO_2NPs-RGO). A single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was immobilized on the modified electrode surface. Fast Fourier transform square wave voltammetry (FFT-SWV) was applied as detection technique and [Ru(bpy)_3]"2"+"/"3"+ redox signal was used as electrochemical marker. The hybridization of ssDNA with its complementary target caused a dramatic decrease in [Ru(bpy)_3]"2"+"/"3"+ FFT-SW signal. The proposed electrochemical biosensor was able to detect Aeromonas hydrophila DNA oligonucleotide sequence encoding aerolysin protein. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor showed excellent selectivity toward complementary sequence in comparison with noncomplementary and two-base mismatch sequences. The dynamic linear range of this electrochemical DNA biosensor for detecting 20-mer oligonucleotide sequence of A. hydrophila was from 1 × 10"−"1"5 to 1 × 10"−"8 mol L"−"1. The proposed biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of DNA extracted from A. hydrophila in fish pond water up to 0.01 μg mL"−"1 with RSD of 5%. Besides, molecular docking was applied to consider the [Ru(bpy)_3]"2"+"/"3"+ interaction with ssDNA before and after hybridization. - Highlights: • New DNA biosensor is designed for sub-femtomolar detection of Aeromonas hydrophila DNA sequence. • Reduced graphene oxide decorated Ceria nanoparticles was used as a new immobilization platform. • Biosensor was successfully used to detect A. hydrophila DNA sequence in fish pond water.

  9. Transcriptome differences between enrofloxacin-resistant and enrofloxacin-susceptible strains of Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Fengjiao; Yang, Zongying; Zhang, Yiliu; Hu, Kun; Fang, Wenhong

    2017-01-01

    Enrofloxacin is the most commonly used antibiotic to control diseases in aquatic animals caused by A. hydrophila. This study conducted de novo transcriptome sequencing and compared the global transcriptomes of enrofloxacin-resistant and enrofloxacin-susceptible strains. We got a total of 4,714 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 4,122 were annotated. A total of 3,280 unigenes were assigned to GO, 3,388 unigenes were classified into Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) using BLAST an...

  10. Chlorophytum borivilianum Polysaccharide Fraction Provokes the Immune Function and Disease Resistance of Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sib Sankar Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum polysaccharide (CBP, as a dietary supplement administered at varying concentrations with feed (basal diet, on various cytokine-related responses in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Immune parameters and immune-related gene expressions were measured at 3rd, 4th, and 5th week after feeding. The results revealed that dietary administration of CBP at 0.2% and 0.4% for 4 weeks significantly upregulated serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity. Complement C3 and respiratory burst activity (RBA were significantly higher after 4 weeks of CBP feeding. The immune related genes IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS were downregulated (P<0.05 in groups with 0.2% and 0.4% CBP supplemented diets at week 4. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β was also downregulated (P<0.5 after 4 weeks of feeding with 0.2% to 0.8% CBP. However, five weeks of CBP administration had no significant effect on immune gene expression, except TNF-α and IL-8. Fish fed with 0.4% CBP for 4 weeks showed maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (73.3% survival compared to control. From these results, we recommend that CBP administration at 0.4% for 4 weeks could effectively improve immune response and disease resistance in L. rohita.

  11. EFIKASI RUTE VAKSIN Aeromonas hydrophila ASB-01 PADA IKAN GABUS (Ophiocephalus striatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Olga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui rute pemberian vaksin A.hydrophila ASB-01 yang efektif untuk mengendalikan MAS pada ikan gabus.  Efektivitas rute vaksinasi dievaluasi melalui titer antibodi, sintasan, RPS (relative percent survival dan RWK (Rerata waktu kematian.  Penelitian ini terdiri dari 5 perlakuan (vaksinasi secara rendaman (R, oral (O, injeksi intramuscular (IM, injeksi intraperitoneal (IP dan Kontrol (PBS pH 7,0 dengan  3 ulangan. Dosis vaksinasi sebanyak 107 sel/ml. Vaksinasi booster dilakukan setelah 14 hari kemudian, dosisnya sama dengan vaksinasi awal.  Selanjutnya, 14 hari berikutnya ikan ditantang dengan A.hydrophila ASB-01. Untuk memperoleh data titer antibodi dilakukan pengambilan darah pada saat sebelum divaksinasi, sesaat sebelum vaksinasi booster dan 14 hari setelah vaksinasi booster. Ikan tantang diamati selama 14 hari untuk memperoleh data sintasan, RPS dan RWK. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa semua rute pemberian vaksin dapat meningkatkan titer antibodi, akan tetapi titer antibodi tertinggi diperoleh dari ikan yang divaksinasi secara injeksi.  Sintasan gabus yang divaksinasi secara IM (84,47%, IP (82,20%, R (42,27%, O (42,20% dan kontrol (13,13 %. RPS gabus yang divaksinasi melalui rute IM (82,08%, IP (79,46%, R (33,38%, O (33,31%, sedangkan RWK gabus melalui rute IP (3,63 hari, IM (79,46 3,57 hari, R (2,46 hari, O (1,85 hari dan kontrol (1,03 hari. Rute vaksinasi yang efektif adalah melalui injeksi. This study aims to determine the vaccine A.hydrophila ASB-01 is effective for the control of MAS on snakehead fish. Effectiveness of vaccination was evaluated through the antibody titer, survival, RPS (relative percent survival and RWK (mean time of death. The study consisted of 5 treatments (immersion vaccination (R, oral (O, intramuscular injection (IM, intraperitoneal injection (IP and control (PBS pH 7.0 with 3 replications. Vaccination doses were 107 cells / ml. Booster vaccination after 14 days later. Dose is

  12. PEMBERIAN TOTAL FENOL TERIPANG PASIR (Holothuria scabra UNTUK MENINGKATKAN LEUKOSIT DAN DIFERENSIAL LEUKOSIT IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio YANG DIINFEKSI BAKTERI Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Suhermanto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishery commodities are most likely to be increased production of carp (Cyprinus carpio. Intensification of cultivation which raises new problems with fish disease outbreaks caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. Providing of immunostimulatory bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra can enhance non-specific immune responses in the goldfish as a mechanism of defense against disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the role and optimal dose of total phenols sea cucumber in enhancing non-specific immune response seen from the hematology parameters Extraction of bioactive components from sea cucumber prepared by using methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate solvent (v/v. Identification of total phenols in ethyl acetate fraction performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and infrared. Total phenol produced was tested on carp with intraperitonial injection, the concentration of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mg phenol/kg fish. Challenge test was done by using the Aeromonas hydrophila (107 cells/ml through the immersion method. The observations included hematological parameters and total plasma proteins.The observations of hematological parameters that Leukocytes, Neutrophils pre-and post-infection were significantly increased. Lymphocyte pre infection was increased significantly and post-bacterial infection was decreased significantly. Eosinophils, Monocytes pre-and post-bacterial infection were not differ significantly between treatment. The use of phenolic compounds at 0.09 mg / kg can be increase of non-specific immune response in carp (Cyprinus carpio. Key Words : Total phenol, Aeromonas hydrophila, Cyprinus carpio, nonspecific immune response 

  13. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  14. Stereochemical and positional specificity of the lipase/acyltransferase produced by Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D L; Hilton, S; Buckley, J T

    1992-06-02

    Aeromonas species secrete a glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) which shares many properties with mammalian plasma lecithin-cholesterol acetyltransferase (LCAT). We have studied the stereochemical and positional specificity of GCAT against a variety of lipid substrates using NMR spectroscopy as well as other assay methods. The results show that both the primary and secondary acyl ester bonds of L-phosphatidylcholine can be hydrolyzed but only the sn-2 fatty acid can be transferred to cholesterol. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for the L configuration at the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine. The secondary ester bond of D-phosphatidylcholine cannot be hydrolyzed, and this lipid is not a substrate for acyl transfer. In contrast to the phospholipases, but similar to LCAT, the enzyme does not interact stereochemically with the phosphorus of phosphatidylcholine. In fact, the phosphorus is not required for enzyme activity, as GCAT will also hydrolyze monolayers of diglyceride, although at much lower rates.

  15. Aerocistite aguda induzida por tioglicolato, lipolisacarídeo e Aeromona hydrophila inativada em Piaractus mesopotamicus: efeitos hematológicos

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    Julieta Rodini Engrácia de Moraes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da injeção de tioglicolato, lipolissacarídio de Escherichia coli e Aeromonas hydrophila inativada na bexiganatatória de pacus, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae foram avaliados quanto às respostas de células vermelhas,leucócitos e trombócitos do sangue. Ensaios quantitativos de eritrócitos, leucócitos e trombócitos foram realizados6, 24 e 48 h após os estímulos e comparados com peixes que receberam solução salina 0,65% pela mesma via. Peixes inoculados com A. hydrophila apresentaram redução do número de eritrócitos e da taxa de hemoglobina enquanto ohematócrito aumentou 6 h após o estímulo. Os resultados mostraram que o tioglicolato e o LPS também induziram redução da hemoglobina e aumento do hematócrito. A contagem de trombócitos diminuiu 6 h após a inoculação deA. hydrophila inativada e aumentou 48 horas após a injeção de LPS. A contagem de leucócitos aumentou 6 h após ainoculação de A. hydrophila enquanto a de linfócitos a leucócitos granulares PAS positivos (PAS_LG diminuiu 24 hdepois. Peixes injetados com tioglicolato o LPS apresentaram aumento do número de LG_PAS em relação aos inoculadoscom A. hydrophila inativada ou grupo controle. A contagem de monócitos não foi afetada pelos diferentes agentes.

  16. A novel recombinant bivalent outer membrane protein of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine antigen of American eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    SongLin, Guo; PanPan, Lu; JianJun, Feng; JinPing, Zhao; Peng, Lin; LiHua, Duan

    2015-04-01

    The immogenicity of a novel vaccine antigen was evaluated after immunized American eels (Anguilla rostrata) with a recombinant bivalent expressed outer membrane protein (OMP) of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Three groups of eels were intraperitoneal (i.p) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), formaline-killed-whole-cell (FKC) of A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus (FKC group) or the bivalent OMP (OMP group). On 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-vaccination respectively, proliferation of the whole blood cells, titers of specific antibody and lysozyme activities of experimental eels were detected. On 28 day post-vaccination, eels from three groups were challenged by i.p injection of live A. hydrophila or V. vulnificus. The results showed that, compared with the PBS group, proliferation of whole blood cells in OMP group was significant enhanced on 28 days, and the serum titers of anti-A.hydrophila and anti-V. vulnificus antibody in eels of FKC and OMP group were significant increased on 14, 21 and 28d. Lysozyme Activities in serum, skin mucus, liver and kidney were significant changed between the three groups. Relative Percent Survival (RPS) after challenged A. hydrophila in KFC vs. PBS group and OMP vs. PBS group were 62.5% and 50% respectively, and the RPS challenged V. vulnificus in FKC and OMP vs. PBS group were 37.5% and 50% respectively. These results suggest that American eels immunized with the bivalent OMP would positively affect specific as well as non-specific immune parameters and protect against infection by the two pathogens in fresh water farming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of florfenicol, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in controlling a natural infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine bass (Morone chrysops female ' Morone saxatilis male) naturally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare were randomly assigned to six treatments: 1) two treatments of waterborne exposures to copper sulfate (CuSO4), at 2.1 and at 4.2 mg/L (approximately one and two pe...

  18. Effect of dietary supplemented andrographolide on growth, non-specific immune parameters and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Kusunur Ahamed; Raman, Ram Prakash; Prasad, Kurcheti Pani; Kumar, Kundan; Nilavan, Ezhil; Kumar, Saurav

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of dietary andrographolide (EC 50%) on growth, non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fishes were fed with formulated diet containing andrographolide as T0 (0.00%), T1 (0.05%), T2 (0.10%), T3 (0.20%), T4 (0.40%) and T5 (0.80%) for 42 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 42 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (RPS) was recorded over 14 days post challenge. Blood and serum samples were collected for nonspecific immune parameters on 14, 28 and 42 days of feeding and growth performance was evaluated at the end of experiment. The results revealed that fishes fed with andrographolide showed significant (p andrographolide were found to be significantly (p andrographolide at the level of 0.10% showed significantly (P andrographolide supplemented diet has a stimulatory effect on non-specific immune parameters along with improved growth performance and increased disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection in L. rohita fingerlings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Pandey, P K; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Kundan

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T(0) (without azadirachtin), T(1) (0.1%), T(2) (0.2%), T(3) (0.4%), T(4) (0.8%) and T(5) (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg(-1) showed significantly (p azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg(-1)) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be used as a potential immunostimulant in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Formação de biofilme em aço inoxidável por Aeromonas hydrophila e Staphylococcus aureus usando leite e diferentes condições de cultivo Biofilm formation by Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel using milk and different conditions of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleube Andrade Boari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em avaliar a formação de biofilme em aço inoxidável por Aeromonas hydrophila e Staphylococcus aureus usando leite e diferentes condições de cultivo. As variáveis em estudo consistem no cultivo monoespécie e combinado, dos referidos microrganismos e nas temperaturas de 4, 7 e 18 °C. Recipientes contendo 1000 mL de leite, densidade populacional de 10(5 UFC.mL-1 de cada microrganismo e 10 cupons de aço inoxidável (10 × 20 mm foram lacrados e armazenados, sob agitação de 60 rpm, por um período de 10 dias. As análises ocorreram a cada 48 horas. Células sésseis de A.hydrophila e S. aureus foram enumeradas através do plaqueamento seletivo em ágar m-Aeromonas selective e Baird-Parker, respectivamente. Estudos sobre o tempo de geração, enumeração de células planctônicas e observação dos cupons através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram conduzidos. S. aureus, em monocultivo, formou biofilme a 18 °C e a 7 °C. Para 4 °C, foi observado um processo de adesão. A presença de A. hydrophila reduziu o desempenho de S. aureus. Nesta condição de cultivo multiespécie houve formação de biofilme a 18 °C. A. hydrophila, tanto em monocultivo quanto em presença de S. aureus, formou biofilme em todas as condições pesquisadas.The aim of this research was to verify the capability of biofilm formation on stainless steel by Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus using milk and different conditions of cultivation. The variables consisted in mono and multi-species cultivation of these microorganisms and in the temperatures of 4, 7 and 18 °C. Containers containing 1000 mL of milk, population density of 10(5 CFU.mL-1 of each microorganism, and ten suspended chips of stainless steel AISI 304 (10 × 20 mm were used to seal up and storage, under 60 rpm of agitation for 10 days. The analyses were conducted every 48 hours. Sessile cells of A. hydrophila and S. aureus and were enumerated

  1. Effect of salinity and incubation time of planktonic cells on biofilm formation, motility, exoprotease production, and quorum sensing of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Mizan, Md Furkanur Rahaman; Ha, Angela J; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of salinity and age of cultures on quorum sensing, exoprotease production, and biofilm formation by Aeromonas hydrophila on stainless steel (SS) and crab shell as substrates. Biofilm formation was assessed at various salinities, from fresh (0%) to saline water (3.0%). For young and old cultures, planktonic cells were grown at 30 °C for 24 h and 96 h, respectively. Biofilm formation was assessed on SS, glass, and crab shell; viable counts were determined in R2A agar for SS and glass, but Aeromonas-selective media was used for crab shell samples to eliminate bacterial contamination. Exoprotease activity was assessed using a Fluoro™ protease assay kit. Quantification of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) was performed using the bioreporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and the concentration was confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) was determined with Vibrio harveyi BB170. The biofilm structure at various salinities (0-3 %) was assessed using field emission electron microscopy (FESEM). Young cultures of A. hydrophila grown at 0-0.25% salinity showed gradual increasing of biofilm formation on SS, glass and crab shell; swarming and swimming motility; exoproteases production, AHL and AI-2 quorum sensing; while all these phenotypic characters reduced from 0.5 to 3.0% salinity. The FESEM images also showed that from 0 to 0.25% salinity stimulated formation of three-dimensional biofilm structures that also broke through the surface by utilizing the chitin surfaces of crab, while 3% salinity stimulated attachment only for young cultures. However, in marked contrast, salinity (0.1-3%) had no effect on the stimulation of biofilm formation or on phenotypic characters for old cultures. However, all concentrations reduced biofilm formation, motility, protease production and quorum sensing for old culture. Overall, 0-0.25% salinity enhanced biofilm formation

  2. Protective efficacy of Mucuna pruriens (L.) seed meal enriched diet on growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyad Musthafa, Mohamed; Asgari, Syed Mohideen; Kurian, Amitha; Elumalai, Preetham; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K

    2018-04-01

    The impact of Mucuna pruriens (L.) seed meal diet on growth performance, innate immune response, and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported for the first time. Infected O. mossambicus was fed with 2 g kg -1 , 4 g kg -1 , and 6 g kg -1 of M. pruriens seed meal diets significantly increased initial body weight (IBW) and final body weight (FBW) over control, for a period of 4 weeks. At 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 the enriched diet significantly (P pruriens can be used as a feed additive to stimulate immunity for effective production of economically valuable freshwater fish, O. mossambicus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular cloning of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica TNF-α and characterization of its expression in response to LPS, poly I:C and Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjun; Guan, Ruizhang; Guo, Songlin; Lin, Peng; Zadlock, Frank

    2014-09-01

    As a potent pleiotropic cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in innate immune responses. The cDNA sequence and genomic structure of the TNF-α gene ( Aj TNF-α) in the Japanese eel ( Anguilla japonica) were identified and characterized. The full-length AjTNF-α cDNA was 1 546 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 13 bp, a 3'-UTR of 879 bp and an open reading frame of 654 bp encoding a protein of 218 amino acids. The full-length genomic sequence of AjTNF-α was 2 392 bp and included four exons and three introns. The putative AjTNF-α protein contained TNF family signature motifs, including a protease cleavage site, a transmembrane domain and two conserved cysteine residues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed AjTNF-α expression in a wide range of tissues, with predominant expression in blood and liver. Lower levels of expression were seen in spleen, gills, kidney, intestine, heart, and skin, with very low levels in muscle. The modulation of AjTNF-α expression after injection of eels with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the viral mimic, poly I:C, or Aeromonas hydrophila was assessed in blood, liver, and kidney. In blood, TNF-α mRNA levels increased rapidly and then rapidly decreased after stimulation with LPS, poly I:C or A. hydrophila. However, the response to LPS and A. hydrophila peaked at 6 h while for poly I:C the peak was at 12 h. In liver, after injection with A. hydrophila, an up- and down-regulation of AjTNF-α expression occurred twice, peaking at 6 h and 24 h, respectively. No remarkable increase of AjTNF-α expression appeared in liver until 72 h after LPS or poly I:C treatment. In kidney, AjTNF-α expression increased significantly only at 72 h post-stimulation with LPS or A. hydrophila. Our results suggest that AjTNF-α plays an important role in fish in the defense against viral and bacterial infection.

  4. Jerusalem artichoke enriched diet on growth performance, immuno-hematological changes and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Raffic Ali, Sajjad; Ambasankar, Kondusamy; Saiyad Musthafa, Mohamed; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2017-11-01

    A 45 days feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) on growth performance, body composition, biochemical, immuno-hematological parameters and disease resistance in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) fingerlings against Aeromonas hydrophila. JA was supplemented at three different levels viz., control 0, 5, 10, and 20 g kg -1 in the commercial diet (403 g kg -1 protein and 89 g kg -1 lipid) in L. calcarifer. The results showed that there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in various growth parameters, while the whole body composition showed significant differences (P  0.05) affected by dietary supplementation of JA at different concentration. However, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the fish fed with 20 g kg -1  JA supplemented diet. Biochemical parameters revealed that glucose, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride showed significant (P < 0.05) differences between control and treatments groups. Interestingly, 20 g kg -1  JA supplemented diet significantly modulates the innate immune response and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila compared with control and other treatment groups. The results of the study revealed that 20 g kg -1  JA supplementation has a beneficial effect in the biochemical, immunological and disease resistance in L. calcarifer juveniles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of The Antibacterial Effects of The New Benzothiazole and Tetrahydropyrimidine Derivatives against Streptococcus Iniae, Edwardsiella Tarda and Aeromonas Hydrophila as Some Zoonotic Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Aryan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The novel stronger antibacterial compounds such as the thiazole and pyrimidine derivatives are needed in order to remove the threat of bacterial antibiotic resistance in zoonotic aquatic bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of the new benzothiazole and tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives against three important zoonotic aquatic pathogens including Streptococcus iniae, Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila. Material & Methods: Benzothiazole and tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and dissolved in DMSO with a concentration of 8129 μg/mL. Then, the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods were applied to evaluate the antibacterial effects. Results were recorded as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the growth inhibition zone diameter. Results: The study showed that the two tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives had no inhibition effects on all of the studied bacteria. Moreover, no inhibitory effect was observed from the three banzothiazole derivatives against A. hydrophila. However, the benzothiazole derivatives showed significant inhibitory effect against S. iniae and E. tarda with MIC of 256-1024 µg/mL and the growth inhibition zone diameter of 4.3±0.3-18.2±0.1 mm. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of the new banzothiazole derivatives was confirmed on S. iniae and E. tarda pathogens for the first time.  

  6. Leaves from banana (Musa nana) and maize (Zea mays) have no phyto-prophylactic effects on the susceptibility of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Richard; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; Pucher, Johannes; Focken, Ulfert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2017-11-10

    The ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila has been associated with ulcerative dermatitis in fish, especially under stressful conditions. It can cause severe losses in fresh water aquaculture and is particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Fresh leaves from maize and bananas have been used as feed supplement by fish farmers in Vietnam and it has been reported that they may have phyto-prophylactic benefits. In the present study, a feeding trial was conducted to investigate the benefits of providing maize and banana leaves as feed supplement: to determine if they were taken up and digested by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), if this uptake resulted in improved growth performance, and if leaf supplementation protected fish when challenged with A. hydrophila by intramuscular injection. All fish were fed an identical ratio of commercial pelleted feed relative to biomass. However, in 12/18 tanks, this diet was supplemented with either fresh banana leaves or fresh maize leaves; offered ad libitum. Addition of leaves increased the overall feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly. However, if only the pellet were taken into account, then no difference was found between treatments. Changes to the isotopic composition of the fish showed leaf nutrient uptake occurred. No prophylactic effects of feeding banana or maize leaves were detected against infection with A. hydrophila, and the diet did not induce changes in the fish haematocrit. However, addition of the maize leaves was associated with significantly reduced severity of the skin lesions, which could improve the market value of the fish. Addition of the leaf supplement did not result in significantly improved growth performance. Similarly, the effect of the supplement on the fish survival to infection was not significant.

  7. Effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii on immune response, disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila, antioxidant capability and growth performance of Cyprinus carpio Huanghe var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Guan, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Su-Hua; Zeng, Qing-Hui; Cheng, Gao-Feng; Cui, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary Lactobacillus delbrueckii (L. delbrueckii) on immune response, disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila), antioxidant capability and growth performance of Cyprinus carpio Huanghe var. 450 fish (mean weight of 1.05 ± 0.03 g) were randomly distributed into five groups that fed diets containing different levels of L. delbrueckii (0, 1 × 10 5 , 1 × 10 6 , 1 × 10 7 and 1 × 10 8  CFU g -1 ) for 8 weeks. The results showed that intestinal immune parameters such as lysozyme, acid phosphatase, and myeloperoxidase activities, immunoglobulin M content, and the survival rate were improved in fish fed with 1 × 10 6 and 1 × 10 7  CFU g -1 L. delbrueckii. In addition, 1 × 10 7  CFU g -1 L. delbrueckii supplementation down-regulated mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and NF-κBp65, and up-regulated IL-10 and TGF-β mRNA levels in the intestine. The survival rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher (68.33%) in fish fed 1 × 10 6  CFU g -1 L. delbrueckii than the control diet-fed group (40%) after challenge by A. hydrophila. Fish fed with diet containing 1 × 10 6  CFU g -1 L. delbrueckii showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and lower MDA concentrations than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The relative gene expression (SOD, CAT, GPX) showed the same trend with their activities. In addition, the growth performance was significantly improved in fish fed with the diet containing 1 × 10 6 and 1 × 10 7  CFU g -1 L. delbrueckii (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that dietary optimal levels of L. delbrueckii enhanced immunity, disease resistance against A. hydrophila antioxidant capability and growth performance in Cyprinus carpio Huanghe var. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of guava leaves on the growth performance and cytokine gene expression of Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the growth and immune response of the fish species Labeo rohita and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing five different concentrations of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.1% [G1], 0.5% [G2], 1% [G3], and 1.5% [G4]) were fed to fish (average weight: 11.1 g) for 60 days. Various growth and immune parameters were examined 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila at the end of the trial, and mortalities were recorded over 15 days post-infection. We found that growth parameters such as percent weight gain (657.61 ± 9.74) and specific growth rate (3.37 ± 0.021) were significantly higher in G2 group than in the control (P guava leaves at any concentration on plasma IgM level. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were up-regulated in the head-kidney, intestine, and hepatopancreas of fish fed experimental diets, and expression was significantly higher in G2 and G3 than in the control group. In contrast, gene expression of IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were down-regulated in the treatment groups. Moreover, fish fed the G2 diet exhibited a significantly higher post-challenge survival rate (66.66%). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation with guava leaves (at 0.5% concentration) could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Guava leaves therefore represent a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Fohad Mabood Husain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1 mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200 µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine.

  10. Aloe vera enhances the innate immune response of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) after transport stress and combined heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Sabioni, Rafael E; Montoya, Luz Natalia F; Favero, Gisele; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2017-06-01

    In this study, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) were fed with diets containing Aloe vera for 10 days prior to transport stress and infection with heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila. A. vera is popular around the world due to its medicinal properties, including immunostimulatory effects which was observed in this study. The results show that transport causes immunosuppression, an effect that was prevented by A. vera. Specifically, A. vera prevented reductions of both leukocyte respiratory burst and hemolytic activity of complement system caused by transport. Further, fish fed with A. vera also showed significantly higher leukocyte respiratory burst, serum lysozyme concentrations and activity of complement system 24 h after bacterial infection. Additionally, we observed that A. vera may modulate the innate response through activation of complement system during bacterial immune stimulation. In summary, A. vera extract enhanced innate immune parameters and consequently the ability of fish to cope with pathogens following transport stress. These findings show that A. vera has promise for use in aquaculture and add further evidence that medicinal herbs added to fish feed assist to prevent disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN in vivo E in vitro DEL LIPOPOLISACÁRIDO DE Aeromonas hydrophila

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    A P JIMENEZ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una cepa de A. hydrophila aislada de un brote de enfermedad septicémica en Tilapia nilótica (Piaractus brachypomusoreochromis niloticus, se obtuvieron extractos de lipopolisacárido (LPS crudo (29,5 mg/ml y semipurificado (106,5 mg/ml mediante la técnica fenol-agua caliente descrita por Westphal, Jann (1965. La presencia de proteína fue del 2,3% para el extracto crudo y de 0,1% para el semipurificado; la concentración de polisacáridos osciló entre el 15 y 26%. En electroforesis (SDS-PAGE se observaron bandas de 14 Kd correspondientes al oligosacárido central y al lípido A del LPS. Tres ratones de 25-35 g fueron inoculados intraperitonealmente con 25 mg/Kg de LPS cru-do, a partir de la primera hora todos los animales mostraron erizamiento, taquipnea e inapetencia; microscópicamente se detectó congestión hepática y pulmonar, hemorragias pulmonares y renales, marginación leucocitaria en hígado y pulmón con predominio de polimorfo-nucleares neutrófilos (PMN en todos los animales, mostrando un mayor efecto que el control inoculado con LPS de E. coli (Sigma® a la misma concentración. In vitro el LPS crudo a concentración de 10, 20 y 30 µg/ml indujo proliferación de células mono-nucleares murinas (2 x 10 5 en 200 µl de medio DMEM por incorporación de timidina tritiada; tanto el LPS control (E. coli, como el LPS crudo de A. hydrophila mostraron cuentas por minuto (CPM ascendentes de manera dosis dependiente, el LPS de A. hydrophila desencadeno una proliferación muy similar a la inducida por el control.

  12. Screening probiotic candidates for a mixture of probiotics to enhance the growth performance, immunity, and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsueh-Li; Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Chiu-Shia; Huang, Shih-Ling; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Six bacteria, including, Lactobacillus casei M15, Lac. plantarum D8, Lac. pentosus BD6, Lac. fermentum LW2, Enterococcus faecium 10-10, and Bacillus subtilis E20, and one yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P13 were selected as probiotics for Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, by tracking the growth performance and disease resistance of fish against Aeromonas hydrophila in the first trial. The probiotic efficiency screening results showed that B. subtilis E20 and Lac. pentosus BD6, and S. cerevisiae P13 and Lac. fermentum LW2 respectively improved either the growth performance or disease resistance. Therefore, these four probiotics were then selected to prepare a probiotics mixture, and this was incorporated in equal proportions into diets for Asian seabass at levels of 0 (control), and 10 6 (MD6), 10 7 (MD7), 10 8 (MD8), and 10 9 (MD9) colony-forming units (cfu) (kg diet) -1 . A synergistic effect of the combined probiotics was investigated in this study, and the probiotics mixture was able to improve both the growth performance and health status of fish. After 56 days of feeding, fish fed the MD9 diet had a higher final weight and percentage of weight gain. In addition, protein contents in the dorsal muscle of fish fed the MD8 and MD9 diets were significantly higher compared to the control. For the pathogen challenge test, fish fed the MD7, MD8, and MD9 diets had significantly lower cumulative mortalities after A. hydrophila infection compared to those of fish fed the control and MD6 diets, which might have been due to increased respiratory bursts, decreased superoxide dismutase activity in leucocytes, and increased phagocytic activity. Therefore, we considered that the probiotics mixture could adequately provide probiotic efficiency for Asian seabass, and the diet containing 10 9  cfu (kg diet) -1 probiotic mixture is recommended to improve the growth and health status of Asian seabass. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Parenteral immunization of PLA/PLGA nanoparticle encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) from Aeromonas hydrophila: Evaluation of immunostimulatory action in Labeo rohita (rohu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-05-01

    Advanced vaccine research approaches needs to explore on biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) based vaccine carrier that can serve as antigen delivery systems as well as immuno-stimulatory action to induce both innate and adaptive immune response in fish. Immunogenicity of PLA and PLGA NPs encapsulating outer membrane protein (Omp) antigen of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated through intra-peritoneal injection in fish, Labeo rohita. Antigen loaded PLA-Omp (223.5 ± 13.19 nm) and PLGA-Omp (166.4 ± 21.23 nm) NPs were prepared using double emulsion method by efficiently encapsulating the antigen reaching the encapsulation efficiency 44 ± 4.58% and 59.33 ± 5.13% respectively. Our formulated PLA Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were in nanometer range (PLA-Omp, it showed considerably slower antigen release in vitro than PLGA-Omp NPs. Other physical properties like zetapotential values and poly dispersity index (PDI) confirmed the stability as well as monodisperse nature of the formulated nanoparticles. The spherical and isolated nature of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp NPs were revealed by SEM analysis. Upon immunization of all antigenic formulations (PLA-Omp NP, PLGA-Omp NP, FIA-Omp, PLA NP, PLGA NP, PBS as control), significant higher bacterial agglutination titre and haemolytic activity were observed in case of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp immunized groups than rest groups at both 21 days and 42 days. The specific antibody response was significantly increased and persisted up to 42 days of post immunization by PLA-Omp, PLGA-Omp, FIA-Omp. PLA-Omp NPs showed better immune response (higher bacterial agglutination titre, haemolytic activity, specific antibody titre, higher percent survival upon A. hydrophila challenge) than PLGA-Omp in L. rohita confirming its better efficacy. Comparable antibody response of PLA-Omp and PLGA-Omp with FIA-Omp treated groups suggested that PLA and PLGA could be replacement for Freund's adjuvant (for stimulating antibody response) to overcome many side effects

  14. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. polysaccharide enhance innate immune response, immune-related genes expression and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Changlong; Wang, Jiazhen; Wang, Yuqiong; Dong, Wenlong; Shan, Xiaofeng; Lou, Yujie; Gao, Yunhang

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to add 0, 400, 800 or 1200 mg/kg of Hericium caput-medusae polysaccharide (HCMP) to the basal diet of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and determine effects on humoral innate immunity, expression of immune-related genes and disease resistance. Adding HCMP enhanced (P < 0.05) bactericidal activity at 1, 2 and 3 weeks and also lysozyme activity, complement C3, and SOD activity at 2 and 3 weeks. Supplementing 800 or 1200 mg/kg of HCMP for 2 or 3 weeks increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of total protein, albumin and globulin. Two immune-related genes (IL-1β and TNF-α) were up-regulated (P < 0.05) in HCMP supplemented groups given 800 or 1200 mg/kg HCMP after 2 and 3 weeks of feeding. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was down-regulated (P < 0.05) after receiving 800 or 1200 mg/kg HCMP for 2 or 3 weeks. Fish fed 800 mg/kg HCMP had maximal disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (65.4%). In conclusion, HCMP enhanced immune response and expression of immune-related genes and increased disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp, with greatest effects in fish given 800 mg/kg HCMP for 3 weeks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stability evaluation of reference genes for real-time PCR in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cadmium chloride and subsequently infected by bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Xingping; Wang, Lan, E-mail: lanwang@sxu.edu.cn; Zhang, Zuobing, E-mail: zbzhang@sxu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Cd exposure affects the stability of reference genes for real-time PCR in zebrafish. • Reference genes present different stability in the five tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, gills and intestine) of zebrafish after Cd exposure. • Bacterial infection further affects the stability of reference genes in Cd-treated zebrafish. - Abstract: Environmental and occupational cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a global concern, and the model organism zebrafish is an ideal species to investigate Cd toxicity. Among various detecting techniques, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a sensitive and efficient tool. Stable reference genes are critical for relative qPCR analysis. However, accumulated evidence shows that conventional reference genes can vary significantly under different experimental setups. Here we evaluated the stability of eight candidate reference genes of zebrafish with or without exposure to different concentrations of Cd. The results showed that the best four suitable reference genes in the five selected organs were: (1) spleen: β-actin > gapdh > ef1α > rpl13α; (2) kidney: rplp2 > rpl7 > β-actin > ef1α; (3) liver: rpl7 > rpl13α > β-actin > ef1α; (4) gills: rplp2 > gapdh > rnf7 > ef1α; (5) intestine: ef1α > rnf7 > rplp2 > rpl13α. Moreover, we further assessed the expression stability of the four reference genes for Cd immunotoxicology studies in zebrafish. The expression profiles showed that ef1α in spleen and kidney, rpl13a in liver and rplp2 in intestine were the most suitable reference genes at 12 h and 9 days after the injection with Aeromonas hydrophila following Cd exposure. In gills, the expression of gapdh was more stable than ef1α after 9 days of bacteria challenge while ef1α showed a higher stability than gapdh at 12 h after bacteria injection. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that different tissues of zebrafish have different suitable reference genes after Cd exposure and the subsequently pathogenic insults for q

  18. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression profiles of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 in Hyriopsis cumingii exposed to different stressors: Temperature, cadmium and Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 represents a suite of highly conserved and multi-functional molecular chaperone proteins that play an important role in cellular stress responses. In order to better understand the expression of HSP90 in mollusks, a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA of HSP90 (HcHSP90 was identified in Hyriopsis cumingii. HcHSP90 cDNA was 2659 bp in length, consisting of 3′ and 5′-untranslated regions and an open reading frame of 2187 bp, that encoded a 728 amino acid protein. Homology analyses showed that the HcHSP90 protein was highly conserved and had 5 well-conserved family signatures of HSP90 proteins. HcHSP90 mRNA expressed in various tissues of H. cumingii. The expression level of HcHSP90 was the highest in the digestive gland. In all tissues, with the exception of the digestive gland where it was down-regulated, HcHSP90 mRNA expression was significantly induced by temperature treatments (0, 5, 25, and 35 °C relative to the control (15 °C. Exposure of H. cumingii to different concentrations of cadmium (50, 100, and 200 μg/L, up-regulated HcHSP90 mRNA in the haemolymph and gill but without an obvious dose-dependent response. When H. cumingii were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, HcHSP90 mRNA expression in the haemolymph was up-regulated and peaked 36 h post-infection, while in the gills it was significantly up-regulated 3 h post-infection in the gills, then remained constant until returning to pre-challenge expression levels at 36 h post-infection. The results show that HcHSP90 expression can be significantly regulated by changes in temperature, cadmium exposure and bacterial infection. We deduced that HSP90 may play an important role in helping H. cumingii to cope with environmental stress.

  19. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Draft genome sequences of three Aeromonas hybrophila isolates from catfish and tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacteria that is particularly adapted to freshwater environments and can cause severe infections in fish and humans. Here we report the draft genomes of three A. hydrophila catfish and tilapia isolates....

  1. Sensitivity of planktonic and biofilm-associated Aeromonas spp. to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Aeromonas have the ability to adhere and form biofilms on food surfaces and food contact surfaces. Biofilm formation on foods and food contact surfaces is the major reason for contamination, cross contamination and post-processing contamination of the final food product leading to food spoilage, product rejection, economic losses and food-borne diseases. Biofilms have shown high resistance to heat, desiccation, acidic condition, high salt concentration, antibiotics and other food preservatives. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown that ionizing radiation effectively inactivates Aeromonas in different food products. However, the relative efficacy of this process against biofilm associated cells versus free-living planktonic cells of Aeromonas is not well documented. Therefore, the dose of gamma radiation required to reduce the population by 90% (D10) was calculated for planktonic and biofilm-associated A. salmonicida Y567 and A. hydrophila A331 cells. Both A. hydrophila A331 and A. salmonicida Y567 expressed significant ability to attach and grow on glass surface following incubation at 30℃ in TSB. Ionizing radiation effectively reduced the populations of both planktonic and biofilm-associated cells for both the strains. Mean cell counts of survivors and surviving fraction of planktonic and biofilm-associated cells decreased with increased irradiation doses. The D10 values of planktonic cells and biofilm cells for A. salmonicida (Y567) were 232.65 Gy and 248.41 Gy, respectively; whereas, the D10 values of planktonic cells and biofilm cells for A. hydrophila (A331) were 249.2 Gy and 240.2 Gy respectively. No significant difference in the D10 values of planktonic and biofilm associated Aeromonas was observed. The influence of the cultured state of the organism, i.e., planktonic versus biofilm associated

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles of Aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila at commonly used water collection points on the River Njoro and to determine the in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid profiles of isolates. In total, 126 samples were collected and 36.5% of them were positive for A. hydrophila.

