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Sample records for in-situ tem observations

  1. In situ TEM observation of solid-gas reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishita, K; Kamino, T; Watabe, A; Kuroda, K; Saka, H

    2008-01-01

    Under a gaseous atmosphere at high temperatures, almost all the materials (metal, catalysts, etc.) change their structures and properties. For the research and development of materials, it is of vital importance to clarify mechanisms of solid-gas and liquid-gas reactions. Recently an in situ TEM system combined with an environmental holder, which has a gas injection nozzle close to a specimen-heating element, has been developed. The gas injection nozzle permits gas to flow around the specimens sitting on the heating element made of a fine W filament. The newly developed in situ TEM has a differential pumping system; therefore, the pressure in the specimen chamber is maintained in the range of higher than 1 Pa, while the pressure in the electron gun chamber can be kept in the range of 10 -5 Pa. This system was applied to in situ observation of chemical reactions of metals with gases: Observation of oxidation and reduction under a gas pressure ranging from 10 -5 Pa to 1 Pa at high temperatures (room temperature to ∼1473 K) were successfully carried out on pure metal and rare metal catalysts at near-atomic resolution. This in situ environmental TEM system is promising for clarifying mechanisms of many solid-gas and liquid-gas reactions that take place at high temperatures under a gas atmosphere.

  2. In situ TEM observation of the growth and decomposition of monoclinic W18O49 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C L; Mori, H

    2009-01-01

    The growth of monoclinic W 18 O 49 nanowires by heat treatment of a tungsten filament at ∼873 K and the decomposition of these nanowires under 200 keV electron irradiation at ∼1023 K have been investigated using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In situ TEM observation of the growth confirmed the vapor-solid growth mechanism of the monoclinic W 18 O 49 nanowires. In situ irradiation experiments revealed the formation of metallic bcc tungsten from monoclinic W 18 O 49 nanowires under 200 keV electron irradiation.

  3. In situ TEM observations of reverse dislocation motion upon unloading in tensile-deformed UFG aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mompiou, Frédéric; Caillard, Daniel; Legros, Marc; Mughrabi, Haël

    2012-01-01

    Loading–unloading cycles have been performed on ultrafine-grained (UFG) aluminium inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The interaction of dislocations with grain boundaries, which is supposed to be at the origin of the inelastic behaviour of this class of materials, differs according to the main character of the dislocation segments involved in pile-ups. Pile-ups are formed by spiral sources and lead to the incorporation of dislocations into grain boundaries (GBs) during loading. Upon unloading, partial re-emission of dislocations from GBs can be observed. Stress and strain measurements performed during these in situ TEM loading–unloading experiments are in agreement with the rather large inelastic reverse strains observed during unloading in loading–unloading tests on bulk macroscopic UFG aluminium specimens.

  4. In situ TEM observation of microcrack nucleation and propagation in pure tin solder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Ying; Wang Chunqing; Li, Mingyu; Wang Weiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Microcrack nucleation and propagation behavior in pure tin solder was investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through in situ tensile test. Observation results showed that fracture process was completed in this visco-plastic material by connecting discontinuous cracks or voids. Depending on remarkable vacancy diffusion ability, microvoids were nucleated and developed in the dislocation free zone (DFZ) or super thinned area ahead of crack tip under local high stress concentration. The cracks were linked with each other by mutual dislocation emission which expedites the propagation of crack tips effectively

  5. In-situ TEM observation of nano-void formation in UO2 under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabathier, C.; Martin, G.; Michel, A.; Carlot, G.; Maillard, S.; Bachelet, C.; Fortuna, F.; Kaitasov, O.; Oliviero, E.; Garcia, P.

    2014-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of UO2 polycrystals irradiated in situ with 4 MeV Au ions were performed at room temperature (RT) to better understand the mechanisms of cavity and ultimately fission products nucleation in UO2. Experiments were carried out at the JANNuS Orsay facility that enables in situ ion irradiations inside the microscope to be carried out. The majority of 4 MeV gold ions were transmitted through the thin foil, and the induced radiation defects were investigated by TEM. Observations showed that nano-void formation occurs at ambient temperature in UO2 thin foils irradiated with energetic heavy ions under an essentially nuclear energy loss regime. The diameter and density of nano-objects were measured as a function of the gold irradiation dose at RT. A previous paper has also revealed a similar nano-object population after a Xe implantation performed at 390 keV at 870 K. The nano-object density was modelled using simple concepts derived from Classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The results are in good agreement, which suggests a mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation induced by energetic cascade overlaps. This indicates that nano-void formation mechanism is controlled by radiation damage. Such nanovoids are likely to act as sinks for mobile fission products during reactor operation.

  6. In situ EELS and TEM observation of Al implanted with nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojou, K.; Furuno, S.; Kushita, K.N.; Otsu, H.; Izui, K.

    1995-01-01

    Formation processes of Aluminum nitride (AIN) in Aluminum (AI) implanted with nitrogen were examined by in situ EELS and TEM observations during nitrogen ion implantation in an electron microscope at room temperature and 400 deg C. AIN phase was identified both by EDP and EELS after nitrogen ion implantation to 6 x 10 20 (N + )/m 2 . The observed peak (20.8 eV) in EELS spectra was identified as plasmon loss peak of AIN formed in AI. The binding energy of N ls in AI was found to shift by about 4 eV to the lower side with increasing nitrogen-ion fluence. Unreacted AI was also found to remain in the AIN films after high fluence implantation both at room temperature and 400 deg C. (authors). 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The

    2016-01-01

    understanding of complex physical and chemical interactions in the pursuit to optimize nanostructure function and device performance. Recent developments of sample holder technology for TEM have enabled a new field of research in the study of functional nanomaterials and devices via electrical stimulation...... influence the sample by external stimuli, e.g. through electrical connections, the TEM becomes a powerful laboratory for performing quantitative real time in situ experiments. Such TEM setups enable the characterization of nanostructures and nanodevices under working conditions, thereby providing a deeper...... and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured...

  8. In situ TEM observations of unusual nanocrystallization in a Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M.; Wang, D.J.; Shen, J.; Qian, M.

    2011-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to witness the nanocrystallization of amorphous Ti 42.5 Cu 40 Zr 10 Ni 5 Sn 2.5 . A crystallization front exists to separate the TEM sample into two parts with different thermal stabilities. The number density of the crystallization products varies significantly, with the precipitate sizes ranging from a few nanometres to ∼100 nm. Detailed TEM analysis suggests that oxygen is the most likely reason for realizing the unusual nanocrystallization. External thermal analysis also indicates that oxygen affects the crystallization.

  9. Direct Observations of Oxygen-induced Platinum Nanoparticle Ripening Studied by In Situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the sintering mechanism of Pt nanoparticles dispersed on a planar, amorphous Al2O3 support as a model system for a catalyst for automotive exhaust abatement. By means of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the model catalyst was monitored during the exposure to 10...

  10. In-Situ TEM-STM Observations of SWCNT Ropes/Tubular Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, F.; Lebron-Colon, M.; Ferreira, P. J.; Fonseca, L. F.; Meador, M. A.; Marin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) prepared by the HiPco process were purified using a modified gas phase purification technique. A TEM-STM holder was used to study the morphological changes of SWCNT ropes as a function of applied voltage. Kink formation, buckling behavior, tubular transformation and eventual breakdown of the system were observed. The tubular formation was attributed to a transformation from SWCNT ropes to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) structures. It is likely mediated by the patching and tearing mechanism which is promoted primarily by the mobile vacancies generated due to current-induced heating and, to some extent, by electron irradiation.

  11. In situ TEM observation of stress-induced martensitictransformations and twinning processes in CuAlNi single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zárubová, Niva; Gemperlová, Juliana; Gemperle, Antonín; Dlabáček, Zdeněk; Šittner, Petr; Novák, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 15 (2010), s. 5109-5119 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200100627 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : CuAlNi shape memory alloy * martensitic transformation * in situ TEM straining Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.781, year: 2010

  12. In Situ TEM Creation of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Sardar Bilal

    Integration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as active components in devices requires that desired mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces can be established between the nanoscale geometry of the SiNW and the microscale architecture of the device. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM),...

  13. In-situ heating TEM observation of microscopic structural changes of size-controlled metallic copper/gelatin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Takashi; Hyono, Atsushi; Nishida, Naoki; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2012-10-01

    Copper/gelatin composite particles with controlled sizes were prepared at room temperature from cupric sulfate pentahydrate in the presence of gelatin as a protective reagent by using hydrazine monohydrate as a reducing agent. The formed particles with the size between 190-940 nm were secondary aggregated particles which were composed of smaller nanosized particles ("particle-in-particle"), the presence of which was established by XRD patterns and a cross-sectional TEM image. The sintering behavior of these copper/gelatin composite particles was demonstrated by in-situ heating TEM under a high vacuum (approximately 10(-5) Pa) and separately with the oxygen partial pressure controlled at the 10(-4) Pa level. It was established that the particles began to sinter at about 330 degrees C with the oxygen and that they sublimate above 450 degrees C both in the vacuum and oxygen conditions. This result shows that the introduction of an adequate amount of oxygen was effective to remove the gelatin surrounding the particles. It can also be concluded that the sintering of the copper/gelatin composite particles occurred even in the absence of a reducing agent such as hydrogen gas.

  14. In-situ TEM observation of the response of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten to extreme irradiation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atwani, O; Hinks, J A; Greaves, G; Gonderman, S; Qiu, T; Efe, M; Allain, J P

    2014-05-06

    The accumulation of defects, and in particular He bubbles, can have significant implications for the performance of materials exposed to the plasma in magnetic-confinement nuclear fusion reactors. Some of the most promising candidates for deployment into such environments are nanocrystalline materials as the engineering of grain boundary density offers the possibility of tailoring their radiation resistance properties. In order to investigate the microstructural evolution of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten under conditions similar to those in a reactor, a transmission electron microscopy study with in situ 2 keV He(+) ion irradiation at 950 °C has been completed. A dynamic and complex evolution in the microstructure was observed including the formation of defect clusters, dislocations and bubbles. Nanocrystalline grains with dimensions less than around 60 nm demonstrated lower bubble density and greater bubble size than larger nanocrystalline (60-100 nm) and ultrafine (100-500 nm) grains. In grains over 100 nm, uniform distributions of bubbles and defects were formed. At higher fluences, large faceted bubbles were observed on the grain boundaries, especially on those of nanocrystalline grains, indicating the important role grain boundaries can play in trapping He and thus in giving rise to the enhanced radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials.

  15. Unusual tensile behaviour of fibre-reinforced indium matrix composite and its in-situ TEM straining observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xin; Peng, Jianchao; Zandén, Carl; Yang, Yanping; Mu, Wei; Edwards, Michael; Ye, Lilei; Liu, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Indium-based thermal interface materials are superior in thermal management applications of electronic packaging compared to their polymer-based counterparts. However, pure indium has rather low tensile strength resulting in poor reliability. To enhance the mechanical properties of such a material, a new composite consisting of electrospun randomly oriented continuous polyimide fibres and indium was fabricated. The composite has been characterised by tensile tests and in-situ transmission electron microscopy straining observations. It is shown that the composite's ultimate tensile strength at 20 °C is five times higher than that of pure indium, and the strength of the composite exceeds the summation of strengths of the individual components. Furthermore, contrary to most metallic matrix materials, the ultimate tensile strength of the composite decreases with the increased strain rate in a certain range. The chemical composition and tensile fracture of the novel composite have been analysed comprehensively by means of scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A strengthening mechanism based on mutually reinforcing structures formed by the indium and surrounding fibres is also presented, underlining the effect of compressing at the fibre/indium interfaces by dislocation pileups and slip pinning.

  16. In situ TEM observation of the Boudouard reaction: Multi-layered graphene formation from CO on cobalt nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, G.M.; Zacharaki, E.; Sjåstad, A.O.; Navarro, V.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Kooyman, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Using a MEMS nanoreactor in combination with a specially designed in situ Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) holder and gas supply system, we imaged the formation of multiple layers of graphene encapsulating a cobalt nanoparticle, at 1 bar CO:N2 (1:1) and 500 °C. The cobalt nanoparticle was

  17. SOFC anode reduction studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising part of future energy approaches due to a relatively high energy conversion efficiency and low environmental pollution. SOFCs are typically composed of ceramic materials which are highly complex at the nanoscale. TEM is routinely applied ex situ...... for studying these nanoscale structures, but only few SOFC studies have applied in situ TEM to observe the ceramic nanostructures in a reactive gas environment at elevated temperatures. The present contribution focuses on the reduction of an SOFC anode which is a necessary process to form the catalytically...... active Ni surface before operating the fuel cells. The reduction process was followed in the TEM while exposing a NiO/YSZ (YSZ = Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) model anode to H2 at T = 250-1000⁰C. Pure NiO was used in reference experiments. Previous studies have shown that the reduction of pure Ni...