  3. PROTEKSI VAKSIN MONOVALEN DAN KOKTAIL SEL UTUH TERHADAP KO-INFEKSI Mycobacterium fortuitum DAN Aeromonas hydrophila PADA IKAN GURAME, Osphronemus gouramy Uni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uni Purwaningsih

    2014-08-01

    serangan agen patogen. Pemberian vaksin diharapkan dapat merangsang respons imun spesifik dan non spesifik pada ikan. Keberhasilan vaksinasi dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi antigen, reaksi silang dan kompetisi di antara antigen yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis level proteksi vaksin monovalen dan koktail sel utuh terhadap ko-infeksi M. fortuitum dan A. hydrophila pada ikan gurame. Respons imun perlakuan vaksin monovalen maupun koktail pada gurame pasca ko-infeksi menunjukkan nilai parameter-parameter yaitu: hematokrit, hemoglobin, indeks fagositik, persentase fagositik, titer antibodi, uji respiratory burst (NBT, aktivitas komplemen, dan diferensial leukosit yang berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dibanding kontrol. Vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila menunjukkan nilai RPS sebesar 92,3% dan monovalen M. fortuitum sebesar 78,6% setelah ditantang dengan infeksi tunggal bakteri homolog namun menunjukkan proteksi yang rendah terhadap ko-infeksi. Vaksin koktail 50Mf :50Ah memberikan proteksi yang lebih baik dari vaksin monovalen pasca uji tantang dengan ko-infeksi bakteri M. fortuitum dan A. hydrophila.

  4. Structure of AscE and Induced Burial Regions in AscE and AscG upon Formation of the Chaperone Needle-subunit Complex of Type III Secretion System in Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y.; Yu, H; Leung, K; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Y

    2008-01-01

    In the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Aeromonas hydrophila, the putative needle complex subunit AscF requires both putative chaperones AscE and AscG for formation of a ternary complex to avoid premature assembly. Here we report the crystal structure of AscE at 2.7 A resolution and the mapping of buried regions of AscE, AscG, and AscF in the AscEG and AscEFG complexes using limited protease digestion. The dimeric AscE is comprised of two helix-turn-helix monomers packed in an antiparallel fashion. The N-terminal 13 residues of AscE are buried only upon binding with AscG, but this region is found to be nonessential for the interaction. AscE functions as a monomer and can be coexpressed with AscG or with both AscG and AscF to form soluble complexes. The AscE binding region of AscG in the AscEG complex is identified to be within the N-terminal 61 residues of AscG. The exposed C-terminal substrate-binding region of AscG in the AscEG complex is induced to be buried only upon binding to AscF. However, the N-terminal 52 residues of AscF remain exposed even in the ternary AscEFG complex. On the other hand, the 35-residue C-terminal region of AscF in the complex is resistant to protease digestion in the AscEFG complex. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that two C-terminal hydrophobic residues, Ile83 and Leu84, of AscF are essential for chaperone binding.

  5. Genome-wide characterization of Toll-like receptor gene family in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and their involvement in host immune response to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yiwen; Feng, Shuaisheng; Li, Shangqi; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Zixia; Hu, Mou; Xu, Peng; Jiang, Yanliang

    2017-12-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family is a class of conserved pattern recognition receptors, which play an essential role in innate immunity providing efficient defense against invading microbial pathogens. Although TLRs have been extensively characterized in both invertebrates and vertebrates, a comprehensive analysis of TLRs in common carp is lacking. In the present study, we have conducted the first genome-wide systematic analysis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) TLR genes. A set of 27 common carp TLR genes were identified and characterized. Sequence similarity analysis, functional domain prediction and phylogenetic analysis supported their annotation and orthologies. By examining the gene copy number of TLR genes across several vertebrates, gene duplications and losses were observed. The expression patterns of TLR genes were examined during early developmental stages and in various healthy tissues, and the results showed that TLR genes were ubiquitously expressed, indicating a likely role in maintaining homeostasis. Moreover, the differential expression of TLRs was examined after Aeromons hydrophila infection, and showed that most TLR genes were induced, with diverse patterns. TLR1, TLR4-2, TLR4-3, TLR22-2, TLR22-3 were significantly up-regulated at minimum one timepoint, whereas TLR2-1, TLR4-1, TLR7-1 and TLR7-2 were significantly down-regulated. Our results suggested that TLR genes play critical roles in the common carp immune response. Collectively, our findings provide fundamental genomic resources for future studies on fish disease management and disease-resistance selective breeding strategy development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary low or excess levels of lipids reduced growth performance, and impaired immune function and structure of head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under the infection of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Pei-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Our study explored the effect of dietary lipids on growth and immunity and structure (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp with an average initial weight of 261.41 ± 0.53 g were fed diets containing six graded levels of lipids at 5.9-80.1 g/kg diet for 8 weeks. After that, a challenge trial was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila over 2 weeks. The results indicated that compared with optimal lipids supplementation, low and excess levels of lipids down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and ribosomal p70S6 kinase (S6K1), and up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), NF-κB c-Rel (not p52), IκB kinase α (IKKα), IKKβ, IKKγ, and eIF4E-binding protein (4EBP) mRNA levels in the head kidney and spleen of young grass carp (P lipids also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents, reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (P lipids down-regulated the mRNA levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) in the head kidney and spleen, whereas up-regulated the mRNA levels of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), caspase 3, 7, 8 and 9 mRNA levels in the head kidney and spleen and Fas ligand (FasL) mRNA levels in the spleen of young grass carp, suggesting that low or excess levels of lipids could decrease the head kidney and spleen immune function, induce oxidative damage and apoptosis and impair antioxidant system of young grass carp. At last, low or excess levels of lipids also impaired the immune function and structure in the skin of young grass carp. Based on the quadratic regression analysis for PWG, skin haemorrhage and lesions morbidity and IgM content, the dietary lipids requirements for young grass carp were estimated to be 43.7, 60.2, 55.0 and 52.1

  7. Multifocal Aeromonas Osteomyelitis in a Child with Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doganis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram negative organism causing both intestinal and extraintestinal disease. The case of a 14-year-old girl with underlying immunodeficiency and leukemia who developed systemic A. hydrophila infection is described in this report. While in deep bone marrow aplasia she developed fever, severe pain in the lower extremities, and swelling of the left femur. Blood culture showed Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila whereas pus culture from the soft tissue swelling showed the presence of A. hydrophila. Imaging studies showed diffuse osteolytic lesions. Patient received 5 months of intravenous and oral antibiotics and she improved clinically whereas the radiology findings persisted.

  8. Aquatically acquired Aeromonas hydrophila wound infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... in 2 cases of mixed infection associated with swimming acci- dents.l Recently focal ... with split-skin grafting was undertaken on the 8th day after the injury with a ... fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, excluded from the family.

  9. Aeromonas Hydrophila: A Re-Emerging Pathogen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Thayumanavan, T.; Subashkumar, R.

    origin. Journal of Hygiene 81,161 ? 169. Trust, T.J., Sparrow, R.A.H., 1974. The bacterial flora in the alimentary tract of freshwater salmonid fishes. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 20, 1219 ? 1228. Tsai, G.J., Chen, T.H., 1995. Growth characteristics...

  10. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.

  11. Aeromonas Bacteraemia Causing Gas Gangrene in a Diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early blood culture, culture of the aspirates from blebs, and subsequent culture of intraoperative specimens uniformly grew Aeromonas hydrophila. Urgent fasciotomy was carried out same day, and the patient was admitted into ICU for intensive monitoring and therapies. Second look procedures 48hours later showed turgid ...

  12. Immunological evaluation of Aeromonas infection in albino rats | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common bacterial species causing an acute self limiting diarrheal illness in mammals. Albino rats were categorized into treated and control groups. Treated groups were injected daily intraperitoneally with 0.2ml of bacterial suspension containing 6x106 cells/ml of 0.9% NaCl, while the ...

  13. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based typing analysis of atypical isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, S.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Aase, I.L.

    1999-01-01

    . salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates tested, belonged to group 1. The PCR primer-sets separated A. salmonicida from other reference strains of Aeromonas species and related bacteria with the exception of Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicated that PCR typing is a useful framework for characterization...

  14. The occurrence of Aeromonas in drinking water, tap water and the Porsuk River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Kivanc

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the Porsuk River, public drinking water and tap water in the City of Eskisehir (Turkey was monitored. Fresh water samples were collected from several sampling sites during a period of one year. Total 102 typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation and of 60 isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests. Further identifications of isolates were carried out first with the VITEK system (BioMe˜rieux and then selected isolates from different phenotypes (VITEK types were identified using the DuPont Qualicon RiboPrinter® system. Aeromonas spp. was detected only in the samples from the Porsuk River. According to the results obtained with the VITEK system, our isolates were 13% Aeromonas hydrophila, 37% Aeromonas caviae, 35% Pseudomonas putida, and 15% Pseudomonas acidovorans. In addition Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas maltophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aeromonas media species were determined using the RiboPrinter® system. The samples taken from the Porsuk River were found to contain very diverse Aeromonas populations that can pose a risk for the residents of the city. On the other hand, drinking water and tap water of the City are free from Aeromonas pathogens and seem to be reliable water sources for the community.

  15. Isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas from children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyanti Meiyanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, oxidase positive bacteria of the recently assigned family Aeromonadaceae. The significance of Aeromonas species as causative agent of human diarrhoea has recently been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution, and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas in nonhospitalized children with diarrhea.One hundred and seventeen rectal swabs from children with diarhhea were cultured for isolation of Aeromonas organisms as the etiological agents. In addition to Aeromonas, other enteric pathogens were also isolated. Overall, the isolates of enteric pathogens amounted to 36.8%, consisting of Salmonella, Shigella, Aeromonas, and Vibrio. Aeromonas was only found in 5.1% of cultures, with a ratio of A. caviae and A. hydrophila of 2:1, while Salmonella made up the majority of causative organisms with an isolation frequency of 18.8%, followed by Shigella with 11.1%. In this study no isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 were found as etiological agents of diarrhea; however, V. cholerae non-O1 and V. parahaemolyticus were found in small numbers (<1%. All isolates of Aeromonas were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone, as were the other enteric pathogens. Although the frequency of isolation of these enteric pathogens was higher than for Vibrio spp., their role in infective diarrhea was less clearcut in comparison with Salmonella and Shigella.

  16. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  17. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-01-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 o C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839 T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D 10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 10 5 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 o C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 10 5 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  18. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  19. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Vandan [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 {sup o}C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839{sup T} and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to {gamma} radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D{sub 10} values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081{+-}0.001, 0.089{+-}0.003 and 0.091{+-}0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  20. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE AEROMONAS SPP ISOLADAS DE AMOSTRAS DE OSTRAS E ÁGUA POR MÉTODO MICROBIOLÓGICO E MOLECULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Miranda de Melo Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and identify Aeromonas bacteria from samples of oysters and water, by microbiological and molecular methods. Identification of Aeromonas was performed by the conventional method and by PCR and species characterization was performed by identification key Aerokey II and by RFLP-PCR of 16S rDNA. 59 (98.3% samples of oysters and 15 (75% samples of water contaminated by Aeromonas bacteria were identified. Of the 74 isolates of Aeromonas spp. obtained by microbiological analysis, 53 (71.62%, 38 (65.51% oyster samples and 15 (100% of water samples confirmed the characterization of the genus by molecular technique. As to biochemical species identification, 59.3% (n = 35 and 40.6% (n = 24 of isolates from Aeromonas sp. obtained from oyster samples were rated as A. hydrophila and A. caviae, respectively; and from isolates obtained from water samples, 60% (n = 9 were classified as A. hydrophila and 40% (n = 6 as A. caviae; however, only the A. hydrophila was confirmed by genetic sequencing. Regarding the classification by RFLP-PCR 16S rDNA, patterns of nonspecific bands were obtained, making it impossible to identify the species by this technique. The large number of oyester samples contaminated with Aeromonas spp. and identification of A. hydrophila, demonstrate that this mollusk might present a risk to consumer health, mainly because it is consumed raw and is to a potentially pathogenic micro-organism to humans.

  1. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS: BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 20 NE tests Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type I was identified with an average probability of 99.9 % (one test against, as well as Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type II with an average probability of 99.5 % (one test against from liver, spleen, kidney, intestines and damaged eye. All of isolated and identified samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method. The test showed that specimens were most sensitive on flumequin, and relatively less sensitive on chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Therapy was successfully applied with Flubactin®.

  2. AND Citrus senensis PEEL EXTRACTS ON Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    the two plant extracts against some clinical isolates: six Salmonella paratyphi B, one S. typhi and three A. ... century make the medicines and drugs of vegetables origin lost their ... in preventing heart disease. ... is a remedy for edema.

  3. AND Citrus senensis PEEL EXTRACTS ON Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    peel contains calcium, phosphorus, potassium, ascorbic acid, and vitamin A, as well as volatile oil and ..... A. comosus peel and C. senensis peel at 1:1 ratio against the isolates. Test organism. MIC value (mg/ml). MBC value (mg/ml). S. paratyphi B1. 0.25. 1.00. S. paratyphi B2. 0.25. 0.50. S. paratyphi B3. 0.25. -. S. paratyphi ...

  4. Antibacterial efficacies of some plant extracts against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of farmed catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Ekanem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases are responsible for mortalities of some farmed catfish in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to investigate the efficacies of extracts of some plants against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of Heterobranchus longifilis. Ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus amarus, Allium sativum, Artemisia annua, Citrus limon, Moringa oleifera, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were tested against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of H. longifilis by disc diffusion assay. Extracts of P. amarus, A. sativum, A. annua and C. limon were significantly (P<0.05 more sensitive to A. hydrophila and P. flourescens than M. oleifera, A. cepa and A. indica which were effective against P. flourescens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the extracts were 25mg/ml for P. amarus and A. annua; 25 and 100mg/ml for C. lemon and A. cepa respectively and 50mg/ml for A. indica.  Alkaloid was demonstrated in all plants except A. annua by qualitative methods. Moderate amount (++ of cardiac glycosides was demonstrated in A. sativum, M. oleifera and P. amarus. Saponin (+++ was present in M. oleifera and A. indica while, tannin (++ was present in M. oleifera, P. amarus and A. indica respectively. Phlobatanins and Anthraquinones (++ were present in P. amarus and M. oleifera respectively.  Extracts of aforementioned plants have potentials as therapy against Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas flourescens of farmed catfish.

  5. VAKSINASI IKAN TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus MENGGUNAKAN VAKSIN MONOVALEN DAN BIVALEN UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MOTILE AEROMONAS SEPTICEMIA DAN STREPTOCOCCOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Sugiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan respon antibodi pascavaksinasi dengan antigen tunggal dan campuran dari bakterin Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae diharapkan dapat meningkatkan daya tahan ikan tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus terhadap penyakit Motile Aeromonas Septicemia/MAS dan Streptococcosis. Sediaan vaksin disiapkan dengan metode pembuatan dan formula yang berbeda, proses inaktifasi dilakukan dengan menambahkan 3% Neutral Buffer Formalin (NBF 10% pada biakan bakteri dalam media tumbuh BHI dan TSB. Vaksinasi diberikan melalui injeksi intraperitoneal dengan sediaan vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila, monovalen S. agalactiae, dan bivalen A. hydrophila + S. agalactiae (Sel utuh, produk ektraselular/ECP, crude supernatan, campuran sel utuh + ECP, dan broth. Uji tantang dilakukan menggunakan dosis LD50 infeksi tunggal maupun ko-infeksi dari bakteri A. hydrophila dan S. agalactiae. Efektivitas dan keampuhan vaksin tersebut dihitung berdasarkan nilai RPS (Relative Percent Survival dan hasil respon hematologi. Titer antibodi dapat terdeteksi setelah satu minggu pemeliharaan pasca vaksinasi. Nilai titer antar perlakuan vaksin bivalen berbeda nyata (P<0.05 dengan vaksin monovalen dan kontrol. Nilai RPS vaksin bivalen (campuran sel utuh + ECP mencapai 100 untuk uji tantang dengan A. hydrophila dan 56,7 pada uji tantang ko-infeksi. Vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila maupun S. agalactiae hanya mampu memproteksi terhadap bakteri homolog, tidak terjadi proteksi silang di antara keduanya.

  6. Aeromonas spp. IN PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN AND DRINKING WATER OF GOIÂNIA-GO Aeromonas spp. EM PRODUTOS DE ORIGEM ANIMAL E EM ÁGUA DE CONSUMO DE GOIÂNIA - GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A total of 53 samples of products from animal origin and drinking water was examined for the presence of Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas occurred in 26.41% (14/53 of the samples. The raw products showed high frequency of contamination and relatively high count Aeromonas hydrophila was the dominating species, 57.5%, being followed of A. veroni (22.5%, A. sobria (17.5% and A. media (2.5%. None of the Aeromonas spp. was isolated from chlorinated or unchlorinated drinking water.

    KEY-WORDS: Aeromonas; animal origin products; drinking water.

    Um total de 53 amostras de produtos de origem animal e água de consumo foi examinado para se verificar a presença de Aeromonas spp. Desse total, 14/53 (26,41% amostras foram positivas para Aeromonas. Os produtos crus apresentaram maior freqüência de contaminação e contagem relativamente elevadas. A espécie Aeromonas hydrophila foi a mais freqüente (57,5%, seguida pelas espécies A. veroni (22,5%, A. sobria (17,5% e A. media (2,5%. Nenhuma amostra de água de consumo, clorada ou não clorada, mostrou-se positiva para Aeromonas ssp.

    PALAVRA-CHAVE: Aeromonas; produtos de origem animal; água de consumo.

  7. Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em água de matadouro bovino Aeromonas bacteria in beef slaughtering water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Rossi Jr

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em amostras de água (abastecimento/residuária obtidas em matadouro bovino. Analisaram-se a água utilizada nas dependências internas, a água dos currais, utilizada na dessedentação, pré-higienização e tranqüilização dos animais e a água residuária da lavagem das carcaças. Das 30 amostras representativas de cada tipo, bactérias do gênero Aeromonas foram isoladas em 10 (33,3% amostras da água dos currais e em 10 (33,3% amostras da água residuária da lavagem de carcaças. Nenhuma das amostras da água tratada de abastecimento das instalações revelou-se positiva no isolamento. As espécies isoladas foram Aeromonas hydrophila em duas (2,2% e Aeromonas caviae em 19 (21,1% amostras. Uma cepa considerada atípica foi isolada da água dos currais. Os resultados evidenciaram que a água dos currais pode ser uma importante fonte de contaminação, principalmente para a pele, e através dela as Aeromonas sp. podem chegar à sala de matança.The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of Aeromonas bacteria in samples of water (supply and residual collected at beef slaughterhouse. Water used at the internal facilities, water from corrals, drinking water, water for pre-hygiene and tranquilization of the animals and residual water from carcasses’ wash, were analyzed. From those 30 samples of each type, Aeromonas bacteria were isolated in 10 (33.3% samples of corral water and in 10 (33.3% samples of residual water from carcasses’ wash. None of the facilities treated water supply samples showed positive in isolation. The isolated species were Aeromonas hydrophila in two (2.2% and Aeromonas caviae in 19 (21.1% of the samples. One non-typical strain was isolated from corral water. The results demonstrated that corral water may be an important contamination source, mainly to the hide and, through it, Aeromonas sp. can reach the slaughter room.

  8. Prevalence and resistance to antibiotics for Aeromonas species from retail fish in Malaysia.

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    Radu, Son; Ahmad, Noorlis; Ling, Foo Hooi; Reezal, Abdul

    2003-03-25

    A total of 87 market fish samples representing five types of fish were evaluated for the presence of Aeromonas spp. Of the samples examined, 69%, 55%, 11.5% and 2.3% harbored Aeromonas spp., A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila and A. caviae, respectively. The 60 isolated Aeromonas spp. strains were further examined for hemolytic activity, resistance to antimicrobial agents and presence of plasmids. Hemolytic activity varied widely among the isolated strains. Though all the isolates demonstrated resistance to three or more of the antibiotics tested, all were susceptible to ceptazidime. Thirty-four (56.7%) of the sixty isolates harbored plasmids, with sizes ranging from 2.3 to 15.7 kb. These results indicate that hemolytic, multiple antibiotic resistant and genetically diverse aeromonads are easily recovered from fish in this region.

  9. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

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    Wei Ching Khor

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  10. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in different sources in a North African country

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    Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different sources (diarrheal children [n=23], non-diarrheal children [n=16], untreated drinking water from wells [n=32], and chicken carcasses [n=28] in Tripoli, Libya, were included in the present investigation. Genus identification was confirmed by biochemical analysis, and genospecies were determined using a combination of 16S rDNA variable region and gyrB sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect genes encoding toxins from 52 of the isolates. Results: We identified 44 isolates (44% as A. hydrophila (3 [3.0%] subspecies anaerogenes, 23 [23%] subspecies dhakensis, and 18 [18%] subspecies ranae; 27 isolates (27% as A. veronii; 23 isolates (23% as A. caviae; and 5 isolates (5.0% as other genospecies. The genes encoding aerolysin (aer, cytolytic enterotoxin (act, and A. hydrophila isolate SSU enterotoxin (ast were detected in 45 (87%, 4 (7.7%, and 9 (17% of the 52 isolates tested, respectively. The gene encoding an extracellular lipase (alt was not detected. Conclusion: The majority of aeromonads from Libya fall within three genospecies (i.e. A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and genes coding for toxin production are common among them.

  11. Potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Aeromonas species isolated from pet turtles and their environment.

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    Wimalasena, S H M P; Shin, Gee-Wook; Hossain, Sabrina; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-05-23

    To investigate the potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonads from pet turtles as a risk for human infection, one hundred and two Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the feces, skin and rearing environments of pet turtles and identified by biochemical and gyrB sequence analyses. Aeromonas enteropelogenes was the predominant species among the isolates (52.9%) followed by A. hydrophila (32.4%), A. dharkensis (5.9%), A. veronii (4.9%) and A. caviae (3.9%). Their potential enterotoxicities were evaluated by PCR assays for detecting genes encoding cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) and two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast). 75.8% of A. hydrophila isolates exhibited the act + /alt + /ast + genotype, whereas 94.4% of A. enteropelogenes isolates were determined to be act - /alt - /ast - . In an antimicrobial susceptibility test, most isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics except amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Non-susceptible isolates to penicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) were frequently observed among the A. enteropelogenes isolates. Few isolates were resistant to imipenem, amikacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Collectively, these results suggest that pet turtles may pose a public health risk of infection by enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial resistant Aeromonas strains.

  12. Aeromonas presence in drinking water from collective reservoirs and wells in peri-urban area in Brazil

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    Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas genus is considered an emerging pathogen and its presence in drinking water supplies is a reason to public health concern. This study investigated the occurrence of Aeromonas in samples from collective reservoirs and wells used as drinking water sources in a peri-urban area. A total of 35 water samples were collected from collective reservoirs and 32 from wells bimonthly, from September 2007 to September 2008. Aeromonas spp determination was carried out using a Multiple-Tube Technique. Samples were inoculated into alkaline peptone water and the superficial film formed was transferred to blood agar plates amended with ampicillin. Typical Aeromonas colonies were submitted to a biochemical screening and then to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Aeromonas was detected in 13 (19% of the 69 samples examined (6 from collective reservoirs and 7 from wells. Concentrations of Aeromonas in collective reservoirs ranged from <0.3 to 1.2 x10²MPN/100mL and, in wells, from <0.3 to 2.4 x10²MPN/100mL. The most frequent specie in the collective reservoir samples was Aeromonas spp (68%, followed by A. encheleia (14% and A. allosaccharophila (8% and A. hydrophila (8%. Aeromonas spp (87% was the most frequent specie isolated from well samples, followed by A. allosacchariphila (8%, A. encheleia (2% and A. jandaei (5%. These data show the presence and diversity of Aeromonas genus in the samples analyzed and highlight that its presence in drinking water poses a significant public health concern.

  13. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

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    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 ºC, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm-2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05. The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm-2 at 25 ºC. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm-2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 ºC. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm.

  14. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

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    Millezi, Alessandra Farias; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Alves, Eduardo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 °C, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm−2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p 0.05). The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm−2 at 25 °C. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm−2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 °C. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm. PMID:24159286

  15. Resistance and Inactivation Kinetics of Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Non-Chlorinated and Chlorinated Effluents of a WWTP

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    Claudia Coronel-Olivares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of water from a wastewater treatment plant that uses sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant was assessed. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were not removed efficiently. This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. Molecular identification indicated that the strains were related to Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli (three strains, Enterobacter cloacae, Kluyvera cryocrescens (three strains, Kluyvera intermedia, Citrobacter freundii (two strains, Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The first five strains, which were isolated from the non-chlorinated effluent, were used to test resistance to chlorine disinfection using three sets of variables: disinfectant concentration (8, 20 and 30 mg·L−1, contact time (0, 15 and 30 min and water temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C. The results demonstrated that the strains have independent responses to experimental conditions and that the most efficient treatment was an 8 mg·L−1 dose of disinfectant at a temperature of 20 °C for 30 min. The other eight strains, which were isolated from the chlorinated effluent, were used to analyze inactivation kinetics using the disinfectant at a dose of 15 mg·L−1 with various retention times (0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 min. The results indicated that during the inactivation process, there was no relationship between removal percentage and retention time and that the strains have no common response to the treatments.

  16. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

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    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  17. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  18. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

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    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  19. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

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    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the

  20. Clinical manifestations of bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species in southern Taiwan.

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    Hung-Jen Tang

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n =  5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.

  1. Combined physico-chemical treatments based on enterocin AS-48 for inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria in soybean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo Molinos, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Omar, Nabil Ben; Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Enterocin AS-48 was tested for decontamination of soybean sprouts against Gram-negative bacteria. Although treatment with bacteriocin alone had no effect on Salmonella enterica, a synergistic antimicrobial effect was detected at pH 9.0 and in combination with moderate heat treatment. Greatest inactivation was achieved for sprouts heated for 5 min at 65 degrees C in an alkaline (pH 9.0) enterocin AS-48 solution of 25 microg/ml. Bactericidal activity against S. enterica increased greatly when enterocin AS-48 was used in washing solutions in combination with several chemical compounds: EDTA, lactic acid, peracetic acid, polyphosphoric acid, sodium hypochlorite, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, and hydrocinnamic acid. The combined treatment of enterocin AS-48 and polyphosphoric acid was tested against several other Gram-negative bacteria inoculated on sprouts. The bacteria tested showed great differences in sensitivity to polyphosphoric acid, but synergism with enterocin AS-48 was confirmed in all cases. Combinations of enterocin AS-48 (25 microg/ml) and polyphosphoric acid in a concentration range of 0.1 to 2.0% significantly reduced or inhibited growth of the populations of S. enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens in sprout samples stored at 6 degrees C and 15 degrees C. The combined treatment could therefore be applied to reduce the risks of Gram-negative pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria on sprouts.

  2. Aeromonas associated diarrhoeal disease in south Brazil: prevalence, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance Aeromonas associadas a diarréias no sul do Brasil: prevalência, fatores de virulência, e resistência a antibiótico

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    Ivani M.F. Guerra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas were isolated from 27 (6.6% of 408 patients admitted with acute gastroenteritis in two hospitals at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Isolates were classified as A. hydrophila (51.8%, A. caviae (40.8%, and A. veronii biotype sobria (7.4%. The highest prevalence of Aeromonas associated infections occurred in lactants and children. Virulence genes (aerA -aerolysin/hemolysin, ahpA -serine-protease, satA - glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipA -lipase, and ahyB -elastase and virulence factors (hemolytic, proteolitic, lipolitic activities, and biofilm formation were identified in most A. hydrophila and A. veronii biotype sobria isolates, with lower frequencies on A. caviae. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, cephalotin, and cephazolin, and most of them (>70% exhibited resistance to imipenem, carbenicillin, amoxillin/sulbactan, and piperacillin. Multiple-resistance, more than four antibiotics, was evidenced in 29.6% of the isolates. The most efficient antibiotics were the quinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, and the aminoglycosides (amikacin and netilmicin.Aeromonas foram isoladas de 27 (6.6% dos 408 pacientes admitidos com gastroenterite aguda em dois hospitais do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os isolados foram classificados com A. hydrophila (51.8%, A. caviae (40.8%, e A. veronii biotype sobria (7.4%. A maior prevalência de Aeromonas ocorreu em lactantes e crianças. Genes (aerA -aerolisina/hemolisina, ahpA -serina-protease, satA - glicerofosfolipidio-colesterol aciltransferase, lipA -lipase, e ahyB -elastase e factores (atividade hemolítica, proteolítica, lipolítica, e formação de biofilme de virulência foram identificados na maioria dos isolados de A. hydrophila e A. veronii biotype sobria, com freqüências menores em A. caviae. Todos os isolados de Aeromonas apresentaram resistência a ampicilina, ticarcilina/ácido clavulânico, cefalotina e cefazolina, e a maior parte

  3. Evasion of mucosal defenses during Aeromonas hydrophila infection of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skin

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    The mucosal surfaces of fish serve as the first-line of defense against the myriad of aquatic pathogens present in the aquatic environment. The immune repertoire functioning at these interfaces is still poorly understood. The skin, in particular, must process signals from several fronts, sensing and...

  4. Vibrios and Aeromonas.

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    Holmberg, S D

    1988-09-01

    There are many similarities in the Vibrionaceae that cause human illness in the United States (see Table 1). Vibrios are characteristically indigenous to marine, estuarine, and brackish environments. They are distributed mainly in Gulf of Mexico coastal water, and these organisms "bloom" when the water is warm. Outbreaks of disease in humans frequently occur in summer, coinciding with multiplication of vibrios in warm water. Sporadic cases and small outbreaks of cholera continue to occur in persons living on or near the Gulf of Mexico, but infection in most persons is unrecognized. In fact, more serious and frequent illnesses result from V. vulnificus wound infections and from gastroenteritis caused by vibrios other than V. cholerae 01. Underlying hepatic or neoplastic disease (especially leukemia) apparently increases the likelihood and severity of illnesses caused by V. vulnificus and Aeromonas. Some Vibrionaceae produce clinical illness by means of enterotoxins identical or similar to cholera toxin. For many others, hemolysins, cytotoxins, and other exotoxins are necessary to produce disease; the importance of these virulence factors often is not known or the importance of these virulence factors often is not known or is of doubtful significance. Also, purported pathogenicity as demonstrated by animal models, such as fluid accumulation in ligated ileal loops, is quite nonspecific and needs to be interpreted cautiously. For Plesiomonas, a mode of pathogenesis has not been discovered. Eating raw shellfish (frequently raw oysters) has been linked epidemiologically to enteric infections with most of these bacteria; foreign travel and exposure to seawater are other frequently observed epidemiologic associations with infection. Foreign travel, particularly to the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, has been strongly associated with the acquisition of non-01 V. cholerae and Plesiomonas organisms. Most Vibrionaceae in the United States are susceptible in vitro--and illnesses

  5. Relation of chironomids with Aeromonas species

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    Sivan eLaviad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae, also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, pupa, and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6% and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a six-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship.

  6. Prevalência de Aeromonas ssp em fezes diarréicas de crianças menores de 5 anos de idade na cidade de Goiânia, Goiás, no biênio 1995 - 1996

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    Idalina Thiomi Inumaru Nojimoto

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 163 amostras de fezes de crianças com idade abaixo de 5 anos no período de 1995 a 1996, sendo 91 de fezes diarréicas e 72 de fezes não diarréicas. O material foi coletado em meio para transporte e submetido ao processo de enriquecimento a 4oC por 7 dias. Para o isolamento primário foi utilizado ágar amido ampicilina e incubado a 35oC por 18 a 24 horas. Foram isoladas 20 (21,9% das seguintes espécies: Aeromonas A. caviae (7,7%, A. salmonicida salmonicida (6,6%, A. sobria (4,3%, A. hydrophila (2,2% e Salmonicida achromogenes (1,1%. Nenhuma Aeromonas spp foi isolada dos 72 pacientes-controles. A susceptibilidade das amostras de Aeromonas spp aos antimicrobianos foi maior com a ciprofloxacina, diminuindo gradativamente com cloranfenicol, gentamicina, ampicilina e eritromicina.From 1995 through 1996, 163 fecal specimens of children aged under 5 years were analysed, 91 being from diarrhea feces and 72 without diarrhea. The material was collected in transport medium and submitted to the enrichment procedure at 4oC for 7 days. For the primary isolation starch ampicillin agar was used and incubated at 35oC for 18 to 24 hours. Twenty (20.9% from the following specimens were isolated: Aeromonas A. caviae (7.7%, A. salmonicida salmonicida (6.6%, A. sobria (4.3%, A. hydrophila (2.2% e Salmonicida achromogenes (1.1%. No Aeromonas spp was isolated from the 72 control subjects. The Aeromonas spp susceptibility to antimicrobian was greater with ciprofloxacin, being this susceptibility gradually diminished with chloranphenicol, gentamicin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  7. Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides isoladas a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema aquático é o habitat de mexilhões (Perna perna, animais filtradores que refletem a qualidade ambiental através de análise microbiológica de sua carne. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a presença de patógenos emergentes (Aeromonas hydrophila e Plesiomonas shigelloides, em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos coletados por pescadores da Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 86 amostras de mexilhões (43 in natura e 43 pré-cozidos as quais foram submetidas a enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA acrescida de 1 e 3% de Cloreto de Sódio (NaCl e em solução Salina de Butterfield, incubadas a 37ºC por 24 horas. Em seguida, foram semeadas em Ágar Seletivo para Pseudomonas-Aeromonas (GSP, Ágar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e Ágar Inositol Bile Verde Brilhante (IBB. A análise geral dos resultados permitiu a identificação de Areomonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides em 86% das amostras de mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidas avaliadas. A posterior caracterização bioquímica permitiu a identificação das espécies Aeromonas media (37,10%, A. hydrophila (15,50%, A. caviae (14,80%, A. veronii biogrupo veronii (11,60%, Aeromonas sp. (7,36%, A. sobria (4,20%, A. trota (4,20%, A. schubertii (1,31%, A. jandaei (1,31%, A. veronii biogrupo sobria (0,52% e Plesiomonas shigelloides (2,10%. A relevância epidemiológica desses microrganismos em casos de gastrenterite humana, após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, revela a importância de alertar as autoridades de Saúde Pública no Brasil, sobre a presença desses patógenos na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a saúde humana.The aquatic ecosystem is the habitat of mussels, filtrating animals that reflect the ambient quality through microbiological analysis. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of emergent pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas

  8. Presence of Vibrios and Aeromonas strains and total psychrotrophs in hexagonal spotted grouper and Spanish Mackerel Fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dagal, M.

    2002-01-01

    This work was conducted on different parts of hexagonal-spotted grouper and Spanish mackerel fish from 10 major fishery shops in Riyadh city to assess the presence of vibrios and aeromonas using the API20E and Biolog system. Also, pH and total psychotrophs were assessed as two indexes of quality. Similar data were obtained from both identification systems except for Aeromonas media-like and Vibrio anguillarum which are not included in the API20E database. Aeromonas hydrophila, A. media-like, V. alginolyticus, V.anguillarum, V. damsel and V. fluvialis were recovered from fish samples A. medial-like and V. damsel most predominant. Unexpectedly, V. cholera and V. parahemolyticus were not recovered. The numbers of skin samples of grouper having more than 7 log CFU/gm were much higher than that of mackerel skin samples. Similar psychrotrophic counts were noticed in gut samples of the two fish types, indicating similarly in growth habitat. Most of the grouper fish samples had a pH in the range of >6.40-7.02, whereas 95% of mackerel samples had a pH at 6.40 or below. (author)

  9. sugE: A gene involved in tributyltin (TBT) resistance of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Micaelo, Nuno; Félix, Vitor; Song, Jun-Young; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial resistance to tributyltin (TBT) is still unclear. The results herein presented contribute to clarify that mechanism in the TBT-resistant bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. We have identified and cloned a new gene that is involved in TBT resistance in this strain. The gene is highly homologous (84%) to the Aeromonas hydrophila-sugE gene belonging to the small multidrug resistance gene family (SMR), which includes genes involved in the transport of lipophilic drugs. In Av27, expression of the Av27-sugE was observed at the early logarithmic growth phase in the presence of a high TBT concentration (500 μM), thus suggesting the contribution of this gene for TBT resistance. E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to ethidium bromide (EtBr), chloramphenicol (CP) and tetracycline (TE), besides TBT. According to the Moriguchi logP (miLogP) values, EtBr, CP and TE have similar properties and are substrates for the sugE-efflux system. Despite the different miLogP of TBT, E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to this compound. So it seems that TBT is also a substrate for the SugE protein. The modelling studies performed also support this hypothesis. The data herein presented clearly indicate that sugE is involved in TBT resistance of this bacterium.

  10. A new species in section Hydrophilae of the genus Psathyrella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, Mauro

    1993-01-01

    A new species of Psathyrella (Section Hydrophilae) is described from a mediterranean coastal pine forest (Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea) in Italy, that was burnt on July 31st, 1989. It is dedicated to Dr. E. Kits van Waveren.