  18. In-situ TEM characterization of nanomaterials and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Moon; Park, Seongyong; Cha, Dong Kyu; Kim, Jiyoung; Floresca, Herman Carlo; Lu, Ning; Wang, Jinguo

    2011-01-01

    Electrical properties of nano size devices were directly measured by TEM. Real time observation of phase transition behavior in PRAM revealed that the volume of the crystalline phase is the main factor in determining cell resistance. In the transistor device, we have identified the doping type and area by measuring the I-V curve at the individual nano contact on the specimen. The evolution of the graphene edge structure was controlled and monitored at and up to 1200°C in-situ. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. In-situ TEM characterization of nanomaterials and devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Moon

    2011-10-01

    Electrical properties of nano size devices were directly measured by TEM. Real time observation of phase transition behavior in PRAM revealed that the volume of the crystalline phase is the main factor in determining cell resistance. In the transistor device, we have identified the doping type and area by measuring the I-V curve at the individual nano contact on the specimen. The evolution of the graphene edge structure was controlled and monitored at and up to 1200°C in-situ. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Location specific in situ TEM straining specimens made using FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Papin, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A method has been devised and demonstrated for producing in situ straining specimens for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) from specific locations in a sample using a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. The specimen is removed from a polished surface in the FIB using normal methods and then attached to a pre-fabricated substrate in the form of a modified TEM tensile specimen. In this manner, specific features of the microstructure of a polished optical mount can be selected for in situ tensile straining. With the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), this technique could be extended to select specific orientations of the specimen as well

  1. In situ TEM electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Filleter, Tobin

    2012-11-05

    The emergence of one-dimensional nanostructures as fundamental constituents of advanced materials and next-generation electronic and electromechanical devices has increased the need for their atomic-scale characterization. Given its spatial and temporal resolution, coupled with analytical capabilities, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been the technique of choice in performing atomic structure and defect characterization. A number of approaches have been recently developed to combine these capabilities with in-situ mechanical deformation and electrical characterization in the emerging field of in-situ TEM electromechanical testing. This has enabled researchers to establish unambiguous synthesis-structure-property relations for one-dimensional nanostructures. In this article, the development and latest advances of several in-situ TEM techniques to carry out mechanical and electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes are reviewed. Through discussion of specific examples, it is shown how the merging of several microsystems and TEM has led to significant insights into the behavior of nanowires and nanotubes, underscoring the significant role in-situ techniques play in the development of novel nanoscale systems and materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. In situ TEM observations of the thermal degradation of the two way memory effect in a Cu-Al-Be alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Zuniga, H.; Guenin, G.

    1995-01-01

    A Cu-Al-Be alloy with a martensitic transformation temperature (M S ) lower than room temperature, was trained to induce the two way memory effect (TWME) and the aging effects in austenitic phase were studied by in-situ observations in a Transmission Electron Microscope. The results show movements of dislocations at temperatures where the TWME deformation is well known to decrease after short aging times (about an hour). Since the Burgers vector of these dislocations does not change during aging, and precipitates have been not observed, we concluded that the TWME degrades as a result of modifications in the internal stresses field distribution associated with dislocation movements, that produces a more random orientation of martensitic plates on cooling. (orig.)

  3. A Structural Study of Escherichia coli Cells Using an In Situ Liquid Chamber TEM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying cell microstructures and their behaviors under living conditions has been a challenging subject in microbiology. In this work, in situ liquid chamber TEM was used to study structures of Escherichia coli cells in aqueous solutions at a nanometer-scale resolution. Most of the cells remained intact under electron beam irradiation, and nanoscale structures were observed during the TEM imaging. The analysis revealed structures of pili surrounding the E. coli cells; the movements of the pili in the liquid were also observed during the in situ tests. This technology also allowed the observation of features of the nucleoid in the E. coli cells. Overall, in situ TEM can be applied as a valuable tool to study real-time microscopic structures and processes in microbial cells residing in native aqueous solutions.

  4. In situ mechanical TEM: seeing and measuring under stress with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, M.

    2014-01-01

    From the first observation of moving dislocations in 1956 to the latest developments of piezo-actuated sample holders and direct electron sensing cameras in modern transmission electron microscopes (TEM), in situ mechanical testing has brought an unequaled view of the involved mechanisms during the plastic deformation of materials. Although MEMS-based or load-cell equipped holders provide an almost direct measure of these quantities, deriving stress and strain from in situ TEM experiments has an extensive history. Nowadays, the realization of a complete mechanical test while observing the evolution of a dislocation structure is possible, and it constitutes the perfect combination to explore size effects in plasticity. New cameras, data acquisition rates and intrinsic image-related techniques, such as holography, should extend the efficiency and capabilities of in situ deformation inside a TEM. (author)

  5. In situ TEM-tandem/implanter interface facility in Wuhan University for investigation of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liping; Li Ming; Liu Chuansheng; Song Bo; Ye Mingsheng; Fan Xiangjun; Fu Dejun

    2007-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM) interfaced to one or more ion implanters and/or accelerators, i.e. in situ TEM, provides effective tools to observe microstructural changes of studied samples during the ion irradiation. Evolution of both radiation damages and irradiation-induced nano-sized microstructures can be investigated with this technique, much more convenient than conventional ex situ techniques. In situ TEM technique has been widely applied in various fields, especially in the study of radiation damages of structural materials of fission and fusion nuclear reactors, and in evaluation and qualification of radioactive waste forms. Nowadays there are more than a dozen such facilities located in Japan, France, and the United States. Recently, we have constructed the first TEM-Tandem/Implanter interface facility of China in Wuhan University. A modified Hitachi H800 TEM was interfaced to a 200 kV ion implanter and a 2 x 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. Effective steps were taken to isolate the TEM from mechanical vibration from the ion beam line, and no obvious wobbling of the TEM image was observed during the ion implantation. The amorphization process of Si crystal irradiated by 115 keV N + ion beam was observed in the primary experiments, demonstrating that this interface facility is capable of in situ study of radiation effects. An online low energy gaseous ion source which may provide 1-20 keV H + and He + is under construction. (authors)

  6. Novel in-situ lamella fabrication technique for in-situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Megan; Daly, Dermot; Rummel, Andreas; McCarthy, Eoin K; McAuley, Cathal; Nicolosi, Valeria

    2018-03-29

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy is rapidly emerging as the premier technique for characterising materials in a dynamic state on the atomic scale. The most important aspect of in-situ studies is specimen preparation. Specimens must be electron transparent and representative of the material in its operational state, amongst others. Here, a novel fabrication technique for the facile preparation of lamellae for in-situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation using focused ion beam milling is developed. This method involves the use of rotating microgrippers during the lift-out procedure, as opposed to the traditional micromanipulator needle and platinum weld. Using rotating grippers, and a unique adhesive substance, lamellae are mounted onto a MEMS device for in-situ TEM annealing experiments. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to avoid platinum deposition as well as minimising damage to the MEMS device during the thinning process. Our technique is both a cost effective and readily implementable alternative to the current generation of preparation methods for in-situ liquid, electrical, mechanical and thermal experimentation within the TEM as well as traditional cross-sectional lamella preparation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of clustering on the mobility of dislocations during aging in Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels: In situ heating TEM observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Sachin L.; Xie, Kelvin Y.; Ringer, Simon P.; Carpenter, Kristin R.; Smith, David R.; Killmore, Chris R.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cluster-strengthened Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels are of interest as clustering during aging leads to an enhancement in strength without compromising ductility, resulting in desirable mechanical properties. However, the precise strengthening mechanism is not well understood. Using in situ heating transmission electron microscopy, clustering was found to impede the movement of dislocations during aging. The attractive combination of ductility and strength was attributed to the effects of recovery and the restricted movement of dislocations through clustering

  8. Establishment of in situ TEM-implanter/accelerator interface facility at Wuhan University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, L.P.; Liu, C.S.; Li, M.; Song, B.; Ye, M.S.; Fu, D.J.; Fan, X.J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to perform in situ investigations on the evolution of microstructures during ion irradiation for the evaluation of irradiation-resistance performance of advanced materials, we have established a transmission electron microscope (TEM)-implanter/accelerator interface facility at Wuhan University, the first of its kind in China. A Hitachi H800 TEM was linked to a 200 kV ion implanter and a 2x1.7 MV tandem accelerator through the interface system designed on the basis of ion beam transportation calculations. Effective steps were taken to isolate the TEM from mechanical vibration transmitted from the ion beam lines, and no significant degradation of microscope resolution was observed when the TEM operated under high zoom modes during the ion implantation. In the test experiments, ion beams of N + , He + , Ar + , and H + were successfully transported from the implanter into the TEM chamber through the interface system, and the ion currents measured at the entrance of the TEM column were between 20 and 80 nA. The amorphisation process of Si crystal irradiated by N + ion beams was successfully observed in the preliminary experiments, demonstrating that this interface facility is capable of in situ study of ion irradiated samples

  9. In Situ TEM Creation and Electrical Characterization of Nanowire Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Christian; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Booth, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    bridge devices in situ and relate these to the structure. We also describe processes to modify the contact and the nanowire surface after device formation. The technique we describe allows the direct analysis of the processes taking place during device formation and use, correlating specific nanoscale......We demonstrate the observation and measurement of simple nanoscale devices over their complete lifecycle from creation to failure within a transmission electron microscope. Devices were formed by growing Si nanowires, using the vapor–liquid–solid method, to form bridges between Si cantilevers. We...... structural and electrical parameters on an individual device basis....

  10. Coarsening of Pd nanoparticles in an oxidizing atmosphere studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The coarsening of supported palladium nanoparticles in an oxidizing atmosphere was studied in situ by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Specifically, the Pd nanoparticles were dispersed on a planar and amorphous Al2O3 support and were observed during the exposure to 10 mbar technical...... for the Ostwald ripening process indicates that the observed change in the particle size distribution can be accounted for by wetting of the Al2O3 support by the larger Pd nanoparticles....

  11. In Situ High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Observation of Sn Nanoparticles on SnO2 Nanotubes Under Lithiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jun Young; Chang, Joon Ha; Kim, Sung Joo; Kim, Chanhoon; Seo, Hyeon Kook; Shin, Jae Won; Yuk, Jong Min; Lee, Jeong Yong; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-12-01

    We trace Sn nanoparticles (NPs) produced from SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) during lithiation initialized by high energy e-beam irradiation. The growth dynamics of Sn NPs is visualized in liquid electrolytes by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. The observation reveals that Sn NPs grow on the surface of SnO2 NTs via coalescence and the final shape of agglomerated NPs is governed by surface energy of the Sn NPs and the interfacial energy between Sn NPs and SnO2 NTs. Our result will likely benefit more rational material design of the ideal interface for facile ion insertion.

  12. In-situ TEM study of dislocation patterning during deformation in single crystal aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, P; Shneck, R Z; Makov, G; Venkert, A

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of dislocation patterns in single crystal aluminum was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ tensile tests of single crystals were carried out in a manner that activated double slip. Cross slip of dislocations, which is prominent in all stages of work hardening, plays an important role in dislocation motion and microstructural evolution. In spite of the limitations of in-situ straining to represent bulk phenomena, due to surface effects and the thickness of the samples, it is shown that experiments on prestrained samples can represent the early stages of deformation. Transition between stage I and stage II of work hardening and evolution during stage III were observed.

  13. Microfabricated Nanofluidic cells for in situ liquid TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganà, Simone

    Over the last decade, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been revolutionized not only by the introduction of new and very sophisticated hardware for improved resolution, such as aberration correctors and monochromators, but also by the improvement of new methods that have provided more than......, allowing quantitative and high-precision acquisition of liquid thickness maps, high resolution observations and meaningful information about synthesis of NPs from metal precursor solutions in confined space. Finally, a new concept device based on a Si3N4 membrane for plunge freezing fixation, which enables...

  14. The adhesion behavior of carbon coating studied by re-indentation during in situ TEM nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xue; Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: Nanoscale adhesion induced response in terms of re-indentation was directly observed. During unloading (start from B), the re-indentation phenomenon with the displacement sudden drop and the external loading force change from tension (C) to compression (D) within 0.1 s was captured by in situ TEM nanoindentation. - Highlights: • In situ TEM nanoindentation was performed on carbon coating. • Adhesion induced nano-response of re-indentation was directly observed. • Adhesive forces were measured from the load–displacement curves. • Adhesion energies released for re-indentation were quantitatively analyzed. • Carbon coating reduced the impact of adhesion for silicon substrate. - Abstract: We report a nanoscale adhesion induced nano-response in terms of re-indentation during in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanoindentation on the carbon coating with silicon substrate. The adhesive force generated with nanoindentation was measured, and re-indentation phenomenon during unloading with displacement sudden drop and external loading force change from tension to compression was found. The occurrence of re-indentation during unloading was ascribed to the adhesive force of the contact interface between the indenter and the coating surface. Adhesion energies released for re-indentation processes were quantitatively analyzed from the re-indentation load–displacement curves, and carbon coating reduced the impact of adhesion for silicon substrate. The adhesion induced nano-response of contact surfaces would affect the reliability and performance of nano devices.

  15. In Situ TEM Multi-Beam Ion Irradiation as a Technique for Elucidating Synergistic Radiation Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caitlin; Bufford, Daniel; Muntifering, Brittany; Senor, David; Steckbeck, Mackenzie; Davis, Justin; Doyle, Barney; Buller, Daniel; Hattar, Khalid

    2017-09-29

    Materials designed for nuclear reactors undergo microstructural changes resulting from a combination of several environmental factors, including neutron irradiation damage, gas accumulation and elevated temperatures. Typical ion beam irradiation experiments designed for simulating a neutron irradiation environment involve irradiating the sample with a single ion beam and subsequent characterization of the resulting microstructure, often by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This method does not allow for examination of microstructural effects due to simultaneous gas accumulation and displacement cascade damage, which occurs in a reactor. Sandia’s in situ ion irradiation TEM (I3TEM) offers the unique ability to observe microstructural changes due to irradiation damage caused by concurrent multi-beam ion irradiation in real time. This allows for time-dependent microstructure analysis. A plethora of additional in situ stages can be coupled with these experiments, e.g., for more accurately simulating defect kinetics at elevated reactor temperatures. This work outlines experiments showing synergistic effects in Au using in situ ion irradiation with various combinations of helium, deuterium and Au ions, as well as some initial work on materials utilized in tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs): zirconium alloys and LiAlO2.

  16. In Situ TEM Multi-Beam Ion Irradiation as a Technique for Elucidating Synergistic Radiation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Anne Taylor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Materials designed for nuclear reactors undergo microstructural changes resulting from a combination of several environmental factors, including neutron irradiation damage, gas accumulation and elevated temperatures. Typical ion beam irradiation experiments designed for simulating a neutron irradiation environment involve irradiating the sample with a single ion beam and subsequent characterization of the resulting microstructure, often by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. This method does not allow for examination of microstructural effects due to simultaneous gas accumulation and displacement cascade damage, which occurs in a reactor. Sandia’s in situ ion irradiation TEM (I3TEM offers the unique ability to observe microstructural changes due to irradiation damage caused by concurrent multi-beam ion irradiation in real time. This allows for time-dependent microstructure analysis. A plethora of additional in situ stages can be coupled with these experiments, e.g., for more accurately simulating defect kinetics at elevated reactor temperatures. This work outlines experiments showing synergistic effects in Au using in situ ion irradiation with various combinations of helium, deuterium and Au ions, as well as some initial work on materials utilized in tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs: zirconium alloys and LiAlO2.

  17. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests of ion irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K.H., E-mail: kaylayano@u.boisestate.edu [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Swenson, M.J. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Wu, Y. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID, 83401 (United States); Wharry, J.P. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The growing role of charged particle irradiation in the evaluation of nuclear reactor candidate materials requires the development of novel methods to assess mechanical properties in near-surface irradiation damage layers just a few micrometers thick. In situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) mechanical testing is one such promising method. In this work, microcompression pillars are fabricated from a Fe{sup 2+} ion irradiated bulk specimen of a model Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy. Yield strengths measured directly from TEM in situ compression tests are within expected values, and are consistent with predictions based on the irradiated microstructure. Measured elastic modulus values, once adjusted for the amount of deformation and deflection in the base material, are also within the expected range. A pillar size effect is only observed in samples with minimum dimension ≤100 nm due to the low inter-obstacle spacing in the as received and irradiated material. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests hold great promise for quantitatively determining mechanical properties of shallow ion-irradiated layers.

  18. In-situ TEM Studies : Heat-treatment and Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malladi, S.R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been well known as a powerful characterisation tool to understand the structure and composition of various materials down to the atomic level. Over the years, several TEM studies have been carried out to understand the compositional, structural and

  19. In-situ TEM studies of microstructure evolution under ion irradiation for nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoumi, D.

    2011-01-01

    One of the difficulties of studying processes occurring under irradiation (in a reactor environment) is the lack of kinetics information since usually samples are examined ex situ (i.e. after irradiation) so that only snapshots of the process are available. Given the dynamic nature of the phenomena, direct in situ observation is invaluable for better understanding the mechanisms, kinetics and driving forces of the processes involved. This can be done using in situ ion irradiation in a TEM at the IVEM facility at Argonne National Laboratory which, in the USA, is a unique facility. To predict the in reactor behavior of alloys, it is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of radiation damage formation (loop density, defect interactions) and accumulation (loop evolution, precipitation or dissolution of second phases etc.). In-situ Ion-irradiation in a TEM has proven a very good tool for that purpose as it allows for the direct determination of the formation and evolution of irradiation-induced damage and the spatial correlation of the defect structures with the pre-existing microstructure (including lath boundaries, network dislocations and carbides) as a function of dose, dose rate, temperature and ion type. Using this technique, different aspects of microstructure evolution under irradiation were studied, such as defect cluster formation and evolution as a function of dose in advanced Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) steels, the irradiation stability of precipitates in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels, and irradiation-induced grain-growth. Such studies will be reported in this presentation

  20. Nucleation and Nanometric Inhomogeneity in Niobiogermanate Glass: In-Situ Inelastic Light Scattering and TEM Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y; Ihara, R; Fujiwara, T; Osada, M; Masai, H

    2011-01-01

    We performed in-situ inelastic light scattering measurement in KNbGeO 5 glass with a high nucleation ability during heating in order to elucidate nanocrystallization dynamics. The results of the in-situ measurement and TEM observation revealed that nanometric heterogeneous region (∼1-2 nm) consisting of the Nb-richer phase develops, i.e., K 3 Nb 7 O 19 , at the temperature, in which glassy-supercooled-liquid (SCL) phase-transition occurs, i.e., precursive stage of nanocrystallization. This strongly suggests that evolution of the nanometric Nb-richer phase in the SCL phase corresponds to nucleation in the KNbGeO 5 glass.

  1. In-Situ TEM Study of a Nanoporous Ni–Co Catalyst Used for the Dry Reforming of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Fujita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We performed in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM on a dealloyed nanoporous NiCo catalyst used for the dry reforming of methane (DRM to investigate the origin of the catalytic activity and structural durability. The in-situ observations and local chemical analysis indicated that the DRM induced chemical demixing of Ni and Co accompanied by grain refinement, implying possible “synergic effects” in a general bimetallic NiCo catalyst when used for the DRM.

  2. In situ TEM experiments of electrochemical lithiation and delithiation of individual nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao Hua; Liu, Yang; Huang, Jian Yu [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Kushima, Akihiro; Li, Ju [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Zhang, Sulin [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania (United States); Zhu, Ting [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Understanding the microscopic mechanisms of electrochemical reaction and material degradation is crucial for the rational design of high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A novel nanobattery assembly and testing platform inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been designed, which allows a direct study of the structural evolution of individual nanowire or nanoparticle electrodes with near-atomic resolution in real time. In this review, recent progresses in the study of several important anode materials are summarized. The consistency between in situ and ex situ results is shown, thereby validating the new in situ testing paradigm. Comparisons between a variety of nanostructures lead to the conclusion that electrochemical reaction and mechanical degradation are material specific, size dependent, and geometrically and compositionally sensitive. For example, a highly anisotropic lithiation in Si is observed, in contrast to the nearly isotropic response in Ge. The Ge nanowires can develop a spongy network, a unique mechanism for mitigating the large volume changes during cycling. The Si nanoparticles show a critical size of {proportional_to}150 nm below which fracture is averted during lithiation, and above which surface cracking, rather than central cracking, is observed. In carbonaceous nanomaterials, the lithiated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are drastically embrittled, while few-layer graphene nanoribbons remain mechanically robust after lithiation. This distinct contrast manifests a strong 'geometrical embrittlement' effect as compared to a relatively weak 'chemical embrittlement' effect. In oxide nanowires, discrete cracks in ZnO nanowires are generated near the lithiation reaction front, leading to leapfrog cracking, while a mobile dislocation cloud at the reaction front is observed in SnO{sub 2} nanowires. This contrast is corroborated by ab initio calculations that indicate a strong chemical embrittlement of Zn

  3. In Situ Environmental TEM in Imaging Gas and Liquid Phase Chemical Reactions for Materials Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Shan, Hao; Chen, Wenlong; Gu, Xin; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Gas and liquid phase chemical reactions cover a broad range of research areas in materials science and engineering, including the synthesis of nanomaterials and application of nanomaterials, for example, in the areas of sensing, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and bio-related applications. Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) provides a unique opportunity for monitoring gas and liquid phase reactions because it enables the observation of those reactions at the ultra-high spatial resolution, which is not achievable through other techniques. Here, the fundamental science and technology developments of gas and liquid phase TEM that facilitate the mechanistic study of the gas and liquid phase chemical reactions are discussed. Combined with other characterization tools integrated in TEM, unprecedented material behaviors and reaction mechanisms are observed through the use of the in situ gas and liquid phase TEM. These observations and also the recent applications in this emerging area are described. The current challenges in the imaging process are also discussed, including the imaging speed, imaging resolution, and data management. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Behaviour of TEM metal grids during in-situ heating experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaoli; Su, Dangsheng

    2009-05-01

    The stability of Ni, Cu, Mo and Au transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids coated with ultra-thin amorphous carbon (alpha-C) or silicon monoxide film is examined by in-situ heating up to a temperature in the range 500-850 degrees C in a transmission electron microscope. It is demonstrated that some grids can generate nano-particles either due to the surface diffusion of metal atoms on amorphous film or due to the metal evaporation/redeposition. The emergence of nano-particles can complicate experimental observations, particularly in in-situ heating studies of dynamic behaviours of nano-materials in TEM. The most widely used Cu grid covered with amorphous carbon is unstable, and numerous Cu nano-particles start to form once the heating temperature reaches 600 degrees C. In the case of Ni grid covered with alpha-C film, a large number of Ni nano-crystals occur immediately when the temperature approaches 600 degrees C, accompanied by the graphitization of amorphous carbon. In contrast, both Mo and Au grids covered with alpha-C film exhibit good stability at elevated temperature, for instance, up to 680 and 850 degrees C for Mo and Au, respectively, and any other metal nano-particles are detected. Cu grid covered Si monoxide thin film is stable up to 550 degrees C, but Si nano-crystals appear under intensive electron beam. The generated nano-particles are well characterized by spectroscopic techniques (EDXS/EELS) and high-resolution TEM. The mechanism of nano-particle formation is addressed based on the interactions between the metal grid and the amorphous carbon film and on the sublimation of metal.

  5. Quantitative in situ TEM tensile testing of an individual nickel nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yang; Peng Cheng; Ganesan, Yogeeswaran; Lou Jun; Huang Jianyu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated the usage of a novel micro-mechanical device (MMD) to perform quantitative in situ tensile tests on individual metallic nanowires inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Our preliminary experiment on a 360 nm diameter nickel nanowire showed that the sample fractured at an engineering stress of ∼ 1.2 GPa and an engineering strain of ∼ 4%, which is consistent with earlier experiments performed inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). With in situ high resolution TEM imaging and diffraction capabilities, this novel experimental set-up could provide unique opportunities to reveal the underlying deformation and damage mechanisms for metals at the nanoscale.

  6. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Hongyu; Lei, Shuangying; Sun, Jun; Chen, Jing; Ge, Binghui; Zhu, Yimei; Sun, Litao

    2016-07-14

    Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. The results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.

  7. Determination of the initial oxidation behavior of Zircaloy-4 by in-situ TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlow, Wayne; Ghassemi, Hessam; Taheri, Mitra L.

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4), specifically by oxidation, is a problem of great importance as this material is critical for current nuclear reactor cladding. The early formation behavior and structure of the oxide layer during oxidation was studied using in-situ TEM techniques that allowed for Zry-4 to be monitored during corrosion. These environmental exposure experiments were coupled with precession electron diffraction to identify and quantify the phases present in the samples before and after the oxidation. Following short-term, high temperature oxidation, the dominant phase was revealed to be monoclinic ZrO 2 in a columnar structure. These samples oxidized in-situ contained structures that correlated well with bulk Zry-4 subjected to autoclave treatment, which were used for comparison and validation of this technique. By using in-situ TEM the effect of microstructure features, such as grain boundaries, on oxidation behavior of an alloy can be studied. The technique presented herein holds the potential to be applied any alloy system to study these effects. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM was used to oxidize samples of Zircaloy-4. • Similar behavior was found in the in-situ oxidized and autoclave-oxidized samples. • Precession diffraction was used to characterize oxide phase and texture.

  8. Localised corrosion in aluminium alloy 2024-T3 using in situ TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malladi, S.; Shen, C.; Xu, Q.; De Kruijff, T.; Yücelen, E.; Tichelaar, F.; Zandbergen, H.

    2013-01-01

    An approach to carry out chemical reactions using aggressive gases in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), at ambient pressures of 1.5 bar using a windowed environmental cell, called a nanoreactor, is presented here. The nanoreactor coupled with a specially developed holder with

  9. Soft nanomaterials analysed by in situ liquid TEM: Towards high resolution characterisation of nanoparticles in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Patterson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM of soft, synthetic nanoparticles with a comparative analysis using conventional TEM methods. This comparison is made with the simple aim of describing what is an unprecedented example of in situ imaging by TEM. However, we contend the technique will quickly become essential in the characterisation of analogous systems, especially where dynamics are of interest in the solvated state. In this case, particles were studied which were obtained from the direct polymerisation of an oxaliplatin analogue, designed for an ongoing programme in novel chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The resulting nanoparticles provided sufficient contrast for facile imaging in situ, and point towards key design parameters that enable this new characterisation approach for organic nanomaterials. We describe the preparation of the synthetic nanoparticles together with their characterisation in liquid water. Finally, we provide a future perspective of this technique for the analysis of soft and dynamic nanomaterials and discussion the progress which needs to be made in order to bring in situ liquid TEM to its full potential.