  11. İnek Sütlerinin Hareketli Aeromonas Türleri Yönünden İncelenmesi

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    Mustafa Alişarlı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, çiğ sütlerde hareketli Aermonas türlerinin bulunma sıklığını ortaya koymak ve ilk sağılan sütün kontaminasyondaki rolünü belirlemek amaçlanmaştır. Bu amaçla, 100 adet sağmal inekten direkt el sağımı ile alınan süt örnekleri incelenmiştir. İncelenen Örneklerin 8 tanesinde (%8 Aeromonas spp.izole edilmiş olup bunlardan 3'ü (%37,5 hareketli Aeromonas olarak belirlenmiştir. Hareketli Aeromonas'ların 2'si (%66,6 A. hydrophila ve1'i (%33,3 A. caviae olarak identifiye edilmiştir. Bu araştırmanın verileri, süt işletmelerine tanker ve güğümlerle getirilen çiğ sütlerden sağlanan örneklerdeki araştırma bulgularıyla kıyaslandığında daha düşük bulunmuştur. Bu da, eğer sağım sonrası hijyen kurallarına gerekli özen gösterilmezse çiğ sütlerin Aeromonas'lar ile kontaminasyon riskinin yüksek olacağını göstermektedir.

  12. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

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    Murphy Colleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors used by this pathogen to infect fish. Results The nucleotide sequences of the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 chromosome and two large plasmids are characterized. The chromosome is 4,702,402 bp and encodes 4388 genes, while the two large plasmids are 166,749 and 155,098 bp with 178 and 164 genes, respectively. Notable features are a large inversion in the chromosome and, in one of the large plasmids, the presence of a Tn21 composite transposon containing mercury resistance genes and an In2 integron encoding genes for resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin, quaternary ammonia compounds, sulphonamides and chloramphenicol. A large number of genes encoding potential virulence factors were identified; however, many appear to be pseudogenes since they contain insertion sequences, frameshifts or in-frame stop codons. A total of 170 pseudogenes and 88 insertion sequences (of ten different types are found in the A. salmonicida genome. Comparison with the A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T genome reveals multiple large inversions in the chromosome as well as an approximately 9% difference in gene content indicating instances of single gene or operon loss or gain. A limited number of the pseudogenes found in A. salmonicida A449 were investigated in other Aeromonas strains and species. While nearly all the pseudogenes tested are present in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains, only about 25% were found in other A. salmonicida subspecies and none were detected in other

  13. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  14. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m 3 ) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  15. Aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.

  16. Importancia biosanitaria de aeromonas: Taxonomia y Epidemiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Falgàs, Lara

    2003-01-01

    El género Aeromonas está constituido por bacterias Gram-negativas aisladas frecuentemente en el agua. Adquieren relevancia por estar presentes en alimentos, y ser capaces de ocasionar cuadros diarreicos e infecciones extraintestinales en el hombre, habiéndose demostrado en la presente tesis, que pueden ser las causantes de hasta el 2% de las diarreas del viajero. La taxonomía de Aeromonas es compleja. El género consta de 15 especies difíciles de identificar con métodos bioquímicos, por lo cua...

  17. Species Distribution and Prevalence of Putative Virulence Factors in Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Fresh Retail Sushi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunniva Hoel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria that have received increasing attention as human pathogens because of their widespread occurrence in food, especially seafood and vegetables. The aim of this work was to assess the species identity and phylogenetic relationship of 118 Aeromonas strains isolated from fresh retail sushi from three producers, and to characterize the isolates with respect to genetic and phenotypic virulence factors. We also evaluate the potential hazard associated with their presence in ready-to-eat seafood not subjected to heat treatment. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida was most prevalent (74%, followed by A. bestiarum (9%, A. dhakensis (5%, A. caviae (5%, A. media (4%, A. hydrophila (2%, and A. piscicola (1%. All isolates were considered potentially pathogenic due to the high prevalence of genes encoding hemolysin (hlyA (99%, aerolysin (aerA (98%, cytotoxic enterotoxin (act (86%, heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt (99%, and heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast (31%. The shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (stx-1 and stx-2 were not detected. Moreover, there was heterogeneity in toxin gene distribution among the isolates, and the combination of act/alt/hlyA/aerA was most commonly detected (63%. β-hemolysis was species-dependent and observed in 91% of the isolates. All A. media and A. caviae strains were non-hemolytic. For isolates belonging to this group, lack of hemolysis was possibly related to the absence of the act gene. Swimming motility, linked to adhesion and host invasion, occurred in 65% of the isolates. Partial sequencing of the gyrB gene demonstrated its suitability as a genetic marker for Aeromonas species identification and for assessment of the phylogenetic relationship between the isolates. The gyrB sequence divergence within a given species ranged from 1.3 to 2.9%. A. bestiarum, A. salmonicida, and A. piscicola were the most closely related species; their sequences differed by 2.7–3.4%. The average gyrB sequence

  18. AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA INFECTION IN VACCINATED RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar

    In vivo testing of any candidate vaccine is influenced by the choice of challenge method and the external environmental conditions. In the present study, a comparative challenge study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of different vaccines against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida...

  19. Biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using A. hydrophila in up-flow column. Optimization of process variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S.H.; Srivastava, P.; Ranjan, D. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Water Pollution Research Lab.; Talat, M. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, continuous up-flow fixed-bed column study was carried out using immobilized dead biomass of Aeromonas hydrophila for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Different polymeric matrices were used to immobilized biomass and polysulfone-immobilized biomass has shown to give maximum removal. The sorption capacity of immobilized biomass for the removal of Cr(VI) evaluating the breakthrough curves obtained at different flow rate and bed height. A maximum of 78.58% Cr(VI) removal was obtained at bed height of 19 cm and flow rate of 2 mL/min. Bed depth service time model provides a good description of experimental results with high correlation coefficient (>0.996). An attempt has been made to investigate the individual as well as cumulative effect of the process variables and to optimize the process conditions for the maximum removal of chromium from water by two-level two-factor full-factorial central composite design with the help of Minitab {sup registered} version 15 statistical software. The predicted results are having a good agreement (R{sup 2}=98.19%) with the result obtained. Sorption-desorption studies revealed that polysulfone-immobilized biomass could be reused up to 11 cycles and bed was completely exhausted after 28 cycles. (orig.)

  20. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn. extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangtongpirot, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation to produce 12.99% of dried leave weight. The exposures were divided into oral route using 5% (MIC and 10 % (2xMIC. And 1000 ppm (MIC and 2000 ppm (2xMIC for dip and bath methods. MIC by agar dilution method was 1000 ppm. At the 1000 ppm concentration dipped for 5 minutes, fish lost consciousness but this was reversible when returned to freshwater, which may due to the antinociceptive effect. All fish died when dipped at 2000 ppm concentration. The relative percent survival (RPS of 5% feed mix group was significantly higher than the 10% feed mix group and higher when fed for longer time. All groups receiving guava leaf extract had significantly higher percent phagocytosis and percent chemotaxis than the controls (P<0.05. The results indicated that guava leaf extract can stimulate the non-specific immune responses and decrease the mortality rate of the bacterial infected carp. The effects were enhanced by the longer period of exposure.

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila Extracelullar Products Extraction and its Effects on Tilapia Roja (Oreochromis spp. and Cachama Blanca (Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez

    2005-07-01

    of 128 UH/μL and a proteolitic activity of 38.4 UP/μL and produced high fish mortality and severe multiorganic lesions. Electrophoresis revealed bands from 50 to 52 kDa y 63 to 68 kDa, that could correspond to the b hemolisina or a hemolisina y other from 30 to 36 kDa that could correspond to the thermostable metalloprotease.

  2. Prevalence of Aeromonas Hydrophila and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Children with Acute Diarrhea Attending Health Centers in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Various studies have been reported regarding the relationship between the children acute diarrhea and Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the bacteria and their sensitivity to common antibiotics and the prevalence of virulence genes in the bacteria in Hamadan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study, 120 stool samples collected from children less than 10 years of age with acute diarrhea were examined for Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. Identification of the bacteria was performed by biochemical reactions and PCR using 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, the prevalence of virulence genes earA and hyl of Aeromonashydrophila and ail and ystB genes of Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated using PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 120 stool samples, 2 (1.7 % Aeromonashydrophila and 3 (2.5% Yersinia enterocolitica were isolated. All isolates of Aeromonashydrophila were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem, amikacin and 50% of isolates were sensitive to the ceftriaxone and azithromycin. All Aeromonashydrophila isolates were resistant to erythromycin. All isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and meropenem. The 33.3% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin and 66.6% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone. However, all of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. The prevalence aerA and hyl genes in Aeromonashydrophila were reported 100% and 50%, respectively. The prevalence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica was reported as 66.6%. Conclusions: Identification and analysis of Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica in diarrhea of children has etiologic importance and presence of the bacteria in samples of diarrhea should be considered. 2016; 22 (4 :338-345

  3. Successful split thickness skin grafting in the presence of heavy colonisation with rare bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koschel

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: Contemporary literature is yet to make the distinction between colonisation and infection of this bacterium, with clinicians relying solely on the presence of infective stigmata and serum analysis. However, this is a critically important distinction when ascertaining the likelihood of success of wound healing.

  4. Aeromonas veronii septicemia in an immunocompetent patient

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    Paula McKenzie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a 29-year-old healthy man who fell into an industrial auger, sustaining acrushed, open pelvic injury, multiple comminuted fractures of the right leg, and traumaticamputation of his left foot. Blood and wound cultures were positive for Aeromonasspp and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus. Treatment included cefepime, levofloxacin,daptomycin, and metronidazole. Aeromonas veronii is a Gram negative bacillus usuallyfound in fresh and brackish water in warm climates. It can cause severe skin andsoft tissue infections, typically after injured tissue is exposed to contaminated water.Aeromonas septicemia is uncommon and is usually associated with underlying diseases,such as malignancy, cirrhosis, diabetes, or immunosuppression. It rarely occurs in ahealthy host.

  5. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    aparecimento ocasional de patógenos em águas para consumo humano e as diferentes taxas de sobrevivência e isolamento destes agentes comparados com os indicadores fecais de contaminação. A constatação de que 41.6%, 14.8% e 9.0% respectivamente amostras de água de poço, água mineral e água do abastecimento público utilizadas neste estudo apresentaram índices de coliformes maiores do que os aceitáveis pela legislação brasileira é um fato preocupante. Estes números mostram a necessidade de melhoria nos sistemas de monitoramento para a indústria de águas minerais e o sistema público de abastecimento. As cepas isoladas pertencentes ao gênero Aeromonas foram identificadas ao nível de espécie como A. hydrophila e A. jandaei. A significância do grande número de isolamentos de espécies de Aeromonas em saúde pública ainda não está clara. É necessário o estudo dos efeitos de cepas específicas utilizando modelos animais de infecção. Estes resultados podem contribuir para a reavaliação dos critérios empregados para a análise da qualidade microbiológica da água e a definição de limites de densidades para o gênero Aeromonas em águas destinadas ao consumo humano.

  6. Aeromonas veronii septicemia in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Paula McKenzie; David Sotello; Yared Hailemariam; Vipul Desai; Brian Temple

    2013-01-01

    We present a 29-year-old healthy man who fell into an industrial auger, sustaining acrushed, open pelvic injury, multiple comminuted fractures of the right leg, and traumaticamputation of his left foot. Blood and wound cultures were positive for Aeromonasspp and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus. Treatment included cefepime, levofloxacin,daptomycin, and metronidazole. Aeromonas veronii is a Gram negative bacillus usuallyfound in fresh and brackish water in warm climates. It can cause severe s...

  7. Biochemical characteristics, serogroups, and virulence factors of aeromonas species isolated from cases of diarrhoea and domestic water samples in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavandi S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity. METHODS: A total of 55 Aeromonas spp. inclusive of 19 isolates from cases of diarrhoea, and 36 from water samples comprising, 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 21 isolates each of A. sobria, and A. caviae, two isolates of A. jandaei and one isolate of A. veronii were subjected to analysis of their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping, and virulence factors. RESULTS: Among the differences recorded in the biochemical characteristics in the three major species, the most striking characteristic was fermentation of lactose, which was observed in all the 11 A. caviae isolates recovered from water samples. None of the 10 clinical isolates of A. caviae tested fermented lactose. The clinical Aeromonas isolates belonged to seven typable serogroups, O:13, O:14, O:16, O:21, O:27, O:32 and O:35. The environmental isolates belonged to eight different serogroups, such as, O:3, O:11, O:14, O:16, O:18, O:28, O:64 and O:78 and were predominated by serotypes O:18 and O:64. Among the virulence factors tested, 89% of the environmental isolates produced b haemolysin, while only 62.3% of clinical isolates were able to do so. There was no significant difference between the clinical and environmental aeromonads with respect to their enterotoxigenicity in suckling mice in vivo, cytotoxicity in vitro in Vero cell monolayers, and ability to produce siderophores. CONCLUSION: Efforts to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. did not reveal significant difference between them. However, difference was observed with respect to their ability to produce b haemolysin, wherein, higher percentage of environmental isolates was haemolytic. The results also suggest

  8. Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water source Aeromonas sp. e indicadores microbiológicos em fontes de água não tratada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Di Bari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are autochtonous in the aquatic environment and some of them have been associated with health effects like wound infections, septicemia and diarrhoeal illness. In this study, the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water from wells, springs, fountains and mineral waters was evaluated. A total of 126 water samples was analyzed for Aeromonas spp. by the membrane filtration technique using ADA media and by P/A test. Typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Toxin production was tested using Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. Coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated by membrane filtration and pour plate techniques, respectively. P. aeruginosa, C. perfringens and fecal streptococci were determined by P/A method. Aeromonas spp. were isolated in 36.5% of the samples, whereas total and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 51.2% and in 23.8% of the samples, respectively. C. perfringens, fecal streptococci and P. aeruginosa were present in 16.5%, 20.4% and 3.8% of the samples, respectively. The concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria were higher than 1,0x10³ CFU/mL in 52.5% of the samples. A. hydrophila was the most frequent species, followed by A. allosaccharophila,A. jandaei,A.sobria and HG2. A heat label toxin was detected in 13 from the 58 strains tested. These data show that the drinking water sources analyzed can represent a risk for human health. It is important to consider that wells and springs are used as drinking water supply in poor areas and rural regions, where undernourished people more susceptible to infections by these microorganisms predominate.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas são naturais no ambiente aquático e algumas espécies podem causar infecções em humanos como feridas, septicemia e diarréia. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a ocorrência de Aeromonas sp. em 126 amostras de água de poços, nascentes, fontes e

  9. Prevalence of Aeromonas species and Escherichia coli in stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrhoea is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in childhood. Bacterial diarrhoea is a common disorder. Aeromonas species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are some of the aetiological agents associated with diarrhoea in children. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Aeromonas species and ...

  10. Genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Aeromonads of medical importance have been reported from numerous clinical, food, and water sources, but identification of genospecies and virulence factors of Aeromonas species from countries in North Africa and the Middle East are few. Methods: In total 99 Aeromonas species isolates from different ...

  11. Purification and characterization of the chitosanase from Aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purification and characterization of the chitosanase from Aeromonas sp. HG08. Y Sun, J Zhang, S Wang. Abstract. In this work, the characterization of a chitosanase-producing bacterium isolated from soil was reported and this strain was grouped under the genus Aeromonas by virtue of its morphological, physiological ...

  12. Insight into the mobilome of Aeromonas strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Marta; Popowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The mobilome is a pool of genes located within mobile genetic elements (MGE), such as plasmids, IS elements, transposons, genomic/pathogenicity islands, and integron-associated gene cassettes. These genes are often referred to as "flexible" and may encode virulence factors, toxic compounds as well as resistance to antibiotics. The phenomenon of MGE transfer between bacteria, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), is well documented. The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. For bacteria, the only chance of survival in an environment contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics is the acquisition of genes providing the ability to survive in such conditions. The process of acquiring and spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) is of particular significance, as it is important for the health of humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly study the mobilome of Aeromonas spp. that is widely distributed in various environments, causing many diseases in fishes and humans. This review discusses the recently published information on MGE prevalent in Aeromonas spp. with special emphasis on plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups, i.e., IncA/C, IncU, IncQ, IncF, IncI, and ColE-type. The vast majority of plasmids carry a number of different transposons (Tn3, Tn21, Tn1213, Tn1721, Tn4401), the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class of integrons, IS elements (e.g., IS26, ISPa12, ISPa13, ISKpn8, ISKpn6) and encode determinants such as antibiotic and mercury resistance genes, as well as virulence factors. Although the actual role of Aeromonas spp. as a human pathogen remains controversial, species of this genus may pose a serious risk to human health. This is due to the considerable potential of their mobilome, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and the possibility of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes.

  13. Insight into the mobilome of Aeromonas strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta ePiotrowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mobilome is a pool of genes located within mobile genetic elements (MGE, such as plasmids, IS elements, transposons, genomic/pathogenicity islands, and integron-associated gene cassettes. These genes are often referred to as flexible and may encode virulence factors, toxic compounds as well as resistance to antibiotics. The phenomenon of MGE transfer between bacteria, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT, is well documented. The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. For bacteria, the only chance of survival in an environment contaminated with toxic chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics is the acquisition of genes providing the ability to survive in such conditions. The process of acquiring and spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARG is of particular significance, as it is important for the health of humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly study the mobilome of Aeromonas spp. that is widely distributed in various environments, causing many diseases in fishes and humans. This review discusses the recently published information on MGE prevalent in Aeromonas spp. with special emphasis on plasmids belonging to different incompatibility groups, i.e., IncA/C, IncU, IncQ, IncF, IncI and ColE-type. The vast majority of plasmids carry a number of different transposons (Tn3, Tn21, Tn1213, Tn1721, Tn4401, the 1st, 2nd or 3rd class of integrons, IS elements (e.g. IS26, ISPa12, ISPa13, ISKpn8, ISKpn6 and encode determinants such as antibiotic and mercury resistance genes, as well as virulence factors. Although the actual role of Aeromonas spp. as a human pathogen remains controversial, species of this genus may pose a serious risk to human health. This is due to the considerable potential of their mobilome, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and the possibility of the horizontal transfer of resistance

  14. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Aeromonas salmonicida [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Aeromonas salmonicida 名詞 一般 * * * * Aeromonas salmon...icida ... MeSH D048409 200906081596351600 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Aeromonas salmonicida

  15. Resistance of Salmonds Against Aeromonas Salmonicida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at Danish trout farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural...... over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2 % and 34.0 % for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility...... to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise...

  16. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  17. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater (tweede onderzoek)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Heisterkamp SH; Havelaar AH

    1988-01-01

    Door middel van kwantitatief onderzoek naar Aeromonas-bacterien in drie verschillende monsters water (De Bilt, De Meent en De Laak) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 15 laboratoria in het kader van het deelproject: "Aeromonas in drinkwater".

  18. Isolation of Aeromonas caviae from yoghurt (“nono”) sold in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 30 nono samples were collected from Farin Gada, Bauchi Road and Gangare markets in Jos and analysed for the presence of Aeromonas species. 3 (10%) of the 30 nono samples were positive for Aeromonas species; which was found to be Aeromonas caviae. All the isolates were obtained from non-heat treated ...

  19. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml

  20. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    Fifty two isolates of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, recovered from a wide range of hosts and geographical locations, were heterogeneous in terms of molecular and phenotypic characteristics, and represented taxa which could not be accommodated by the current classification of four subspecies...

  1. Inactivation Data.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set is a spreadsheet that contains results of inactivation experiments that were conducted to to determine the effectiveness of chlorine in inactivating B....

  2. Identificação e resistência a antimicrobianos de espécies de Aeromonas móveis isoladas de peixes e ambientes aquáticos Identification and antimicrobial resistance of motile Aeromonas isolated from fish and aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hirsch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a diversidade de espécies de Aeromonas móveis e seu perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em pisciculturas comerciais, foram selecionadas oito tilapiculturas localizadas na região do Alto Rio Grande, Minas Gerais. De cada propriedade foram coletadas três amostras de peixes em estádio de pré-abate (vivos e saudáveis, uma amostra de água do tanque e uma amostra da água de abastecimento do sistema. De cada peixe foram coletadas amostras de lavado superficial e do parênquima renal. Diluições seriadas adequadas de cada amostra foram plaqueadas em TSA-ampicilina (10 mg/l e as amostras de rim em Ágar Sangue de cavalo a 5%. A partir de colônias isoladas positivas para o teste da oxidase foram realizados testes para identificação do gênero (testes presuntivos e das espécies de Aeromonas (testes bioquímicos. O perfil de antibiograma foi obtido pelo teste de difusão de discos de antibióticos em Ágar Mueller Hinton. Foram obtidos 75 isolados diferenciados em nove espécies de Aeromonas: A. jandaei, A. hydrophila, A. trota, A. caviae, A. sobria, A. eucrenophila, A. veronii bt veronii, A. schubertii, A. media, além de amostras classificadas como Aeromonas atípicas. Do total isolado, oito amostras foram provenientes da superfície corpórea de peixes, 14 da água de abastecimento e 53 da água do tanque. Não houve isolamento a partir dos espécimes de parênquima renal. Em relação ao perfil de resistência, 93% dos isolados foram resistentes à eritromicina, 36% à tetraciclina, 13% ao ác. nalidíxico, 9% à gentamicina, 8% à nitrofurantoína, 8% à canamicina, 5% à norfloxacina, 4% ao cloranfenicol e 3% às sulfonamidas. Dentre os isolados analisados, 43% apresentaram índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR igual ou superior a 22%, ou seja, resistência a dois ou mais drogas das nove testadas. Os dados apontam para um risco iminente, tanto pelo isolamento de amostras

  3. Inactivation of Caliciviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Nims

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. The caliciviruses are susceptible to wet heat inactivation at temperatures in excess of 60 °C with contact times of 30 min or greater, to UV-C inactivation at fluence ≥30 mJ/cm2, to high pressure processing >200 MPa for >5 min at 4 °C, and to certain photodynamic inactivation approaches. The enteric caliciviruses (e.g.; noroviruses display resistance to inactivation by low pH, while the non-enteric species (e.g.; feline calicivirus are much more susceptible. The caliciviruses are inactivated by a variety of chemicals, including alcohols, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, and β-propiolactone. As with inactivation of viruses in general, inactivation of caliciviruses by the various approaches may be matrix-, temperature-, and/or contact time-dependent. The susceptibilities of the caliciviruses to the various physical and chemical inactivation approaches are generally similar to those displayed by other small, non-enveloped viruses, with the exception that the parvoviruses and circoviruses may require higher temperatures for inactivation, while these families appear to be more susceptible to UV-C inactivation than are the caliciviruses.

  4. Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction on goethite stimulated by an iron-reducing bacteria Aeromonas Hydrophila HS01 under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Liang; Zhu, Zhen-Ke; Li, Fang-Bai; Wang, Shan-Li

    2017-11-01

    Copper is a trace element essential for living creatures, but copper content in soil should be controlled, as it is toxic. The physical-chemical-biological features of Cu in soil have a significant correlation with the Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction in soil. Of significant interest to the current study is the effect of Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction conducted on goethite under anaerobic conditions stimulated by HS01 (a dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) microbial). The following four treatments were designed: HS01 with α-FeOOH and Cu(II) (T1), HS01 with α-FeOOH (T2), HS01 with Cu(II) (T3), and α-FeOOH with Cu(II) (T4). HS01 presents a negligible impact on copper species transformation (T3), whereas the presence of α-FeOOH significantly enhanced copper aging contributing to the DIR effect (T1). Moreover, the violent reaction between adsorbed Fe(II) and Cu(II) leads to the decreased concentration of the active Fe(II) species (T1), further inhibiting reactions between Fe(II) and iron (hydr)oxides and decelerating the phase transformation of iron (hydr)oxides (T1). From this study, the effects of the Fe(II)/Cu(II) interaction on goethite under anaerobic conditions by HS01 are presented in three aspects: (1) the accelerating effect of copper aging, (2) the reductive transformation of copper, and (3) the inhibition effect of the phase transformation of iron (hydr)oxides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary β-glucans differentially modulate immune and stress-related gene expression in lymphoid organs from healthy and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douxfils, Jessica; Fierro-Castro, Camino; Mandiki, S N M; Emile, Wakson; Tort, Lluis; Kestemont, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Although β-glucans stimulating effects have already been demonstrated on the immune system of numerous animal species, available data remain relatively variable and more research should be done regarding the complexity of underlying mechanisms. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the stress and immune-related effects of dietary β-glucans (i.e. Macrogard ® ) by considering a number of influencing factors such as the dose (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5% in food), feeding duration (15 versus 30 days), tissue (blood, kidney, spleen, gills) and infection status (healthy or infected). Blood parameters (lysozyme, ACH50 activities, leucocyte populations) and mRNA expression level of several immune- and stress-related genes (TFN-α1, IL-1β, IL10, COX-2, TGF-β, MC2R, HSP70) were measured. Our results suggest that spleen may be a highly responsive organ to dietary β-glucans both in healthy or infected fish, and that this organ may therefore significantly contribute to the immune reinforcement induced by such immunostimulatory diet. Our study further reveals that overdoses of β-glucans and/or prolonged medication can lead to a non-reactive physiological status and, consequently, to a poor immune response. All in all, the current data emphasizes the need for further extensive research in the field of dietary β-glucans as a preventive method for farmed fish protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolutionary Roots and Diversification of the Genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Farfán, Maribel; Lorén, J G; Fusté, M C

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of diversification rates in the study of prokaryote evolution, they have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of microorganism taxa. The investigation of evolutionary patterns in prokaryotes constitutes a challenge due to a very scarce fossil record, limited morphological differentiation and frequently complex taxonomic relationships, which make even species recognition difficult. Although the speciation models and speciation rates in eukaryotes have traditionally been established by analyzing the fossil record data, this is frequently incomplete, and not always available. More recently, several methods based on molecular sequence data have been developed to estimate speciation and extinction rates from phylogenies reconstructed from contemporary taxa. In this work, we determined the divergence time and temporal diversification of the genus Aeromonas by applying these methods widely used with eukaryotic taxa. Our analysis involved 150 Aeromonas strains using the concatenated sequences of two housekeeping genes (approximately 2,000 bp). Dating and diversification model analyses were performed using two different approaches: obtaining the consensus sequence from the concatenated sequences corresponding to all the strains belonging to the same species, or generating the species tree from multiple alignments of each gene. We used BEAST to perform a Bayesian analysis to estimate both the phylogeny and the divergence times. A global molecular clock cannot be assumed for any gene. From the chronograms obtained, we carried out a diversification analysis using several approaches. The results suggest that the genus Aeromonas began to diverge approximately 250 millions of years (Ma) ago. All methods used to determine Aeromonas diversification gave similar results, suggesting that the speciation process in this bacterial genus followed a rate-constant (Yule) diversification model, although there is a small probability that a slight

  7. Biological control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Aeromonas phage PAS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

    2015-02-01

    The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The animal model determines the results of Aeromonas virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of A. hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analysed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1∆vapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1∆rmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and the AH-1∆wahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella. They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study

  9. Necrotizing Fasciitis Secondary to Aeromonas Infection Presenting with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of necrotizing fasciitis presenting with septic shock due to an Aeromonas infection. The patient cut his foot while mowing the lawn and then spent time in a pool with black mold. He began feeling ill and developed swelling and a quarter-sized black area on his right lower extremity. Despite being hemodynamically unstable with systolic blood pressure in the low 70s, the patient was transferred to our facility from outside hospital 100 miles away. Upon arriving to facility, the patient appeared to be septic and the infected area of skin had grown. Irrigation and debridement were performed and appropriate antibiotic therapy was given; however, the patient subsequently died on hospital day 8. On review of the literature, cases of necrotizing fasciitis due to Aeromonas infection have been treated successfully with the aforementioned therapy; however, there is high mortality associated with these infections, many times related to a delayed diagnosis. Our patient also had multiple poor prognostic factors including hepatic dysfunction and immunosuppression.

  10. Aeromonas salmonicida bacteremia associated with chronic well water consumption in a patient with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ann Moore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida is associated with superficial skin infections in fish. Its virulence factors allow colonization of water including surface water such as salt water, beaches, and fresh water wells. Moreover, it is possible for immunocompromised patients to develop invasive disease after chronic exposure to Aeromonas spp. through contaminated water. While there are reports of Aeromonas spp. bacteremia following water ingestion, there have been no reports of A. salmonicida bacteremia from water consumption. We report the first case of A. salmonicida bacteremia in a patient with diabetes due to chronic consumption of well water.

  11. Respon Imun Spesifik Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio melalui Imunitas Maternal yang Diberi Vaksin Inaktif Whole Cell Aeromonas salmonicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syohibahttul Islamiyah BAHAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida are specific bacteria that can cause infections and death to the cultivation of carp (Cyprinus carpio during larval stage. Death in carp can be prevented by a vaccine, but the vaccine can only be given on the seed over the age of 3 weeks. Maternal vaccination needs to be done to improve the immune system of the larvae by means of inactivated whole cell vaccine A. salmonicida on broodstock ready to spawn. Aims to determine the effectiveness of vaccines on breeders carp to the parent antibody titer test and larvae, as well Survival Rate (SR and the Relative Percent Survival (RPS larvae. This research was conducted with a completely randomized design, 4 treatments A (control; B (0.3 ml/kg; C (0.4 ml/kg; D (0.5 ml/kg and 3 repetitions. The results show that the antibody titer of 0.3 ml dose capable of providing agglutination reaction to pitting 7th (64x dilution in broodstock, and vaccine doses 0,4ml on broodstock able to give agglutination reaction to the larvae until all 6 wells (32x dilution. A dose of 0.4 ml/kg resulted the highest SR and RPS with 96.11% and 81.25% respectively. Clinical symptoms of redness in control larvae was spread throughout the body whereas on the vaccine treatment was only in certain body parts. Keywords: A. salmonicida, vaccines, maternal immunity, larva, specific immune respon

  12. Ultraviolet inactivation of papain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugher, J.F.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    Flash photolysis transient spectra (lambda > 250 nm) of aqueous papain showed that the initial products are the neutral tryptophan radical Trp (lambdasub(max) 510 nm), the tryptophan triplet state 3 Trp (lambdasub(max) 460 nm), the disulfide bridge electron adduct -SS - - (lambdasub(max) 420 nm) and the hydrated electron esub(aq) - . The -SS - - yield was not altered by nitrous oxide or air, indicating that the formation of this product does not involve electrons in the external medium. The original papain preparation was activated by irradiating under nitrogen. The action spectrum supports previous work attributing the low initial activity to blocking of cysteinyl site 25 with a mixed disulfide. Flask lamp irradiation in nitrogen led to activation at low starting activities and inactivation at higher starting activities, while only inactivation at the same quantum yield was observed with air saturation. The results are consistent with photoionization of an essential tryptophyl residue as the key inactivating step. (author)

  13. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., Photobacterium damselae, Serratia liquefaciens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp. and Vibrio sp. survived after prolonged freezing. Two bacterial species viz. Shewanella putrefaciens and Aeromonas ...

  14. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Ommi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results. Out of 600 houseflies 73 (12.2% were infected with Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher frequencies of Aeromonas were isolated in Shahrekord province (13.0%; 39/300 than in Isfahan province (11.3%; 34/300. The recovery frequencies of the organisms were significantly lower in kitchens as compared to those in cattle farms and hospital wards which were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter. Conclusions. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor diarrheagenic pathogens, including Aeromonas especially during summer. The carried organisms are resistant to a number of antimicrobials at different levels. Thus, future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms should take flies into account. Control efforts of infections caused by this particular bacterium should therefore take into account Musca domestica.

  15. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  16. A molecular study on the prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas spp. recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Senderovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered emerging human pathogens. Although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the most common anatomic site from which aeromonads are recovered, their role as etiologic agents of bacterial diarrhea is still disputed. Aeromonas-associated diarrhea is a phenomenon occurring worldwide; however, the exact prevalence of Aeromonas infections on a global scale is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas in patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel was studied using molecular methods. 1,033 diarrheal stools were sampled between April and September 2010 and Aeromonas species were identified in 17 (∼2% patients by sequencing the rpoD gene. Aeromonas species identity and abundance was: A. caviae (65%, A. veronii (29% and Aeromonas taiwanensis (6%. This is the first clinical record of A. taiwanensis as a diarrheal causative since its recent discovery from a wound infection in a patient in Taiwan. Most of the patients (77% from which Aeromonas species were isolated were negative for any other pathogens. The patients ranged from 1 to 92 years in age. Aeromonas isolates were found to possess different virulence-associated genes: ahpB (88%, pla/lip/lipH3/apl-1 (71%, act/hlyA/aerA (35%, alt (18%, ast (6%, fla (65%, lafA (41%, TTSS ascV (12%, TTSS ascF-ascG (12%, TTSS-dependent ADP-ribosylating toxins aexU (41% and aexT (6% in various combinations. Most of the identified strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Aeromonas may be a causative agent of diarrhea in patients in Israel and therefore should be included in routine bacteriological screenings.

  17. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-11-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii prevailed in raw surface water, Aeromonas hydrophyla in ozonated water, and Aeromonas media and Aeromonas puntacta in waste water. No aeromonads were detected in ground water, after the chlorination tank or in tap water. Resistance to ceftazidime or meropenem was detected in isolates from the drinking water treatment plant and waste water isolates were intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid. Most of the times, quinolone resistance was associated with the gyrA mutation in serine 83. The gene qnrS, but not the genes qnrA, B, C, D or qepA, was detected in both surface and waste water isolates. The gene aac(6')-ib-cr was detected in different waste water strains isolated in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Both quinolone resistance genes were detected only in the species A. media. This is the first study tracking antimicrobial resistance in aeromonads in drinking, tap and waste water and the importance of these bacteria as vectors of resistance in aquatic environments is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CONTAMINATION RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOURCES OF WATER INTENDED FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION WITH AEROMONAS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available mportance of Aeromonas spp as emerging pathogens in recent years has been a considerable increase, beingincluded by the World Health Organization (WHO and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA in the etiology ofwaterborne epidemics. We aimed to investigate the distribution of Aeromonas spp. in various aquatic ecosystems whichcan become potential sources of gastrointestinal infections. Simultaneously, the presence of this pathogen was evaluatedin relation to microbiological indicators set out in EU Directive 98/83/EC. Between March 2009 and May 2011 wereanalyzed by membrane filter technique untreated water samples, collected from surface sources (lakes, ponds andgroundwater (wells drilled, captured springs, wells and chlorinated water that coming from local distribution network,located in rural areas of Moldova (North-East Romania. The information was processed and interpreted statisticallyusing EpiInfo 3.5.1 software. The presence of Aeromonas spp. was detected in half of the 220 samples tested, especially,in surface waters (84% and captured springs (80.8% (χ 2=51.39; GL=4; p0.8, being influenced by exogenous humanimpact. The results of this study confirms that untreated water used in rural areas can affect public health andmicrobiological indicators have predictive value for the presence of Aeromonas spp only reporting to surface sources.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Fish Pathogen Aeromonas bestiarum GA97-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Salih; Tekedar, Hasan C; Griffin, Matt J; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Liles, Mark R; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G; Lawrence, Mark L; Karsi, Attila

    2018-06-14

    Aeromonas bestiarum is a Gram-negative mesophilic motile bacterium causing acute hemorrhagic septicemia or chronic skin ulcers in fish. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. bestiarum strain GA97-22, which was isolated from rainbow trout in 1997. This genome sequence will improve our understanding of the complex taxonomy of motile aeromonads.

  20. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 strains of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, three oxidase-negative but otherwise typical Aer. salmonicida, three typical Aer. salmonicida, and two reference strains, isolated from several countries and fish species were examined with respect to rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes...

  1. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority...

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  3. Pathogen inactivation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J P R; Transue, S; Snyder, E L

    2006-01-01

    The desire to rid the blood supply of pathogens of all types has led to the development of many technologies aimed at the same goal--eradication of the pathogen(s) without harming the blood cells or generating toxic chemical agents. This is a very ambitious goal, and one that has yet to be achieved. One approach is to shun the 'one size fits all' concept and to target pathogen-reduction agents at the Individual component types. This permits the development of technologies that might be compatible with, for example, plasma products but that would be cytocidal and thus incompatible with platelet concentrates or red blood cell units. The technologies to be discussed include solvent detergent and methylene blue treatments--designed to inactivate plasma components and derivatives; psoralens (S-59--amotosalen) designed to pathogen-reduce units of platelets; and two products aimed at red blood cells, S-303 (a Frale--frangible anchor-linker effector compound) and Inactine (a binary ethyleneimine). A final pathogen-reduction material that might actually allow one material to inactivate all three blood components--riboflavin (vitamin B2)--is also under development. The sites of action of the amotosalen (S-59), the S-303 Frale, Inactine, and riboflavin are all localized in the nucleic acid part of the pathogen. Solvent detergent materials act by dissolving the plasma envelope, thus compromising the integrity of the pathogen membrane and rendering it non-infectious. By disrupting the pathogen's ability to replicate or survive, its infectivity is removed. The degree to which bacteria and viruses are affected by a particular pathogen-reducing technology relates to its Gram-positive or Gram-negative status, to the sporulation characteristics for bacteria, and the presence of lipid or protein envelopes for viruses. Concerns related to photoproducts and other breakdown products of these technologies remain, and the toxicology of pathogen-reduction treatments is a major ongoing area

  4. Free radical inactivation of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudina, Ivana; Jovanovic, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Reactivities of free radical oxidants, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and Cl 3 COO radical and a reductant, CO2-anion radical, with trypsin and reactive protein components were determined by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions at pH 7, 20 0 C. Highly reactive free radicals, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical, react with trypsin at diffusion controlled rates. Moderately reactive trichloroperoxy radical, k(Cl 3 COO radical + trypsin) preferentially oxidizes histidine residues. The efficiency of inactivation of trypsin by free radicals is inversely proportional to their reactivity. The yields of inactivation of trypsin by radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical are low, G(inactivation) = 0.6-0.8, which corresponds to ∼ 10% of the initially produced radicals. In contrast, Cl 3 COO radical inactivates trypsin with ∼ 50% efficiency, i.e. G(inactivation) = 3.2. (author)

  5. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  6. Mean inactivation dose (D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Ng, T.C.; Raudkivi, U.; Meaney, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    By predicting treatment outcome to radiotherapy from in vitro radiobiological parameters, not only individual patient treatments can be tailored, but also new promising treatment protocols can be tried in patients in whom unfavorable outcome is predicted. In this respect, choosing the right parameter can be very important. Unlike D 0 and N which provide information of the distal part of the survival curve, mean inactivation dose (D) estimates overall radiosensitivity. However, the parameters reflecting the response at the clinically relevant low-dose region are neglected in the literature. In a literature survey of 98 papers in which survival curves or D 0 /N were used, only in 2 D was used. In 21 papers the D 0 /n values were important in drawing conclusions. By calculating D in 3 of these 21 papers, we show that the conclusion drawn may be altered with the use of D. The importance of ''low-dose-region-parameters'' is reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Inventarisatie van Aeromonas spp. in het drinkwater van 21 pompstations in de periode september 1985-december 1986 (deel I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH

    1987-01-01

    In de periode september 1985-december 1986 is in samenwerking met een aantal drinkwaterbedrijven een inventariserend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas-bacterien in verschillende typen drinkwater geproduceerd op 21 drinkwaterpompstations. Nadat in de loop van het onderzoek

  8. Detection and quantification of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissue by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, Simona; Kokotovic, Branco; Skall, H. F.