  10. Characterising ambient and vacuum performance of a miniaturised TEM nanoindenter for in-situ material deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J J; Lockwood, A J; Gay, R; Inkson, B J [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield SI 3JD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: beverley.inkson@Sheffield.ac.uk

    2008-08-15

    A miniaturised nanomanipulation and nanoindentation system has been designed and manufactured to perform sub-micron localised in-situ deformation studies in a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The nanomanipulation drive comprises two independent mechanisms for both coarse and fine positioning of sharp indenter tips. Small slip-stick inertial sliders are used to coarsely position a tip which fits inside a bespoke hollowed specimen holder for a JEOL (Japan) 2010/3010 series microscope. The coarse drive comprises three fully independent sliders which are set mutually perpendicular to one another (x, y and z) with a range > 1 mm and resolution {approx} 100 nm. Fine positioning is achieved with a quartered piezoelectric tube with range {approx} 2 {mu}m and resolution < 1 A. Optical displacement sensors have been used to characterise the nanomanipulation drive performance including total displacement rate and step size in ambient conditions. These are compared to the operation of the drive within a TEM under vacuum conditions. TEM observations at high magnification enable optimisation of the fine and coarse motion and overall drive stiffness.

  11. Dynamics of electrochemical lithiation/delithiation of graphene-encapsulated silicon nanoparticles studied by in-situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Luo, Jiayan; Huang, Jiaxing; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2014-01-24

    The incorporation of nanostructured carbon has been recently reported as an effective approach to improve the cycling stability when Si is used as high-capacity anodes for the next generation Li-ion battery. However, the mechanism of such notable improvement remains unclear. Herein, we report in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies to directly observe the dynamic electrochemical lithiation/delithiation processes of crumpled graphene-encapsulated Si nanoparticles to understand their physical and chemical transformations. Unexpectedly, in the first lithiation process, crystalline Si nanoparticles undergo an isotropic to anisotropic transition, which is not observed in pure crystalline and amorphous Si nanoparticles. Such a surprising phenomenon arises from the uniformly distributed localized voltage around the Si nanoparticles due to the highly conductive graphene sheets. It is observed that the intimate contact between graphene and Si is maintained during volume expansion/contraction. Electrochemical sintering process where small Si nanoparticles react and merge together to form large agglomerates following spikes in localized electric current is another problem for batteries. In-situ TEM shows that graphene sheets help maintain the capacity even in the course of electrochemical sintering. Such in-situ TEM observations provide valuable phenomenological insights into electrochemical phenomena, which may help optimize the configuration for further improved performance.

  12. TEM in situ cube-corner indentation analysis using ViBe motion detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, K. H.; Thomas, S.; Swenson, M. J.; Lu, Y.; Wharry, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) in situ mechanical testing is a promising method for understanding plasticity in shallow ion irradiated layers and other volume-limited materials. One of the simplest TEM in situ experiments is cube-corner indentation of a lamella, but the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the experiment is challenging, especially in engineering materials with complex microstructures. In this work, we: (a) develop MicroViBE, a motion detection and background subtraction-based post-processing approach, and (b) demonstrate the ability of MicroViBe, in combination with post-mortem TEM imaging, to carry out an unbiased qualitative interpretation of TEM indentation videos. We focus this work around a Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy, irradiated with Fe2+ ions to 3 dpa at 500 °C. MicroViBe identifies changes in Laue contrast that are induced by the indentation; these changes accumulate throughout the mechanical loading to generate a "heatmap" of features in the original TEM video that change the most during the loading. Dislocation loops with b = ½ identified by post-mortem scanning TEM (STEM) imaging correspond to hotspots on the heatmap, whereas positions of dislocation loops with b = do not correspond to hotspots. Further, MicroViBe enables consistent, objective quantitative approximation of the b = ½ dislocation loop number density.

  13. A flexible multi-stimuli in situ (S)TEM: Concept, optical performance, and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Börrnert, Felix; Müller, Heiko; Riedel, Thomas; Linck, Martin; Kirkland, Angus I.; Haider, Max.; Büchner, Bernd; Lichte, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    The progress in (scanning) transmission electron microscopy development had led to an unprecedented knowledge of the microscopic structure of functional materials at the atomic level. Additionally, although not widely used yet, electron holography is capable to map the electric and magnetic potential distributions at the sub-nanometer scale. Nevertheless, in situ studies inside a (scanning) transmission electron microscope ((S)TEM) are extremely challenging because of the much restricted size and accessibility of the sample space. Here, we introduce a concept for a dedicated in situ (S)TEM with a large sample chamber for flexible multi-stimuli experimental setups and report about the electron optical performance of the instrument. We demonstrate a maximum resolving power of about 1 nm in conventional imaging mode and substantially better than 5 nm in scanning mode while providing an effectively usable “pole piece gap” of 70 mm. - Highlights: • A concept for a (S)TEM with a large sample chamber is outlined. • An actual microscope is modified and has now a 70 mm high sample space. • The resolving power is about 1 nm in TEM and better than 5 nm in STEM mode. • Possible dedicated in situ microscopes with present technology are discussed

  14. A flexible multi-stimuli in situ (S)TEM: Concept, optical performance, and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Börrnert, Felix, E-mail: felix.boerrnert@triebenberg.de [Speziallabor Triebenberg, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); IFW Dresden, PF 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Müller, Heiko; Riedel, Thomas; Linck, Martin [CEOS GmbH, Englerstraße 28, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Kirkland, Angus I. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Haider, Max. [CEOS GmbH, Englerstraße 28, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Büchner, Bernd [IFW Dresden, PF 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Lichte, Hannes [Speziallabor Triebenberg, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The progress in (scanning) transmission electron microscopy development had led to an unprecedented knowledge of the microscopic structure of functional materials at the atomic level. Additionally, although not widely used yet, electron holography is capable to map the electric and magnetic potential distributions at the sub-nanometer scale. Nevertheless, in situ studies inside a (scanning) transmission electron microscope ((S)TEM) are extremely challenging because of the much restricted size and accessibility of the sample space. Here, we introduce a concept for a dedicated in situ (S)TEM with a large sample chamber for flexible multi-stimuli experimental setups and report about the electron optical performance of the instrument. We demonstrate a maximum resolving power of about 1 nm in conventional imaging mode and substantially better than 5 nm in scanning mode while providing an effectively usable “pole piece gap” of 70 mm. - Highlights: • A concept for a (S)TEM with a large sample chamber is outlined. • An actual microscope is modified and has now a 70 mm high sample space. • The resolving power is about 1 nm in TEM and better than 5 nm in STEM mode. • Possible dedicated in situ microscopes with present technology are discussed.

  15. Polycrystalline oxides formation during transient oxidation of (001) Cu-Ni binary alloys studied by in situ TEM and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.C.; Li, Z.Q.; Sun, L.; Zhou, G.W.; Eastman, J.A.; Fong, D.D.; Fuoss, P.H.; Baldo, P.M.; Rehn, L.E.; Thompson, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of Cu 2 O and NiO islands due to oxidation of Cu x Ni 1-x (001) films were monitored, at various temperatures, by in situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). In remarkable contrast to our previous observations of Cu and Cu-Au oxidation, irregular-shaped polycrystalline oxide islands formed with respect to the Cu-Ni alloy film, and an unusual second oxide nucleation stage was noted. In situ XRD experiments revealed that NiO formed first epitaxially, then other orientations appeared, and finally polycrystalline Cu 2 O developed as the oxidation pressure was increased. The segregation of Ni and Cu towards or away, respectively, from the alloy surface during oxidation could disrupt the surface and cause polycrystalline oxide formation.

  16. In situ TEM investigation of microstructural behavior of superplastic Al-Mg-Sc alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dám, Karel; Lejček, Pavel; Michalcová, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 2 (2013), s. 69-75 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA MŠk LM2011026; GA AV ČR KAN300100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : aluminium alloy s * ultrafine-grained alloy s * in situ TEM * equal-channel angular pressing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.925, year: 2013

  17. In Situ TEM Scratch Testing of Perpendicular Magnetic Recording Multilayers with a Novel MEMS Tribometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsala, Eric D.; Stauffer, Douglas D.; Oh, Yunje; Asif, S. A. Syed

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing a newly developed two-dimensional (2D) transducer designed for in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanotribology, deformation mechanisms of a perpendicular magnetic recording film stack under scratch loading conditions were evaluated. These types of films are widely utilized in storage devices, and loss of data by grain reorientation in the recording layers is of interest. The observed deformation was characterized by a stick-slip mechanism, which was induced by a critical ratio of lateral to normal force regardless of normal force. At low applied normal forces, the diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating and asperities in the recording layer were removed during scratching, while, at higher applied forces, grain reorientation and debonding of the recording layer was observed. As the normal force and displacement were increased, work for stick-slip deformation and contact stress were found to increase based upon an Archard's Law analysis. These experiments also served as an initial case study demonstrating the capabilities of this new transducer.

  18. Laser Based In Situ Techniques: Novel Methods for Generating Extreme Conditions in TEM Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, M; Lagrange, T; Reed, B; Armstrong, M; Campbell, G; DeHope, W; Kim, J; King, W; Masiel, D; Browning, N

    2008-02-25

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) is introduced as a novel tool for in situ processing of materials. Examples of various types of dynamic studies outline the advantages and differences of laser-based heating in the DTEM in comparison to conventional (resistive) heating in situ TEM methods. We demonstrate various unique capabilities of the drive laser, namely, in situ processing of nanoscale materials, rapid and high temperature phase transformations, and controlled thermal activation of materials. These experiments would otherwise be impossible without the use of the DTEM drive laser. Thus, the potential of the DTEM to as a new technique to process and characterize the growth of a myriad of micro and nanostructures is demonstrated.

  19. Cassette-based in-situ TEM sample inspection in the dual-beam FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, A B; Moore, T M; Zaykova-Feldman, L; Amador, G; Hammer, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel method is presented, combining site-specific TEM sample preparation and in-situ STEM analysis in a dual-beam microscope (FIB/SEM) fitted with a chamber mounted nano-manipulator. TEM samples are prepared using a modified in-situ, lift-out method, whereby the samples are thinned and oriented for immediate in-situ STEM analysis using the tilt, translation, and rotation capabilities of a FIB/SEM sample stage, a nano-manipulator, and a novel cassette. This cassette can provide a second tilt axis, orthogonal to the stage tilt axis, so that the STEM image contrast can be optimized to reveal the structural features of the sample (true STEM imaging in the FIB/SEM). The angles necessary for stage rotation and probe shaft rotation are calculated based on the position of the nano-manipulator relative to the stage and door and the stage tilt angle. A FIB/SEM instrument, equipped with a high resolution scanning electron column, can provide sufficiently high image resolution to enable many failure analysis and process control applications to be successfully carried out without requiring the use of a separate dedicated TEM/STEM instrument. The benefits of this novel approach are increased throughput and reduced cost per sample. Comparative analysis of different sample preparation methods is provided, and the STEM images obtained are shown.

  20. In situ TEM/SEM electronic/mechanical characterization of nano material with MEMS chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuelin; Li Tie; Zhang Xiao; Zeng Hongjiang; Jin Qinhua

    2014-01-01

    Our investigation of in situ observations on electronic and mechanical properties of nano materials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with the help of traditional micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology has been reviewed. Thanks to the stability, continuity and controllability of the loading force from the electrostatic actuator and the sensitivity of the sensor beam, a MEMS tensile testing chip for accurate tensile testing in the nano scale is obtained. Based on the MEMS chips, the scale effect of Young's modulus in silicon has been studied and confirmed directly in a tensile experiment using a transmission electron microscope. Employing the nanomanipulation technology and FIB technology, Cu and SiC nanowires have been integrated into the tensile testing device and their mechanical, electronic properties under different stress have been achieved, simultaneously. All these will aid in better understanding the nano effects and contribute to the designation and application in nano devices. (invited papers)

  1. In-situ irradiation of cerium precursors in TEM to study nanocrystal formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Sajid Ali; Sabri, Mohammed Mohammed; Tian, Zijian; Möbus, Günter

    2017-09-01

    Three of the most commonly used precursor chemicals for wet-chemical nano-ceria synthesis are examined by means of direct dry electron irradiation in TEM. Transformation reactions of micron-size carbonate, chloride, and nitrate grains into nanocrystallites (internal or external) are recorded in situ. Progress of possible redox-changes of cerium is tracked by EELS. We find a straight local oxidation reaction for carbonates, but external nanorod formation by condensation in the case of chlorides, while nitrates show a multi-stage complex redox behaviour.

  2. Sintering of oxide-supported Pt and Pd nanoparticles in air studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    This thesis presents a fundamental study of the sintering of supported nanoparticles in relation to diesel oxidation catalysts. The sintering of supported nanoparticles is an important challenge in relation to this catalyst, as well as many other catalyst systems, and a fundamental understanding...... of Pt, Pd and bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles supported on a flat and homogeneous Al2O3 or SiO2 surface. By using in situ TEM on the planar model catalysts it was possible to directly monitor the detailed dynamical changes of the individual nanoparticles during exposure to oxidizing conditions...

  3. In situ TEM study of deformation twinning in Ni-Mn-Ga non-modulated martensite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zárubová, Niva; Ge, Y.; Heczko, Oleg; Hannula, S.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 14 (2013), s. 5290-5299 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GAP107/12/0800; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Ni-Mn-Ga * in situ TEM * magnetic shape memory * deformation twinning * twinning dislocation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.940, year: 2013

  4. In situ TEM study of the coarsening of carbon black supported Pt nanoparticles in hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wang, Yan; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2017-01-01

    The control of sizes and shapes of nanostructures is of tremendous importance for the catalytic activity in electrochemistry and in catalysis more generally. However, due to relatively large surface free energies, nanostructures often sinter to form coarser and more stable structures that may...... not have the intended physicochemical properties. Pt is known to be a very active catalyst in several chemical reactions and for example as carbon supported nanoparticles in fuel cells. The presentation focusses on coarsening mechanisms of Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon black during exposure...... to hydrogen. By means of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Pt nanoparticle coarsening was monitored in 6 mbar 20 % H2/Ar while ramping up the temperature to ca. 900 °C. Time-resolved TEM images directly reveal that separated ca. 3 nm sized Pt nanoparticles in the pure hydrogen environment...

  5. In situ TEM Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.I., E-mail: fiallen@lbl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kim, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Andresen, N.C. [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grigoropoulos, C.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Minor, A.M., E-mail: aminor@lbl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present a modular assembly that enables both in situ Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing to be performed in a transmission electron microscope. The system comprises a lensed Raman probe mounted inside the microscope column in the specimen plane and a custom specimen holder with a vacuum feedthrough for a tapered optical fiber. The Raman probe incorporates both excitation and collection optics, and localized laser processing is performed using pulsed laser light delivered to the specimen via the tapered optical fiber. Precise positioning of the fiber is achieved using a nanomanipulation stage in combination with simultaneous electron-beam imaging of the tip-to-sample distance. Materials modification is monitored in real time by transmission electron microscopy. First results obtained using the assembly are presented for in situ pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} combined with Raman spectroscopy, complimented by electron-beam diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing in a TEM are demonstrated. • A lensed Raman probe is mounted in the sample chamber for close approach. • Localized laser processing is achieved using a tapered optical fiber. • Raman spectroscopy and pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} are performed in situ.

  6. In situ TEM Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.I.; Kim, E.; Andresen, N.C.; Grigoropoulos, C.P.; Minor, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a modular assembly that enables both in situ Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing to be performed in a transmission electron microscope. The system comprises a lensed Raman probe mounted inside the microscope column in the specimen plane and a custom specimen holder with a vacuum feedthrough for a tapered optical fiber. The Raman probe incorporates both excitation and collection optics, and localized laser processing is performed using pulsed laser light delivered to the specimen via the tapered optical fiber. Precise positioning of the fiber is achieved using a nanomanipulation stage in combination with simultaneous electron-beam imaging of the tip-to-sample distance. Materials modification is monitored in real time by transmission electron microscopy. First results obtained using the assembly are presented for in situ pulsed laser ablation of MoS_2 combined with Raman spectroscopy, complimented by electron-beam diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing in a TEM are demonstrated. • A lensed Raman probe is mounted in the sample chamber for close approach. • Localized laser processing is achieved using a tapered optical fiber. • Raman spectroscopy and pulsed laser ablation of MoS_2 are performed in situ.

  7. The Development of an In-Situ TEM Technique for Studying Corrosion Behavior as Applied to Zirconium-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Wayne

    Zirconium-based alloys are a commonly used material for nuclear fuel rod cladding, due to its low neutron cross section and good corrosion properties. However, corrosion is still a limiting factor in fuel rod lifespan, which restricts burn up levels, and thus efficiency, that can be achieved. While long-term corrosion behavior has been studied through both reactor and autoclave samples, the oxide nucleation and growth behavior has not been extensively studied. This work develops a new technique to study the initial stages of corrosion in zirconium-based alloys and the microstructural effects on this process by developing an environmental cell system for the TEM. Nanoscale oxidation parameters are developed, as is a new FIB technique to support this method. Precession diffraction is used in conjunction with in-situ TEM to observe the initial stages of corrosion in these alloys, and oxide thickness is estimated using low-loss EELS. In addition, the stress stabilization of tetragonal ZrO 2 is explored in the context of sample preparation for TEM. It was found that in-situ environmental TEM using an environmental cell replicates the oxidation behavior observed in autoclaved samples in both oxide structure and phases. Utilizing this technique, it was shown that cracking of the oxide layer in zirconium-based alloys is related to oxide relaxation, and not thermal changes. The effect of secondary phase particles on oxidation behavior did not present significant results, however a new method for studying initial oxidation rates using low-loss EELS was developed.

  8. In situ TEM investigation on the precipitation behavior of μ phase in Ni-base single crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shuang; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Li, Cai-Fu; Zhou, Yizhou; Jin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation behavior of μ phase in Ni-base single crystal superalloys was investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A layer-by-layer growth process with a ledge propagation mechanism was first observed during in situ precipitation. Three types of μ phase with different morphologies were found, which grow along [001] μ with (001) μ planar defects, [-111] μ with (1–12) μ planar defects, as well as both directions with mixed planar defects. High-resolution TEM image and established atomic models reveal a basic growth mechanism of μ phase by stacking on (001) μ plane and randomly forming coherent planar defects, while the nucleation of incoherent (1–12) μ planar defects at the early stage of precipitation plays an important role in affecting the basic growth mechanism. The frequent faults during the stacking process of the sub-unit layers within μ lattice should be responsible for the defect formation. -- Graphical abstract: In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations reveal the layer-by-layer growth mechanism of μ phase precipitated in Ni-base single crystal superalloys. Three types of μ phase with different morphologies were formed at 1050 °C, which grows along [001] μ with (001) μ planar defects, [-111] μ with (1–12) μ planar defects, as well as both directions with mixed planar defects respectively. Formation of (001) μ micro-twin and stacking fault is the essential feature for precipitated μ phase, while nucleation of incoherent (1–12) μ planar defects plays an important role in changing growth method. Display Omitted

  9. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Timothy John; Homann, Lasse Vinther; Kallesoe, Christian; Sukas, Ozlem Sardan; Molhave, Kristian; Boggild, Peter; Gyrsting, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Nano- and microelectromechanical structures for in situ operation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were fabricated with a turnaround time of 20 min and a resolution better than 100 nm. The structures are defined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in 135 nm thin membranes of single crystalline silicon extending over the edge of a pre-fabricated silicon microchip. Four-terminal resistance measurements of FIB-defined nanowires showed at least two orders of magnitude increase in resistivity compared to bulk. We show that the initial high resistance is due to amorphization of silicon, and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity. The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge, where local temperature gradients are controlled via the electrical current paths. The separation of device processing into a one-time batch-level fabrication of identical, generic membrane templates, and subsequent device-specific customization by FIB milling, provides unparalleled freedom in device layout combined with very short effective fabrication time. This approach significantly speeds up prototyping of nanodevices such as resonators, actuators, sensors and scanning probes with state-of-art resolution.

  10. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Timothy John; Homann, Lasse Vinther; Kallesoe, Christian; Sukas, Ozlem Sardan; Molhave, Kristian; Boggild, Peter [DTU Nanotech, Department of Nano- and Microtechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Gyrsting, Yvonne, E-mail: Anders.Lei@nanotech.dtu.dk [DTU Danchip, National Center for Micro- and Nanofabrication, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-10-08

    Nano- and microelectromechanical structures for in situ operation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were fabricated with a turnaround time of 20 min and a resolution better than 100 nm. The structures are defined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in 135 nm thin membranes of single crystalline silicon extending over the edge of a pre-fabricated silicon microchip. Four-terminal resistance measurements of FIB-defined nanowires showed at least two orders of magnitude increase in resistivity compared to bulk. We show that the initial high resistance is due to amorphization of silicon, and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity. The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge, where local temperature gradients are controlled via the electrical current paths. The separation of device processing into a one-time batch-level fabrication of identical, generic membrane templates, and subsequent device-specific customization by FIB milling, provides unparalleled freedom in device layout combined with very short effective fabrication time. This approach significantly speeds up prototyping of nanodevices such as resonators, actuators, sensors and scanning probes with state-of-art resolution.

  11. In-situ TEM investigations of graphic-epitaxy and small particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, K.

    1983-01-01

    Palladium was deposited inside a controlled-vacuum specimen chamber of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) onto MgO and alpha-alumina substrate surfaces. Annealing and various effects of gas exposure of the particulate Pd deposits were studied in-situ by high resolution TEM and electron diffraction. Whereas substrate temperatures of 500 C or annealing of room temperature (RT) deposits to 500 C were needed to obtain epitaxy on sapphire, RT deposits on MgO were perfectly epitaxial. For Pd/MgO a lattice expansion of 2 to 4% was noted; the highest values of expansion were found for the smallest particles. The lattice expansion of small Pd particles on alumina substrates was less than 1%. Long-time RT exposure of Pd/MgO in a vacuum yielded some moblity and coalescence events, but notably fewer than for Pd on sapphire. Exposure to air or oxygen greatly enhanced the particle mobility and coalescence and also resulted in the flattening of Pd particles on MgO substrates. Electron-beam irradiation further enhanced this effect. Exposure to air for several tens of hours of Pd/MgO led to strong coalescence.

  12. Irradiation-induced creep in metallic nanolaminates characterized by In situ TEM pillar nanocompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Shen J., E-mail: sdillon@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bufford, Daniel C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Jawaharram, Gowtham S.; Liu, Xuying; Lear, Calvin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Averback, Robert S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    This work reports on irradiation-induced creep (IIC) measured on nanolaminate (Cu-W and Ni-Ag) and nanocrystalline alloys (Cu-W) at room temperature using a combination of heavy ion irradiation and nanopillar compression performed concurrently in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Appreciable IIC is observed in multilayers with 50 nm layer thicknesses at high stress, ≈½ the yield strength, but not in multilayers with only 5 nm layer thicknesses.

  13. In-situ TEM imaging of the anisotropic etching of graphene by metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiake; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Hao; Tian, Xuezeng; Yang, Shize; Wang, Lifen; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong

    2014-11-21

    Few-layer graphene was successfully tailored with smooth edges along crystallographic directions by Joule heating-driven tungsten nanoparticles inside a transmission electron microscope. The dynamic process was monitored in real time at the atomic resolution level. These high-resolution in-situ observations show that the neighboring graphene layers joined together to form closed edges, which is in contrast to the supposed open edges formed with hydrogen passivation. The tungsten nanoparticles transformed to W₂C in the intermediate stage of etching and to WC after etching, suggesting that carbon dissolution helped the continuous action of the metal nanoparticles in the catalytic anisotropic etching reaction.

  14. Stability of Porous Platinum Nanoparticles: Combined In Situ TEM and Theoretical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Shery L. Y.; Barnard, Amanda S.; Dwyer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Porous platinum nanoparticles provide a route for the development of catalysts that use less platinum without sacrificing catalytic performance. Here, we examine porous platinum nanoparticles using a combination of in situ transmission electron microscopy and calculations based on a first-principles......-parametrized thermodynamic model. Our experimental observations show that the initially irregular morphologies of the as-sythesized porous nanoparticles undergo changes at high temperatures to morphologies having faceted external surfaces with voids present in the interior of the particles. The increasing size of stable...