    2017-01-01

    Furunculosis, a septicaemic infection caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, currently causes problems in Danish seawater rainbow trout production. Detection has mainly been achieved by bacterial culture, but more rapid and sensitive methods are needed. A previously...

  9. Inventarisatie van Aeromonas spp. in het drinkwater van 21 pompstations in de periode september 1985-december 1986 (deel II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH

    1987-01-01

    In de periode september 1985-december 1986 is in samenwerking met een aantal drinkwaterbedrijven een inventariserend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas-bacterien in verschillende typen drinkwater geproduceerd op 21 drinkwaterpompstations. Nadat in de loop van het onderzoek

  10. A rapid MALDI-TOF MS identification database at genospecies level for clinical and environmental Aeromonas strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benagli

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of taxonomic and nomenclature revisions over the past 20 years, and new (subspecies and biogroups are continuously described. Standard identification methods such as biochemical characterization have deficiencies and do not allow clarification of the taxonomic position. This report describes the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification database for a rapid identification of clinical and environmental Aeromonas isolates.

  11. Evaluation of different conditions and culture media for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water and shellfish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, F; Beaz-Hidalgo, R; Figueras, M J

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparative study for determining the optimum culture method (direct plating or enrichment) and medium (ampicillin dextrin agar (ADA), starch ampicillin agar (SAA), bile salts irgasan brilliant green modified (BIBG-m)) for recovering Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. By direct culture, Aeromonas was detected in 65% (13/20) of the water samples and in 54·5% (6/11) of the shellfish samples. However, when a pre-enrichment step was included, the number of positive water samples increased to 75% (15/20) and the ones of shellfish to 90·1% (10/11). The enriched culture significantly favoured (P culture medium for detecting Aeromonas from water was ADA. However, no differences were observed in the case of shellfish samples (P > 0·05). Isolation of Aeromonas media from water was favoured (P culture method and medium used influenced the recovery of some Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. This fact should be considered in future prevalence studies to avoid overestimating the above mentioned Aeromonas species. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Reciprocal immune benefit based on complementary production of antibiotics by the leech Hirudo verbana and its gut symbiont Aeromonas veronii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Massol, François; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Roger, Emmanuel; Rodet, Franck; Fournier, Isabelle; Thomas, Frédéric; Salzet, Michel

    2015-12-04

    The medicinal leech has established a long-term mutualistic association with Aeromonas veronii, a versatile bacterium which can also display free-living waterborne and fish- or human-pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we investigated the role of antibiotics in the dynamics of interaction between the leech and its gut symbiont Aeromonas. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches, we isolated and identified for the first time the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the leech digestive tract and by its symbiont Aeromonas. Immunohistochemistry data and PCR analyses evidenced that leech AMP genes are induced in the gut epithelial cells when Aeromonas load is low (starved animals), while repressed when Aeromonas abundance is the highest (post blood feeding). The asynchronous production of AMPs by both partners suggests that these antibiotic substances (i) provide them with reciprocal protection against invasive bacteria and (ii) contribute to the unusual simplicity of the gut microflora of the leech. This immune benefit substantially reinforces the evidence of an evolutionarily stable association between H. verbana and A. veronii. Altogether these data may provide insights into the processes making the association with an Aeromonas species in the digestive tract either deleterious or beneficial.

  13. Microplastics as a vector for the transport of the bacterial fish pathogen species Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viršek, Manca Kovač; Lovšin, Marija Nika; Koren, Špela; Kržan, Andrej; Peterlin, Monika

    2017-12-15

    Microplastics is widespread in the marine environment where it can cause numerous negative effects. It can provide space for the growth of organisms and serves as a vector for the long distance transfer of marine microorganisms. In this study, we examined the sea surface concentrations of microplastics in the North Adriatic and characterized bacterial communities living on the microplastics. DNA from microplastics particles was isolated by three different methods, followed by PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, clone libraries preparation and phylogenetic analysis. 28 bacterial species were identified on the microplastics particles including Aeromonas spp. and hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species. Based on the 16S rDNA sequences the pathogenic fish bacteria Aeromonas salmonicida was identified for the first time on microplastics. Because A. salmonicida is responsible for illnesses in fish, it is crucial to get answers if and how microplastics pollution is responsible for spreading of diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Role of Aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the Volga-Caspian area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, O V; Lartseva, L V; Lisitskaia, I A

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the Volga and Caspian Sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (Acipenseridae), pike perch (Stizostedion), carp (Cyprinus carpio), silurus (Silurus glanis), etc.). It provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. The findings suggest that Aeromonas is a causative agent of sapronoses and meets the criteria for natural focal infections. They show a wide range of tolerance to the abiotic factors of hydroecosystems, as well as mixotrophy and autrophic nutrition in the environment and they are of great sanitary and hygienic importance.

  15. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Lye, D J; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 hours after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) transcripts. A. caviae has always been considered as opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  16. Pathogenic potentials of Aeromonas species isolated from aquaculture and abattoir environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Beshiru, Abeni; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E; Ateba, Collins N; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-06-01

    The present study elucidated the presence of antibiotics resistance, virulence genes and biofilm potentials among Aeromonas species isolated from abattoir and aquaculture environments in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 144 wastewater samples were obtained from two independent aquaculture and abattoir environments between May and October 2016. Aeromonas species were isolated on Glutamate Starch Phenol Red (GSP) agar and confirmed using API 20NE kits. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates was carried out using standard disc diffusion assay while biofilm potentials were detected by the microtitre plate method and PCR technique was used to detect antibiotics resistance and virulence gene markers. Overall, 32 and 26 Aeromonas species were isolated from the abattoir and aquaculture environments respectively. Isolates from both environments were completely resistant (100%) to penicillin G, ertapenem and tetracycline; whereas aquaculture isolates exhibited absolute sensitivity (100%) towards cefepime. All the virulence gene markers (aerA, hlyA, alt, ast, laf, ascF-G, fla, lip, stx1, and stx2) investigated in this study (except laf) were detected in isolates from both environments. The laf genes were only detected in isolates from abattoir environments. Antibiotics resistant genes including pse, bla TEM and class 1 integron were detected in isolates from both environments. Majority of the isolates (53/58 91.4%) from both environments; demonstrated capacity for biofilm potential. The detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence gene markers as well as biofilm forming ability in Aeromonas species isolated from aquaculture and abattoir environments raise serious public health concern worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistensi Bakteri Aeromonas sp. Isolat Ikan Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri Bali Safari And Marine Park terhadap Antibiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Herawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri is a fish that has been conserved at Conservation Center of Bali Safari and Marine Park. In May 2012 there was a case that twelve Piranhas suffered from illness and two of them died without any specific clinical signs. The dead Piranhas were necropsied and the tissues or parts of organs were collected for microbial examination interests. Spesies specific bacterial examination was also included using Microgen GNA TM + B-ID system test The bacterial examination found that the fishes were infected by Aeromonas hydropila and Aeromonas veronii. Further examination about antibiotic resistance tests showed that those Aeromonas spp were resistant to chloramphenicol and a combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. It can be suggested that, next, the usage of other antibiotics is strongly recommended for the case of Piranha infected by Aeromonas spp at Bali Safari and Marine Park. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  18. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    % of samples were positive for Vibrio spp. It was interesting to note that 38% of the positive stations for both Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. showed a fecal coliform contamination of water at ... coliforms) do not always satisfactorily reflect the hygienic quality of water. The presence of Vibrionaceae on copepods was also investigated. Copepods were sampled at a station located inside the harbour of the city of Naples and were found contaminated by V. cholerae non-Ol, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis...

  19. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  20. Population dynamics, antibiotics resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species isolated from aquatic sources in Northern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to compare population dynamics, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species from seawater and sediment collected from Northern Malaysia. Isolates with different colony morphology were characterized using both biochemical and molecular methods before testing for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Results obtained from this study showed that in Kedah, the population of Aeromonas isolated from sediment was highest in Pantai Merdeka (8.22 log CFU/ml), Pulau Bunting recorded the highest population of Aeromonas from sediment (8.43 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater and sediment were highest in Kuala Sanglang (9.21 log CFU/ml). In Kuala Perlis, the population of Aeromonas isolated from seawater was highest in Jeti (7.94 log CFU/ml). Highest population of Aeromonas from sediment was recorded in Kampong Tanah Baru (7.99 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater was highest in Padang Benta (8.42 log CFU/g) while Jeti Kuala Perlis had highest population of Vibrio isolated from sediment. It was observed that location does not influence population of Aeromonas. The results of the independent t - test revealed that there was no significant relationship between location and population of Vibrio (df = 10, t = 1.144, p > 0.05). The occurrence of biofilm formation and prevalence of antibiotic resistant Aeromonas and Vibrio species in seawater and sediment pose danger to human and aquatic animals' health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous effects of environmental factors on motile Aeromonas dynamics in an urban effluent and in the natural seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Sami; Mahjoubi, Amira; Elazri, Chafai; Dukan, Sam

    2003-07-01

    Seasonal dynamics of motile Aeromonas in a treated urban effluent and in natural seawater along the Sfax coast (Mediterranean sea, Tunisia) were measured over a year concurrently with seven environmental factors, and compared with those of faecal coliforms. Counts for Aeromonas from a standard plate count method, ranged from 1.48 x 10(5)CFU.100 ml(-1) to 2.2 x 10(8)CFU.100 ml(-1) in the effluent and from 7.9 x 10(3)CFU.100 ml(-1) to undetectable level in the surface marine waters. Contrary to faecal coliforms, the Aeromonas dynamics exhibited a seasonal distribution in seawater which was inverse of the seasonal distribution in the sewage: From the end of November 1998 to April 1999 (cold period), Aeromonas counts increased in the treated effluent, while it decreased very rapidly in seawater. From May to October (warm period), Aeromonas abundance decreased in the effluent but showed an increasing fluctuating trend in the marine waters with a maximum in late summer/early autumn when the temperatures were around 22-23 degrees C. Multiple correlation and regression analyses suggest, by the coefficient of determination (R(2)), that 42% of variance in Aeromonas number changes in the treated effluent, may be explained by only turbidity, radiation and Aeromonas density in the previous sample, while 37% of variance in marine ecosystem were explained by radiance and conductivity. Furthermore, the t statistics and their p values and the coefficient of partial determination (r(2)) indicated that radiance contributed the most (r(2)=0.3184, t=-3.2, p=0.0041) to the dynamics of motile Aeromonas in seawater, when combined with conductivity. The models relevant for changes in faecal coliforms abundance incorporated turbidity, radiance in the effluent and conductivity, pH, radiance, turbidity in coastal marine environment. These models explain 66% and 73% of the observed cell number fluctuation, with turbidity (r(2)=0.529, t=5.08, p=0.0001) and conductivity (r(2)=0.5407, t=4.97, p=0

  2. Production Of Some Virulence Factors Under Different Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production Of Some Virulence Factors Under Different Growth Conditions And Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern Of ... Animal Research International ... Keywords: Virulence, Haemolytic activity, Susceptibility, Antibiotics, Aeromonas hydrophila

  3. Presence of Aeromonas spp in water from drinking-water- and wastewater-treatment plants in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel-López, Angélica; Fernández-Rendón, Elizabeth; Mota-de-la-Garza, Lydia; Ortigoza-Ferado, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The frequency of Aeromonas spp in three wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) and two drinking-water plants (DWPs) in México City was determined. Samples were taken throughout a year by the Moore's swab technique. A total of 144 samples were obtained from WWTPs and 96 from DWPs of both incoming and outflowing water. Aeromonas spp was isolated in 31% of the samples, from both kinds of sources. The technique used for the isolation of the pathogen was suitable for samples with high associate microbiota content and for those with a scarce microbial content. The presence of mesophilic-aerobic, coliform, and fecal-coliform organisms was investigated to determine whether there was any correlation with the presence of Aeromonas spp. Most samples from WWTP, which did not comply with the Mexican standards, had the pathogen, and some of the samples from the outflow of the DWP, which were within the limits set by the Mexican standards, also had Aeromonas spp. Most samples containing Aeromonas spp. had concentrations below 0.1 ppm residual chlorine, and the strains were resistant to 0.3 ppm, which supports the recommendation to increase the residual chlorine concentration to 0.5 to 1.0 ppm, as recommended by the Mexican standards.

  4. Aeromonas spp. isolated from oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed, Ceará, Brazil Aeromonas spp. isoladas de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea coletadas em um criadouro natural, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma S. Evangelista-Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between April and October 2002, thirty fortnightly collections of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed at the Cocó River estuary in the Sabiaguaba region (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil were carried out, aiming to isolate Aeromonas spp. strains. Oyster samples were submitted to the direct plating (DP and the presence/absence (P/A methods. Aeromonas were identified in 15 (50% samples analyzed by the DP method and in 13 (43% analyzed by the P/A method. A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii and Aeromonas sp. were isolated. The predominant species was A. veronii (both biovars, which was identified in 13 (43% samples, followed by A. media in 11 (37% and A. caviae in seven (23%. From the 59 strains identified, 28 (48% presented resistance to at least one of the eight antibiotics tested.Foram realizadas 30 coletas quinzenais, entre abril e outubro de 2002, de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea de um criadouro natural, no estuário do rio Cocó (Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil, objetivando-se isolar cepas de Aeromonas spp. As amostras de ostras foram submetidas aos métodos de plaqueamento direto (PD e presença/ausência (P/A. Foram identificadas Aeromonas em 15 (50% amostras analisadas pelo método PD e em 13 (43% pelo método P/A. Foram isoladas: A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii e Aeromonas sp. A espécie predominate foi A. veronii (ambos biovars, identificada em 13 (43% amostras, seguida de A. media em 11 (37% e A. caviae em 7 (23%. Das 59 cepas identificadas, 28 (48% apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um, dos oitos antibióticos testados.

  5. Novo meio seletivo-indicador para detecção de Aeromonas e Plesiomonas: ágar UNISC New selective indicator medium for detection of Aeromonas and Plesiomonas: UNISC agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pereira da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se um novo meio seletivo-indicador (ágar UNISC para o isolamento de enteropatógenos clássicos e Aeromonas e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A capacidade de fermentação da xilose é indicada pela coloração amarela (fermentadores ou azul (não fermentadores que, aliada à prova da oxidase, constitui-se em indicador para a detecção de Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides. A produtividade e seletividade, avaliadas pelos índice de contagem absoluta e índice de contagem relativa indicam-no como uma alternativa aos coprocultivos clássicos porque permite, num só meio, o isolamento de Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, bem como, Aeromonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides, favorecendo o diagnóstico laboratorial das gastroenterites.We evaluated a new selective indicator medium (UNISC Agar for isolation of classical enteropathogens, Aeromonas spp and Plesiomonas shigelloides. The xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents or blue (no fermenting agent. This, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it as an alternative to the classical feces culturing media. This is because, in a single medium, it enables isolation of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp and Salmonella spp, in addition to Aeromonas and Plesiomonas shigelloides, thereby favoring the laboratory diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  6. Population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila Magalhães; Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva Dos Fernandes; Mendonça, Kamila Vieira; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de

    2014-12-15

    The main objective of this study was to quantify population and identify culturable species of Aeromonas in sediment and surface water collected along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil. Thirty sediment samples and 30 water samples were collected from 3 sampling locations (A, B and C) between October 2007 and April 2008. The Aeromonas count was 10-7050CFU/mL (A), 25-38,500CFU/mL (B) andwater samples, and ∼100-37,500CFU/g (A), 1200-43,500CFU/g (B) andantibiotics tested. Resistance to erythromycin was mostly plasmidial. In conclusion, due to pollution, the Cocó River is contaminated by pathogenic strains of Aeromonas spp. with a high incidence of antibacterial resistance, posing a serious risk to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of Increased Antibiotic Resistance in Phylogenetically-Diverse Aeromonas Isolates from Semi-Intensive Fish Ponds Treated with Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemant J; Benet-Perelberg, Ayana; Naor, Alon; Smirnov, Margarita; Ofek, Tamir; Nasser, Ahmed; Minz, Dror; Cytryn, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain the effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically to fingerling stocks and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an 11-month fish fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a 3-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas isolates were initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antimicrobials. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Multidrug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA , and intI1 gene-harboring strains were significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically distinct Aeromonas clusters were identified using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were identified, including an A. salmonicida

  8. Evidence of increased antibiotic resistance in phylogenetically-diverse Aeromonas isolates from semi-intensive fish ponds treated with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant J Patil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically upon fingerling stocking and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an eleven-month fish-fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a three-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas spp. were isolated, initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antibiotics. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Abundance of multi-drug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA and intI1 gene-harboring strains was significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically-distinct Aeromonas clusters were revealed using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Aeromonas hydrophilia metallo-[beta]-lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.; Toney, J.H.; Fitzgerald, P.M.D. (Merck)

    2010-07-20

    The CphA metallo-{beta}-lactamase from Aeromonas hydrophilia has been expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. The crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2), with unit-cell parameters a = 40.75, b = 42.05, c = 128.88 {angstrom}. There is one monomer in the asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 44% by volume. A data set extending to 1.8 {angstrom} has been measured.

  10. Susceptibilities to carbapenems and presence of cphA gene on food-borne Aeromonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana María Martín Talavera

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibilities of food-borne Aeromonas to carbapenems, as well as to investigate the presence of a metallo carbapenemase-encoding gene, named cphA. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined following NCCLS standards. All the tested microorganisms were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and biapenem. However, a strong inoculum size effect on carbapenem MICs was observed for most of the strains. Six strains, out of seven, showed the presence of metallo--beta-lactamases but cphA gene was detected in only two strains of A. veronii bv. sobria.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a suscetibilidade de aeromonas de origem alimentar a carbapenems bem como investigar a presença de um gene codificante de metalocarbapenemase, denominado "cph A". A suscetibilidade in vitro foi determinada pelo metodo de diluição em agar. Todas as cepas foram suscetíveis a Imipenem, Meropenem e Biapenem. Porém foi observado um forte efeito de tamanho do inóculo sobre as CIM das carbapenems na maioria das cepas. A detecção de metalo-beta-lactamase foi realizada pelo metodo lodometrico. Seis cepas das sete testadas demostraron a presença da enzima. A presença do gene cphA foi determinada por PCR e foi detectada em duas cepas de A veronii bv. sobria.

  11. Prevalence of listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Nihal; Balci, Senay

    2010-02-01

    A total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of Listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species. The overall incidence of Listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. Listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and Listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. Motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7%) than in freshwater fish samples (10%). Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, and Vibrio damsela were isolated only in marine fish samples, representing 40.9, 38.6, and 36.3% of Vibrio isolates, respectively. In freshwater and marine fish, the highest incidences of Listeria and Aeromonas were found in skin samples; the highest incidence of Vibrio in marine fish was found in gill samples. The location of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in a fish was significantly different among freshwater fish. A high incidence of these bacterial pathogens was found in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Handling of contaminated fish, cross-contamination, or eating raw fish might pose a health hazard, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, elderly people, and children. This study highlights the importance of bacterial pathogens in fish intended for human consumption, but more study is needed.

  12. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  13. Characterisation of potential virulence markers in Aeromonas caviae isolated from polluted and unpolluted aquatic environments in Morocco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imziln, Boujama; Krovacek, Karel; Baloda, Suraj B.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 100 Aeromonas caviae strains isolated from river waters (38 isolates), raw sewage (30 isolates) and effluents of stabilisation ponds (i.e. treated sewage; 32 isolates) in Marrakech, Morocco, were tested for the presence of putative virulence factors to delineate differences, if any...

  14. Antibiogram, Adhesive Characteristics, and Incidence of Class 1 Integron in Aeromonas Species Isolated from Two South African Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are well distributed in freshwater environments, and their natural susceptibility to antimicrobials renders them interesting candidates for the survey of antimicrobial resistance in freshwater milieu. Water samples were collected from Kat and Tyume rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, and a total of 45 isolates identified as Aeromonas species were recovered from the two rivers. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, while appreciable susceptibilities (89.3 : 94.1%, 82.1 : 94.1%, 85.7 : 88.2%, and 92.9 : 88.2% were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin from Kat and Tyume rivers, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR indices ranged from 0.016 to 0.044 for the two rivers. Class 1 integron was detected in about 20% of the isolates, and all the isolates except one showed ability to produce biofilm in vitro as weak producers (53.33%, moderate producers (15.56%, and strong producers (28.9%. This investigation provides a baseline data on antibiotic resistance as well as the adhesive characteristics of Aeromonas isolates from Tyume and Kat rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

  15. Comparative evaluation of infection methods and environmental factors on challenge success: Aeromonas salmonicida infection in vaccinated rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M.

    2015-01-01

    When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting...

  16. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain); Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Figueras, María J., E-mail: mariajose.figueras@urv.cat [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  17. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi; Figueras, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  18. Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0329 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Seth M...confirmed 108 compounds as giving a dose-response curve with at least 30% inhibition at 10 µM. The flowchart of hit progression is shown on the...Cancer Research Program under Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0329 to S.M.R. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author

  19. Relative abundance and distribution of bacteria in the gut of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most abundant species in the samples from Epe Lagoon while Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were predominant in Badagry Creek. It was noteworthy that Citrobacter ...

  20. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Miguel E.; Molina, Roberto C.; Diaz, Waldo A.; Pradenas, Gonzalo A.; Vasquez, Claudio C.

    2009-01-01

    Potassium tellurite (K 2 TeO 3 ) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  1. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, T.; Behrens, S.

    2015-01-01

    contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All...... products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A....... salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed...

  2. A novel challenge method with aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout for evaluation of furunculosis vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, M. H.; Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge methods used to induce furunculosis in rainbow trout when testing the potency of vaccines may include exposure to Aeromonas salmonicida by intraperitoneal injection, cohabitation or bath immersion. Intraperitoneal injection is effective but will not reflect systemic immunity because...... inflammatory cells at the vaccine injection site may combat injected bacteria fast. The cohabitation and bath immersion methods both mimic the natural infection route but are less effective in inducing the disease. We have tested a new challenge method mimicking that rainbow trout in fish farms might...... to be efficient in inducing a more natural disease progression in fish and a stable mortality. The method could differentiate efficacies of different vaccines with regard to adjuvant formulations and content of antigen....

  3. Pancarditis in a patient with tropical pyomyositis due to Aeromonas infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical pyomyositis is a suppurative disease of the skeletal muscles. The most common site of the infection being muscles of the thigh. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism isolated. Aeromonas is one of the rarest organisms described as the etiologic agent for this disease. Rarely, cardiac involvement in pyomyositis has been described in the form of myocarditis and pyopericardium. Pancarditis is a very rare event in the natural course of pyomyositis. To the best of our knowledge, there is a single case report in world literature regarding involvement of all the layers of the heart in pyomyositis. We report a case of a 30-year-old immunocompetent male who had pyomyositis and developed pancarditis, which was managed successfully with conservative management.

  4. The Effect of Some Physical and Chemical Parameters on Regrowth of Aeromonas Bacterium and Heterotrophic Bacteria in Isfahan Drinking Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Dobaradaran

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is one the gram – negative , non spor – formating rod shaping , facultatively anaerobic and opportunistic bactria that can cause systematic infections, leision and diarrhoea in human. Fairly high bactrial population in distribution system is not only of concern because of affecting consumer health but also it makes it difficult to enumerate coliform bacterium indicator. So, the relationships between aeromonas and heterotrophic bacteria growth with pH, temperature, turbidity, free residual cholornie and DO were determined in this study. ADA- V media was used in presumptive stage to count aeromonas bacteria for the first time in Iran on the basis of 1605 EPA (2001 method and used oxidase tests, trehalose fermentation and indol test in confirmative stage. R2A media was used to count HPC bacteria and other factors measured on the basis of standards. The results showed that positive cases of aeromonas bacteria and HPC increase in higher temperature and turbidity and lower pH. In contrast, positive cases of aeromonas bacteria and HPC decrease while free residual cholorine and DO increase. In addition,no positive case of aeromonas was observed in more than 0.2 mg/L concentration of free residual cholorine.

  5. Radiobiological inactivation of Epstein-Barr virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, E.; Heston, L.; Grogan, E.; Miller, G.

    1978-01-01

    Lymphocyte transforming properties of B95-8 strain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are very sensitive to inactivation by either uv or x irradiation. No dose of irradiation increases the transforming capacity of EBV. The x-ray dose needed for inactivation of EBV transformation (dose that results in 37% survival, 60,000 rads) is similar to the dose required for inactivation of plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 1 (Fischer strain). Although herpes simplex virus is more sensitive than EBV to uv irradiation, this difference is most likely due to differences in the kinetics or mechanisms of repair of uv damage to the two viruses. The results lead to the hypothesis that a large part, or perhaps all, of the EBV genome is in some way needed to initiate transformation. The abilities of EBV to stimulate host cell DNA synthesis, to induce nuclear antigen, and to immortalize are inactivated in parallel. All clones of marmoset cells transformed by irradiated virus produce extracellular transforming virus. These findings suggest that the abilities of the virus to transform and to replicate complete progeny are inactivated together. The amounts of uv and x irradiation that inactivate transformation by B95-8 virus are less than the dose needed to inactivate early antigen induction by the nontransforming P 3 HR-1 strain of EBV. Based on radiobiological inactivation, 10 to 50% of the genome is needed for early antigen induction

  6. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic inactivation (PDI has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  7. Molecular Phylogenetics and Temporal Diversification in the Genus Aeromonas Based on the Sequences of Five Housekeeping Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorén, J. Gaspar; Farfán, Maribel; Fusté, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Several approaches have been developed to estimate both the relative and absolute rates of speciation and extinction within clades based on molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of evolutionary relationships, according to an underlying model of diversification. However, the macroevolutionary models established for eukaryotes have scarcely been used with prokaryotes. We have investigated the rate and pattern of cladogenesis in the genus Aeromonas (γ-Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteria) using the sequences of five housekeeping genes and an uncorrelated relaxed-clock approach. To our knowledge, until now this analysis has never been applied to all the species described in a bacterial genus and thus opens up the possibility of establishing models of speciation from sequence data commonly used in phylogenetic studies of prokaryotes. Our results suggest that the genus Aeromonas began to diverge between 248 and 266 million years ago, exhibiting a constant divergence rate through the Phanerozoic, which could be described as a pure birth process. PMID:24586399

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Aeromonas salmonicida [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Aeromonas salmonicida 名詞 一般 * * *... * Aeromonas salmonicida Aeromonas salmonicida エイイーアールオーエムオーエヌエイエス エスエイエルエムオーエヌアイシーアイディーエイ Thesaurus2015 200906081596351600 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Aeromonas salmonicida

  9. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum...... of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium...... of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3...

  10. Genome Sequence of the Melanin-Producing Extremophile Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica Strain 34melT

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban E.; López, Nancy Irene; Levin, Laura Noemí; Pettinari, María Julia

    2017-01-01

    The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica strain 34melT, isolated from a heavily polluted river, contains several genomic islands and putative virulence genes. The identification of genes involved in resistance to different kinds of stress sheds light on the mechanisms used by this strain to thrive in an extreme environment. Fil: Pavan, María Elisa. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Química Biológica; Argentina Fil: Pav...

  11. Skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Sho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ohgane, Jun; Hattori, Naka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Shiota, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    In female mammals, dosage compensation for X-linked genes is accomplished by inactivation of one of two X chromosomes. The X-inactivation ratio (a percentage of the cells with inactivated maternal X chromosomes in the whole cells) is skewed as a consequence of various genetic mutations, and has been observed in a number of X-linked disorders. We previously reported that phenotypically normal full-term cloned mouse fetuses had loci with inappropriate DNA methylation. Thus, cloned mice are excellent models to study abnormal epigenetic events in mammalian development. In the present study, we analyzed X-inactivation ratios in adult female cloned mice (B6C3F1). Kidneys of eight naturally produced controls and 11 cloned mice were analyzed. Although variations in X-inactivation ratio among the mice were observed in both groups, the distributions were significantly different (Ansary-Bradley test, P < 0.01). In particular, 2 of 11 cloned mice showed skewed X-inactivation ratios (19.2% and 86.8%). Similarly, in intestine, 1 of 10 cloned mice had a skewed ratio (75.7%). Skewed X-inactivation was observed to various degrees in different tissues of different individuals, suggesting that skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice is the result of secondary cell selection in combination with stochastic distortion of primary choice. The present study is the first demonstration that skewed X-inactivation occurs in cloned animals. This finding is important for understanding both nuclear transfer technology and etiology of X-linked disorders

  12. Occurrence and Variety of β-Lactamase Genes among Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Piotrowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Aeromonas that commonly occur in various aquatic ecosystems are taken into account as vectors spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in the environment. In our study strains of Aeromonas spp. (n = 104 not susceptible to ampicillin were isolated from municipal sewage of different levels of purification – raw sewage, activated sludge and treated wastewater. The crucial step of the study was the identification of β-lactamase resistance genes. The identified genes encode β-lactamases from 14 families – blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaMOX, blaACC, blaFOX, blaGES, blaPER, blaV EB, blaKPC, cphA, imiH, and cepH. There were no significant differences in number of identified ARGs between isolation points. BlaOXA, blaFOX variants and, characteristic for Aeromonas genus, metallo-β-lactamase cphA-related genes were the most commonly identified types of β-lactam resistance determinants. Moreover, we found four extended-spectrum β-lactamases (blaSHV -11, blaCTX-M-27, blaCTX-M-98, and blaPER-4 – and seven AmpC (blaACC, blaFOX-2-like, blaFOX-3, blaFOX-4-like, blaFOX-9, blaFOX-10-like, and blaFOX-13-like types and variants of genes that had never been found among Aeromonas spp. before. Five of the β-lactamases families (blaTEM, blaOXA, blaFOX, blaV EB, and cphA were identified in all three isolation sites, which supports the hypothesis that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are hot spots of ARGs dissemination. The obtained ARGs sequences share high identity with previously described β-lactamases, but new variants of those genes have to be considered as well. Characterization of antibiotic susceptibility was performed using disk the diffusion method with 12 different antibiotics according to CLSI guidelines. Over 60% of the strains are unsusceptible to cefepime and chloramphenicol and the majority of the strains have a multidrug resistance phenotype (68%. Finally, analysis of plasmid profiles among the resistant strains

  13. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1979-07-01

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-80 0 C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  14. Microbial Inactivation by Ultrasound Assisted Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, Jose; Ortuño, Carmen; Castillo-Zamudio, Rosa Isela; Mulet, Antonio

    A method combining supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and high power ultrasound (HPU) has been developed and tested for microbial/enzyme inactivation purposes, at different process conditions for both liquid and solid matrices. In culture media, using only SC-CO2, the inactivation rate of E. coli and S. cerevisiae increased with pressure and temperature; and the total inactivation (7-8 log-cycles) was attained after 25 and 140 min of SC-CO2 (350 bar, 36 °C) treatment, respectively. Using SC-CO2+HPU, the time for the total inactivation of both microorganisms was reduced to only 1-2 min, at any condition selected. The SC-CO2+HPU inactivation of both microorganisms was slower in juices (avg. 4.9 min) than in culture media (avg. 1.5 min). In solid samples (chicken, turkey ham and dry-cured pork cured ham) treated with SC-CO2 and SC-CO2+HPU, the inactivation rate of E. coli increased with temperature. The application of HPU to the SC-CO2 treatments accelerated the inactivation rate of E. coli and that effect was more pronounced in treatments with isotonic solution surrounding the solid food samples. The application of HPU enhanced the SC-CO2 inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms, generating a vigorous agitation that facilitated the CO2 solubilization and the mass transfer process. The cavitation generated by HPU could damage the cell walls accelerating the extraction of vital constituents and the microbial death. Thus, using the combined technique, reasonable industrial processing times and mild process conditions could be used which could result into a cost reduction and lead to the minimization in the food nutritional and organoleptic changes.

  15. Mycobacteria inactivation using Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Gao, Ya; Branco, Alan; Eleftheriadou, Mary; Lemos, Bernardo; Nardell, Edward; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Airborne transmitted pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cause serious, often fatal infectious disease with enormous global health implications. Due to their unique cell wall and slow growth, mycobacteria are among the most resilient microbial forms. Herein we evaluate the ability of an emerging, chemical-free, nanotechnology-based method to inactivate M. parafortuitum (Mtb surrogate). This method is based on the transformation of atmospheric water vapor into engineered water nano-structures (EWNS) via electrospray. We demonstrate that the EWNS can interact with and inactivate airborne mycobacteria, reducing their concentration levels significantly. Additionally, EWNS can inactivate M. parafortuitum on surfaces eight times faster than the control. The mechanism of mycobacteria inactivation was also investigated in this study. It was demonstrated that the EWNS effectively deliver the reactive oxygen species, encapsulated during the electrospray process, to the bacteria oxidizing their cell membrane resulting into inactivation. Overall, this is a method with the potential to become an effective intervention technology in the battle against airborne infections. This study demonstrates the feasibility of mycobacterium inactivation in airborne form or on contact surfaces using electrospray activated water nano-structures. Given that the method is free of toxic chemicals, this might become an important tool in the prevention of mycobacterial infections, which are notoriously hard to treat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell inactivation by heavy charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Cell and Molecular Biology Div.

    1992-06-01

    The inactivation of cells resulting in lethal or aberrant effects by charged particles is of growing interest. Charged particles at extremely high LET are capable of completely eliminating cell-type and cell-line differences in repair capacity. It is still not clear however whether the repair systems are inactivated, or merely that heavy-ion lesions are less repairable. Studies correlating the particle inactivation dose of radioresistant cells with intact DNA analyzed with pulse field gel electrophoresis and other techniques may be useful, but more experiments are also needed to assess the fidelity of repair. For particle irradiations between 40-100 keV/{mu}m there is however evidence for particle-induced activation of specific genes in mammalian cells, and certain repair processes in bacteria. New data are available on the inactivation of developmental processes in several systems including seeds, and cells of the nematode C. elegans. Future experimental and theoretical modeling research emphasis should focus on exploring particle-induced inactivation of endpoints assessing functionality and not just lethality, and on analyzing molecular damage and genetic effects arising in damage but non-inactivated survivors. The discrete nature of selective types of particle damage as a function of radiation quality indicates the value of accelerated ions as probes of normal and aberrant biological processes. Information obtained from molecular analyses of damage and repair must however be integrated into the context of cellular and tissue functions of the organism. (orig.).

  17. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, Thy-My; Behrens, Sascha; Wienke, Andreas; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L

    2015-04-08

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed.

  18. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marana, Moonika Haahr; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holm Mattsson, Andreas; Dalsgaard, Inger; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The fish were exposed to virulent A. salmonicida 7 weeks after immunization. To assess the efficacy of the subunit vaccines we evaluated the immune response in fish after immunization and challenge infection by measuring the antibody levels and monitoring the survival of fish in different groups. The survival of fish at 3 weeks after challenge infection showed that all 3 groups of fish immunized with 3 different protein combinations exhibited significantly lower mortalities (17-30%) compared to the control groups (48% and 56%). The ELISA results revealed significantly elevated antibody levels in fish against several protein antigens, which in some cases were positively correlated to the survival.

  19. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in food matrices: high pressure processing, photodynamic inactivation and pressure-assisted photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A.; Couceiro, J.; Bonifácio, D.; Martins, C.; Almeida, A.; Neves, M. G. P. M. S.; Faustino, M. A. F.; Saraiva, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Traditional food processing methods frequently depend on the application of high temperature. However, heat may cause undesirable changes in food properties and often has a negative impact on nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics. Therefore, reducing the microbial load without compromising the desirable properties of food products is still a technological challenge. High-pressure processing (HPP) can be classified as a cold pasteurization technique, since it is a non-thermal food preservation method that uses hydrostatic pressure to inactivate spoilage microorganisms. At the same time, it increases shelf life and retains the original features of food. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is also regarded as promising approach for the decontamination of food matrices. In this case, the inactivation of bacterial cells is achieved by the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygens species (ROS) produced from the combined interaction of a photosensitizer molecule, light and oxygen. This short review examines some recent developments on the application of HPP and PDI with food-grade photosensitizers for the inactivation of listeriae, taken as a food pathogen model. The results of a proof-of-concept trial of the use of high-pressure as a coadjutant to increase the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacterial endospores is also addressed.

  20. Inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, O.E.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Kazantseva, V.A.; Gabrilevskaia, L.N.; Kodkind, G.K.H.

    The study of ozone inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage showed the presence in sewage of suspensions of organic origin and bacterial flora to influence the rate of inactivation. The inactivation rate of poliomyelitis virus in sewage free from organic suspension and bacterial flora was significantly higher than that in sewage containing such suspension and bacterial flora. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses was found not to depend upon the protein and salt composition and pH of sewage or strain appurtenance of viruses. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses directly depended upon the dose of ozone and time of contact with it. Differences in the resistance of different types of poliomyelitis virus, ECHO and Coxsackie viruses to the effect of ozone are likely exist. These differences are manifested within the range of relatively small doses of ozone. E. coli is more resistant to ozone than entero-viruses. The results of laboratory studies were used to choose the regimen of sanitation of urban sewage to be used in technological cycles of industrial enterprises.