  15. In situ oxidation of zirconium binary alloys by environmental SEM and analysis by AFM, FIB, and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proff, C.; Abolhassani, S.; Dadras, M.M.; Lemaignan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Binary Zr-alloys containing 1%Fe and 1% Ni (large precipitates) and 1% Cr and 0.6% Nb (small precipitates), as well as a pure Zr sample were exposed in situ at 130 Pa water vapour pressure at 415 o C in an environmental SEM. The surface topography and composition of each sample was characterised before in situ experiments, during and after oxidation. After oxidation the surface was characterised by SEM and EDS, AFM and TEM combined with EDS. Focused ion beam was used to prepare cross sections of the metal-oxide interface and for the preparation of TEM thin foils. The oxidation behaviour of precipitates for these alloying elements can be characterised into two large families, those which show a rapid oxidation and those which induce a delayed oxidation in comparison with the Zr-matrix. At 415 o C after 1 h of oxidation for Zr1%Fe and Zr1%Ni, the formation of protrusions could be detected at the surface, being related to underlying SPP in the oxide. On Zr1%Cr and Zr0.6%Nb unoxidised SPPs were observed in the oxide, close to the metal-oxide interface. These SPPs were, however, oxidised close to the outer surface of the oxide. The surface roughness was increased for all materials after in situ oxidation, however, only for Zr1%Fe and Zr1%Ni protrusions appeared on the surface during oxidation. It was subsequently demonstrated that these latter correspond to the position of SPPs. For Zr1%Fe the surface roughness increased more than in the other materials and on these protrusions small iron oxide crystals have been observed at the surface. These observations confirm that Fe has a different behaviour compared to the other SPP forming elements, and it diffuses out to the free surface of the material. These alloying elements being the constituents of the commercial alloys (Fe and Cr for Zircaloy-4; Fe, Cr and Ni for Zircaloy-2 and Nb for all Nb-containing alloys), this study allows to separate their individual influence and can allow a subsequent comparison to the behaviour

  16. Effects of size on the mechanical response of metallic glasses investigated through in situ TEM bending and compression experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.Q.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.T.M. De

    Quantitative bending and compression tests on micropillars made of two different amorphous alloys, with tip diameters ranging from 93 to 645 rim, are performed in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Under microcompression each pillar shows an intermittent plastic flow accommodated by

  17. Micromechanical and in situ shear testing of Al–SiC nanolaminate composites in a transmission electron microscope (TEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, C. [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Li, N.; Mara, N. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chawla, N., E-mail: nchawla@asu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Nanolaminate composites show promise as high strength and toughness materials. However, due to the limited volume of these materials, micron scale mechanical testing methods must be used to determine the properties of these films. To this end, a novel approach combining a double notch shear testing geometry and compression with a flat punch in a nanoindenter was developed to determine the mechanical properties of these films under shear loading. To further elucidate the failure mechanisms under shear loading, in situ TEM experiments were performed using a double notch geometry cut into the TEM foil. Aluminum layer thicknesses of 50 nm and 100 nm were used to show the effect of constraint on the deformation. Higher shear strength was observed in the 50 nm sample (690±54 MPa) compared to the 100 nm sample (423±28.7 MPa). Additionally, failure occurred close to the Al–SiC interface in the 50 nm sample as opposed to failure within the Al layer in the 100 nm sample.

  18. In situ TEM and synchrotron characterization of U–10Mo thin specimen annealed at the fast reactor temperature regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Di; Mo, Kun; Mohamed, Walid; Ye, Bei; Kirk, Marquis A.; Baldo, Peter; Xu, Ruqing; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2015-01-01

    U–Mo metallic alloys have been extensively used for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, which is now known as the Office of Material Management and Minimization under the Conversion Program. This fuel form has also recently been proposed as fast reactor metallic fuels in the recent DOE Ultra-high Burnup Fast Reactor project. In order to better understand the behavior of U–10Mo fuels within the fast reactor temperature regime, a series of annealing and characterization experiments have been performed. Annealing experiments were performed in situ at the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM-Tandem) facility at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). An electro-polished U–10Mo alloy fuel specimen was annealed in situ up to 700 °C. At an elevated temperature of about 540 °C, the U–10Mo specimen underwent a relatively slow microstructure transition. Nano-sized grains were observed to emerge near the surface. At the end temperature of 700 °C, the near-surface microstructure had evolved to a nano-crystalline state. In order to clarify the nature of the observed microstructure, Laue diffraction and powder diffraction experiments were carried out at beam line 34-ID of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at ANL. Phases present in the as-annealed specimen were identified with both Laue diffraction and powder diffraction techniques. The U–10Mo was found to recrystallize due to thermally-induced recrystallization driven by a high density of pre-existing dislocations. A separate in situ annealing experiment was carried out with a Focused Ion Beam processed (FIB) specimen. A similar microstructure transition occurred at a lower temperature of about 460 °C with a much faster transition rate compared to the electro-polished specimen. - Highlights: • TEM annealing experiments were performed in situ at the IVEM facility up to fast reactor temperature. • At 540 °C, the U-10Mo specimen underwent a slow microstructure transition

  19. In situ TEM and synchrotron characterization of U–10Mo thin specimen annealed at the fast reactor temperature regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Di, E-mail: diyun1979@xjtu.edu.cn [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Xi' an Jiao Tong University, 28 Xian Ning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); Mo, Kun; Mohamed, Walid; Ye, Bei; Kirk, Marquis A.; Baldo, Peter; Xu, Ruqing; Yacout, Abdellatif M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    U–Mo metallic alloys have been extensively used for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, which is now known as the Office of Material Management and Minimization under the Conversion Program. This fuel form has also recently been proposed as fast reactor metallic fuels in the recent DOE Ultra-high Burnup Fast Reactor project. In order to better understand the behavior of U–10Mo fuels within the fast reactor temperature regime, a series of annealing and characterization experiments have been performed. Annealing experiments were performed in situ at the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM-Tandem) facility at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). An electro-polished U–10Mo alloy fuel specimen was annealed in situ up to 700 °C. At an elevated temperature of about 540 °C, the U–10Mo specimen underwent a relatively slow microstructure transition. Nano-sized grains were observed to emerge near the surface. At the end temperature of 700 °C, the near-surface microstructure had evolved to a nano-crystalline state. In order to clarify the nature of the observed microstructure, Laue diffraction and powder diffraction experiments were carried out at beam line 34-ID of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at ANL. Phases present in the as-annealed specimen were identified with both Laue diffraction and powder diffraction techniques. The U–10Mo was found to recrystallize due to thermally-induced recrystallization driven by a high density of pre-existing dislocations. A separate in situ annealing experiment was carried out with a Focused Ion Beam processed (FIB) specimen. A similar microstructure transition occurred at a lower temperature of about 460 °C with a much faster transition rate compared to the electro-polished specimen. - Highlights: • TEM annealing experiments were performed in situ at the IVEM facility up to fast reactor temperature. • At 540 °C, the U-10Mo specimen underwent a slow microstructure transition

  20. Atomic-resolution environmental TEM for quantitative in-situ microscopy in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Seiji; Yoshida, Hideto

    2013-02-01

    We have compiled our recent in-situ quantitative environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) studies on typical gold nanoparticulate catalysts for the low-temperature oxidation of CO to describe the issues surrounding the application of ETEM, with a special regard to catalyst chemistry. Thanks to the recent development of high-resolution environmental transmission electron microscopes that can work robustly to accumulate observation data in controlled environments, we can deal with the electron irradiation effects and heterogeneity of real catalysts. We established a structural evolution diagram that summarizes the structure of catalysts under electron irradiation as a function of the electron current density ϕ and the electron dose, D. By extrapolating to ϕ = 0, D = 0, we could deduce the intrinsic catalysis structure (without electron irradiation) in various environments, including reaction environments. By numerically and statistically analyzing a substantial number of ETEM images of gold nanoparticles, we established a morphology phase diagram that summarizes how the majority of gold nanoparticles change their morphology systematically as a function of the partial pressures of CO and O(2). Similar diagrams will be helpful in elucidating the phenomena that directly correlate with the catalytic activity determined from ETEM observations. Using these quantitative analyses, we could analyze Cs-corrected ETEM images of the catalysts. The surfaces of gold nanoparticles were structurally reconstructed under reaction conditions, via interactions with CO molecules. CO molecules were observed on the surfaces of catalysts under reaction conditions using high-resolution ETEM. Finally, we discuss the potential of environmental transmission electron microscopy for quantitative in-situ microscopy at the atomic scale.

  1. In-situ TEM study of domain switching in GaN thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoming; Wang, Tun; Haque, Aman; Snure, Michael; Heller, Eric; Glavin, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Microstructural response of gallium nitride (GaN) films, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, was studied as a function of applied electrical field. In-situ transmission electron microscopy showed sudden change in the electron diffraction pattern reflecting domain switching at around 20 V bias, applied perpendicular to the polarization direction. No such switching was observed for thicker films or for the field applied along the polarization direction. This anomalous behavior is explained by the nanoscale size effects on the piezoelectric coefficients of GaN, which can be 2-3 times larger than the bulk value. As a result, a large amount of internal energy can be imparted in 100 nm thick films to induce domain switching at relatively lower voltages to induce such events at the bulk scale.

  2. In-Situ TEM Study of Interface Sliding and Migration in an Ultrafine Lamellar Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, L M

    2005-12-06

    The instability of interfaces in an ultrafine TiAl-({gamma})/Ti{sub 3}Al-({alpha}{sub 2}) lamellar structure by straining at room temperature has been investigated using in-situ straining techniques performed in a transmission electron microscope. The purpose of this study is to obtain experimental evidence to support the creep mechanisms based upon the interface sliding in association with a cooperative movement of interfacial dislocations previously proposed to interpret the nearly linear creep behavior observed from ultrafine lamellar TiAl alloys. The results have revealed that both the sliding and migration of lamellar interfaces can take place simultaneously as a result of the cooperative movement of interfacial dislocations.

  3. Inter- and intragranular plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine-grained Al thin films: An in situ TEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mompiou, F.; Legros, M.; Boé, A.; Coulombier, M.; Raskin, J.-P.; Pardoen, T.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the elementary deformation mechanisms in small-grained metals has been the subject of numerous recent studies. In the submicron range, mechanisms other than intragranular dislocation mechanisms, such as grain boundary (GB)-based mechanisms, are active and can explain the deviations from the Hall–Petch law. Here, we report observations performed during in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile tests on initially dislocation-free Al thin films with a mean grain size around 250 nm prepared by microfabrication techniques. Intergranular plasticity is activated at the onset of plasticity. It consists of the motion of dislocations in the GB plane irrespective of the GB character. Surface imperfections, such as GB grooves, are supposed to trigger intergranular plasticity. At larger deformations, the motion of the intergranular dislocations leads to GB sliding and eventually cavitation. In the meantime, GB stress-assisted migration and dislocation emission inside the grain from GB sources have also been observed. The observation of these different mechanisms during the deformation provides an important insight into the understanding of the mechanical properties of metallic thin films.

  4. In-situ TEM on (de)hydrogenation of Pd at 0.5–4.5 bar hydrogen pressure and 20–400°C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, Tadahiro; Alan, Tuncay; Pandraud, Gregory; Dam, Bernard; Zandbergen, Henny

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a nanoreactor, sample holder and gas system for in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of hydrogen storage materials up to at least 4.5 bar. The MEMS-based nanoreactor has a microheater, two electron-transparent windows and a gas inlet and outlet. The holder contains various O-rings to have leak-tight connections with the nanoreactor. The system was tested with the (de)hydrogenation of Pd at pressures up to 4.5 bar. The Pd film consisted of islands being 15 nm thick and 50–500 nm wide. In electron diffraction mode we observed reproducibly a crystal lattice expansion and shrinkage owing to hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, respectively. In selected-area electron diffraction and bright/dark-field modes the (de)hydrogenation of individual Pd particles was followed. Some Pd islands are consistently hydrogenated faster than others. When thermally cycled, thermal hysteresis of about 10–16 °C between hydrogen absorption and desorption was observed for hydrogen pressures of 0.5–4.5 bar. Experiments at 0.8 bar and 3.2 bar showed that the (de)hydrogenation temperature is not affected by the electron beam. This result shows that this is a fast method to investigate hydrogen storage materials with information at the nanometer scale. -- Highlights: ► In-situ TEM experiments up to 4.5 bar. ► In-situ TEM on a hydrogen storage material at pressures used in practice. ► No electron beam effect on (de)hydrogenation. ► In-situ TEM allows for fast screening of hydrogen storage materials.

  5. Quantitative in-situ TEM nanotensile testing of single crystal Ni facilitated by a new sample preparation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaeeaghmiyoni, Vahid; Idrissi, Hosni; Groten, Jonas; Schwaiger, Ruth; Schryvers, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Twin-jet electro-polishing and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) were combined to produce small size Nickel single crystal specimens for quantitative in-situ nanotensile experiments in the transmission electron microscope. The combination of these techniques allows producing samples with nearly defect-free zones in the centre in contrast to conventional FIB-prepared samples. Since TEM investigations can be performed on the electro-polished samples prior to in-situ TEM straining, specimens with desired crystallographic orientation and initial microstructure can be prepared. The present results reveal a dislocation nucleation-controlled plasticity, in which small loops induced by FIB near the edges of the samples play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ TEM study of G-phase precipitates under heavy ion irradiation in CF8 cast austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ying [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li, Meimei; Zhang, Xuan; Kirk, Marquis A.; Baldo, Peter M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lian, Tiangan [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Thermally-aged cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) CF8 was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr ions at 300, 350 and 400 °C to 1.88 × 10{sup 19} ions/m{sup 2} (∼3 dpa) at the IVEM-Tandem Facility at the Argonne National Laboratory. Before irradiation, the distribution of G-phase precipitates in the ferrite showed spatial variations, and both their size and density were affected by the ferrite–austenite phase boundary and presence of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides. Under 300 °C irradiation, in situ TEM observation showed G-phase precipitates were relatively unchanged in the vicinity of the phase boundary M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, while the density of G-phase precipitates increased with increasing dose within the ferrite matrix. Coarsening of G-phase precipitates was observed in the vicinity of phase boundary M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides at 350 °C and 400 °C.