  1. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Mariñas, Benito J

    2007-07-15

    The inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine was characterized by two stages: an initial phase at a relatively fast rate followed by a slower second stage of pseudo first-order kinetics. The inactivation rate of each stage was approximately the same for all experiments performed at a certain condition of pH and temperature; however, variability was observed for the disinfectant exposure at which the transition between the two stages occurred. This variability was not a function of the initial disinfectant concentration, the initial bacterial density, or the bacterial stock. However, the transition to the second stage varied more significantly at high temperatures (30 degrees C), while lower variability was observed at lower temperatures (5 and 20 degrees C). Experiments conducted at pH values in the range of 6-9 revealed that the inactivation of M. avium was primarily due to hypochlorous acid, with little contribution from hypochlorite ion within this pH range. The inactivation kinetics was represented with a two-population model. The activation energies for the resulting pseudo first-order rate constants for the populations with fast and slow kinetics were 100.3 and 96.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The magnitude of these values suggested that for waters of relatively high pH and low temperatures, little inactivation of M. avium would be achieved within treatment plants, providing a seeding source for distribution systems.

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum (VR1 isolated from an Ayurvedic medicine (Kutajarista ameliorates in vitro cellular damage caused by Aeromonas veronii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patole Milind S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus plantarum is considered as a safe and effective probiotic microorganism. Among various sources of isolation, traditionally fermented foods are considered to be rich in Lactobacillus spp., which can be exploited for their probiotic attribute. Antibacterial property of L. plantarum has been demonstrated against various enteric pathogens in both in vitro and in vivo systems. This study was aimed at characterizing L. plantarum isolated from Kutajarista, an ayurvedic fermented biomedicine, and assessing its antagonistic property against a common enteropathogen Aeromonas veronii. Results We report the isolation of L. plantarum (VR1 from Kutajarista, and efficacy of its cell free supernatant (CFS in amelioration of cytotoxicity caused by Aeromonas veronii. On the part of probiotic attributes, VR1 was tolerant to pH 2, 0.3% bile salts and simulated gastric juice. Additionally, VR1 also exhibited adhesive property to human intestinal HT-29 cell line. Furthermore, CFS of VR1 was antibacterial to enteric pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas veronii and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Detailed study regarding the effect of VR1 CFS on A. veronii cytotoxicity showed a significant decrease in vacuole formation and detrimental cellular changes in Vero cells. On the other hand, A. veronii CFS caused disruption of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and actin in MDCK cell line, which was prevented by pre-incubation with CFS of VR1. Conclusions This is the first study to report isolation of L. plantarum (VR1 from Kutajarista and characterisation for its probiotic attributes. Our study demonstrates the antagonistic property of VR1 to A. veronii and effect of VR1 CFS in reduction of cellular damage caused by A. veronii in both Vero and MDCK cell lines.

  3. The biofilteration ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to reduce Aeromonas salmonicida in salmon culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaona; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Sharawy, Zaki Zaki; Qiu, Tianlong; Du, Yishuai; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Pathogen contamination in the environment is inevitable with the rapid development of intensive aquaculture. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly biological strategies to control pathogenic bacteria are required. However, our aim was to investigate the ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to filter the important opportunistic pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida (strain C4), using a green fluorescent protein tag (GFP) in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming wastewater. Hence, A. salmonicida removal efficiency and ingestion rate were detected in two different oyster stages (larvae and adults). To evaluate the practical performance of oysters as A. salmonicida biofilter, adult oysters were applied to an integrated constructed wetlands system (ICWS) and their long-term C4-GFP removal efficiency was recorded for 60 days. Overall, our results clearly indicated that oysters had substantial A. salmonicida removal ability via their ingestion process when observed under a fluorescent microscope. Approximately 88-95% of C4-GFP was removed by oyster larvae at an ingestion rate of 6.4 × 10 3 -6.2 × 10 5  CFU/h·ind, while 79-92% of C4-GFP was removed by adult oysters at an ingestion rate of 2.1 × 10 4 -3.1 × 10 6  CFU/h·ind. Furthermore, 57.9 ± 17.2% of C4-GFP removal efficiency was achieved when oysters were applied to ICWS. We, therefore, concluded that using oysters as a biofilter represents an effective alternative for removing A. salmonicida from aquaculture wastewater. However, the fate of oysters after ingesting the pathogenic bacteria, acting as a potential reservoir or vector for pathogens, is still debatable. This research provides the basis for the application of oysters as a biofilter to remove pathogens from aquaculture wastewater in industrialized production.

  4. Increasing genomic diversity and evidence of constrained lifestyle evolution due to insertion sequences in Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Antony T; Trudel, Mélanie V; Freschi, Luca; Nagar, Vandan; Gagné-Thivierge, Cynthia; Levesque, Roger C; Charette, Steve J

    2016-01-12

    Aeromonads make up a group of Gram-negative bacteria that includes human and fish pathogens. The Aeromonas salmonicida species has the peculiarity of including five known subspecies. However, few studies of the genomes of A. salmonicida subspecies have been reported to date. We sequenced the genomes of additional A. salmonicida isolates, including three from India, using next-generation sequencing in order to gain a better understanding of the genomic and phylogenetic links between A. salmonicida subspecies. Their relative phylogenetic positions were confirmed by a core genome phylogeny based on 1645 gene sequences. The Indian isolates, which formed a sub-group together with A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica, were able to grow at either at 18 °C and 37 °C, unlike the A. salmonicida psychrophilic isolates that did not grow at 37 °C. Amino acid frequencies, GC content, tRNA composition, loss and gain of genes during evolution, pseudogenes as well as genes under positive selection and the mobilome were studied to explain this intraspecies dichotomy. Insertion sequences appeared to be an important driving force that locked the psychrophilic strains into their particular lifestyle in order to conserve their genomic integrity. This observation, based on comparative genomics, is in agreement with previous results showing that insertion sequence mobility induced by heat in A. salmonicida subspecies causes genomic plasticity, resulting in a deleterious effect on the virulence of the bacterium. We provide a proof-of-concept that selfish DNAs play a major role in the evolution of bacterial species by modeling genomes.

  5. First isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida from diseased sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., cultured in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fernández-Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the first description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as causative agent of furunculosis in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.. Cumulative mortality in affected fish from two floating cages in the Mediterranean coast of Spain was 3.8%. Affected sea bass did not show the typical external signs of furunculosis in the first stages of the disease, however, when the disease progressed, open ulcers appeared on the skin and muscle. Internally, splenomegaly was the only pathological sign observed. Samples from diseased fish were subjected to standardized assays for pathogens screening. Negative results were obtained for parasites and fish viruses. A Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium was observed in smears from liver, kidney and spleen of all analysed fish. Pure bacterial cultures were recovered from liver, kidney and spleen of all diseased fish sampled during the two different outbreaks. Bacteriological, serological, molecular and chemotaxonomic analysis allowed the identification of the causative agent of sea bass mortalities as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The bacterial strains were susceptible to most of antimicrobial agents usually employed in aquaculture except to oxytetracycline. Pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the isolated bacteria were virulent for sea bass, turbot and rainbow trout.

  6. Identification of Two Pathogenic Aeromonas Species Isolated during Production Related Epizootics from Juvenile Burbot Lota lota maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Marc M; Anderson, Cort L; Jacobs, Sarah J; Cain, Kenneth D

    2018-05-25

    In response to population declines of Burbot Lota lota maculosa, conservation aquaculture methods have been developed for this species. In general, Burbot are relatively resistant to many salmonid pathogens; however, cultured juvenile Burbot have experienced periodic epizootic disease outbreaks during production. A series of trials were conducted to determine the virulence of select bacteria isolated from juvenile Burbot following outbreaks that occurred in 2012 and 2013 at the University of Idaho's Aquaculture Research Institute. Initial clinical diagnostics and sampling resulted in the isolation of numerous putative bacterial pathogens. To determine which bacteria were the most likely causative agents contributing to these epizootics, juvenile Burbot were injectied intraperitoneally (IP) with select bacteria in log phase growth. Mortality associated with specific isolates was recorded, and more comprehensive challenges followed this initial screening. These challenges used side-by-side IP and immersion methods to expose Burbot to potential pathogens. The challenges resulted in significantly higher mortalities in fish following IP injection of two Aeromonas sp. isolates compared to controls (P ≤ 0.01), but no difference in mortality for immersion challenged groups was observed (P = 0.42). Results demonstrate that two isolates (Aeromonas sp.) cultured from the epizootics are virulent to Burbot. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. THE PREVALENCE OF Salmonella sp., Listeria sp. AND Aeromonas spp. IN CATFISH (CLARIAS (Clarias gariepinus AND TILAPIA (Tilapia mossambica BY PELLETING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Budiati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to modify the isolation methods of Aeromonas sp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria sp. in catfish (Clarias gariepinus and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica obtained from wet markets and ponds in Malaysia by pelleting the sample. A total of 108 samples (32 catfish intestines, 32 tilapia intestines, and 44 water samples were obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds. The modified method was employed by pelleting the samples and followed by either implementing pre-enrichment or without pre-enrichment on the isolation of Salmonella and Listeria spp. The modified method (by pelleting the sample in combination with pre-enrichment was the most efficient for Salmonella and Listeria isolation. The sensitivity of the modified Salmonella isolation method was 0.53 and 0.73 for fish and water samples, respectively. The sensitivity of the modified Listeria method was 1 and 0.92 for fish and water samples, respectively. However, the sensitivity of the method by pelleting the sample was similar to those of non-pelleting the sample on Aeromonas isolation. Five species of Aeromonas spp., seven serovars of Salmonella sp., and four species of Listeria sp. were observed in catfish, tilapia and water samples. Overall, by pelleting the sample offered the beneficial to isolate Aeromonas spp., Salmonella sp. and Listeria spp. in catfish, tilapia and water.

  8. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains isolated from Chinese freshwater fish contain a novel genomic island and possible regional-specific mobile genetic elements profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Meng; Nielsen, Tue K; Leisner, Jørgen J

    2016-01-01

    Two strains of Aeromonas salmonicida, YK and BG, were isolated from largemouth bronze gudgeon and northern whitefish in China, and identified as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida based on phylogenetic analysis of vapA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. YK and BG originated from freshwater fish, one...

  9. DIFFERENTIATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESCRIPTION/IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY (MALDI-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aeromonas is one of several medically significant genera that have gained prominence due to their evolving taxonomy and controversial role in human diseases. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to analyze the...

  10. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  11. Inactivation of prion infectivity by ionizing rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gominet, M. [Ionisos, ZI les Chatinieres, F01120 Dagneux (France); Vadrot, C.; Austruy, G. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France); Darbord, J.C. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France)], E-mail: darbord@pharmacie.univ-paris5.fr

    2007-11-15

    Inactivation of prion deposits on medical devices or prion contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials is considered as impossible by using gamma irradiation. Early, the guideline WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000 has described irradiation as an ineffective process. But, in 2003, S. Miekka et al. noted radiation inactivation of prions in a particular application to purify human albumin, shown by the physical denaturation of the infectious protein (PrP). The aim of our study was to determine the inactivation of prions with a scrapie model (strain C506M3) by irradiating standardised preparations. Results: Gamma irradiation was partially effective, showing a 4-5 log reduction on exposure to 50 kGy. A characteristic effect-dose curve was not observed (25, 50 and 100 kGy), only an increase in the incubation period of the murine disease (229 days with 25 kGy to 290 days with 100 kGy) compared with 170 days without irradiation. Since the inactivation was not a total one, the observed effect is significant. It is proposed that further work be undertaken with the model to investigate the application of gamma radiation known levels of prion contamination.

  12. Inactivation of prion infectivity by ionizing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gominet, M.; Vadrot, C.; Austruy, G.; Darbord, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of prion deposits on medical devices or prion contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials is considered as impossible by using gamma irradiation. Early, the guideline WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000 has described irradiation as an ineffective process. But, in 2003, S. Miekka et al. noted radiation inactivation of prions in a particular application to purify human albumin, shown by the physical denaturation of the infectious protein (PrP). The aim of our study was to determine the inactivation of prions with a scrapie model (strain C506M3) by irradiating standardised preparations. Results: Gamma irradiation was partially effective, showing a 4-5 log reduction on exposure to 50 kGy. A characteristic effect-dose curve was not observed (25, 50 and 100 kGy), only an increase in the incubation period of the murine disease (229 days with 25 kGy to 290 days with 100 kGy) compared with 170 days without irradiation. Since the inactivation was not a total one, the observed effect is significant. It is proposed that further work be undertaken with the model to investigate the application of gamma radiation known levels of prion contamination

  13. Pulsed electric field inactivation in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel, non-thermal pasteurization method which uses short, high electric field pulses to inactivate microorganisms. The advantage of a pasteurization method like PEF compared to regular heat pasteurization is that the taste, flavour, texture and nutritional value

  14. Epigenetic inactivation of CHFR in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Minoru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Satoh, Ayumi; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Jair, Kam-Wing; Schuebel, Kornel E; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2003-06-24

    Cell-cycle checkpoints controlling the orderly progression through mitosis are frequently disrupted in human cancers. One such checkpoint, entry into metaphase, is regulated by the CHFR gene encoding a protein possessing forkhead-associated and RING finger domains as well as ubiquitin-ligase activity. Although defects in this checkpoint have been described, the molecular basis and prevalence of CHFR inactivation in human tumors are still not fully understood. To address this question, we analyzed the pattern of CHFR expression in a number of human cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We found CpG methylation-dependent silencing of CHFR expression in 45% of cancer cell lines, 40% of primary colorectal cancers, 53% of colorectal adenomas, and 30% of primary head and neck cancers. Expression of CHFR was precisely correlated with both CpG methylation and deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the CpG-rich regulatory region. Moreover, CpG methylation and thus silencing of CHFR depended on the activities of two DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3b, as their genetic inactivation restored CHFR expression. Finally, cells with CHFR methylation had an intrinsically high mitotic index when treated with microtubule inhibitor. This means that cells in which CHFR was epigenetically inactivated constitute loss-of-function alleles for mitotic checkpoint control. Taken together, these findings shed light on a pathway by which mitotic checkpoint is bypassed in cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of checkpoint genes is much more widespread than previously suspected.

  15. Cortical inactivation by cooling in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eCoomber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible inactivation of the cortex by surface cooling is a powerful method for studying the function of a particular area. Implanted cooling cryoloops have been used to study the role of individual cortical areas in auditory processing of awake-behaving cats. Cryoloops have also been used in rodents for reversible inactivation of the cortex, but recently there has been a concern that the cryoloop may also cool non-cortical structures either directly or via the perfusion of blood, cooled as it passed close to the cooling loop. In this study we have confirmed that the loop can inactivate most of the auditory cortex without causing a significant reduction in temperature of the auditory thalamus or other sub-cortical structures. We placed a cryoloop on the surface of the guinea pig cortex, cooled it to 2°C and measured thermal gradients across the neocortical surface. We found that the temperature dropped to 20-24°C among cells within a radius of about 2.5mm away from the loop. This temperature drop was sufficient to reduce activity of most cortical cells and led to the inactivation of almost the entire auditory region. When the temperature of thalamus, midbrain, and middle ear were measured directly during cortical cooling, there was a small drop in temperature (about 4°C but this was not sufficient to directly reduce neural activity. In an effort to visualise the extent of neural inactivation we measured the uptake of thallium ions following an intravenous injection. This confirmed that there was a large reduction of activity across much of the ipsilateral cortex and only a small reduction in subcortical structures.

  16. Diversity and homogeneity among small plasmids of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida linked with geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina A Attéré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Furunculosis, which is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is a major salmonid disease in fish farms worldwide. Several plasmids found in this bacterium confer phenotypes such drug resistance and virulence. Small plasmids (pAsa1, pAsa2, pAsa3, and pAsal1 related to ColE1- and ColE2-type replicons are usually present in its normal plasmidome. In the present study, with the objective to investigate if these plasmids display particularities related to the origin of the isolates bearing them, a total of 153 isolates, including 78 new and 75 previously described, were analyzed for the presence of small plasmids by PCR and DNA restriction fragment profiling. A geographical dichotomy between Canadian and European isolates for their propensity to do not have pAsa3 or pAsal1 was found. In addition, the genotyping analysis led to the identification of two European isolates harboring an unusual pAsal1. An investigation by next-generation sequencing (NGS of these two isolates shed light on two pAsal1 variants (pAsal1C and pAsal1D. As with pAsal1B, another pAsal1 variant previously described, these two new variants bore a second insertion sequence (ISAS5 in addition to the usual ISAS11. The characterization of these variants suggested that they could predominate over the wild-type pAsal1 in stressful conditions such as growth at temperatures of 25°C and above. To obtain a comprehensive portrait of the mutational pressure on small plasmids, 26 isolates whose DNA had been sequenced by NGS were investigated. pAsa3 and pAsal1 were more prone to mutations than pAsa1 and pAsa2, especially in the mobA gene, which encodes a relaxase and a primase. Lastly, the average copy number of each plasmid per cell was assessed using raw sequencing data. A clear trend with respect to the relative proportion per cell of each plasmid was identified. Our large-scale study revealed a geographical dichotomy in small plasmid repertoire in addition to a clear trend

  17. Some factors affecting urokinase inactivation. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Hiroo; Iketa, Yoshito

    1985-10-01

    The enzymatic activity of urokinase adsorbed on various polymer surfaces was measured to study the interaction between protein and polymers. The polymer films on which urokinase was adsorbed were exposed to either a high temperature or ..gamma..-radiation. The thermal inactivation rates were higher on hydrophobic polymers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), nylon 6, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) than hydrophilic polymers like cellulose and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, indicating their substantial dependence on the interfacial free energy between the polymer and water. A similar dependence was also seen for the ..gamma..-radiation inactivation. Urokinase adsorbed on the hydrophobic polymers lost more easily its enzymatic activity by exposure to ..gamma..-radiation. The interfacial free energy seems to be one of the driving forces to denaturate proteins on polymers.

  18. Inactivation of biological substances by local heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1982-09-01

    Mechanism of inactivation of biological substances caused by local heating was investigated. The effect of hot-zone formation by local heating on reaction of radicals was previously evaluated. The thermal increase in a hot zone due to low energy LET x-rays had little effect on reactibility of the radicals, but, in a hot zone caused by high energy LET x-rays, formed radicals seemed immediately react to active biological molecules to inactivate them. Direct thermal effect on biological molecules was analysed. Thermal increase in a hot zone may induce degenaration of biological molecules which seems to occur in a short time judged from the extension of a hot zone and the duration of high temperature.

  19. Immunogenicity of UV-inactivated measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorska, R.; Mazur, N.; Korbecki, M.

    1978-01-01

    By means of the antigen extinction limit test it was shown that a triple dose vaccination of guinea pigs with UV-inactivated measles virus gave better results, than a single dose vaccination which was proved by the very low immunogenicity index. For both vaccination schemes (single and triple) the immune response was only sligthly influenced by a change of dose from 10 5 to 10 6 HadU 50 /ml or by the addition of aluminum adjuvant. In the antigen extinction limit test the antibody levels were determined by two methods (HIT and NT) the results of which were statistically equivalent. The UV-inactivated measles virus was also found to induce hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies. (orig.) [de

  20. Inactivation of Smad4 in gastric carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Harper, J C; Hamilton, S R; Robinson, C R; Cummings, O W

    1997-10-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 18q has been noted in intestinal type gastric adenocarcinomas. Smad4 is a gene located at 18q that was recently cloned in humans and found to be significantly altered in pancreatic cancers. We sought to determine whether Smad4 genetic alterations played a significant role in gastric tumorigenesis by studying 35 gastric adenocarcinomas of all histopathological types and pathological stages. Microdissected specimens were used for mutational analysis of Smad4 at the nucleotide level, including the entire coding region and intron/exon boundaries. Allelic imbalance was also analyzed at the Smad4 locus using two nearby microsatellite markers. One case of apparent biallelic inactivation of Smad4 was found in our study of 35 gastric carcinomas. A nonsense point mutation at codon 334 was demonstrated, which, similar to other Smad4 mutations, is predicted to truncate the conserved COOH-terminal domain of this protein. This Smad4 C to T transition mutation was proven to be somatically acquired. Allelic loss was also noted on chromosome 18q at a marker near Smad4 in this mutated gastric cancer, apparently producing complete inactivation of Smad4 in this tumor. Significant 18q allelic loss (56% of 34 informative cases) was noted in our gastric carcinomas using microsatellite markers near the Smad4 locus, regardless of histological subtype or pathological stage. Additionally, three cases of microsatellite instability were observed. Thus, Smad4 inactivation was noted in our gastric carcinomas; however, this event was rare. The frequent loss of chromosomal arm 18q observed in gastric cancers suggests the presence of other tumor suppressor genes in this region that are involved in gastric tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to identify these other targets of inactivation during gastric cancer development.

  1. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Schoenmakers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  2. Inactivation of Anandamide Signaling: A Continuing Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael E. Houssen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first endocannabinoid anandamide was identified in 1992, extensive research has been conducted to characterize the elements of the tightly controlled endocannabinoid signaling system. While it was established that the activity of endocannabinoids are terminated by a two-step process that includes cellular uptake and degradation, there is still a continuing debate about the mechanistic role of these processes in inactivating anandamide signals.

  3. Photodynamic inactivation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paronyan, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays methicillin-resistant strain Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most widespread multiresistant bacteria. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms by photosensitizers (PS) may be an effective and alternative therapeutic option against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The effectiveness of new PS cationic porphyrin Zn-TBut4PyP was tested on two strains of S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus). It is shown that Zn-TBut4PyP has high photodynamic activity against both strains

  4. Epigenetic inactivation of CHFR in human tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Toyota, Minoru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Satoh, Ayumi; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.; Jair, Kam-Wing; Schuebel, Kornel E.; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Cell-cycle checkpoints controlling the orderly progression through mitosis are frequently disrupted in human cancers. One such checkpoint, entry into metaphase, is regulated by the CHFR gene encoding a protein possessing forkhead-associated and RING finger domains as well as ubiquitin–ligase activity. Although defects in this checkpoint have been described, the molecular basis and prevalence of CHFR inactivation in human tumors are still not fully understood. To address this question, w...

  5. Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H; Vincent, Emily M; Meade, Gloria K; Watson, Clytrice L; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-02-03

    The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10% stool filtrate. One-minute free chlorine treatments at concentrations of 33 and 189 ppm reduced virus binding in the PGM-MB assay by 1.48 and 4.14 log₁₀, respectively, suggesting that chlorine is an efficient sanitizer for inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV). Five minute treatments with 5% trisodium phosphate (pH~12) reduced HuNoV binding by 1.6 log₁₀, suggesting that TSP, or some other high pH buffer, could be used to treat food and food contact surfaces to reduce HuNoV. One minute treatments with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide dissolved in water did not reduce PGM-MB binding, suggesting that the sanitizer may not be suitable for HuNoV inactivation in liquid form. However a 60-min treatment with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide did reduce human norovirus by 2.8 log₁₀, indicating that chlorine dioxide had some, albeit limited, activity against HuNoV. Results also suggest that peroxyacetic acid has limited effectiveness against human norovirus, since 1-min treatments with up to 195 ppm reduced human norovirus binding by chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) as a HuNoV disinfectant wherever possible. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Radical inactivation of a biological sulphydryl molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.S.; Lal, M.; Gaucher, G.M.; Armstrong, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reactive species produced from the free radical-induced chain oxidation of low molecular weight sulphydryl-containing molecules in aerated solutions deactivate the sulphydryl-containing enzyme papain, forming both reparable mixed disulphides and non-reparable products. This inactivation is highly efficient for penicillamine and glutathione, but almost negligible with cysteine, which is a protector of papain for [cysteine] / [papain] >= 5 under all conditions used. In the case of glutathione, superoxide dismutase caused only a small reduction in the inactivation and peroxide yields were small, implying that the deactivating species are not .O 2 - but RSOO. radicals or products from them. For penicillamine, however, dimutase was highly effective and the peroxide yields were relatively large, demonstrating that .O 2 - or a radical with similar capabilities for forming H 2 O 2 and being deactivated by dismutase was involved. Although in the presence of dismutase penicillamine is a better protector of non-reparable papain inactivation than glutathione, it suffers from a deficiency in that the papain-penicillamine mixed disulphide, which is always formed, cannot be repaired by spontaneous reaction with RSH molecules. (author)

  7. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenteit, Johanna; Gram, Lone; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida possesses the LuxIRtype quorum sensing (QS) system, termed AsaIR. In this study the role of QS in A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. Five wild-type Asa strains induced the N......Ideficient mutant was 20-fold higher than that of the isogenic wt strain and the mean day to death of the mutant was significantly prolonged. Furthermore, the expression of two virulence factors (a toxic protease, AsaP1, and a cytotoxic factor) and a brown pigment were reduced in the mutant. AsaP1 productionwas...... virulence in fish and QS has not previously been associated with A. salmonicida infections in fish. Furthermore, AsaP1 production has not previously been shown to be QS regulated. The simplicity of the A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes LuxIR-type QS system and the observation that synthetic QSI can inhibit...

  8. Aeromonas veronii, a tributyltin (TBT)-degrading bacterium isolated from an estuarine environment, Ria de Aveiro in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Caetano, Tânia; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2007-12-01

    Organotin compounds are used in a variety of industrial processes therefore their subsequent discharge into the environment is widespread. Bacteria play an important role in biogeochemical transformations acting as natural decontamination agents. Therefore, screening for tributyltin (TBT)-resistant and -degrading bacteria is relevant for the selection of isolates with decontamination ability of these polluted areas. With this purpose, 50 strains were isolated from sediment and water from Ria de Aveiro and their tolerance to TBT, up to 3mM, was evaluated. Generally, occurrence of highly TBT-resistant bacteria was observed, and Gram negative bacteria exhibited more tolerance to TBT than Gram positive bacteria. A memory response was observed when bacteria were progressively exposed to increasingly higher TBT concentrations. One isolate, Aeromonas veronii Av27, highly resistant to TBT (3mM) uses this compound as carbon source and degrades it to less toxic compounds.

  9. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...... inserts. The gene cassettes tended to be conserved among isolates from a particular geographical area. Nineteen isolates transferred R- plasmids carrying different tet determinants to Escherichia coli in filter mating assays, and in 15 cases, the class 1 integrons were co-transferred. Transferable...... sulphadiazine, trimethoprim and streptomycin resistances were invariably encoded by integrons. It thus appears that integron-encoded antibiotic resistance genes contribute substantially to the horizontal spread of antimicrobial resistance within this species, being associated with conjugative plasmids....

  10. Genome-based insights into the resistome and mobilome of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas sp. ARM81 isolated from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczuk, Marcin; Dziewit, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The draft genome of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas sp. ARM81 isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Warsaw (Poland) was obtained. Sequence analysis revealed multiple genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams or tetracycline. Three different β-lactamase genes were identified, including an extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene bla PER-1 . The antibiotic susceptibility was experimentally tested. Genome sequencing also allowed us to investigate the plasmidome and transposable mobilome of ARM81. Four plasmids, of which two carry phenotypic modules (i.e., genes encoding a zinc transporter ZitB and a putative glucosyltransferase), and 28 putative transposase genes were identified. The mobility of three insertion sequences (isoforms of previously identified elements ISAs12, ISKpn9 and ISAs26) was confirmed using trap plasmids.

  11. Characterization and mechanism of anti-Aeromonas salmonicida activity of a marine probiotic strain, Bacillus velezensis V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi-Yan; Liu, Ying; Miao, Li-Li; Li, Er-Wei; Sun, Guo-Xiang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2017-05-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a systemic, ubiquitous disease of fish in the salmon family, characterized by high mortality and morbidity. Probiotics are a promising approach for prevention of furunculosis in aquaculture. A bacterial strain with anti-A. salmonicida properties, Bacillus velezensis V4, was isolated and the mechanisms underlying these properties were investigated. Anti-A. salmonicida compounds present in cell-free supernatant of V4 were purified and structurally identified as members of the iturin, macrolactin, and difficidin groups. The compounds contributed jointly to inhibition of A. salmonicida, and the diversity of the compounds was related to the versatility of their mode of action. Addition of the compounds to A. salmonicida cell suspensions reduced cell density. Analyses by confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed cell membrane disruption, deletion of cellular content, and cell lysis of A. salmonicida. The V4 genome was sequenced, and gene clusters involved in synthesis of anti-Aeromonas compounds were detected and identified. A possible probiotic effect on growth performance of Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was investigated by addition of 0, 1, and 3 % (v/w) V4. Relative to control, mortality was reduced 27.25 % in the 1 % addition group and 81.86 % in the 3 % addition group. Feed coefficient ratio was reduced 19.49 % and weight gain ratio was increased 71.22 % in the 1 % addition group. Our findings demonstrate that V4 is an effective probiotic strain in O. mykiss and has clear potential for both control of furunculosis and growth promotion of aquaculture animals.

  12. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × time reaction ) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, E a , induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (COD Mn ) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and COD Mn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Positive correlation between Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine antigen concentration and protection in vaccinated rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss evaluated by a tail fin infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, M. H.; Skov, J.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are able to raise a protective immune response against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) following injection vaccination with commercial vaccines containing formalin-killed bacteria, but the protection is often suboptimal under Danish...... mariculture conditions. We elucidated whether protection can be improved by increasing the concentration of antigen (formalin-killed bacteria) in the vaccine. Rainbow trout juveniles were vaccinated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with a bacterin of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain 090710...... bacteria. The infection method proved to be efficient and could differentiate efficacies of different vaccines. It was shown that protection and antibody production in exposed fish were positively correlated to the AS antigen concentration in the vaccine....

  14. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cyclic AMP then binds to the cAMP receptor ... for a common function, no peptide sequence can be considered as representing a 'typical' nucleotide cyclase. ... Class IV: Cyclase with thermostable properties from Aeromonas hydrophila and ...

  15. Bacterial indicators of pollution of the Douala lagoon, Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eleven species of bacteria: Bacteroides fragilis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcesens, were frequently isolated. Conclusion: The presence of ...

  16. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  17. Development of highly sensitive electrochemical genosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan-bismuth and lead sulfide nanoparticles for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, António Maximiano; Abdalhai, Mandour H; Ji, Jian; Xi, Bing-Wen; Xie, Jun; Sun, Jiadi; Noeline, Rasoamandrary; Lee, Byong H; Sun, Xiulan

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we reported the construction of new high sensitive electrochemical genosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-chitosan-bismuth complex (MWCNT-Chi-Bi) and lead sulfide nanoparticles for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas. Lead sulfide nanoparticles capped with 5'-(NH2) oligonucleotides thought amide bond was used as signalizing probe DNA (sz-DNA) and thiol-modified oligonucleotides sequence was used as fixing probe DNA (fDNA). The two probes hybridize with target Aeromonas DNA (tDNA) sequence (fDNA-tDNA-szDNA). The signal of hybridization is detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) after electrodeposition of released lead nanoparticles (PbS) from sz-DNA on the surface of glass carbon electrode decorated with MWCNT-Chi-Bi, which improves the deposition and traducing electrical signal. The optimization of incubation time, hybridization temperature, deposition potential, deposition time and the specificity of the probes were investigated. Our results showed the highest sensibility to detect the target gene when compared with related biosensors and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The detection limit for this biosensor was 1.0×10(-14) M. We could detect lower than 10(2) CFU mL(-1) of Aeromonas in spiked tap water. This method is rapid and sensitive for the detection of pathogenic bacteria and would become a potential application in biomedical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The involvement of tetA and tetE tetracycline resistance genes in plasmid and chromosomal resistance of Aeromonas in Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the involvement of tetA and tetE genes in the tetracycline resistance of 16 strains of genus Aeromonas, isolated from clinical and food sources. Polymerase chain reactions revealed that 37.5% of the samples were positive for tetA, and also 37.5% were tetE positive. One isolate was positive for both genes. Only the isolate A. caviae 5.2 had its resistance associated to the presence of a plasmid, pSS2. The molecular characterization of pSS2 involved the construction of its restriction map and the determination of its size. The digestion of pSS2 with HindIII originated two fragments (A and B that were cloned separately into the pUC18 vector. The tetA gene was shown to be located on the HindIII-A fragment by PCR. After transforming a tetracycline-sensitive strain with pSS2, the transformants expressed the resistance phenotype and harbored a plasmid whose size was identical to that of pSS2. The results confirmed the association between pSS2 and the tetracycline resistance phenotype, and suggest a feasible dissemination of tetA and tetE among strains of Aeromonas. This study suggests the spreading tetA and tetE genes in Aeromonas in Brazil and describes a resistance plasmid that probably contributes to the dissemination of the resistance.

  19. Radiation inactivation of T7 phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.; Redpath, J.L.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation inactivation of T7 phage by 25-MeV electron pulses has been measured in various media containing a wide concentration range of radical scavenging solutes and in the presence of protective and sensitizing agents. The dependence of sensitivity on pulse dose, from 1 mrad to 3.6 krad, is attributed to radical depletion via bimolecular processes. The survival data are analyzed by extending target theory to include diffusive reactions of primary and secondary radicals generated in the medium. It is concluded that OH radicals are the principal primary inactivating species and that secondary radicals from Br - , CNS - , uracil, glucose, ribose, sucrose, tyrosine, and histidine are lethal to some extent. In nutrient broth or 100 mM histidine, psoralen derivatives, Actinomycin D, and Mitomycin C are anoxic sensitizers. It is proposed that the psoralens promote the formation of non-strand break lesions as the sensitization mechanism. The target theory based on diffusional kinetics is applicable to other systems including single cells

  20. Instrument for Study of Microbial Thermal Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. W.; Read, R. B.

    1968-01-01

    An instrument was designed for the study of thermal inactivation of microorganisms using heating times of less than 1 sec. The instrument operates on the principle of rapid automatic displacement of the microorganism to and from a saturated steam atmosphere, and the operating temperature range is 50 to 90 C. At a temperature of 70 C, thermometric lag (time required to respond to 63.2% of a step change) of the fluid sample containing microorganisms was 0.12 sec. Heating time required to heat the sample to within 0.1 C of the exposure temperature was less than 1 sec, permitting exposure periods as brief as 1 sec, provided the proper corrections are made for the lethal effect of heating. The instrument is most useful for heat exposure periods of less than 5 min, and, typically, more than 500 samples can be processed for microbial inactivation determinations within an 8-hr period. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:4874466

  1. Influvac, a trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Fabiano, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Influenza represents a major sanitary and socio-economic burden and vaccination is universally considered the most effective strategy for preventing the disease and its complications. Traditional influenza vaccines have been on the market since the late 1940s, with million of doses administered annually worldwide, and demonstrated a substantial efficacy and safety. The trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine has been available for more than 25 years and has been studied in healthy children, adults and the elderly and in people affected by underlying chronic medical conditions. We describe vaccine technology focusing on subunit vaccine production procedures and mode of action and provide updated information on efficacy and safety available data. A review of efficacy and safety data in healthy subjects and in high risk populations from major sponsor- and investigator-driven studies. The vaccine showed a good immunogenicity and a favorable safety profile in all target groups. In the panorama of actually available influenza vaccines, trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine represents a well-established tool for preventing flu and the associated complications.

  2. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  3. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Scale down of the inactivated polio vaccine production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Y.E.; Oever, van 't R.; Vinke, C.M.; Spiekstra, A.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Bakker, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The anticipated increase in the demand for inactivated polio vaccines resulting from the success in the polio eradication program requires an increase in production capacity and cost price reduction of the current inactivated polio vaccine production processes. Improvement of existing production

  5. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during

  6. Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors)

  7. Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1996-12-31

    We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors). 15 refs.

  8. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  9. The pulsed light inactivation of veterinary relevant microbial biofilms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia attach to biofilms in large numbers (100-1000 oo/cysts) in as little as 72 hours. Pulsed light successfully inactivated all test species (Listeria, Salmonella, Bacillus, Escherichia) in planktonic and biofilm form with an increase in inactivation for every increase in UV dose.

  10. Ebola Virus Inactivation by Detergents Is Annulled in Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Tintu, Andrei; Russcher, Henk; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.; Rijken, Mikel; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Koelewijn, Rob; de Jong, Menno D.; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Robert J.; Munster, Vincent J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of blood samples from hemorrhagic fever virus (HFV)-infected patients with 0.1% detergents has been recommended for virus inactivation and subsequent safe laboratory testing. However, data on virus inactivation by this procedure are lacking. Here we show the effect of this procedure on

  11. Method of inactivating reproducible forms of mycoplasma in biological preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veber, P.; Jurmanova, K.; Lesko, J.; Hana, L.; Veber, V.

    1978-01-01

    Inactivation of mycoplasms in biological materials was achieved using gamma radiation with a dose rate of 1x10 4 to 5x10 6 rads/h for 1 to 250 hours. The technique is advantageous for allowing the inactivation of the final form of products (tablets, vaccines, etc.). (J.P.)

  12. The complete and fully assembled genome sequence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica and its comparative analysis with other Aeromonas species: investigation of the mobilome in environmental and pathogenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Zamora-Lagos, Maria-Antonia; Blettinger, Martin; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Dahl, Andreas; Gruber, Stephan; Habermann, Bianca H

    2018-01-05

    Due to the predominant usage of short-read sequencing to date, most bacterial genome sequences reported in the last years remain at the draft level. This precludes certain types of analyses, such as the in-depth analysis of genome plasticity. Here we report the finalized genome sequence of the environmental strain Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel, for which only a draft genome with 253 contigs is currently available. Successful completion of the transposon-rich genome critically depended on the PacBio long read sequencing technology. Using finalized genome sequences of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica and other Aeromonads, we report the detailed analysis of the transposon composition of these bacterial species. Mobilome evolution is exemplified by a complex transposon, which has shifted from pathogenicity-related to environmental-related gene content in A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel. Obtaining the complete, circular genome of A. salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica allowed us to perform an in-depth analysis of its mobilome. We demonstrate the mobilome-dependent evolution of this strain's genetic profile from pathogenic to environmental.