  7. In situ TEM study of G-phase precipitates under heavy ion irradiation in CF8 cast austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ying; Li, Meimei; Zhang, Xuan; Kirk, Marquis A.; Baldo, Peter M.; Lian, Tiangan

    2015-09-01

    Thermally-aged cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) CF8 was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr ions at 300, 350 and 400 °C to 1.88 × 1019 ions/m2 (∼3 dpa) at the IVEM-Tandem Facility at the Argonne National Laboratory. Before irradiation, the distribution of G-phase precipitates in the ferrite showed spatial variations, and both their size and density were affected by the ferrite-austenite phase boundary and presence of M23C6 carbides. Under 300 °C irradiation, in situ TEM observation showed G-phase precipitates were relatively unchanged in the vicinity of the phase boundary M23C6 carbides, while the density of G-phase precipitates increased with increasing dose within the ferrite matrix. Coarsening of G-phase precipitates was observed in the vicinity of phase boundary M23C6 carbides at 350 °C and 400 °C.

  8. In situ disordering of monoclinic titanium monoxide Ti5O5 studied by transmission electron microscope TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, А А; Van Renterghem, W; Valeeva, А А; Verwerft, M; Van den Berghe, S

    2017-09-07

    The superlattice and domain structures exhibited by ordered titanium monoxide Ti 5 O 5 are disrupted by low energy electron beam irradiation. The effect is attributed to the disordering of the oxygen and titanium sublattices. This disordering is caused by the displacement of both oxygen and titanium atoms by the incident electrons and results in a phase transformation of the monoclinic phase Ti 5 O 5 into cubic B1 titanium monoxide. In order to determine the energies required for the displacement of titanium or oxygen atoms, i.e. threshold displacement energies, a systematic study of the disappearance of superstructure reflections with increasing electron energy and electron bombardment dose has been performed in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). An incident electron energy threshold between 120 and 140 keV has been observed. This threshold can be ascribed to the displacements of titanium atoms with 4 as well as with 5 oxygen atoms as nearest neighbors. The displacement threshold energy of titanium atoms in Ti 5 O 5 corresponding with the observed incident electron threshold energy lies between 6.0 and 7.5 eV. This surprisingly low value can be explained by the presence of either one or two vacant oxygen lattice sites in the nearest neighbors of all titanium atoms.

  9. Fast FIB-milled Electron-transparent Microchips for in situ TEM Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Kallesøe, Christian

    In this work we present a fast approach to 50 nm resolution structures defined in a generic TEM-chip template in few minutes. While creating complex electrical and NEMS circuits for a specific insitu TEM experiment can be a cumbersome process, microchips with 100 nm thin flakes of single crystall......In this work we present a fast approach to 50 nm resolution structures defined in a generic TEM-chip template in few minutes. While creating complex electrical and NEMS circuits for a specific insitu TEM experiment can be a cumbersome process, microchips with 100 nm thin flakes of single...

  10. Grain Nucleation and Growth in Deformed NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: An In Situ TEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, J.; Frenzel, J.; Somsen, C.; Prokofiev, E.; Valiev, R.; Eggeler, G.

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigates the evolution of nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructures in plastically deformed NiTi. Two deformed NiTi alloys were subjected to in situ annealing in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) at 400 and 550 °C: an amorphous material state produced by high-pressure torsion (HPT) and a mostly martensitic partly amorphous alloy produced by wire drawing. In situ annealing experiments were performed to characterize the microstructural evolution from the initial nonequilibrium states toward energetically more favorable microstructures. In general, the formation and evolution of nanocrystalline microstructures are governed by the nucleation of new grains and their subsequent growth. Austenite nuclei which form in HPT and wire-drawn microstructures have sizes close to 10 nm. Grain coarsening occurs in a sporadic, nonuniform manner and depends on the physical and chemical features of the local environment. The mobility of grain boundaries in NiTi is governed by the local interaction of each grain with its microstructural environment. Nanograin growth in thin TEM foils seems to follow similar kinetic laws to those in bulk microstructures. The present study demonstrates the strength of in situ TEM analysis and also highlights aspects which need to be considered when interpreting the results.

  11. Using the in situ lift-out technique to prepare TEM specimens on a single-beam FIB instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekstrom, M; McLachlan, M A; Husain, S; McComb, D W; Shollock, B A

    2008-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens are today routinely prepared using focussed ion beam (FIB) instruments. Specifically, the lift-out method has become an increasingly popular technique and involves removing thin cross-sections from site-specific locations and transferring them to a TEM grid. This lift-out process can either be performed ex situ or in situ. The latter is mainly carried out on combined dual-beam FIB and scanning electron microscope (SEM) systems whereas conventional single-beam instruments often are limited to the traditional ex situ method. It is nevertheless desirable to enhance the capabilities of existing single-beam instruments to allow for in situ lift-out preparation to be performed since this technique offers a number of advantages over the older ex situ method. A single-beam FIB instrument was therefore modified to incorporate an in situ micromanipulator fitted with a tungsten needle, which can be attached to a cut-out FIB section using ion beam induced platinum deposition. This article addresses the issues of using an ion beam to monitor the in situ manipulation process as well as approaches that can be used to create stronger platinum welds between two objects, and finally, views on how to limit the extent of ion beam damage to the specimen surface.

  12. Space Plasma Ion Processing of Ilmenite in the Lunar Soil: Insights from In-Situ TEM Ion Irradiation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.

    2007-01-01

    Space weathering on the moon and asteroids results largely from the alteration of the outer surfaces of regolith grains by the combined effects of solar ion irradiation and other processes that include deposition of impact or sputter-derived vapors. Although no longer considered the sole driver of space weathering, solar ion irradiation remains a key part of the space weathering puzzle, and quantitative data on its effects on regolith minerals are still in short supply. For the lunar regolith, previous transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies performed by ourselves and others have uncovered altered rims on ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains that point to this phase as a unique "witness plate" for unraveling nanoscale space weathering processes. Most notably, the radiation processed portions of these ilmenite rims consistently have a crystalline structure, in contrast to radiation damaged rims on regolith silicates that are characteristically amorphous. While this has tended to support informal designation of ilmenite as a "radiation resistant" regolith mineral, there are to date no experimental data that directly and quantitatively compare ilmenite s response to ion radiation relative to lunar silicates. Such data are needed because the radiation processed rims on ilmenite grains, although crystalline, are microstructurally and chemically complex, and exhibit changes linked to the formation of nanophase Fe metal, a key space weathering process. We report here the first ion radiation processing study of ilmenite performed by in-situ means using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope- Tandem Irradiation facility (IVEM-Tandem) at Argonne National Laboratory. The capability of this facility for performing real time TEM observations of samples concurrent with ion irradiation makes it uniquely suited for studying the dose-dependence of amorphization and other changes in irradiated samples.

  13. In situ TEM study of microplasticity and Bauschinger effect in nanocrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, Jagannathan; Rentenberger, Christian; Peter Karnthaler, H.; Dehm, Gerhard; Saif, M. Taher A.

    2010-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy straining experiments with concurrent macroscopic stress-strain measurements were performed to study the effect of microstructural heterogeneity on the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline metal films. In microstructurally heterogeneous gold films (mean grain size d m = 70 nm) comprising randomly oriented grains, dislocation activity is confined to relatively larger grains, with smaller grains deforming elastically, even at applied strains approaching 1.2%. This extended microplasticity leads to build-up of internal stresses, inducing a large Bauschinger effect during unloading. Microstructurally heterogeneous aluminum films (d m = 140 nm) also show similar behavior. In contrast, microstructurally homogeneous aluminum films comprising mainly two grain families, both favorably oriented for dislocation glide, show limited microplastic deformation and minimal Bauschinger effect despite having a comparable mean grain size (d m = 120 nm). A simple model is proposed to describe these observations. Overall, our results emphasize the need to consider both microstructural size and heterogeneity in modeling the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals.

  14. In situ TEM study of microplasticity and Bauschinger effect in nanocrystalline metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, Jagannathan [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rentenberger, Christian; Peter Karnthaler, H. [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Dehm, Gerhard [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, and Dept. Materials Physics, University of Leoben, Jahnstr.12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Saif, M. Taher A., E-mail: saif@illinois.edu [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In situ transmission electron microscopy straining experiments with concurrent macroscopic stress-strain measurements were performed to study the effect of microstructural heterogeneity on the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline metal films. In microstructurally heterogeneous gold films (mean grain size d{sub m} = 70 nm) comprising randomly oriented grains, dislocation activity is confined to relatively larger grains, with smaller grains deforming elastically, even at applied strains approaching 1.2%. This extended microplasticity leads to build-up of internal stresses, inducing a large Bauschinger effect during unloading. Microstructurally heterogeneous aluminum films (d{sub m} = 140 nm) also show similar behavior. In contrast, microstructurally homogeneous aluminum films comprising mainly two grain families, both favorably oriented for dislocation glide, show limited microplastic deformation and minimal Bauschinger effect despite having a comparable mean grain size (d{sub m} = 120 nm). A simple model is proposed to describe these observations. Overall, our results emphasize the need to consider both microstructural size and heterogeneity in modeling the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals.

  15. Observation of Pt-{100}-p(2×2-O reconstruction by an environmental TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengbo Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface structure of noble metal nanoparticles usually plays a crucial role during the catalytic process in the fields of energy and environment. It has been studied extensively by surface analytic methods, such as scanning tunneling microscopy. However, it is still challenging to secure a direct observation of the structural evolution of surfaces of nanocatalysts in reaction (gas and heating conditions at the atomic scale. Here we report an in-situ observation of atomic reconstruction on Pt {100} surfaces exposed to oxygen in an environmental transmission electron microscope (TEM. Our high-resolution TEM images revealed that Pt-{100}-p(2×2-O reconstruction occurs during the reaction between oxygen atoms and {100} facets. A reconstruction model was proposed, and TEM images simulated according to this model with different defocus values match the experimental results well.

  16. In situ TEM nanoindentation and dislocation-grain boundary interactions : a tribute to David Brandon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; Soer, W.A.; Minor, A.M.; Shan, Z.W.; Stach, E.A.; Asif, S.A.S.; Warren, O.L.

    2006-01-01

    As a tribute to the scientific work of Professor David Brandon, this paper delineates the possibilities of utilizing in situ transmission electron microscopy to unravel dislocation-grain boundary interactions. In particular, we have focused on the deformation characteristics of Al-Mg films. To this

  17. Report on the Installation and Preparedness of a Protochips Fusion in-situ Heating Holder for TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondson, Philip D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This brief report documents the procurement and installation of a Protochips Fusion (formerly Aduro) high-temperature, high stability transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen holder that allows for the high spatial resolution characterization of material specimens at high temperature in situ of an electron microscope. This specimen holder was specifically procured for use with The FEI Talos F200X Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Low Activation Materials Development and Analysis (LAMDA) Laboratory. The Protochips Fusion holder will enable high-resolution structural and chemical analysis of irradiated materials at high temperature, becoming a unique capability worldwide, and would encourage high-quality in situ experiments to be conducted on irradiated materials.

  18. Crystallization of TiO2 Nanotubes by In Situ Heating TEM

    KAUST Repository

    Casu, Alberto

    2018-01-15

    The thermally-induced crystallization of anodically grown TiO2 amorphous nanotubes has been studied so far under ambient pressure conditions by techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry and in situ X-ray diffraction, then looking at the overall response of several thousands of nanotubes in a carpet arrangement. Here we report a study of this phenomenon based on an in situ transmission electron microscopy approach that uses a twofold strategy. First, a group of some tens of TiO2 amorphous nanotubes was heated looking at their electron diffraction pattern change versus temperature, in order to determine both the initial temperature of crystallization and the corresponding crystalline phases. Second, the experiment was repeated on groups of few nanotubes, imaging their structural evolution in the direct space by spherical aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy. These studies showed that, differently from what happens under ambient pressure conditions, under the microscope’s high vacuum (p < 10−5 Pa) the crystallization of TiO2 amorphous nanotubes starts from local small seeds of rutile and brookite, which then grow up with the increasing temperature. Besides, the crystallization started at different temperatures, namely 450 and 380 °C, when the in situ heating was performed irradiating the sample with electron beam energy of 120 or 300 keV, respectively. This difference is due to atomic knock-on effects induced by the electron beam with diverse energy.

  19. Direct observation of shear–induced nanocrystal attachment and coalescence in CuZr-based metallic glasses: TEM investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajlaoui, K.; Alrasheedi, Nashmi H.; Yavari, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    In-situ tensile straining tests were performed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to analyse the deformation processes in CuZr-based metallic glasses and to directly observe the phase transformation occurrence. We report evidence of shear induced coalescence of nanocrystals in the vicinity of deformed regions. Nanocrystals grow in shear bands, come into contact, being attached and progressively coalesce under applied shear stress. - Highlights: • In-situ tensile straining test in TEM was investigated on CuZr-Based metallic glass. • Strain induces nanocrystallization and subsequent attachment and coalescence of nanocrystals. • The coalescence of nanocrystals compensates strain softening in metallic glasses.