  13. Evidence for bacterial chemotaxis to cyanobacteria from a radioassay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangatharalingam, N.; Wang, Lizhu; Priscu, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Lyngbya birgei and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae elicited a significant chemotactic attraction of Aeromonas hydrophila compared with controls lacking cyanobacteria. There was a positive exponential relationship between biomass (chlorophyll a) of L. birgei and A. flos-aquae and chemotactic attraction of A. hydrophila. The assay equipment was simple and reliable and could be used to study bacterial chemotaxis in other species in situ

  14. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  15. Modelling and application of the inactivation of microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oğuzhan, P.; Yangılar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of consuming contaminated food with toxic microorganisms causing infections and consideration of food protection and new microbial inactivation methods are obligatory situations. Food microbiology is mainly related with unwanted microorganisms spoiling foods during processing and transporting stages and causing diseases. Determination of pathogen microorganisms is important for human health to define and prevent dangers and elongate shelf life. Inactivation of pathogen microorganisms can provide food security and reduce nutrient losses. Microbial inactivation which is using methods of food protection such as food safety and fresh. With this aim, various methods are used such as classical thermal processes (pasteurisation, sterilisation), pressured electrical field (PEF), ionised radiation, high pressure, ultrasonic waves and plasma sterilisation. Microbial inactivation modelling is a secure and effective method in food production. A new microbiological application can give useful results for risk assessment in food, inactivation of microorganisms and improvement of shelf life. Application and control methods should be developed and supported by scientific research and industrial applications

  16. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetti by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F.; Williams, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79 C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0-64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of hte micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing C. burnetti was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes.

  17. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetii by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F. (Army Medical Research Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD (USA)); Williams, J.C. (National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79{sup 0}C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0.64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of the micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing 10{sup 11} C. burnetii ml{sup -1} was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes. (author).

  18. Inactivation of mitochondrial ATPase by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, E.; Cuellar, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present work describes experiments that show that far-ultraviolet irradiation induce the inhibition of ATPase activity in both membrane-bound and soluble F1. It was also found that ultraviolet light promotes the release of tightly bound adenine nucleotides from F1-ATPase. Experiments carried out with submitochondrial particles indicate that succinate partially protects against these effects of ultraviolet light. Titration of sulfhydryl groups in both irradiated submitochondrial particles and soluble F1-ATPase indicates that a conformational change induced by photochemical modifications of amino acid residues appears involved in the inactivation of the enzyme. Finally, experiments are described which show that the tyrosine residue located in the active site of F1-ATPase is modified by ultraviolet irradiation

  19. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetii by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F.; Williams, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79 0 C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0.64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of the micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing 10 11 C. burnetii ml -1 was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes. (author)

  20. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  1. Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme and Inactivation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Yılmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase enzyme is found in vegetables and fruits, as well as in some animal organs and microorganisms. Polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatic browning is a group of copper proteins that catalyses the oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones, which produce brown pigments, commonly found in fruits and vegetables. During the industrial preparation of fruits and vegetables, results of catalytic effect of polyphenol oxidase causes enzymatic browning. Enzymatic browning impairs the appearance of products containing phenolic compounds along with undesirable colour, odor and taste formation and significant loss of nutritional value of the products. This affects the acceptability of the products by the consumers and causes economic losses. In this review, some characteristics of polyphenol oxidase enzyme in different fruits and vegetables have been reviewed and information about chemical antibrowning agents, thermal applications, irradiation applications and alternative methods such as high pressure processing, pulse electric field, supercritical carbon dioxide and ultrasound applications to inactivate this enzyme has been presented.

  2. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts

  3. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  4. Aeromonas caviae inhibits hepatic enzymes of the phosphotransfer network in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, M D; Souza, C F; Verdi, C M; Dos Santos, K L M; Da Veiga, M L; da Rocha, M I U M; Santos, R C V; Vizzotto, B S; Baldisserotto, B

    2018-03-01

    Several studies have been demonstrated that phosphotransfer network, through the adenylate kinase (AK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities, allows for new perspectives leading to understanding of disease conditions associated with disturbances in energy metabolism, metabolic monitoring and signalling. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental infection by Aeromonas caviae alters hepatic AK and PK activities of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. Hepatic AK and PK activities decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals, as well as the hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Also, a severe hepatic damage was observed in the infected animals due to the presence of dilation and congestion of vessels, degeneration of hepatocytes and loss of liver parenchyma architecture and sinusoidal structure. Therefore, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that experimental infection by A. caviae inhibits key enzymes linked to the communication between sites of ATP generation and ATP utilization. Moreover, the absence of a reciprocal compensatory mechanism between these enzymes contributes directly to hepatic damage and for a severe energetic imbalance, which may contribute to disease pathophysiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Aeromonas caviae alters the cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on renal bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Júnior, Guerino B; Verdi, Camila Marina; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Santos, Roberto C V; Vizzotto, Bruno S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-09-01

    Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinases (CK), through the creatine kinase-phosphocreatine (CK/PCr) system, provide a temporal and spatial energy buffer to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. However, the effects of bacterial infections on the kidney remain poorly understood and are limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activities in renal energetic homeostasis in silver catfish experimentally infected with Aeromonas caviae. Cytosolic CK activity decreased in infected animals, while mitochondrial CK activity increased compared to uninfected animals. Moreover, the activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na + , K + -ATPase) decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, it can be concluded that the inhibition of cytosolic CK activity by A. caviae causes an impairment on renal energy homeostasis through the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. This contributes to the inhibition of Na + , K + -ATPase activity, although the mitochondrial CK activity acted in an attempt to restore the cytosolic ATP levels through a feedback mechanism. In summary, A. caviae infection causes a severe energetic imbalance in infected silver catfish, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a potential tributyltin (TBT) bioremediator: phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicates its safe application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Areias, Dário; Duarte, Ana; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-09-01

    Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is an estuarine bacterium highly resistant to tributyltin (TBT). Also, the strain is able to degrade TBT into the less toxic compounds dibutyltin and monobutyltin. Therefore, this bacterium has potential to be employed in bioremediation processes. In this context, defining its biological safety is crucial. With that purpose a number of intrinsic characteristics, usually present/associated with virulent strains, were investigated. Few virulence factors were detected in strain Av27. For instance, a DNase gene is present, but it is not apparently expressed in vitro. Motility, adherence factor and phospholipase activity were also detected. Additionally, cytotoxicity to Vero cells was negative. Resistance to penicillin (10 μg ml(-1)), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (30 μg ml(-1)) and cephalothin (30 μg ml(-1)) and also to the vibriostatic agent O/129 was observed. Five plasmids (4, 7, 10, 100 kb and one greater than 100 kb) were identified. No Class I and II integrons were detected. Study of the optimal growth conditions showed that Av27 easily adapts to different environmental conditions. Overall, the results suggest that A. molluscorum Av27 can be considered safe to use to bioremediate TBT in contaminated environments.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio during Infection with Aeromonas sobria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannose receptor (MR is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio, which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection.

  8. Isolation and identification of Aeromonas caviae strain KS-1 as TBTC- and lead-resistant estuarine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Kashif; Naik, Milind Mohan; Pandey, Anju; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBTC)- and lead-resistant estuarine bacterium from Mandovi estuary, Goa, India was isolated and identified as Aeromonas caviae strain KS-1 based on biochemical characteristics and FAME analysis. It tolerates TBTC and lead up to 1.0 and 1.4 mM, respectively, in the minimal salt medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.4 % glucose. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed a unique morphological pattern in the form of long inter-connected chains of bacterial cells on exposure to 1 mM TBTC, whereas cells remained unaltered in presence of 1.4 mM Pb(NO₃)₂ but significant biosorption of lead (8 %) on the cell surface of this isolate was clearly revealed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins of this lead-resistant isolate interestingly demonstrated three lead-induced proteins with molecular mass of 15.7, 16.9 and 32.4 kDa, respectively, when bacterial cells were grown under the stress of 1.4 mM Pb (NO₃)₂. This clearly demonstrated their possible involvement exclusively in lead resistance. A. caviae strain KS-1 also showed tolerance to several other heavy metals, viz. zinc, cadmium, copper and mercury. Therefore, we can employ this TBTC and lead-resistant bacterial isolate for lead bioremediation and also for biomonitoring TBTC from lead and TBTC contaminated environment.

  9. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with 60 CO gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of 60 CO radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. The authors found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents

  10. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with 60 Co gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of 60 Co radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. We found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents

  11. Cationic antimicrobial peptides inactivate Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cogliano, Manuel E.; Hollmann, Axel; Martinez, Melina; Semorile, Liliana; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Maffía, Paulo C.; Bentancor, Leticia V.

    2017-12-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: 1) direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, 2) cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and 3) inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure) specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  12. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Inactivate Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Del Cogliano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non-alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: (1 direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, (2 cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and (3 inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  13. Luciferase inactivation in the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, C A; Baldwin, T O

    1981-06-01

    Luciferase was rapidly inactivated in stationary-phase cultures of the wild type of the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, but was stable in stationary-phase cultures of mutants of V. harveyi that are nonluminous without exogenous aldehyde, termed the aldehyde-deficient mutants. The inactivation in the wild type was halted by cell lysis and was slowed or stopped by O2 deprivation or by addition of KCN and NaF or of chloramphenicol. If KCN and NaF or chloramphenicol were added to a culture before the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation did not occur. However, if these inhibitors were added after the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation continued for about 2 to 3 h before the inactivation process stopped. The onset of luciferase inactivation in early stationary-phase cultures of wild-type cell coincided with a slight drop in the intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) level from a relatively constant log-phase value of 20 pmol of ATP per microgram of soluble cell protein. Addition of KCN and NaF to a culture shortly after this drop in ATP caused a rapid decrease in the ATP level to about 4 pmol of ATP per microgram whereas chloramphenicol added at this same time caused a transient increase in ATP level to about 25 pmol/microgram. The aldehyde-deficient mutant (M17) showed a relatively constant log-phase ATP level identical with that of the wild-type cells, but rather than decreasing in early stationary phase, the ATP level increased to a value twice that in log-phase cells. We suggest that the inactivation of luciferase is dependent on the synthesis of some factor which is produced during stationary phase and is itself unstable, and whose synthesis is blocked by chloramphenicol or cyanide plus fluoride.

  14. Total protein electrophoresis and RAPD fingerprinting analysis for the identification of Aeromonas at the species level Análise eletroforética de proteínas totais e marcadores de RAPD na identificação de Aeromonas ao nível de espécie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Longaray Delamare

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen well-defined strains of Aeromonas of thirteen species were analyzed by SDS protein electrophoretic analysis (SDS-PAGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. The comparison between the patterns obtained by both methods allowed differentiating all the strains. Clusters formed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages applied to protein data correlates with the genetic and biochemical information about the species. The results show that protein fingerprinting has the potential to differentiate Aeromonas species, but the low qualitative variation indicates that this technique is not efficient for the characterization of strains within a species. Conversely, RAPD fingerprinting allows the identification of strains but the high variability limits its potential as an aiding method for species identification.Quinze linhagens de Aeromonas pertencentes a treze espécies foram avaliadas através de eletroforese de proteínas totais (SDS-PAGE e segmentos de DNA amplificados ao acaso (RAPD. A comparação entre os padrões obtidos por ambos métodos permitiu diferenciar todas as linhagens. Agrupamentos formados com base nos dados protéicos mostraram relação com informações bioquímicas e genéticas a respeito das espécies. Os resultados mostraram que análises protéicas têm potencial para diferenciar espécies de Aeromonas, mas a baixa variação qualitativa indica que esta técnica não é eficiente para a caracterização entre linhagens dentro de espécies. Ao contrário, marcadores de RAPD permitem identificar linhagens, mas a alta variabilidade limita seu potencial como método auxiliar na identificação de espécies.

  15. Inactivation of viruses in municipal effluent by chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hajenian, H. G.; Butler, M.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of pH and temperature on the efficiency of chlorine inactivation of two unrelated picornaviruses in a typical urban wastewater effluent was examined. Temperature, unlike pH, had relatively little effect on the rate of inactivation. The pH effect was complex and the two viruses differed. The f2 coliphage was more sensitive to chlorine at low pH, but at all values there was a threshold above which additional chlorine resulted in very rapid inactivation. The amount of chlorine requ...

  16. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Chen, Y.S.; Lindburg, K.; Morales, D.

    1987-09-01

    The inactivation of simian rotavirus Sa-11 and human rotavirus type 2 (Wa) by ozone was compared at 4/sup 0/C by using single-particle virus stocks. Although the human strain was clearly more sensitive, both virus types were rapidly inactivated by ozone concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater at all pH levels tested. Comparison of the virucidal activity of ozone with that of chlorine in identical experiments indicated little significant difference in rotavirus-inactivating efficiencies when the disinfectants were used at concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater.

  17. Frozen White-Leg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Korean Markets as a Source of Aeromonas spp. Harboring Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Benthotage C J; Hossain, Sabrina; Dahanayake, Pasan S; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2018-05-24

    As the most consumed shrimp variety, white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) owns a high market demand in Korea. This study sought to screen the frozen white-leg shrimp for Aeromonas spp. harboring antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance characteristics. A total of 44 Aeromonas spp. strains were isolated and tested for antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal tolerance followed by PCR-based detection of resistance genes and integrons. It was observed that resistance to ampicillin and oxacillin was 100% among isolates. Besides, 95%, 89%, 86%, 80%, 66%, and 43% of the isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, cephalothin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem, respectively, and less resistance to other antibiotics was also observed. Cr resistance was the highest (91%) among five heavy metals tested, whereas 57%, 32%, 20%, and 9% of the isolates were tolerant to Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg, respectively. The PCR assays implied the presence of qnrB, qnrS, tetA, tetE, aac(6')-Ib, and aphAI-IAB, and intI1 genes among 80%, 77%, 18%, 30%, 9%, 0.25%, and 82% of the isolates, respectively. There were 35 (80%) integron 1-positive isolates harboring qacE2, dfrA1, orfC, orfD, aadB, catB3, oxa-10, and aadA1 genes in varying combinations. In addition, heavy metal resistance genes, CopA, merA, and CzcA were positive in 9%, 7%, and 27% of the isolates, respectively. According to these outcomes, the frozen white-leg shrimp in Korean markets can be suggested as a source of multidrug and heavy metal-resistant Aeromonas spp. that carries genetic determinants.

  18. Analysis of the Genome and Mobilome of a Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Aeromonas sp. O23A Reveals Multiple Mechanisms for Heavy Metal Resistance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Uhrynowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. are among the most ubiquitous microorganisms, as they have been isolated from different environmental niches including waters, soil, as well as wounds and digestive tracts of poikilothermic animals and humans. Although much attention has been paid to the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, the role of these bacteria in environmentally important processes, such as transformation of heavy metals, remains to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was a detailed genomic characterization of Aeromonas sp. O23A, the first representative of this genus capable of dissimilatory arsenate reduction. The strain was isolated from microbial mats from the Zloty Stok mine (SW Poland, an environment strongly contaminated with arsenic. Previous physiological studies indicated that O23A may be involved in both mobilization and immobilization of this metalloid in the environment. To discover the molecular basis of the mechanisms behind the observed abilities, the genome of O23A (∼5.0 Mbp was sequenced and annotated, and genes for arsenic respiration, heavy metal resistance (hmr and other phenotypic traits, including siderophore production, were identified. The functionality of the indicated gene modules was assessed in a series of minimal inhibitory concentration analyses for various metals and metalloids, as well as mineral dissolution experiments. Interestingly, comparative analyses revealed that O23A is related to a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 which, however, does not carry genes for arsenic respiration. This indicates that the dissimilatory arsenate reduction ability may have been lost during genome reduction in pathogenic strains, or acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, particular emphasis was placed upon the mobilome of O23A, consisting of four plasmids, a phage, and numerous transposable elements, which may play a role in the dissemination of hmr and arsenic metabolism genes in the

  19. Analysis of the Genome and Mobilome of a Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Aeromonas sp. O23A Reveals Multiple Mechanisms for Heavy Metal Resistance and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrynowski, Witold; Decewicz, Przemyslaw; Dziewit, Lukasz; Radlinska, Monika; Krawczyk, Pawel S; Lipinski, Leszek; Adamska, Dorota; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are among the most ubiquitous microorganisms, as they have been isolated from different environmental niches including waters, soil, as well as wounds and digestive tracts of poikilothermic animals and humans. Although much attention has been paid to the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, the role of these bacteria in environmentally important processes, such as transformation of heavy metals, remains to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was a detailed genomic characterization of Aeromonas sp. O23A, the first representative of this genus capable of dissimilatory arsenate reduction. The strain was isolated from microbial mats from the Zloty Stok mine (SW Poland), an environment strongly contaminated with arsenic. Previous physiological studies indicated that O23A may be involved in both mobilization and immobilization of this metalloid in the environment. To discover the molecular basis of the mechanisms behind the observed abilities, the genome of O23A (∼5.0 Mbp) was sequenced and annotated, and genes for arsenic respiration, heavy metal resistance ( hmr ) and other phenotypic traits, including siderophore production, were identified. The functionality of the indicated gene modules was assessed in a series of minimal inhibitory concentration analyses for various metals and metalloids, as well as mineral dissolution experiments. Interestingly, comparative analyses revealed that O23A is related to a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 which, however, does not carry genes for arsenic respiration. This indicates that the dissimilatory arsenate reduction ability may have been lost during genome reduction in pathogenic strains, or acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, particular emphasis was placed upon the mobilome of O23A, consisting of four plasmids, a phage, and numerous transposable elements, which may play a role in the dissemination of hmr and arsenic metabolism genes in the environment. The obtained

  20. Analysis of the Genome and Mobilome of a Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Aeromonas sp. O23A Reveals Multiple Mechanisms for Heavy Metal Resistance and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrynowski, Witold; Decewicz, Przemyslaw; Dziewit, Lukasz; Radlinska, Monika; Krawczyk, Pawel S.; Lipinski, Leszek; Adamska, Dorota; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are among the most ubiquitous microorganisms, as they have been isolated from different environmental niches including waters, soil, as well as wounds and digestive tracts of poikilothermic animals and humans. Although much attention has been paid to the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, the role of these bacteria in environmentally important processes, such as transformation of heavy metals, remains to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study was a detailed genomic characterization of Aeromonas sp. O23A, the first representative of this genus capable of dissimilatory arsenate reduction. The strain was isolated from microbial mats from the Zloty Stok mine (SW Poland), an environment strongly contaminated with arsenic. Previous physiological studies indicated that O23A may be involved in both mobilization and immobilization of this metalloid in the environment. To discover the molecular basis of the mechanisms behind the observed abilities, the genome of O23A (∼5.0 Mbp) was sequenced and annotated, and genes for arsenic respiration, heavy metal resistance (hmr) and other phenotypic traits, including siderophore production, were identified. The functionality of the indicated gene modules was assessed in a series of minimal inhibitory concentration analyses for various metals and metalloids, as well as mineral dissolution experiments. Interestingly, comparative analyses revealed that O23A is related to a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 which, however, does not carry genes for arsenic respiration. This indicates that the dissimilatory arsenate reduction ability may have been lost during genome reduction in pathogenic strains, or acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, particular emphasis was placed upon the mobilome of O23A, consisting of four plasmids, a phage, and numerous transposable elements, which may play a role in the dissemination of hmr and arsenic metabolism genes in the environment. The obtained

  1. Comparison of two different methods for inactivation of viruses in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, T.; Kamstrup, Søren; Kyvsgaard, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    enterovirus (PEV) was inactivated within 3 h, The inactivation with electron-beam irradiation resulted in almost linear curves in a semilogarithmic plot of virus titer versus irradiation dose, reflecting a first-order inactivation, The rate of inactivation was almost twice as fast in the liquid samples...

  2. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF CATEGORY "A" BIO-TERRORISM AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presents information on the inactivation of select bioterrorist agents. Information will be presented on chlorine disinfection of vegetative cells of Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and endos...

  3. Fullerene C60 and graphene photosensibiles for photodynamic virus inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, I.; Hvorostovsky, A.; Kiselev, V.; Zarubaev, V.; Kiselev, O.; Piotrovsky, L.; Anfimov, P.; Krisko, T.; Muraviova, T.; Rylkov, V.; Starodubzev, A.; Sirotkin, A.; Grishkanich, A.; Kudashev, I.; Kancer, A.; Kustikova, M.; Bykovskaya, E.; Mayurova, A.; Stupnikov, A.; Ruzankina, J.; Afanasyev, M.; Lukyanov, N.; Redka, D.; Paklinov, N.

    2018-02-01

    A solid-phase photosensitizer based on aggregated C60 fullerene and graphene oxide for photodynamic inactivation of pathogens in biological fluids was studied. The most promising technologies of inactivation include the photodynamic effect, which consists in the inactivation of infectious agents by active oxygen forms (including singlet oxygen), formed when light is activated by the photosensitizer introduced into the plasma. Research shows features of solid-phase systems based on graphene and fullerene C60 oxide, which is a combination of an effective inactivating pathogens (for example, influenza viruses) reactive oxygen species formed upon irradiation of the photosensitizer in aqueous and biological fluids, a high photostability fullerene coatings and the possibility of full recovery photosensitizer from the biological environment after the photodynamic action.

  4. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents

  5. Biocontrol interventions for inactivation of foodborne pathogens on produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...

  6. Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, all in milk buffer, were used to demonstrate the utility of genetic algorithms ...

  7. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatagai, F [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Takahashi, T; Matsuyama, A

    1975-06-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with ..cap alpha..-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/..mu..m, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of ..cap alpha..-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/..mu..m were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept.

  8. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa; Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-01-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD·MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D 10 values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author)

  9. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and fisheries, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Animal Quarantine Service); Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao

    1992-09-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD[center dot]MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D[sub 10] values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author).

  10. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Takahashi, Tadashi; Matsuyama, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with α-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/μm, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of α-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/μm were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept. (auth.)

  11. Dry-heat inactivation of "Mycobacterium canettii".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Garnotel, Eric; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-06-09

    "Mycobacterium canettii" is responsible for non-transmissible lymph node and pulmonary tuberculosis in persons exposed in the Horn of Africa. In the absence of direct human transmission, contaminated water and foodstuffs could be sources of contamination. We investigated the dry-heat inactivation of "M. canettii" alone and mixed into mock-infected foodstuffs by inoculating agar cylinders and milk with 10 4 colony-forming units of "M. canettii" CIPT140010059 and two "M. canettii" clinical strains with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv as a control. Exposed to 35 °C, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, "M canettii" CIPT140010059 and "M. canettii" 157 exhibited a survival rate of 108, 95 and 81%, which is significantly higher than that of "M. canettii" 173. However, all tested mycobacteria tolerated a 90-min exposure at 45 °C. In the foodstuff models set at 70 °C, no growing mycobacteria were visualized. This study supports the premise that "M. canettii" may survive up to 45 °C; and suggests that contaminated raw drinks and foodstuffs but not cooked ones may be sources of infection for populations.

  12. A microcosm approach to evaluate the degradation of tributyltin (TBT) by Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 in estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Henriques, Isabel; Sousa, Ana C A; Baptista, Inês; Almeida, Adelaide; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Anselmo, Ana Maria; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a biocide extremely toxic to a wide range of organisms, which has been used for decades in antifouling paints. Despite its global ban in 2008, TBT is still a problem of great concern due to the high levels trapped in sediments. Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a TBT degrading bacterium that was isolated from an estuarine system. We investigated the ability and the role of this bacterium on TBT degradation in this estuarine system, using a microcosm approach in order to mimic environmental conditions. The experiment was established and followed for 150 days. Simultaneously, changes in the indigenous bacterial community structure were also investigated. The results revealed a maximum TBT degradation rate of 28% accompanied by the detection of the degradation products over time. Additionally, it was observed that TBT degradation was significantly enhanced by the presence of Av27. In addition a significantly higher TBT degradation occurred when the concentration of Av27 was higher. TBT degradation affected the bacterial community composition as revealed by the changes in the prevalence of Proteobacteria subdivisions, namely the increase of Deltaproteobacteria and the onset of Epsilonproteobacteria. However, the addition of Av27 strain did not affect the dominant phylotypes. Total bacterial number, bacterial biomass productivity, 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses also indicated alterations on the bacterial community structure over time, with bacteria non-tolerant to pollutants increasing their representativeness, as, for instance, the increase of the number of Alphaproteobacteria clones from 6% in the beginning to 12% at the end of the experiment. The work herein presented confirms the potential of Av27 strain to be used in the decontamination of TBT-polluted environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of methyl orange dye biotreatment by a novel isolated strain, Aeromonas veronii GRI, by SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Raouia; Kriaa, Mouna; Ellouze, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii GRI (KF964486), isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on azo dye, was assessed for methyl orange biodegradation potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of azo-dye-contaminated wastewaters under static conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it was able to decolorize up to 1000 mg/l. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance methyl orange biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized slightly the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of about 0.025%. In order to enhance the process efficiency, a Taguchi design was conducted. Phytotoxicity bioassay using sesame and radish seeds were carried out to assess the biotreatment effectiveness. The bacterium was able to effectively decolorize the azo dye when inoculated with an initial optical density of about 0.5 with 0.25% sucrose, 0.125% yeast extract, 0.01% SPB1 biosurfactant, and when conducting an agitation phase of about 24 h after static incubation. Germination potency showed an increase toward the nonoptimized conditions indicating an improvement of the biotreatment. When comparing with synthetic surfactants, a drastic decrease and an inhibition of orange methyl decolorization were observed in the presence of CTAB and SDS. The nonionic surfactant Tween 80 had a positive effect on methyl orange biodecolorization. Also, studies ensured that methyl orange removal by this strain could be due to endocellular enzymatic activities. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing effective decolorization period, biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in treatment of textile effluents.

  14. Potential role of specific antibodies as important vaccine induced protective mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic approaches against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid aquaculture. Since the introduction of successful oil-adjuvanted vaccines in the early 1990's, a number of studies have been published on the protective as well as adverse effects of these vaccines. Most studies focus on vaccination of salmon (Salmo salar. However, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are also very susceptible to infection and are vaccinated accordingly. In this study we have examined the protection against infection with a Danish strain of A. salmonicida in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout. A commercial and an experimental auto-vaccine were tested. The protective effects of the vaccines were evaluated through an A. salmonicida challenge 18 weeks post vaccination. Both vaccines resulted in a significantly increased survival in the vaccinated fish during a 28 day challenge period relative to non-vaccinated fish (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001 for the commercial and experimental vaccine, respectively. Throughout the entire experiment, the presence of specific antibodies in plasma was monitored using ELISA. A significant increase in specific antibody levels was seen in fish vaccinated with both vaccines during the 18 weeks between vaccination and challenge. Within 3 days post challenge, a significant decrease in specific antibodies occurred in vaccinated fish. A positive correlation was found between mean levels of specific antibodies pre challenge and overall survival. This correlation, along with the observed depletion of antibodies during the initial phase of infection, suggests that specific antibodies play an essential role in vaccine mediated protection against A. salmonicida in rainbow trout.

  15. Optimization of nested polymerase chain reaction assays for identification of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.W.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed using first-round primers complementary to highly conserved regions within the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (universal eubacterial primers) and second-round primers specific for sequences within the 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, andFlavobacterium psychrophilum. Following optimization of the MgCl2 concentration and primer annealing temperature, PCR employing the universal eubacterial primers was used to amplify a 1,500-base-pair (bp) product visible in agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. The calculated detection limit of this single-round assay was less than 1.4 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for all bacterial species tested. Single-round PCR using primer sets specific for A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri, and F. psychrophilumamplified bands of 271, 575, and 1,100 bp, respectively, with detection limits of less than 1.4 × 104, 1.4 × 105, and 1.4 × 105 CFU per reaction. Using the universal eubacterial primers in the first round and the species-specific primer sets in the second round of nested PCR assays improved the detection ability by approximately four orders of magnitude to fewer than 14 CFU per sample for each of the three bacterial species. Such nested assays could be adapted to a wide variety of bacterial fish pathogens for which 16S sequences are available.

  16. Production, characterization, and immobilization of partially purified surfactant-detergent and alkali-thermostable protease from newly isolated Aeromonas caviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sumitra; Menon, Gopalakrishnan; Varughese, Bincy

    2017-04-21

    Proteolytic Aeromonas caviae P-1-1 growing at wide-ranging pH (7.0-11.0) and moderate salinity (0-5% NaCl) was isolated from cattle shed of Thanjavur, India. It produced lipase, gelatinase, and polyhydroxybutyrate. Different culture conditions, incubation time, carbon and nitrogen sources, vitamins, amino acids, surfactants, and metal ions for optimal growth and protease production of P-1-1 were examined. Maximum protease (0.128 U/mL) production was achieved with 1% fructose, 1% yeast extract, 0.1% ammonium sulfate, 3% NaCl, 0.1% CaCl 2  · 2H 2 O, 1% glycine, 0.1% vitamin E, and 0.1% Tween-40 at pH 8.0 after 42 hr of incubation at 37°C. It was active over broad range of pH (7.0-12.0), temperature (15-100°C), and salinity (0-9% NaCl) with optima at pH 10.0, 55°C, and 3% NaCl. It retained 65 and 48% activities at pH 12.0 and 100°C, respectively. Partially purified protease was highly stable (100%) within pH range 7.0-12.0 and salinities of 0-5% NaCl for 48 hr. Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ , and Ca 2+ did not inhibit its activity. Its stability at extreme pHs, temperatures, and in the presence of surfactants and commercial detergents suggests its possible application in laundry detergents. Partially purified protease was immobilized and reused. This is the first report of alkali-thermotolerant, surfactant-detergent-stable partially purified extracellular protease from A. caviae.

  17. High pressure inactivation of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Sanelle; Silva, Filipa V M

    2017-05-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis ("Brett") is a major spoilage concern for the wine industry worldwide, leading to undesirable sensory properties. Sulphur dioxide, is currently the preferred method for wine preservation. However, due to its negative effects on consumers, the use of new alternative non-thermal technologies are increasingly being investigated. The aim of this study was to determine and model the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) conditions and yeast strain on the inactivation of "Brett" in Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Processing at 200 MPa for 3 min resulted in 5.8 log reductions. However higher pressure is recommended to achieve high throughput in the wine industry, for example >6.0 log reductions were achieved after 400 MPa for 5 s. The inactivation of B. bruxellensis is pressure and time dependent, with increased treatment time and pressure leading to increased yeast inactivation. It was also found that yeast strain had a significant effect on HPP inactivation, with AWRI 1499 being the most resistant strain. The Weibull model successfully described the HPP "Brett" inactivation. HPP is a viable alternative for the inactivation of B. bruxellensis in wine, with the potential to reduce the industry's reliance on sulphur dioxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, Remko M; Schutyser, Maarten A I

    2017-06-15

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during baking at 175 or 205°C. In the wheat flour/water system, the thermostability of β-galactosidase increased with decreased moisture content, and a kinetic model was accurately fitted to the corresponding inactivation data (R 2 =0.99). Interestingly, the residual enzyme activity in the bread crust (about 30%) was hundredfold higher than that in the crumb (about 0.3%) after baking, despite the higher temperature in the crust throughout baking. This result suggested that the reduced moisture content in the crust increased the thermostability of the enzyme. Subsequently, the kinetic model reasonably predicted the enzyme inactivation in the crumb using the same parameters derived from the wheat flour/water system. However, the model predicted a lower residual enzyme activity in the crust compared with the experimental result, which indicated that the structure of the crust may influence the enzyme inactivation mechanism during baking. The results reported can provide a quantitative understanding of the thermal inactivation kinetics of enzyme during baking, which is essential to better retain enzymatic activity in bakery products supplemented with heat-sensitive enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photodynamic inactivation of foodborne bacteria by eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E; Dos Santos, A R; Fiori da Silva, A; Ribeiro, L H; Favero, M E; Campanerut-Sá, P A Z; de Freitas, C F; Caetano, W; Hioka, N; Mikcha, J M G

    2018-03-25

    The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of photodynamic inactivation mediated by eosin Y in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Bacteria (10 7 CFU per ml) were incubated with eosin Y at concentrations ranging from 0·1 to 10 μmol l -1 , irradiated by green LED (λ max 490-570 nm) for 5, 10 and 15 min and the cellular viability was determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was completely inactivated when treated with 10 μmol l -1 eosin Y for 10 min. Treatments reduced B. cereus and Salm. Typhimurium counts to 2·7 log CFU per ml and 1·7 log CFU per ml, respectively. Escherichia coli counts were slightly reduced. Staphylococcus aureus presented the highest sensitivity, being completely inactivated by eosin Y at 5 μmol l -1 and 5 min of illumination. The reduction of cellular viability of photoinactivated Staph. aureus was also demonstrated by flow cytometry and morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Eosin Y in combination with LED produced bacterial inactivation, being a potential candidate for photodynamic inactivation. This study evidenced the efficacy of photodynamic inactivation as a novel and promising alternative to bacterial control. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Viral inactivation in hemotherapy: systematic review on inactivators with action on nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marial Sobral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the photoinactivators used in hemotherapy, with action on viral genomes. The SciELO, Science Direct, PubMed and Lilacs databases were searched for articles. The inclusion criterion was that these should be articles on inactivators with action on genetic material that had been published between 2000 and 2010. The key words used in identifying such articles were "hemovigilance", "viral inactivation", "photodynamics", "chemoprevention" and "transfusion safety". Twenty-four articles on viral photoinactivation were found with the main photoinactivators covered being: methylene blue, amotosalen HCl, S-303 frangible anchor linker effector (FRALE, riboflavin and inactin. The results showed that methylene blue has currently been studied least, because it diminishes coagulation factors and fibrinogen. Riboflavin has been studied most because it is a photoinactivator of endogenous origin and has few collateral effects. Amotosalen HCl is effective for platelets and is also used on plasma, but may cause changes both to plasma and to platelets, although these are not significant for hemostasis. S-303 FRALE may lead to neoantigens in erythrocytes and is less indicated for red-cell treatment; in such cases, PEN 110 is recommended. Thus, none of the methods for pathogen reduction is effective for all classes of agents and for all blood components, but despite the high cost, these photoinactivators may diminish the risk of blood-transmitted diseases.

  1. Feasibility of same-day identification of members of the family Vibrionaceae by the API 20E system.

    OpenAIRE

    Overman, T L; Overley, J K

    1986-01-01

    Sixty isolates, comprising nine species of the family Vibrionaceae, were tested with the API 20E 5-h same-day procedure (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.). Included were 27 Aeromonas hydrophila isolates, 10 Aeromonas sobria isolates, 7 Aeromonas caviae isolates, 3 Plesiomonas shigelloides isolates, 3 Vibrio alginolyticus isolates, 3 Vibrio cholerae isolates, 1 Vibrio fluvialis isolate, 5 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates, and 1 Vibrio vulnificus isolate. The 5-h profile numbers were specific...

  2. Inactivation of an enterovirus by airborne disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly. Methods A procedure has been developed to determine the virucidal activity of peracetic acid-based airborne disinfectants on a resistant non-enveloped virus poliovirus type 1. This virus was laid on a stainless carrier. The products were spread into the room by hot fogging at 55°C for 30 minutes at a concentration of 7.5 mL.m-3. Poliovirus inoculum, supplemented with 5%, heat inactivated non fat dry organic milk, were applied into the middle of the stainless steel disc and were dried under the air flow of a class II biological safety cabinet at room temperature. The Viral preparations were recovered by using flocked swabs and were titered on Vero cells using the classical Spearman-Kärber CPE reading method, the results were expressed as TCID50.ml-1. Results The infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula was kept at 105 TCID50.mL-1 up to 150 minutes at room temperature. Dried inocula exposed to airborne peracetic acid containing disinfectants were recovered at 60 and 120 minutes post-exposition and suspended in culture medium again. The cytotoxicity of disinfectant containing medium was eliminated through gel filtration columns. A 4 log reduction of infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula exposed to peracetic-based airborne disinfectant was obtained. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the virucidal activity of airborne disinfectants can be tested on dried poliovirus. PMID:23587047

  3. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying; Dai, Tianhong

    2018-02-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a human-adapted, gram-negative diplococcus that infects human reproductive tracts and causes gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease, resulting in discharge and inflammation at the urethra, cervix, pharynx, or rectum. Over the years, N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to nearly every drug ever used to treat it, including sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones. Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae is now considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an urgent threat. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light (aBL) at 405 and 470 nm for inactivating N. gonorrhoeae and reveal the mechanism of action. Our results showed that an exposure of 45 J/cm2 aBL at 405 nm reduced the bacterial CFU by 7.16-log10. When the aBL exposure was increased to 54 J/cm2, eradication of bacterial CFU was achieved. When the bacteria were exposed to aBL at 470 nm, 3-log10 reduction of CFU was observed at an aBL exposure of higher than 126 J/cm2. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses revealed the presence of endogenous porphyrins and flavins in N. gonorrhoeae cells. The present study indicated that aBL is a potential strategy to control N. gonorrhoeae infections. Endogenous porphyrins play a vital role in the killing effects of aBL. In vivo experiments are ongoing in our laboratory to treat genital tract infections in mice using aBL and explore the potential clinical applications.

  4. Thermal inactivation of Phytophthora capsici oospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Aitzol; Mendarte, Sorkunde; Larregla, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a major fungal plant pathogen that causes root and crown rot of pepper crops and its oospores are the most resistant propagules. To evaluate the effect of different temperature regimes and exposure times on the survival of P. capsici oospores. Thermal inactivation treatments simulated field conditions, through the use of different constant and cycling temperature regimes, in moistened sterilized soil (15-53 °C) and sterilized water (45-53 °C). The plasmolysis method evaluated oospore viability. Relationships between oospores viability and exposure time were statistically determined by linear regression. Interpolation was used to calculate the estimated times required to kill a determined percentage of the population. The required time to reduce P. capsici oospores viability decreased with increasing temperatures. Times required to kill 100% of oospores were 199-22-6.6-4.7-1.0 hours at 40-45-47.5-50-53°C respectively in moistened soil and 31-1.0-0.2 hours at 45-50-53 °C in water. Oospores were scarcely affected at temperatures ≤ 35 °C. With 1,680 hours at 15-35 °C, oospores survival in soil ranged from 88 to 36%. The 4 hours-40 °C regime killed 100% of oospores after 28days, while the 5 hours-35°C regime after 70 days killed only 75%. Time required to achieve total oospores death was remarkably shortened in water when compared with moistened soil. The developed models can be used to predict survival values at any exposure time with constant temperatures ranging from 40 to 53 °C in moistened soil and from 45 to 53 °C in water. The weakening of P. capsici oospores under sublethal heating, is a useful observation that can be applied for pathogen control with solarization. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating virulence of waterborne and clinical Aeromonas isolates using gene expression and mortality in neonatal mice followed by assessing cell culture’s ability to predict virulence based on transcriptional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Rodgers, M R; Lye, D J; Stelma, G N; McKinstry, Craig A.; Malard, Joel M.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2007-10-01

    Aims: To assess the virulence of Aeromonas spp. using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Methods and Results: After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., mRNA extracts from the two models were processed and hydridized to murine microarrays to determine host gene response. Definition of virulence was determined based on host mRNA production in murine neonatal intestinal tissue and mortality of infected animals. Infections of mouse intestinal cell cultures were then performed to determine whether this simpler model system’s mRNA responses correlated to neonatal results and therefore be predictive of virulence of Aeromonas spp. Virulent aeromonads up-regulated transcripts in both models including multiple host defense gene products (chemokines, regulation of transcription and apoptosis and cell signalling). Avirulent species exhibited little or no host response in neonates. Mortality results correlated well with both bacterial dose and average fold change of up-regulated transcripts in the neonatal mice. Conclusions: Cell culture results were less discriminating but showed promise as potentially being able to be predictive of virulence. Jun oncogene up-regulation in murine cell culture is potentially predictive of Aeromonas virulence. Significance and Impact of the Study: Having the ability to determine virulence of waterborne pathogens quickly would potentially assist public health officials to rapidly assess exposure risks.

  6. Comparison of glycerolisation with cryopreservation methods on HIV-1 inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.; Pagnon, J.; Cameron, P.; Vardaxis, N.; Middlekoop, E.; Crowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Cryopreservation and glycerolisation are two successful long-term preservation methods for human cadaveric donor skin, which is used in the treatment of bum patients. High concentrations of glycerol has been shown to be antibacterial and virucidal. Because fear of possible transmission of HIV-1 following allograft transplantation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether HIV can be effectively eliminated from skin explants. HIV-1 Ba-L, which has been shown to infect monocytes in skin explants and also dendritic cells, was. For the experiments we used cell-free virus, exogenously HIV infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and exogenously HIV infected cadaver split skin. Different concentrations of glycerol at various temperatures and the glycerolisation procedure as used by the Euro Skin Bank were used to determine the effects on HIV-1 Ba-L infectivity. For the cryopreservation technique we used 10% DMSO and a controlled rate freezer. HIV-1 Ba-L transfer was determined by adding uninfected PBMCs to the infected material and reverse transcriptase was measured. Cell-free HIV-1 Ba-L was not inactivated by 50% glycerol but was effectively inactivated within 30 minutes by 70% and 85% glycerol at 4 degree C, room temperature and 37 degree C. In contrast, cell-free HIV-1 Ba-L was not inactivated by cryopreservation. Most importantly, we have shown that HIV-1 Ba-L present in split skin is inactivated by incubating skin in 70% glycerol for three hours at 37-C. HIV in exogenously infected skin was not inactivated by cryopreservation. High concentrations of glycerol effectively inactivates free HIV-1 Ba-L and intracellular HIV-1 Ba-L. Also the current glycerolisation procedure carried out by the Euro Skin Bank effectively inactivates infectious virus. However, the cryopreservation technique did not show any reduction in HIV-1 Ba-L infectivity

  7. [Kinetics of catalase inactivation induced by ultrasonic cavitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapovich, M V; Eremin, A N; Metelitsa, D I

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic patterns of sonication-induced inactivation of bovine liver catalase (CAT) were studied in buffer solutions (pH 4-11) within the temperature range from 36 to 55 degrees C. Solutions of CAT were exposed to low-frequency (20.8 kHz) ultrasound (specific power, 48-62 W/cm2). The kinetics of CAT inactivation was characterized by effective first-order rate constants (s-1) of total inactivation (kin), thermal inactivation (*kin), and ultrasonic inactivation (kin(us)). In all cases, the following inequality was valid: kin > *kin. The value of kin(us) increased with the ultrasound power (range, 48-62 W/cm2) and exhibited a strong dependence on pH of the medium. On increasing the initial concentration of CAT (0.4-4.0 nM), kin(us) decreased. The three rate constants were minimum within the range of pH 6.5-8; their values increased considerably at pH 9. At 36-55 degrees C, temperature dependence of kin(us) was characterized by an activation energy (Eact) of 19.7 kcal/mol, whereas the value of Eact for CAT thermoinactivation was equal to 44.2 kcal/mol. Bovine serum and human serum albumins (BSA and HSA, respectively) inhibited sonication-induced CAT inactivation; complete prevention was observed at concentrations above 2.5 micrograms/ml. Dimethyl formamide (DMFA), a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals (HO.), prevented sonication-induced CAT inactivation at 10% (kin and *kin increased with the content of DMFA at concentrations in excess of 3%). The results obtained indicate that free radicals generated in the field of ultrasonic cavitation play a decisive role in the inactivation of CAT, which takes place when its solutions are exposed to low-frequency ultrasound. However, the efficiency of CAT inactivation by the radicals is determined by (1) the degree of association between the enzyme molecules in the reaction medium and (2) the composition thereof.

  8. ERADIKASI POLIO DAN IPV (INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendrowahyuhono Gendrowahyuhono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the year 1988, World Health Organization (WHO claims that polio viruses should be eradicated after year 2000. However, until year 2010 the world have not been free from polio viruses circulation. So many effort had been achieved and it is estimated that the world will be free from polio virus after the year 2013. Control of poliomyelitis in Indonesia has been commenced since 1982 with routine immunization of polio program and the National Immunization Days (NID has been commenced since 1995,1996,2005 and 2006. When the world is free from polio virus, WHO suggests several alternative effort to maintain the world free from polio viruses : I stop the OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine and no polio immunization, 2 stop OPV and stock pile mOPV (monovalent OPV, 3 use OPV and IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine in a certain times, 4 use IPV only in a certain times. IPV has been used routinely in develop countries but has not been used in the developing countries. Several studies in development countries has been conducted, but had not been done in the developing countries. Indonesia collaboration with WHO has conducted the study of IPV in Yogyakarta Province since year 2002 until year 2010. The overall aim of the study is to compile the necessary data that will inform global and national decision-making regarding future polio immunization policies for the OPV cessation era. The data generated from the study will be particularly important to make decisions regarding optimal IPV use in developing tropical countries. It is unlikely that this data can be assembled through other means than through this study. The tentative result of the study shows that OPV immunization coverage in the year 2004 is 99% in four district and 93 % in the Yogyakarta city. Environment surveillance shows that there are 65.7% polio virus detected from 137 sewage samples pre IPV swich, and 4.8% polio virus detected from 83 sewage samples post IPV swich. Survey polio antibody serologis shows

  9. Structure of suicide-inactivated β-hydroxydecanoyl-thioester dehydrase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, J.M.; Ho, C.K.; Li, W.B.; Townsend, C.A.; Salituro, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    β-Hydroxydecanoylthioester dehydrase, the key enzyme in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids under anaerobic conditions, equilibrates thioesters of (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, E-2-decenoic acid, and Z-3-decenoic acid. Dehydrase is irreversibly inactivated by the N-acetylcysteamine thioester of 3-decynoic acid (3-decynoyl-NAC), via dehydrase-catalyzed isomerization to 2,3-decadienoyl-NAC. To probe the relationship between normal catalysis and suicide inactivation, the structure of the inactivated enzyme has been studied. 3-[2- 13 C]Decynoyl-NAC was synthesized and incubated with dehydrase. 13 C NMR showed that attack of 2,3-decadienoyl-NAC by the active site histidine gives 3-histidinyl-3-decenoyl-NAC, which slowly rearranges to the more stable Δ 2 isomer. Model histidine-allene adducts have been made and characterized. Analysis of NMR data show that the C=C configuration of the decenoyl moiety of enzyme-bound inactivator is E. The suggestion that the mechanism of dehydrase inactivation parallels its normal mechanism of action is supported these findings

  10. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2010-01-01

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as · OH and ONOO - . In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  11. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra, E-mail: olakow@biol.uni.lodz.p [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Serafin, Eligiusz, E-mail: serafin@biol.uni.lodz.p [Laboratory of Computer and Analytical Techniques, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Puchala, Mieczyslaw, E-mail: puchala@biol.uni.lodz.p [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as {sup {center_dot}}OH and ONOO{sup -}. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  12. Inactivation of complement by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, H M; Finke, J H; Elgert, K D; Cambell, B J; Barrett, J T

    1979-07-01

    Zymosan depletion of serum complement in guinea pigs rendered them highly resistant to lesion by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom. Guinea pigs deficient in C4 of the complement system are as sensitive to the venom as normal guinea pigs. The injection of 35 micrograms of whole recluse venom intradermally into guinea pigs lowered their complement level by 35.7%. Brown recluse spider venom in concentrations as slight as 0.02 micrograms protein/ml can totally inactivate one CH50 of guinea pig complement in vitro. Bee, scorpion, and other spider venoms had no influence on the hemolytic titer of complement. Fractionation of recluse spider venom by Sephadex G-200 filtration separated the complement-inactivating property of the venom into three major regions which could be distinguished on the basis of heat stability as well as size. None was neutralized by antivenom. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of venom resolved the complement inactivators into five fractions. Complement inactivated by whole venom or the Sephadex fractions could be restored to hemolytic activity by supplements of fresh serum but not by heat-inactivated serum, pure C3, pure C5, or C3 and C5 in combination.

  13. Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated

  14. Pulsed dielectric barrier discharge for Bacillus subtilis inactivation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arias, A. N.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; López-Callejas, R.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; de la Piedad Beneitez, A.

    2012-06-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis bacteria in water has been experimentally studied by means of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) in a coaxial reactor endowed with an alumina dielectric. The plasma source is capable of operating at atmospheric pressure with gas, water or hybrid gas-liquid media at adjustable 25 kV pulses, 30 μs long and at a 500 Hz frequency. In order to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of the system, a set of experiments were designed on the basis of oxygen flow control. The initial data have showed a significant bacterial rate reduction of 103-107 CFU/mL. Additional results proved that applying an oxygen flow for a few seconds during the PDBD treatment inactivates the Bacillus subtilis population with 99.99% effectiveness. As a reference, without gas flow but with the same exposure times, this percentage is reduced to ~90%. The analysis of the relationship between inactivation rate and chemical species in the discharge has been carried out using optical emission spectroscopy as to identifying the main reactive species. Reactive oxygen species such as atomic oxygen and ozone tuned out to be the dominant germicidal species. Some proposed inactivation mechanisms of this technique are discussed.

  15. Removal of detergents from SDS-inactivated dextransucrase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husman, D.W.; Mayer, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Dextransucrase, which is rapidly inactivated by SDS, can be reactivated upon the addition of Triton X-100. Purification of the enzyme, in good yield and homogeneity, has been achieved by chromatography in the presence of SDS. The purified enzyme can be reactivated with Triton, but has large amounts of detergents. It was important to develop procedures for their removal. Density gradient centrifugation of SDS-inactivated or Triton-reactivated enzyme, treatment with Extracti-Gel D (Pierce) or chromatography on hydroxyl apatite (HA), have been examined for their effectiveness in providing detergent-free enzyme in good yield. Ultracentrifugation of SDS-inactivated protein provided limited recovery of active enzyme, but suggested that reactivation could be achieved by the simple removal of the detergent. While similar behavior was observed when the enzyme was eluted from Extracti-Gel, it was also shown that the limited recovery was a result of irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Recovery could be improved if the enzyme was collected in solutions containing Triton, which has been reported to be a stabilizer. Chromatography of SDS-inactivated enzyme on HA also yielded active enzyme. Good recovery was obtained when Triton-reactivated enzyme was employed in these studies. The degree of detergent removal was determined by utilizing radiolabelled SDS and Triton X-100

  16. Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2017-10-01

    This study for the first time investigated the stability and inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase in model systems (McIlvaine buffer, pH=3.6, the typical pH of blueberry juice) during thermal (40-80°C) and combined high pressure-thermal processing (0.1-690MPa, 30-90°C). At 70-80°C, the thermal inactivation kinetics was best described by a biphasic model with ∼61% labile and ∼39% stable fractions at temperature between 70 and 75°C. High pressure inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme with no inactivation at pressures as high as 690MPa and temperatures less than 50°C. The inactivation kinetics of the enzyme at 60-70°C, and pressures higher than 500MPa was best described by a first order biphasic model with ∼25% labile fraction and 75% stable fraction. The activation energy values at atmospheric pressure were 548.6kJ/mol and 324.5kJ/mol respectively for the stable and the labile fractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulsed dielectric barrier discharge for Bacillus subtilis inactivation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Arias, A N; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad Beneitez, A; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E

    2012-01-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis bacteria in water has been experimentally studied by means of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) in a coaxial reactor endowed with an alumina dielectric. The plasma source is capable of operating at atmospheric pressure with gas, water or hybrid gas-liquid media at adjustable 25 kV pulses, 30 μs long and at a 500 Hz frequency. In order to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of the system, a set of experiments were designed on the basis of oxygen flow control. The initial data have showed a significant bacterial rate reduction of 10 3 -10 7 CFU/mL. Additional results proved that applying an oxygen flow for a few seconds during the PDBD treatment inactivates the Bacillus subtilis population with 99.99% effectiveness. As a reference, without gas flow but with the same exposure times, this percentage is reduced to ∼90%. The analysis of the relationship between inactivation rate and chemical species in the discharge has been carried out using optical emission spectroscopy as to identifying the main reactive species. Reactive oxygen species such as atomic oxygen and ozone tuned out to be the dominant germicidal species. Some proposed inactivation mechanisms of this technique are discussed.

  18. Inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Daolun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of alien ballast water is a well-known, major reason for marine species invasion. Here, circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation was used to inactivate Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water. In comparison with single- and multihole orifice plates, the conical-hole orifice plate yielded the highest inactivation percentage, 51.12%, and consumed only 6.84% energy (based on a 50% inactivation percentage). Repeating treatment, either using double series-connection or circling inactivation, elevated the inactivation percentage, yet consumed much more energy. The results indicate that conical-hole-generated hydrodynamic cavitation shows great potential as a pre-inactivation method for ballast water treatment.

  19. Microbial electrolytic disinfection process for highly efficient Escherichia coli inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Xiaohu

    2018-01-01

    extensively studied for recalcitrant organics removal, its application potential towards water disinfection (e.g., inactivation of pathogens) is still unknown. This study investigated the inactivation of Escherichia coli in a microbial electrolysis cell based bio-electro-Fenton system (renamed as microbial......Water quality deterioration caused by a wide variety of recalcitrant organics and pathogenic microorganisms has become a serious concern worldwide. Bio-electro-Fenton systems have been considered as cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment platform technology. While it has been......]OH was identified as one potential mechanism for disinfection. This study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of bio-electro-Fenton process for pathogens inactivation, which offers insight for the future development of sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective biological water treatment technology....

  20. Chlorine inactivation of fungal spores on cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S; Pardoel, D; Harun, A; Treloar, T

    1997-04-01

    Although 0.4% chlorine for 2 min has been recommended for surface disinfection of food samples before direct plating for fungal enumeration, this procedure may not be adequate for highly contaminated products. The effectiveness of a range of chlorine solutions was investigated using barley samples artificially contaminated with four different concentrations of Aspergillus flavus. A. niger, A. ochraceus, Eurotium repens, Penicillium brevicompactum P. chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. At initial contamination levels greater than 10(4)/g, 0.4% chlorine did not inactivate sufficient spores to produce less than 20% contamination. Of the test fungi, ascospores of E. repens were the most resistant to chlorine inactivation, whereas the conidia of C. cladosporioides were the most sensitive. Rinsing the samples with 70% ethanol improved the effectiveness of the recommended surface disinfection procedure. However, some ethanol appears to permeate into the grains and may inactivate sensitive internal fungi, although a minimal effect only was observed on wheat infected with Alternaria.

  1. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V.B.; Kumar, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving γ-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation (0–30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of γ-irradiation greater than 12 kGy. - Highlights: Ø γ-irradiation was found to inactivate Lipase present in Wheat Germ. Ø The treatment did not result in significant changes in Total Ash, Moisture and Protein Content of Wheat Germ. Ø The irradiation at 30 kGy resulted in 31.2 % inactivation of Lipase in Wheat Germ

  2. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in milk by pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, L D; Jin, Z T; Zhang, Q H; Yousef, A E

    1998-09-01

    Pasteurized whole, 2%, and skim milk were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and treated with high-voltage pulsed electric field (PEF). The effects of milk composition (fat content) and PEF parameters (electric field strength, treatment time, and treatment temperature) on the inactivation of the bacterium were studied. No significant differences were observed in the inactivation of L. monocytogenes Scott A in three types of milk by PEF treatment. With treatment at 25 degrees C, 1- to 3-log reductions of L. monocytogenes were observed. PEF lethal effect was a function of field strength and treatment time. Higher field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of viable cells. A 4-log reduction of the bacterium was obtained by increasing the treatment temperature to 50 degrees C. Results indicate that the use of a high-voltage PEF is a promising technology for inactivation of foodborne pathogens.

  3. Development of inactivated-local isolate vaccine for infectious bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by coronavirus. The disease causes high mortality in young chicks, reduce body weight gain in broilers and remarkable drop in egg production. IB can only be controlled by vaccination, but due to the antigenic variation among serotypes of IB viruses, the effective IB vaccine should be prepared from local isolates. The aim of this research is to develop inactivated IB vaccine derived from local IB isolates. Local isolates of IB viruses designated as I-37, I-269 and PTS-III were propagated respectively in specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs, the viruses then were inactivated by formaline at final concentration of 1:1,000. Subsequently, the inactivated viruses were mixed and emulsified in oil emulsion adjuvant with sorbitant mono-oleic as an emulsifier. The vaccine then was tested for its safety, potency and efficacy in broiler chickens. Birds inoculated twice with a two-week interval by inactivated vaccine did not show any adverse reaction, either systemic or local reaction. The inoculated birds developed antibody responses with high titre, while antibody of the control birds remain negative. In addition, efficacy test which was conducted in broilers demonstrated that birds vaccinated by live-commercial vaccine and boosted three weeks later by Balitvet inactivated vaccine showed high level of antibody production which provided high level of protection against challenged virus (76% against I-37, 92% against I-269 and 68% against PTS-III challenge viruses. From this study, it can be concluded that inactivated local IB vaccine is considered to be safe, potent and efficacious. The vaccine stimulates high titre of antibody responses, which provide high level of protection against challenged viruses.

  4. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  5. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  6. Use of In Situ-Generated Dimethyldioxirane for Inactivation of Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, William H; Bushway, Karen E; Miller, Susan D; Delcomyn, Carrie A; Renard, Jean J; Henley, Michael V

    2005-01-01

    ...) at neutral pH, was investigated for inactivation of biological warfare agent simulants. The DMDO solution inactivated bacterial spores, fungal spores, vegetative bacterial cells, viruses, and protein by 7 orders of magnitude in less than 10 min...

  7. High pressure processing's potential to inactivate norovirus and other fooodborne viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) can inactivate human norovirus. However, all viruses are not equally susceptible to HPP. Pressure treatment parameters such as required pressure levels, initial pressurization temperatures, and pressurization times substantially affect inactivation. How food matrix ...

  8. Comparative pathogenicity of Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes in juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, T J; Bricknell, I R; Preziosi, B M

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile Atlantic halibut (~100 mg, Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were exposed to Vibrio proteolyticus, a Vibrio spp. isolate, Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five different isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes via an hour-long bath immersion to ascertain their variation in pathogenicity to this fish species. Results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Analysis of the data from challenges using A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes revealed three survival values of zero and a spread of values from 0 to 28.43. Challenges using a Vibrio spp isolate, V. proteolyticus and P. damselae resulted in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 31.21, 50.41 and 57.21, respectively. As all bacterial species tested could induce juvenile halibut mortalities, they must all be considered as potential pathogens. However, the degree of pathogenicity of A. salmonicida is isolate dependent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Inactivation of proteinaceous protease inhibitors of soybeans by isolated fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.M.T.; Spekking, W.T.J.; Sijtsma, L.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Proteinaceous protease inhibitors, Kunitz Soybean Trypsin Inhibitor (KSTI) and Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI), in legume seeds reduce the digestibility of proteins in feed of monogastric animals. Enzymatic inactivation of these inhibitors will increase the nutritional value of the feed. The aim of this

  10. Efficient Bacteria Inactivation by Ultrasound in Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Ernesto Amabilis-Sosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of treated wastewaters could contribute to reducing water stress. In this research, ultrasound application on bacterial inactivation in municipal wastewater (MWW was evaluated. Total and fecal coliforms were used as standard fecal indicators; volatile suspended solids (VSS were analyzed too. Samples were taken from the effluent of secondary clarifiers. In addition, inactivation tests were carried out on pure cultures of E. coli (EC and B. subtilis (BS. Sonication was performed at 20 kHz, 35% amplitude and 600 W/L for 15, 30 and 45 min. After 15 min of sonication, bacterial density was reduced by 1.85 Log10 MPN/100 mL for EC and 3.16 Log10 CFU/mL for BS. After 30 min, no CFU/mL of BS were observed in MWW and, after 45 min, the reduction of total and fecal coliforms was practically 6.45 Log10 MPN/100mL. Inactivation mechanism was made by cavitation, which causes irreversible damage to the cell wall. Although high bacterial densities were employed, percentages of inactivation >99% were reached at 45 min. This research contributes to the implementation of ultrasound as a disinfection technique with high potential due to its high efficiency without producing byproducts. In fact, the water meets the guidelines for reuse in direct human contact services.

  11. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  12. Light-driven photosensitizer uptake increases Candida albicans photodynamic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Silva, Ana P da; Kurachi, Cristina; Guimarães, Francisco E G

    2017-11-01

    Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) is based on the use of a photosensitizer (PS) and light that results mainly in the production of reactive oxygen species, aiming to produce microorganism cell death. PS incubation time and light dose are key protocol parameters that influence PDI response; the correct choice of them can increase the efficiency of inactivation. The results of this study show that a minor change in the PDI protocol, namely light-driven incubation leads to a higher photosensitizer and more uniform cell uptake inside the irradiated zone. Furthermore, as the uptake increases, the damage caused by PDI also increases. The proposed light-driven incubation prior to the inactivation illumination dose has advantages when compared to the traditional PDI treatments since it can be more selective and effective. Using a violet light as pre-illumination (light-driven incubation) source and a red-light system as PDI source, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to the traditional protocol of dark incubation, the pre-illuminated cell culture showed an inactivation increase of 7 log units. These in vitro results performed in Candida albicans cells may result in the introduction of a new protocol for PDI. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High pressure processing inactivates human norovirus within oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of raw bivalve mollusks can result in norovirus infection. One potential intervention for virus-contaminated shellfish is high pressure processing (HPP). Currently HPP is known to inactivate Vibrio bacteria, hepatitis A virus, and murine norovirus within oysters. To evaluate the potentia...

  14. Method of inactivation of viral and bacterial blood contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, R.; Goodrich, R.P.; Van Borssum Waalkes, M.; Wong, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is provided for inactivating viral and/or bacterial contamination in blood cellular matter, such as erythrocytes and platelets, or protein fractions. The cells or protein fractions are mixed with chemical sensitizers and irradiated with, for example, gamma or X-ray radiation

  15. Efficiency of inactivation of trypsin inhibitory activity in some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypsin inhibitor (TI) levels in the crop seeds varied between 0.0 in Adansonia digitata and 40.8 TIU/mg in Pterocarpus osun. Efficiency of inactivation of TI by autoclaving ranged from 58.1% in Millettia thonningii to 100% in Sesbania pachycarpa and Lonchocarpus. sericeus. It is concluded that the effect of heat treatment on ...

  16. Drying of liquid food droplets : enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerdink, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the drying of liquid food droplets is studied from three different points of view: drying kinetics, enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion. Mathematical models are developed and validated experimentally.

    Drying experiments are performed with suspended

  17. Role of polyols in thermal inactivation of shark ornithine transcarbamoylase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bellocco, E.; Lagana, G.; Barreca, D.; Ficarra, S.; Tellone, E.; Magazu, S.; Branca, C.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Galtieri, A.; Leuzzi, U.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2005), s. 395-402 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ornithine transcarbamoylase * thermal inactivation * shark enzyme Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  18. Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2016; 15 (8): 1595-1603 ... Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent apoptosis in ... apoptosis induced by a selective iNOS inhibitor, N-[(3-aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine (1400W), .... and nitrate. ... Nitrite production was measured in culture media.

  19. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to confirm and expand the current database for the inactivation of Giardia spp. using ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Initially, previous research that used in vitro excystation as the indicator for UV effectiveness was confirmed. Later, the in vitro excys...

  20. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVEIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...

  1. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, G.A.; Kapila, Smita; Kelkar, V.B.; Negi, Shobha; Modi, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The survival of certain bacterial cultures suspended in sewage sludge and exposed to gamma-radiation was studied. The inactivation patterns of most of the organisms were significantly different when irradiation was performed using sewage samples collected in the summer and monsoon seasons. The summer sample collected from the anaerobic digester afforded significant protection to both Gram negative and Gram positive organisms. This was evident by the increase in dose required to bring about a 6 log cycle reduction in viable count of the bacterial cultures, when suspended in sewage samples instead of phosphate buffer. The observations made using monsoon digester samples were quite different. This sewage sludge greatly enhanced inactivation by gamma-radiation in most cases. The effects of certain chemicals on the inactivation patterns of two organisms - Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri - were examined. Arsenate, mercury and lead salts sensitised S. typhi, while barium acetate and sodium sulphide protected this culture against gamma-radiation. In the case of Sh. flexneri, barium acetate and iodacetamide proved to be radioprotectors. The effects of some chemicals on the inactivation pattern of Sh. flexneri cells irradiated in sludge are also discussed. (author)

  2. The radiation inactivation of glutamate and isocitrate dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Failat, R.R.A.

    1980-12-01

    The reaction of free radicals produced by ionizing radiation with the enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and NADP + -specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) have been studied by steady-state and pulse radiolysis techniques. In de-aerated GDH solutions, hydroxyl radicals have been found to be the most efficient of the primary radicals generated from water in causing inactivation. The effect of reaction with the enzyme of selective free radicals (SCN) 2 - , (Br) 2 - and (I) 2 - on its activity has also been studied. In neutral solutions, the order of inactivating effectiveness is (I) 2 - > (Br) 2 - > (SCN) 2 - . In the case of the thiocyanate radical anion (SCN) 2 - , the inactivation efficiency is found to depend on KSCN concentration. The radiation inactivation of GDH at both neutral and alkaline pH is accompanied by the loss of sulphydryl groups. Pulse radiolysis was also used to determine the rate constants and the transient absorption spectra following the reaction of the free radicals with GDH. 60 Co-γ-radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were also used to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of ICDH. The results obtained were similar to those of GDH. (author)

  3. Inactivation of carbenicillin by some radioresistant mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahiera, T.S.; Mahmoud, M.I.; Bashandy, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sensitivity test of five bacterial species to carbenicillin was performed microbiologically. The bacterial species were previously isolated from high level radiation environment. All the studied species could either highly decrease the antibiotic activity or even inactivate it completely. Detailed study of the inactivation of carbenicillin by the radioresistant mutant strains B. Laterosporus, B. firmus and M. roseus was performed, in the present study. Using high performace liquid chromatography technique. The gram-positive m. roseus mutant strain seemed to be the most active mutant in degrading the antibiotic. The left over of the antibiotic attained a value of 9% of the original amount after 14 day incubation of the antibiotic with this mutant strain, while the value of the left over reached 36% and 32% after the same period of incubation with the mutants B. laterosporus and B. firmus respectively. In the case of bacillus species, the degradation of the antibiotic started at the same moment when it was added to the bacterial cultures. This fact may indicate that the inactivation of the studied antibiotic by these bacillus species was due to extracellular enzymes extracted rapidly in the surrounding medium. In the case of M. roseus the inactivation process started later. after the addition of the antibiotic to the mutant culture

  4. Indicators for suicide substrate inactivation: A kinetic investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmistha Dhatt

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... practical ones, that can decisively conclude enzyme inactivation are considered. Steady-state approximation ... nase 1 and 2 enzymes), Exemesteme - a drug used in the treatment of breast cancer (inhibitor of aromatase enzyme), AZT and .... for a next indicator that can serve as a diagnostic tool for enzyme ...

  5. Inactivation of VHSV by Percolation and Salt Under Experimental Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Jørgensen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by percolation. To evaluate the inactivation effect of percolation on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid l...

  6. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shiaw (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Vaughn, J.M. (Univ. of New England College of Medicine, Biddeford, ME (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The inactivation of single-particle stocks of human (type 2, Wa) and simian (SA-11) rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide was investigated. Experiments were conducted at 4{degree}C in a standard phosphate-carbonate buffer. Both virus types were rapidly inactivated, within 20 s under alkaline conditions, when chlorine dioxide concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/liter were used. Similar reductions of 10{sup 5}-fold in infectivity required additional exposure time of 120 s at 0.2 mg/liter for Wa and at 0.5 mg/liter for SA-11, respectively, at pH 6.0. The inactivation of both virus types was moderate a neutral pH, and the sensitivities to chlorine dioxide were similar. The observed enhancement of virucidal efficiency with increasing pH was contrary to earlier findings with chlorine- and ozone-treated rotavirus particles, where efficiencies decreased with increasing alkalinity. Comparison of 99.9% virus inactivation times revealed ozone to be the most effective virucidal agent among these three disinfectants.

  7. The inactivation of papain by high LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisby, R.H.; Cundall, R.B.; Sims, H.E.; Burns, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of varying LET over a wide range (0.2-1570 eV/nm) on the radiation-induced inactivation of the enzyme papain in dilute aqueous solution has been investigated. Measurements of total, reparable and non-reparable inactivation G values in oxygen, nitrous oxide and argon saturated solutions have allowed the contributions to inactivation from radicals and hydrogen peroxide to be evaluated. At high LET the results demonstrate an increasing component due to reaction of the superoxide radical, formed from oxygen produced in the track as a primary radiolysis product. This effect was not observed in our previous study with ribonuclease due to the insensitivity of ribonuclease to inactivation by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The results obtained with papain clearly demonstrate a maximum in G(H 2 O 2 ) at an LET of equivalent to 140 eV/nm. Generation of O 2 within the track as a primary radiolysis product at high LET now appears to be confirmed as an important mechanism leading to reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio for cellular systems exposed to high LET radiations (Baverstock and Burns 1981). (author)

  8. Studies on disappearance and inactivation of viruses in sewage, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Kazuyoshi; Yabuuchi, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Fumiaki.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of inactivating viruses in wastewater were studied. Polio visuses were added to the distilled water until the number of viruses reached 10sup(6.8) TCID 50 /ml, and liquid layer was 2 mm. The inactivation rate of viruses was determined at each time of ultraviolet (U.V.) irradiation (from 0.425 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 to 10.0 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 ). A linear correlation was seen between the inactivation rate of viruses and the time of U.V. irradiation obtained from logarithmic transformation. The irradiation time required for inactivation of 99.9% viruses was 15 sec when U.V. intensity was 10.0 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 and 9.6 min when it was 0.423 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 . When the U.V. intensity was 0.425 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 , the time required for inactivation was dependent on the number of viruses (120 sec in cases of 10sup(3.8) TCID 50 /ml of viruses and 720 sec in cases of 10sup(7.8) TCID 50 /ml of viruses). When viruses were added to the distilled water until the number reached 10sup(5.8) TCID 50 /ml, and the depth of water was designated as 2 mm, 10 cm, and 15 cm, the U.V. permeability was more than 89% at any depth of water, and a sixteen-min U.V. irradiation inactivated more than 99.99% of viruses. When polio viruses were added to triple step-treated water until the number reached 10sup(5.3) TCID 50 /ml, the irradiation time required for inactivation of more than 99.99% was one min when the U.V. intensity was 10.0 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 and 20 min when it was 0.425 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 . (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Strategy to inactivate Clostridium perfringens spores in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Torres, J Antonio; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2009-05-01

    The current study aimed to develop an inactivation strategy for Clostridium perfringens spores in meat through a combination of spore activation at low pressure (100-200 MPa, 7 min) and elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min); spore germination at high temperatures (55, 60 or 65 degrees C); and inactivation of germinated spores with elevated temperatures (80 and 90 degrees C, 10 and 20 min) and high pressure (586 MPa, at 23 and 73 degrees C, 10 min). Low pressures (100-200 MPa) were insufficient to efficiently activate C. perfringens spores for germination. However, C. perfringens spores were efficiently activated with elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min), and germinated at temperatures lethal for vegetative cells (>or= 55 degrees C) when incubated for 60 min with a mixture of L-asparagine and KCl (AK) in phosphate buffer (pH 7) and in poultry meat. Inactivation of spores (approximately 4 decimal reduction) in meat by elevated temperatures (80-90 degrees C for 20 min) required a long germination period (55 degrees C for 60 min). However, similar inactivation level was reached with shorter germination period (55 degrees C for 15 min) when spore contaminated-meat was treated with pressure-assisted thermal processing (568 MPa, 73 degrees C, 10 min). Therefore, the most efficient strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in poultry meat containing 50 mM AK consisted: (i) a primary heat treatment (80 degrees C, 10 min) to pasteurize and denature the meat proteins and to activate C. perfringens spores for germination; (ii) cooling of the product to 55 degrees C in about 20 min and further incubation at 55 degrees C for about 15 min for spore germination; and (iii) inactivation of germinated spores by pressure-assisted thermal processing (586 MPa at 73 degrees C for 10 min). Collectively, this study demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative and novel strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in meat products formulated with germinants specific for C

  10. Inactivation as a new regulatory mechanism for neuronal Kv7 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2007-01-01

    neuronal channels and are important for controlling excitability. Kv7.1 channels have been considered the only Kv7 channels to undergo inactivation upon depolarization. However, here we demonstrate that inactivation is also an intrinsic property of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels, which inactivate to a larger...

  11. Influence of pH, Salt and Temperature on Pressure Inactivation of Hepatitis A virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pH (3-7), NaCl (0-6%), and temperature on pressure inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) were determined. The HAV samples were treated at 400 MPa for 1 min at 5, 20, and 50C. Decreasing solution pH enhanced pressure inactivation of HAV. This enhanced inactivation effect was most e...

  12. Studies on the inactivation of human parvovirus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Sally A; Tuke, Philip W; Miyagawa, Eiji; Blümel, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a novel parvovirus, which like parvovirus B19 (B19V) can be a contaminant of plasma pools used to prepare plasma-derived medicinal products. Inactivation studies of B19V have shown that it is more sensitive to virus inactivation strategies than animal parvoviruses. However, inactivation of PARV4 has not yet been specifically addressed. Treatment of parvoviruses by heat or low-pH conditions causes externalization of the virus genome. Using nuclease treatment combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction, the extent of virus DNA externalization was used as an indirect measure of the inactivation of PARV4, B19V, and minute virus of mice (MVM) by pasteurization of albumin and by low-pH treatment. Infectivity studies were performed in parallel for B19V and MVM. PARV4 showed greater resistance to pasteurization and low-pH treatment than B19V, although PARV4 was not as resistant as MVM. There was a 2- to 3-log reduction of encapsidated PARV4 DNA after pasteurization and low-pH treatment. In contrast, B19V was effectively inactivated while MVM was stable under these conditions. Divalent cations were found to have a stabilizing effect on PARV4 capsids. In the absence of divalent cations, even at neutral pH, there was a reduction of PARV4 titer, an effect not observed for B19V or MVM. In the case of heat treatment and incubation at low pH, PARV4 shows intermediate resistance when compared to B19V and MVM. Divalent cations seem important for stabilizing PARV4 virus particles. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Inactivation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase involves oxidative modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J N; Zhang, Z; John, P; Baldwin, J E; Schofield, C J

    1997-03-25

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of the plant signaling molecule ethylene. It is a member of the ferrous iron dependent family of oxidases and dioxygenases and is unusual in that it displays a very short half-life under catalytic conditions, typically less than 20 min, and a requirement for CO2 as an activator. The rates of inactivation of purified, recombinant ACC oxidase from tomato under various combinations of substrates and cofactors were measured. Inactivation was relatively slow in the presence of buffer alone (t1/2 > 1 h), but fast in the presence of ferrous iron and ascorbate (t1/2 approximately 10 min). The rate of iron/ascorbate-mediated inactivation was increased by the addition of ACC, unaffected by the addition of CO2 at saturation (supplied as bicarbonate) but decreased by the addition of catalase or ACC + CO2 at saturation (supplied as bicarbonate). Iron/ascorbate-mediated inactivation was accompanied by partial proteolysis as observed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The fragmentation pattern was altered when ACC was also included, suggesting that ACC can bind to ACC oxidase in the absence of bicarbonate. N-terminal sequencing of fragments resulted in identification of an internal cleavage site which we propose is proximate to active-site bound iron. Thus, ACC oxidase inactivates via relatively slow partial unfolding of the catalytically active conformation, oxidative damage mediated via hydrogen peroxide which is catalase protectable and oxidative damage to the active site which results in partial proteolysis and is not catalase protectable.

  14. Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4 μl, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75 min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inactivation Effect of Antibiotic-Resistant Gene Using Chlorine Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Furukawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the inactivation effects on the antibiotic-resistance gene (vanA of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE using chlorination, a disinfection method widely used in various water treatment facilities. Suspensions of VRE were prepared by adding VRE to phosphate-buffered saline, or the sterilized secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. The inactivation experiments were carried out at several chlorine concentrations and stirring time. Enterococci concentration and presence of vanA were determined. The enterococci concentration decreased as chlorine concentrations and stirring times increased, with more than 7.0 log reduction occurring under the following conditions: 40 min stirring at 0.5 mg Cl2/L, 20 min stirring at 1.0 mg Cl2/L, and 3 min stirring at 3.0 mg Cl2/L. In the inactivation experiment using VRE suspended in secondary effluent, the culturable enterococci required much higher chlorine concentration and longer treatment time for complete disinfection than the cases of suspension of VRE. However, vanA was detected in all chlorinated suspensions of VRE, even in samples where no enterococcal colonies were present on the medium agar plate. The chlorine disinfection was not able to destroy antibiotic-resistance genes, though it can inactivate and decrease bacterial counts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB. Therefore, it was suggested that remaining ARB and/or antibiotic-resistance gene in inactivated bacterial cells after chlorine disinfection tank could be discharged into water environments.

  16. Effective inactivation of a wide range of viruses by pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröner, Albrecht; Broumis, Connie; Fang, Randel; Nowak, Thomas; Popp, Birgit; Schäfer, Wolfram; Roth, Nathan J

    2018-01-01

    Careful selection and testing of plasma reduces the risk of blood-borne viruses in the starting material for plasma-derived products. Furthermore, effective measures such as pasteurization at 60°C for 10 hours have been implemented in the manufacturing process of therapeutic plasma proteins such as human albumin, coagulation factors, immunoglobulins, and enzyme inhibitors to inactivate blood-borne viruses of concern. A comprehensive compilation of the virus reduction capacity of pasteurization is presented including the effect of stabilizers used to protect the therapeutic protein from modifications during heat treatment. The virus inactivation kinetics of pasteurization for a broad range of viruses were evaluated in the relevant intermediates from more than 15 different plasma manufacturing processes. Studies were carried out under the routine manufacturing target variables, such as temperature and product-specific stabilizer composition. Additional studies were also performed under robustness conditions, that is, outside production specifications. The data demonstrate that pasteurization inactivates a wide range of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses of diverse physicochemical characteristics. After a maximum of 6 hours' incubation, no residual infectivity could be detected for the majority of enveloped viruses. Effective inactivation of a range of nonenveloped viruses, with the exception of nonhuman parvoviruses, was documented. Pasteurization is a very robust and reliable virus inactivation method with a broad effectiveness against known blood-borne pathogens and emerging or potentially emerging viruses. Pasteurization has proven itself to be a highly effective step, in combination with other complementary safety measures, toward assuring the virus safety of final product. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  17. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  18. Cytolytic T lymphocyte responses to metabolically inactivated stimulator cells. I. Metabolic inactivation impairs both CD and LD antigen signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelso, A.; Boyle, W.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of metabolic inactivation of spleen cells on antigen presentation to precursors of alloreactive cytolytic T lymphocytes (T/sub c/) were examined. By serological methods, populations inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation, glutaraldehyde fixation or plasma membrane isolation were found to retain normal levels of H-2K/D and Ia antigens. However, comparison of the antigen doses required to stimulate secondary T/sub c/ responses in mixed leukocyte culture showed that the inactivated preparations were approximately 10-fold less immunogenic than X-irradiated spleen cells. Their total inability to stimulate primary cytolytic responses pointed to at least a 100-fold impairment of immunogenicity for unprimed T/sub c/ precursors in the case of uv-irradiated and glutaraldehyde-treated stimulator cells, and at least a 10-fold impairment for membrane fragments. Experiments showing that the capacity of cell monolayers to absorb precursor T/sub c/ from unprimed spleen populations was reduced following uv-irradiation or glutaraldehyde treatment provided direct evidence that this loss of immunogenicity was due in part to suboptimal antigen presentation to precursor T/sub c/. It is concluded that, in addition to the traditional view that these treatments damage the ''LD'' signal to helper T lymphocytes, metabolic inactivation also impairs recognition of ''CD'' determinants by precursor T/sub c/

  19. THE ANTIGENIC POTENCY OF EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA VIRUS FOLLOWING INACTIVATION BY ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas E.; Lavin, G. I.; Francis, Thomas

    1940-01-01

    A study of the antigenic potency of influenza virus inactivated by ultraviolet radiation has been made. Virus so inactivated is still capable of functioning as an immunizing agent when given to mice by the intraperitoneal route. In high concentrations inactivated virus appears to be nearly as effective as active virus but when quantitative comparisons of the immunity induced by different dilutions are made, it is seen that a hundredfold loss in immunizing capacity occurs during inactivation. Virus in suspensions prepared from the lungs of infected mice is inactivated more rapidly than virus in tissue culture medium. A standard for the comparison of vaccines of epidemic influenza virus is proposed. PMID:19871057

  20. Modeling of human factor Va inactivation by activated protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because understanding of the inventory, connectivity and dynamics of the components characterizing the process of coagulation is relatively mature, it has become an attractive target for physiochemical modeling. Such models can potentially improve the design of therapeutics. The prothrombinase complex (composed of the protease factor (FXa and its cofactor FVa plays a central role in this network as the main producer of thrombin, which catalyses both the activation of platelets and the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the main substances of a clot. A key negative feedback loop that prevents clot propagation beyond the site of injury is the thrombin-dependent generation of activated protein C (APC, an enzyme that inactivates FVa, thus neutralizing the prothrombinase complex. APC inactivation of FVa is complex, involving the production of partially active intermediates and “protection” of FVa from APC by both FXa and prothrombin. An empirically validated mathematical model of this process would be useful in advancing the predictive capacity of comprehensive models of coagulation. Results A model of human APC inactivation of prothrombinase was constructed in a stepwise fashion by analyzing time courses of FVa inactivation in empirical reaction systems with increasing number of interacting components and generating corresponding model constructs of each reaction system. Reaction mechanisms, rate constants and equilibrium constants informing these model constructs were initially derived from various research groups reporting on APC inactivation of FVa in isolation, or in the presence of FXa or prothrombin. Model predictions were assessed against empirical data measuring the appearance and disappearance of multiple FVa degradation intermediates as well as prothrombinase activity changes, with plasma proteins derived from multiple preparations. Our work integrates previously published findings and through the cooperative

  1. Germination and Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris Spores Induced by Moderate Hydrostatic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Barbara; Skapska, Sylwia; Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Niezgoda, Jolanta; Porebska, Izabela; Dekowska, Agnieszka; Rzoska, Sylwester J

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of spoilage caused by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris for the fruit juice industry, the objective of this work was to study the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores induced by moderate hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure treatment can induce the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores. At low pH, spore germination of up to 3.59-3.75 log and inactivation of 1.85-2.04 log was observed in a low pressure window (200-300 MPa) applied at 50 degrees C for 20 min. Neutral pH suppressed inactivation, the number of spores inactivated at pH 7.0 was only 0.24-1.06 log. The pressurization temperature significantly affected spore germination and inactivation. The degree of germination in apple juice after pressurization for 30 min with 200 MPa at 20 degrees C was 2.04 log, with only 0.61 log of spores being inactivated, while at 70 degrees C spore germination was 5.94 log and inactivation 4.72 log. This temperature strongly stimulated germination and inactivation under higher (500 MPa) than lower (200 MPa) pressure. When the oscillatory mode was used, the degree of germination and inactivation was slightly higher than at continuous mode. The degree of germination and inactivation was inversely proportional to the soluble solids content and was lowest in concentrated apple juice.

  2. Polio endgame: the global introduction of inactivated polio vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish; Zipursky, Simona; Orenstein, Walt; Garon, Julie; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-05-01

    In 2013, the World Health Assembly endorsed a plan that calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs globally. The withdrawal would begin in a phased manner with removal of the type 2 component of OPV in 2016 through a global switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV (containing only types 1 and 3). To mitigate risks associated with immunity gaps after OPV type 2 withdrawal, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts has recommended that all 126 OPV-only using countries introduce at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine into routine immunization programs by end-2015, before the trivalent OPV-bivalent OPV switch. The introduction of inactivated polio vaccine would reduce risks of reintroduction of type 2 poliovirus by providing some level of seroprotection, facilitating interruption of transmission if outbreaks occur, and accelerating eradication by boosting immunity to types 1 and 3 polioviruses.

  3. Fast neutron radiation inactivation of Bacillus subtilis: Absorbed dose determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lingli; Zheng Chun; Ai Zihui; Li Junjie; Dai Shaofeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, fast neutron inactivation effects of Bacillus subtilis were investigated with fission fast neutrons from CFBR-II reactor of INPC (Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry) and mono-energetic neutrons from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Peking University. The method for determining the absorbed dose in the Bacillus subtilis suspension contained in test tubes is introduced. The absorbed dose, on account of its dependence on the volume and the form of confined state, was determined by combined experiments and Monte Carlo method. Using the calculation results of absorbed dose, the fast neutron inactivation effects on Bacillus subtilis were studied. The survival rates and absorbed dose curve was constructed. (authors)

  4. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangilar, F.; Kabil, E.

    2013-01-01

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author) [tr

  5. X-chromosome inactivation in development and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaligné, Ronan; Heard, Edith

    2014-08-01

    X-chromosome inactivation represents an epigenetics paradigm and a powerful model system of facultative heterochromatin formation triggered by a non-coding RNA, Xist, during development. Once established, the inactive state of the Xi is highly stable in somatic cells, thanks to a combination of chromatin associated proteins, DNA methylation and nuclear organization. However, sporadic reactivation of X-linked genes has been reported during ageing and in transformed cells and disappearance of the Barr body is frequently observed in cancer cells. In this review we summarise current knowledge on the epigenetic changes that accompany X inactivation and discuss the extent to which the inactive X chromosome may be epigenetically or genetically perturbed in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inactivation of microorganisms for high pressures in the wine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana B, Jaime Nelson; Ortegon T, Sandra Patricia

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate experimentally the capacity of N 2 and CO 2 under pressure to inactivate wild yeasts, which remain in the Puntalarga vineyard grape, musts were exposed to hyperbaric treatment with these gases. At the end of the pascalization (after 2 hours), CO 2 at 15 degrades Celsius under pressures from 1 to 5 MPa, reached high inactivation percentages of yeast cells (> 90%). Contrary to CO 2 treatment the use of N 2 at 15 degrades Celsius at 4 and 10 MPa failed to exert microbicide effect in a same treatment time. While CO 2 gas with high solubility in water has the potential to reduce microbial loads in musts, N 2 gas with low solubility in water have not effect on the survival of the pathogenic microorganisms in these juices

  7. Protein Expression Modifications in Phage-Resistant Mutants of Aeromonas salmonicida after AS-A Phage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Moreirinha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of infections by pathogenic bacteria is one of the main sources of financial loss for the aquaculture industry. This problem often cannot be solved with antibiotic treatment or vaccination. Phage therapy seems to be an alternative environmentally-friendly strategy to control infections. Recognizing the cellular modifications that bacteriophage therapy may cause to the host is essential in order to confirm microbial inactivation, while understanding the mechanisms that drive the development of phage-resistant strains. The aim of this work was to detect cellular modifications that occur after phage AS-A treatment in A. salmonicida, an important fish pathogen. Phage-resistant and susceptible cells were subjected to five successive streak-plating steps and analysed with infrared spectroscopy, a fast and powerful tool for cell study. The spectral differences of both populations were investigated and compared with a phage sensitivity profile, obtained through the spot test and efficiency of plating. Changes in protein associated peaks were found, and these results were corroborated by 1-D electrophoresis of intracellular proteins analysis and by phage sensitivity profiles. Phage AS-A treatment before the first streaking-plate step clearly affected the intracellular proteins expression levels of phage-resistant clones, altering the expression of distinct proteins during the subsequent five successive streak-plating steps, making these clones recover and be phenotypically more similar to the sensitive cells.

  8. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  10. Intradermal Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine: A Preclinical Dose-Finding Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kouiavskaia, Diana; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Troy, Stephanie; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Intradermal delivery of vaccines has been shown to result in dose sparing. We tested the ability of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) delivered intradermally to induce levels of serum poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies similar to immunization through the intramuscular route. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of IPV was studied by comparing intramuscular and intradermal immunization of Wistar rats using NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedles. Intradermal delivery of partial...

  11. Protective effect by EDTA in radiation inactivation of enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, M; Kaetsu, I

    1985-11-05

    Protective effect by EDTA in radiation inactivation of enzymes such as glucoamylase, cellulase, and urease was studied. A remarkable protective effect by EDTA was observed and had a maximum at certain EDTA concentration. The protective effect was compared with other protective agents in the irradiation of urease, in which the protective ability of EDTA was greater than those of sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine. (author).

  12. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Human norovirus (NoV) causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA) or glutaraldehyde (GDA) for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells. Results PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v)] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v)] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA) on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes). Conclusion Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces. PMID:19583832

  13. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann Jörg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human norovirus (NoV causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA or glutaraldehyde (GDA for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells. Results PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes. Conclusion Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces.

  14. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovi...

  15. Bioburden assessment and gamma radiation inactivation patterns in parchment documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Carolino, Maria Manuela; Portugal, António; Botelho, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    Parchment documents are part of our cultural heritage and, as historical artifacts that they are, should be preserved. The aim of this study was to validate an appropriate methodology to characterize the bioburden of parchment documents, and to assess the growth and gamma radiation inactivation patterns of the microbiota present in that material. Another goal was to estimate the minimum gamma radiation dose (D min ) to be applied for the decontamination of parchment as an alternative treatment to the current toxic chemical and non-chemical decontamination methods. Two bioburden assessment methodologies were evaluated: the Swab Method (SM) and the Destructive Method (DM). The recovery efficiency of each method was estimated by artificial contamination, using a Cladosporium cladosporioides spore suspension. The parchment samples' microbiota was typified using morphological methods and the fungal isolates were identified by ITS-DNA sequencing. The inactivation pattern was assessed using the DM after exposure to different gamma radiation doses, and using C. cladosporioides as reference. Based on the applied methodology, parchment samples presented bioburden values lower than 5×10 3 CFU/cm 2 for total microbiota, and lower than 10 CFU/cm 2 for fungal propagules. The results suggest no evident inactivation trend for the natural parchment microbiota, especially regarding the fungal community. A minimum gamma radiation dose (D min ) of 5 kGy is proposed for the decontamination treatment of parchment. Determining the minimal decontamination dose in parchment is essential for a correct application of gamma radiation as an alternative decontamination treatment for this type of documents avoiding the toxicity and the degradation promoted by the traditional chemical and non-chemical treatments. - Highlights: • Characterization of the microbial population of parchment documents. • Study the inactivation pattern of parchment microbiota by gamma radiation. • Assessment of

  16. Plasma inactivation of food-related microorganisms in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsili, Lisa; Espie, Steven; Anderson, J.G.John G.; MacGregor, S.J.Scott J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on a plasma process that inactivates microorganisms in liquids through the application of high-voltage pulses. These pulses result in breakdown of the gas and liquid layers, producing many active species such as UV photons, ozone, free radicals and free electrons. Several test microorganisms representing a range of problematic microorganisms were investigated. Significant reductions in microbial population were achieved, demonstrating the effectiveness of using the plasma discharge process to treat contaminated liquids

  17. Inactivation of Aerosolized Biological Agents using Filled Nanocomposite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    radiation dose absorbed) roentgen shake slug torr (mm Hg, 0 0 C) *The bacquerel (Bq) is the SI unit of radioactivity ; 1 Bq = 1 event/s...setup was made of stainless steel. The setup was assembled and operated inside a class II biosafety cabinet (Model 6TX, Baker Co., Inc., Sanford, ME...system; (ii) Effectiveness of the facility decontamination conducted between the tests; (iii) Inactivation of spores exposed to combustion of strands

  18. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  19. Thrombin-specific inactivation of endothelial cell derived plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highsmith, R.F.; Gallaher, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Although thrombin (T) has diverse functions in the overall hemostatic mechanism, relatively little is known about its direct effect on components of the fibrinolytic enzyme system. The authors have investigated the interaction of T with plasminogen activators (PA) derived from bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) in culture (2-5th passage, preconfluent monolayers). Varying concentrations of purified bovine or human thrombin were added to EC-conditioned media (CM). CM + T mixtures were assayed at various times for PA activity using purified plasminogen and a sensitive 125 I-fibrinogenolytic or caseinolytic assay. T (5 nM), but not plasmin or trypsin at equivalent concentrations, resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of the PA activity in CM. T had no effect on the PA activity of urokinase, streptokinase or preformed plasmin. The ability of T to inactivate the EC-derived PA was abolished by prior treatment of T with active site-directed reagents. SDS-PAGE and zymography with copolymerized fibrinogen and plasminogen revealed further specificity in that only one of the multiple-molecular weight forms of PA present in EC-CM was inactivated by T. The authors conclude that in a highly specific fashion, T inactivates the predominant PA present in EC-CM by limited proteolysis. Thus, another potentially important function of T is suggested which may have particular significance in the temporal regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis at the blood-endothelium interface

  20. Thrombin-specific inactivation of endothelial cell derived plasminogen activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highsmith, R.F.; Gallaher, M.J.

    1986-03-05

    Although thrombin (T) has diverse functions in the overall hemostatic mechanism, relatively little is known about its direct effect on components of the fibrinolytic enzyme system. The authors have investigated the interaction of T with plasminogen activators (PA) derived from bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) in culture (2-5th passage, preconfluent monolayers). Varying concentrations of purified bovine or human thrombin were added to EC-conditioned media (CM). CM + T mixtures were assayed at various times for PA activity using purified plasminogen and a sensitive /sup 125/I-fibrinogenolytic or caseinolytic assay. T (5 nM), but not plasmin or trypsin at equivalent concentrations, resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of the PA activity in CM. T had no effect on the PA activity of urokinase, streptokinase or preformed plasmin. The ability of T to inactivate the EC-derived PA was abolished by prior treatment of T with active site-directed reagents. SDS-PAGE and zymography with copolymerized fibrinogen and plasminogen revealed further specificity in that only one of the multiple-molecular weight forms of PA present in EC-CM was inactivated by T. The authors conclude that in a highly specific fashion, T inactivates the predominant PA present in EC-CM by limited proteolysis. Thus, another potentially important function of T is suggested which may have particular significance in the temporal regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis at the blood-endothelium interface.

  1. Inactivation model for disinfection of biofilms in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlicki, A.; O'Leary, K.C.; Gagnon, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to investigate experimentally the effects of free chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide on the removal of biofilm growth in water as it applies to drinking water in distribution systems. In particular, biofilm kill for a particular dosage of disinfectant was measured as a function of time for each disinfectant over a range of disinfectant concentrations. These results were used to formulate concentration-time (Ct) inactivation values for each disinfectant to compare the efficacy of the three disinfectants for biofilm control. The biofilm reactor system consisted of a 125 mL columns, each containing tightly packed 3 mm glass beads on which heterotrophic bacterial biofilm is established. Following an initial biofilm inoculation period, the glass beads were removed from the columns and placed into glass jars for disinfection with free chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide. Cell counts were determined on a time series basis with the goal of achieving a Ct inactivation model that is similar to models presently used for inactivation of suspended cells. Ultimately this research could be used to develop a rationale method for setting regulatory values for secondary disinfection in drinking water distribution systems, which presently in only a few states and provinces. (author)

  2. Chemical Addressability of Ultraviolet-Inactivated Viral Nanoparticles (VNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Chris; Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Estrada, Mayra N.; Gonzalez, Maria J.; Manchester, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Background Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) is increasingly being used as a nanoparticle platform for multivalent display of molecules via chemical bioconjugation to the capsid surface. A growing variety of applications have employed the CPMV multivalent display technology including nanoblock chemistry, in vivo imaging, and materials science. CPMV nanoparticles can be inexpensively produced from experimentally infected cowpea plants at high yields and are extremely stable. Although CPMV has not been shown to replicate in mammalian cells, uptake in mammalian cells does occur in vitro and in vivo. Thus, inactivation of the virus RNA genome is important for biosafety considerations, however the surface characteristics and chemical reactivity of the particles must be maintained in order to preserve chemical and structural functionality. Methodology/Principal Findings Short wave (254 nm) UV irradiation was used to crosslink the RNA genome within intact particles. Lower doses of UV previously reported to inactivate CPMV infectivity inhibited symptoms on inoculated leaves but did not prohibit systemic virus spread in plants, whereas higher doses caused aggregation of the particles and an increase in chemical reactivity further indicating broken particles. Intermediate doses of 2.0–2.5 J/cm2 were shown to maintain particle structure and chemical reactivity, and cellular binding properties were similar to CPMV-WT. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that it is possible to inactivate CPMV infectivity while maintaining particle structure and function, thus paving the way for further development of CPMV nanoparticles for in vivo applications. PMID:18830402

  3. Chemical addressability of ultraviolet-inactivated viral nanoparticles (VNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV is increasingly being used as a nanoparticle platform for multivalent display of molecules via chemical bioconjugation to the capsid surface. A growing variety of applications have employed the CPMV multivalent display technology including nanoblock chemistry, in vivo imaging, and materials science. CPMV nanoparticles can be inexpensively produced from experimentally infected cowpea plants at high yields and are extremely stable. Although CPMV has not been shown to replicate in mammalian cells, uptake in mammalian cells does occur in vitro and in vivo. Thus, inactivation of the virus RNA genome is important for biosafety considerations, however the surface characteristics and chemical reactivity of the particles must be maintained in order to preserve chemical and structural functionality.Short wave (254 nm UV irradiation was used to crosslink the RNA genome within intact particles. Lower doses of UV previously reported to inactivate CPMV infectivity inhibited symptoms on inoculated leaves but did not prohibit systemic virus spread in plants, whereas higher doses caused aggregation of the particles and an increase in chemical reactivity further indicating broken particles. Intermediate doses of 2.0-2.5 J/cm(2 were shown to maintain particle structure and chemical reactivity, and cellular binding properties were similar to CPMV-WT.These studies demonstrate that it is possible to inactivate CPMV infectivity while maintaining particle structure and function, thus paving the way for further development of CPMV nanoparticles for in vivo applications.

  4. Gamma-irradiation to inactivate thioglucosidase of crucifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessman, K.J.; McCaslin, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    The crucifers contain glucosinolates which through enzymatic hydrolysis give rise to toxicants that limit the use of oil-free meal obtainable from this plant family. Seeds from three crucifers were used to test gamma irradiation to inactivate enzyme systems as a step toward detoxification. Seeds of Crambe abyssinica Hochst (crambe), ground seeds of Sinapis alba L. (mustard), and seeds of Brassica napus L. (rape) were subjected to gamma-irradiation (6.25, 12.5, 25.0 and 50.4 Mrad) to inactivate thioglucosidase and/or destroy glucosinolates. Samples of ground seeds, their oil-free meals, previously irradiated ground seeds and their oil-free meals were assayed for glucose, a product of enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates present in the crucifer seeds. The 50.4 Mrad exposure inactivated thioglucosidase but did not destroy glucosinolates. The fatty acid contents of extracted oils were affected. The amino acid profile of defatted crambe protein meal was affected, while that of white mustard was not

  5. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  6. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Dai, Tianhong; Gu, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Background: With the increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains, there is a pressing need for the development of alternative treatment for infections. Antimicrobial blue light (aBL) has provided a simple and effective approach. Methods: We first investigated the effectiveness of aBL (415 nm) inactivation of USA300 LAClux (a communityacquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain) both in the planktonic and biofilm forms. The survival of the bacteria in suspensions was determined by serial dilution and that of the biofilm-embedded bacteria was determined by bioluminescence quantification. Using a mouse model of thermal burn infected with USA300 LAClux, we further assessed the effectiveness of aBL for treating localized infections. Bioluminescence imaging was performed to monitor in real time bacterial viability in vivo. Results: In vitro study showed that, for the planktonic counterpart of the bacteria or the 24-h-old biofilms, an irradiance of 55 mW/cm2 for 60 min resulted in a 4.61 log10 or 2.56 log10 inactivation, respectively. In vivo study using infected mouse burns demonstrated that a 2.56-log10 inactivation was achieved after 100-mW/cm2 irradiation for 62 min. Conclusions: aBL is a potential alternative approach for treating Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

  7. Functional size analysis of bioactive materials by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    1994-01-01

    When the research on various proteins including enzymes is carried out, first molecular weight is measured. The physical chemical methods used for measuring molecular weight cannot measure it in the state of actually acting in living bodies. Radiation inactivation method is the unique method which can measure the molecular weight of the active substances in living bodies. Paying attention to this point, recently it is attempted to measure the activity unit of enzymes, receptors and others, and to apply to the elucidation of their functions. In this report, the concept of the method of measuring molecular size based on radiation inactivation, the detailed experimental method and the points to which attention must be paid are described. Also its application to the elucidation of living body functions according to the example of the studies by the author is reported. The concept of the measurement of molecular weight by radiation inactivation is based on target theory. The preparation of samples, the effect of oxygen, radiation sources, dosimetry, irradiation temperature, internal standard process and so on are reported. The trend of the research is shown. (K.I.)

  8. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated va...

  9. Modeling-independent elucidation of inactivation pathways in recombinant and native A-type Kv channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D.; Ritter, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A-type voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels self-regulate their activity by inactivating directly from the open state (open-state inactivation [OSI]) or by inactivating before they open (closed-state inactivation [CSI]). To determine the inactivation pathways, it is often necessary to apply several pulse protocols, pore blockers, single-channel recording, and kinetic modeling. However, intrinsic hurdles may preclude the standardized application of these methods. Here, we implemented a simple method inspired by earlier studies of Na+ channels to analyze macroscopic inactivation and conclusively deduce the pathways of inactivation of recombinant and native A-type Kv channels. We investigated two distinct A-type Kv channels expressed heterologously (Kv3.4 and Kv4.2 with accessory subunits) and their native counterparts in dorsal root ganglion and cerebellar granule neurons. This approach applies two conventional pulse protocols to examine inactivation induced by (a) a simple step (single-pulse inactivation) and (b) a conditioning step (double-pulse inactivation). Consistent with OSI, the rate of Kv3.4 inactivation (i.e., the negative first derivative of double-pulse inactivation) precisely superimposes on the profile of the Kv3.4 current evoked by a single pulse because the channels must open to inactivate. In contrast, the rate of Kv4.2 inactivation is asynchronous, already changing at earlier times relative to the profile of the Kv4.2 current evoked by a single pulse. Thus, Kv4.2 inactivation occurs uncoupled from channel opening, indicating CSI. Furthermore, the inactivation time constant versus voltage relation of Kv3.4 decreases monotonically with depolarization and levels off, whereas that of Kv4.2 exhibits a J-shape profile. We also manipulated the inactivation phenotype by changing the subunit composition and show how CSI and CSI combined with OSI might affect spiking properties in a full computational model of the hippocampal CA1 neuron. This work unambiguously

  10. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  11. Transcriptomes analysis of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 cells exposed to tributyltin (TBT): Unravelling the effects from the molecular level to the organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Rodrigues, Raquel; Pinheiro, Miguel; Mendo, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 cells were exposed to 0, 5 and 50 μM of TBT and the respective transcriptomes were obtained by pyrosequencing. Gene Ontology revealed that exposure to 5 μM TBT results in a higher number of repressed genes in contrast with 50 μM of TBT, where the number of over-expressed genes is greater. At both TBT concentrations, higher variations in gene expression were found in the functional categories associated with enzymatic activities, transport/binding and oxidation-reduction. A number of proteins are affected by TBT, such as the acriflavin resistance protein, several transcription-related proteins, several Hsps, ABC transporters, CorA and ZntB and other outer membrane efflux proteins, all of these involved in cellular metabolic processes, important to maintain overall cell viability. Using the STRING tool, several proteins with unknown function were related with others involved in degradation processes, such as the pyoverdine chromophore biosynthetic protein, that has been described as playing a role in the Sn–C cleavage of organotins. This approach has allowed a better understanding of the molecular effects of exposure of bacterial cells to TBT. Furthermore it contributes to the knowledge of the functional genomic aspects of bacteria exposed to this pollutant. Furthermore, the transcriptomic data gathered, and now publically available, constitute a valuable resource for comparative genome analysis. PMID:26171931

  12. Transcriptomes analysis of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 cells exposed to tributyltin (TBT): Unravelling the effects from the molecular level to the organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Rodrigues, Raquel; Pinheiro, Miguel; Mendo, Sónia

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 cells were exposed to 0, 5 and 50 μM of TBT and the respective transcriptomes were obtained by pyrosequencing. Gene Ontology revealed that exposure to 5 μM TBT results in a higher number of repressed genes in contrast with 50 μM of TBT, where the number of over-expressed genes is greater. At both TBT concentrations, higher variations in gene expression were found in the functional categories associated with enzymatic activities, transport/binding and oxidation-reduction. A number of proteins are affected by TBT, such as the acriflavin resistance protein, several transcription-related proteins, several Hsps, ABC transporters, CorA and ZntB and other outer membrane efflux proteins, all of these involved in cellular metabolic processes, important to maintain overall cell viability. Using the STRING tool, several proteins with unknown function were related with others involved in degradation processes, such as the pyoverdine chromophore biosynthetic protein, that has been described as playing a role in the Sn-C cleavage of organotins. This approach has allowed a better understanding of the molecular effects of exposure of bacterial cells to TBT. Furthermore it contributes to the knowledge of the functional genomic aspects of bacteria exposed to this pollutant. Furthermore, the transcriptomic data gathered, and now publically available, constitute a valuable resource for comparative genome analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in covertly infected salmonid fishes by the stress-inducible furunculosis test and culture-based assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.; Ford, L.A.; Smith, D.R.; Schachte, J.H.; Petrie, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate detection of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (the cause of furunculosis disease) in covertly infected salmonids is difficult and is a cause of concern for those involved in fish health inspection and resource management programs. In this study, we examined populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that previously sustained natural episodes of furunculosis. Consequently, the sampled fish were presumed to harbor latent infections. Mucus, gill, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine samples (N = 100 fish per group sampled) were processed and examined by (1) direct dilution counts and (2) quadrant streaking after a 48-h pre-enrichment in trypticase soy broth (TSB). Another subsample of fish from each group was then subjected to stress-inducible furunculosis tests. Stress tests detected A. salmonicida in three of four groups of fish that were examined whereas the pathogen was detected in only two of the groups analyzed with culture-based assays. Although pre-enrichment in TSB enhanced detection within internal sampling sites including the liver, heart, spleen, and kidney, enrichment did not enhance detection from mucus, gill, or intestinal samples.

  14. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the Zinc-Binding Sites in the Class B2 Metallo-B-lactamsase ImiS from Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello,A.; Sharma, N.; Yang, K.; Crowder, M.; Tierney, D.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the metal-binding sites of ImiS from Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria in catalytically active (1-Zn), product-inhibited (1-Zn plus imipenem), and inactive (2-Zn) forms. The first equivalent of zinc(II) was found to bind to the consensus Zn{sub 2} site. The reaction of 1-Zn ImiS with imipenem leads to a product-bound species, coordinated to Zn via a carboxylate group. The inhibitory binding site of ImiS was examined by a comparison of wild-type ImiS with 1 and 2 equiv of bound zinc. 2-Zn ImiS extended X-ray absorption fine structure data support a binding site that is distant from the active site and contains both one sulfur donor and one histidine ligand. On the basis of the amino acid sequence of ImiS and the crystal structure of CphA [Garau et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 345, 785-795], we propose that the inhibitory binding site is formed by M146, found on the B2-distinct {alpha}3 helix, and H118, a canonical Zn{sub 1} ligand, proposed to help activate the nucleophilic water. The mutation of M146 to isoleucine abolishes metal inhibition. This is the first characterization of ImiS with the native metal Zn and establishes, for the first time, the location of the inhibitory metal site.

  15. A specific inactivator of mammalian C'4 isolated from nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J A

    1969-08-01

    A material which specifically inactivates mammalian C'4 was isolated from low ionic strength precipitates of nurse shark serum. The C'4 inactivator was not detected in whole serum. The conditions of its generation and its immunoelectrophoretic behavior seem to indicate that it is an enzymatically formed cleavage product of a precursor contained in whole shark serum. The inactivator was partially purified and characterized. It had an S-value of 3.3 (sucrose gradient) which was in agreement with its retardation on gel filtration, was stable between pH 5.0 and 10.0, had a half-life of 5 min at 56 degrees C, pH 7.5, was inactivated by trypsin and was nontoxic. Its powerful anticomplementary activity in vitro and in vivo was solely due to the rapid inactivation of C'4; no other complement components were affected. No cofactor requirement was observed for the equally rapid inactivation of highly purified human and guinea pig C'4. The kinetics of C'4 inactivation and TAME hydrolysis, the greater anodic mobility of inactivated human C'4, and the influence of temperature on the rate of inactivation suggest that the inactivator is an enzyme and C'4 its substrate. This conclusion was supported by the more recent detection of a split product of C'4. Intravenous administration of the C'4 inactivator could prevent lethal Forssman shock and suppress the Arthus reaction in guinea pigs; it prolonged significantly the rejection time of renal xenografts but had no detectable effect on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Anaphylatoxin could be generated in C'4 depleted guinea pig serum with the cobra venom factor, but not with immune precipitates. The possible relationship between C'1 esterase and the C'4 inactivator is discussed on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.

  16. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, heat, and thermoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.; Langley, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    For purposes of animal feeding or fertilizer usage on edible crops, sewage sludge must be free of pathogenic organisms. Bacterial inactivation by a combination of heat and irradiation is shown to be effective. These results must be viewed in conjunction with those from studies of parasite egg inactivation, virus inactivation, and physical-chemical benefits in order to make a fair assessment of the value of the thermoradiation treatment compared to other possible sludge treatment processes

  17. Inactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Animal Quarantine Service, Yokohama (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1990-10-01

    Radiation inactivation of Infectious Boivne Rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was investigated by suspending in a commercial preparation medium (c.p.m.) or IBR antibody free serum and irradiated at room temperature or dry ice frozen condition. Normal pooled serum was also analysed by electrophoresis with cellulose acetate membrane after irradiation at frozen and non-frozen condition. The virus inactivation was determined by MDBK cell line which 50 % tissue culture infectious dose (TCID{sub 50}) was calculated by Behrens Kaerber method. D{sub 10} value at non-frozen condition in serum was obtained as 1.1-1.2 kGy and that in c.p.m. was 1.3-1.4 kGy. On the other hand, D{sub 10} value was increased to 3.4-3.6 kGy in serum and 3.9 kGy in c.p.m. at frozen condition. On the irradiation effect of bovine serum, four peaks of albumin, {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}-globulin fraction were obtained from non-irradiation and irradiated serum up to 2 kGy at non-frozen condition by electrophoresis. More than 4 kGy irradiation, the peaks of globulin fractions became not clear and at more than 8 kGy, changed to one large peak. On the other hand, these changes of electrophoretic patterns were not observed even at 30 kGy irradiation in frozen condition. From these results, necessary dose was decided as 20-25 kGy at frozen condition for inactivation of IBR virus in serum. (author).

  18. Inactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takamasa; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation of Infectious Boivne Rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was investigated by suspending in a commercial preparation medium (c.p.m.) or IBR antibody free serum and irradiated at room temperature or dry ice frozen condition. Normal pooled serum was also analysed by electrophoresis with cellulose acetate membrane after irradiation at frozen and non-frozen condition. The virus inactivation was determined by MDBK cell line which 50 % tissue culture infectious dose (TCID 50 ) was calculated by Behrens Kaerber method. D 10 value at non-frozen condition in serum was obtained as 1.1-1.2 kGy and that in c.p.m. was 1.3-1.4 kGy. On the other hand, D 10 value was increased to 3.4-3.6 kGy in serum and 3.9 kGy in c.p.m. at frozen condition. On the irradiation effect of bovine serum, four peaks of albumin, α, β and γ-globulin fraction were obtained from non-irradiation and irradiated serum up to 2 kGy at non-frozen condition by electrophoresis. More than 4 kGy irradiation, the peaks of globulin fractions became not clear and at more than 8 kGy, changed to one large peak. On the other hand, these changes of electrophoretic patterns were not observed even at 30 kGy irradiation in frozen condition. From these results, necessary dose was decided as 20-25 kGy at frozen condition for inactivation of IBR virus in serum. (author)

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella during cocoa roasting and chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Brum, Daniela Merlo; Pena, Pamela Oliveira; Berto, Maria Isabel; Efraim, Priscilla

    2012-10-15

    The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130°C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the matrices only at 140°C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180 min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180 min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99 min at 50, 60 and 70°C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440 min), 1076.76 min at 50°C, 481.94 min at 60°C and 702.23 min at 70°C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultraviolet inactivation of avian sarcoma virus: biological and biochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, M.; Ihara, S.; Toyoshima, K.; Kozai, Y.; Sugino, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of inactivation by ultraviolet light of the focus-forming capacity of avian sarcoma virus was almost the same as that of the virus-producing capacity, measured as plaque formation. In addition, no significant difference was observed in inactivation of the transforming capacity assayed on C/BE chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), which carry endogenous avian tumor virus DNA, and on duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF), which are known to be devoid of this DNA. All foci induced by nonirradiated virus produced infectious sarcoma virus, but some of the foci induced by uv-irradiated virus did not produce infectious virus of either transforming or transformation-defective type. The proportion of nonproducer foci was 3.4 times more in DEF than in gs - chf - CEF. RNAs extracted from uv-irradiated virions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment were found to be composed of 60--70 S and 4 S RNAs by analysis in a sucrose gradient containing 0.5 percent SDS. The large RNA, however, became hydrophobic after irradiation and was sedimented with SDS by addition of one drop of saturated potassium chloride solution. This RNA was not dissociated into 30--40S components by heating at 100 0 for 45 sec, unlike 60--70 S RNA from uv-irradiated virions. After SDS--Pronase treatment, the 60--70 S RNA from uv-irradiated virions no longer had these altered characteristics. Reverse transcriptase activity with the endogenous template decreased in parallel with increase in the uv dose. The reduction rate was similar to that assayed with exogenous template or in the presence of actinomycin D. These data strongly suggest that RNA damage is not the only cause of virus inactivation by uv light