  20. Structural characterizaiton and gas reactions of small metal particles by high-resolution, in-situ TEM and TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The existing in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) facility was improved by adding a separately pumped mini-specimen chamber. The chamber contains wire-evaporation sources for three metals and a specimen heater for moderate substrate temperatures. A sample introduction device was constructed, installed, and tested, facilitating rapid introduction of a specimen into the mini-chamber while maintaining the background pressure in that chamber in the 10(-9) millibar range. Small particles and clusters of Pd, grown by deposition from the vapor phase in an in-situ TEM facility on amorphous and crystalline support films of alumina and on ultra-thin carbon films, were analyzed by conventional high-resolution TEM and image analysis in terms of detectability, number density, and size distribution. The smallest particles that could be detected and counted contained no more than 6 atoms; size determinations could be made for particles 1 nm in diameter. The influence of various oxygen plasma treatments, annealing treatments, and of increasing the substrate temperature during deposition was investigated. The TEM technique was employed to demonstrate that under otherwise identica l conditions the lattice parameter of Pd particles in the 1 to 2 nm size range and supported in random orientation on ex-situ prepared mica films is expanded by some 3% when compared to 5 nm size particles. It is believed that this expansion is neither a small-particle diffraction effect nor due to pseudomorphism, but that it is due to a annealing-induced transformation of the small as-deposited particles with predominantly composite crystal structures into larger particles with true f.c.c. structure and thus inherently smaller lattice parameter.

  1. In situ TEM study on elastic interaction between a prismatic loop and a gliding dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshitaka; Liu, Grace S.

    2012-01-01

    In situ straining in a transmission electron microscope was performed in order to investigate dislocation interactions with a prismatic loop, which as a mobile obstacle is expected to be displaced by the strain-field of dislocation prior to physical contact. It was found that when a gliding dislocation approached a critical distance, the prismatic loop was certainly attracted to the dislocation. The captured loop disrupted the dislocation motion and was not dragged along with the mobile dislocation. Instead, the dislocation bypassed the loop via cross-slip to another slip plane with a resolved shear stress estimated to be 40% lower than that of the original plane.

  2. Graphene-based sample supports for in situ high-resolution TEM electrical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenfelder, B; Scholz, F; Meyer, J C; Biskupek, J; Algara-Siller, G; Lechner, L G; Kaiser, U; Kusterer, J; Kohn, E; Krill, C E III

    2011-01-01

    Specially designed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample carriers have been developed to enable atomically resolved studies of the heat-induced evolution of adsorbates on graphene and their influence on electrical conductivity. Here, we present a strategy for graphene-based carrier realization, evaluating its design with respect to fabrication effort and applications potential. We demonstrate that electrical current can lead to very high temperatures in suspended graphene membranes, and we determine that current-induced cleaning of graphene results from Joule heating.

  3. High-temperature in-situ TEM straining of the interaction with dislocations and particles for Cu-added ferritic stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kaneko, Kenji; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Masao; Kanno, Norihiro; Hamada, Junichi

    2014-11-01

    IntroductionCu is always present in the matrix when ferritic steels were prepared from ferrous scrap. When the ferritic steels are aged thermally, Cu precipitates start appear and disperse finely and homogeneously [1], which may make the steels strengthened by precipitation hardening. In this study, the interaction between Cu precipitates and dislocations was exmined via high-temperature in-situ TEM straining. ExperimentalCu-added ferritic stainless steel (Fe-18.4%Cr-1.5%Cu) was used in the present study. Specimen was aged at1073 K for 360 ks. Samples for TEM observation were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB; Quanta 3D 200i) method. Microstructure of specimen was analyzed by JEM-3200FSK and high-temperature in-situ TEM straining was conducted using JEM-1300NEF. Results and discussionInteraction between Cu precipitates and dislocation is seen from consecutive TEM images acquired by in-situ TEM straining at 1073 K, as shown in Fig.1. The size of Cu precipitates was about 70 nm and several dislocations were present within the field of view. In particular, progressing dislocations contacted with the Cu precipitate at right angle, as indicated by arrows in Fig.1 (b) to (d). This result implies that there is an attractive interaction between dislocations and the Cu precipitate. This is attributed to the fact that Stress field of dislocations was easily relaxed in interface between the Cu precipitate and matrix because of lattice and interface diffusion as well as slip in the interface [2,3]. Furthermore, dislocations pass through the particle after contacting it, so that the interaction with dislocations and particles should be explained by Srolovitz mechanism [4].jmicro;63/suppl_1/i28/DFU083F1F1DFU083F1Fig. 1.TEM images foucused on interaction with dislocations and partticles. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Environmental TEM in the in situ Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    on complementary experiments and characterization techniques. Normally, this is done in parallel with experiments separated in time and space [1] or mimicking a reaction by changing the conditions according to e.g. reactivity and conversion measured in dedicated catalyst set-ups [2]. Furthermore, dedicated...... the techniques to the microscope. A dedicated custom TEM specimen holder containing two optical fibres, five electrical contacts, a fixed miniaturized optical bench for light handling and a heating element has been designed. A system of pre-aligned mirrors and a MEMS heater are implemented in the holder...

  5. Low-temperature plasticity of olivine revisited with in situ TEM nanomechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissi, Hosni; Bollinger, Caroline; Boioli, Francesca; Schryvers, Dominique; Cordier, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The rheology of the lithospheric mantle is fundamental to understanding how mantle convection couples with plate tectonics. However, olivine rheology at lithospheric conditions is still poorly understood because experiments are difficult in this temperature range where rocks and mineral become very brittle. We combine techniques of quantitative in situ tensile testing in a transmission electron microscope and numerical modeling of dislocation dynamics to constrain the low-temperature rheology of olivine. We find that the intrinsic ductility of olivine at low temperature is significantly lower than previously reported values, which were obtained under strain-hardened conditions. Using this method, we can anchor rheological laws determined at higher temperature and can provide a better constraint on intermediate temperatures relevant for the lithosphere. More generally, we demonstrate the possibility of characterizing the mechanical properties of specimens, which can be available in the form of submillimeter-sized particles only.

  6. In situ targeting TEM8 via immune response and polypeptide recognition by wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Jie; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in real-time and in situ monitoring of living cell activities in life science and medicine. This paper reports a whole cell sensing protocol over the interface of Au film coupled in a wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance (WMSPR) biosensor. With dual parabolic mirrors integrated in the sensor, the compact and miniaturized instrument shows satisfactory refractive index sensitivity (2220 nm/RIU) and a high resolution of resonance wavelength shift of 0.3 nm to liquid samples. The affinity interactions between the biomarker of human tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and antibody (Ab) or specific polypeptide (PEP) were firstly introduced to WMSPR biosensor analysis. Both the interaction events of Ab-cell and PEP-cell over the Au film interface can be recognized by the sensor and the balance time of interactions is about 20 min. The concentration range of Ab for quantitative monitoring of the TEM8 expression on human colon carcinoma SW620 cells was investigated. The present low-cost and time-saving method provides a time resolution of binding specificity between Ab/PEP and TEM8 for real-time analysis of antigen on living tumor cell surface. PMID:26822761

  7. TEM observations of HT-9 as-welded weldment microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulds, J.R.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    TEM studies of different locations in an HT-9 weldment indicated delta-ferrite (delta) occurrence, M 23 C 6 precipitation at delta-martensite interfaces, fine carbide precipitation at prior austenite grain boundaries, and martensite lath and lath packet size to be the distinguishable microstructure features observed. Furthermore, retained austenite films were observed in the weld metal and the HAZ adjacent to the weld metal that reached the highest temperature during joining. The microstructures correlate well with the observed room temperature microhardness except for the fusion boundary in weld metal which exhibited a hardness drop and an unexpected minimum amount of delta-ferrite

  8. XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR Spectroscopy of In Situ Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, T.; Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Ray, C. S.; Lesher, C. E.; Youngman, R.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a Li2O-2SiO2 (LS2) glass was investigated as a function of pressure and temperature up to 6 GPa and 750 C respectively, using XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Glass densified at 6 GPa has an average Si-O-Si bond angle approx.7deg lower than that found in glass processed at 4.5 GPa. At 4.5 GPa, lithium disilicate crystallizes from the glass, while at 6 GPa a new high pressure form of lithium metasilicate crystallizes. The new phase, while having lithium metasilicate crystal symmetry, contains at least 4 different Si sites. NMR results for 6 GPa sample indicate the presence of Q4 species with (Q(sup 4))Si-O-Si(Q(sup 4)) bond angles of approx.157deg. This is the first reported occurrence of Q(sup 4) species with such large bond angles in alumina free alkali silicate glass. No five- or six- coordinated Si are found.

  9. Resistive switching mechanism in the one diode-one resistor memory based on p+-Si/n-ZnO heterostructure revealed by in-situ TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Liang; Li, Xiaomei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong

    2017-03-01

    One diode-one resistor (1D1R) memory is an effective architecture to suppress the crosstalk interference, realizing the crossbar network integration of resistive random access memory (RRAM). Herein, we designed a p+-Si/n-ZnO heterostructure with 1D1R function. Compared with the conventional multilayer 1D1R devices, the structure and fabrication technique can be largely simplified. The real-time imaging of formation/rupture process of conductive filament (CF) process demonstrated the RS mechanism by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, we observed that the formed CF is only confined to the outside of depletion region of Si/ZnO pn junction, and the formation of CF does not degrade the diode performance, which allows the coexistence of RS and rectifying behaviors, revealing the 1D1R switching model. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that the CF is consisting of the oxygen vacancy by in-situ TEM characterization.

  10. Resistive switching mechanism in the one diode-one resistor memory based on p+-Si/n-ZnO heterostructure revealed by in-situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Liang; Li, Xiaomei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong

    2017-03-21

    One diode-one resistor (1D1R) memory is an effective architecture to suppress the crosstalk interference, realizing the crossbar network integration of resistive random access memory (RRAM). Herein, we designed a p + -Si/n-ZnO heterostructure with 1D1R function. Compared with the conventional multilayer 1D1R devices, the structure and fabrication technique can be largely simplified. The real-time imaging of formation/rupture process of conductive filament (CF) process demonstrated the RS mechanism by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, we observed that the formed CF is only confined to the outside of depletion region of Si/ZnO pn junction, and the formation of CF does not degrade the diode performance, which allows the coexistence of RS and rectifying behaviors, revealing the 1D1R switching model. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that the CF is consisting of the oxygen vacancy by in-situ TEM characterization.

  11. Towards optimization of experimental parameters for studying Li-O2 battery discharge products in TEM using in situ EELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Shibabrata; Jansen, Jacob; Kabiri, Yoones; Zandbergen, Henny W

    2018-05-01

    The key to understanding the performance of Li-O 2 batteries is to study the chemical and structural properties of their discharge product(s) at the nanometer scale. Using TEM for this purpose poses challenges due to the sensitivity of samples to air and electron beams. This paper describes our use of in situ EELS to evaluate experimental procedures to reduce electron-beam degradation and presents methods to deal with air sensitivity. Our results show that Li 2 O 2 decomposition is dependent on the total dose and is approximately 4-5 times more pronounced at 80 than at 200 kV. We also demonstrate the benefits of using low-dose-rate STEM. We show further that a "graphene cell", which encapsulates the sample within graphene sheets, can protect the sample against air and e-beam damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetically controlled fabrication of gold nanorods and investigation of their thermal stability via in-situ TEM heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankhunthod, N.; Aslam, Z.; Critchley, K.; Evans, S. D.; Brydson, R.

    2017-09-01

    Size controlled CTAB-capped AuNRs with various aspect ratios (ARs) ranging from 1.63±0.13 to 4.12±0.25 were synthesized following a modified seed-mediated method. Their thermal stability was examined by in-situ TEM heating. The results revealed a structural change from rods to spheres with increasing temperature. At lower temperatures 600ºC, particles became increasingly spherical. This behaviour occurred at temperatures lower than the melting point of bulk gold supporting a surface diffusion mechanism with material diffusing from the tips and redepositing at the middle of the rods. The rate of change in AR appeared to increase for thinner AuNRs.

  13. A novel tripod-driven platform for in-situ positioning of samples and electrical probes in a TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medford, B D; Rogers, B L; Laird, D; Berdunov, N; Beton, P H; Lockwood, A J; Gnanavel, T; Guan, W; Wang, J; Moebus, G; Inkson, B J

    2010-01-01

    We present a design for a novel coarse positioning system based on a tilting platform which is positioned using linear slip/stick motors. The design differs from common arrangements of stacked x, y, and z motors, and also ball mounted slip/stick motors, by allowing easy access along the central axis of the microscope holder. The drive motors are highly compact and co-linear and may be easily incorporated in an off-axis configuration, leaving a central cylindrical region with an approximate diameter of 3mm which is available to accommodate screened electrical wiring and optical fibres. We show that the tripod can be used to manoeuvre two metallic tips towards each other in-situ in a TEM in nanometre-scale lateral steps.

  14. In-situ observation of structure formation in polymer processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    In-situ X-ray scattering in polymer processing is a crucial method to elucidate the mechanism of structure formation in the process. Fiber spinning is one such process primarily imposing extensional deformation on polymeric melt at the spin-line during rapid cooling. In-situ small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation on the spinning process allows direct observation of the transient structure developing in the process. (author)

  15. Assessing phase stability and element distribution in Co-base superalloys at elevated temperatures by in situ TEM heating experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeler, Yolita; Mueller, Julian; Spiecker, Erdmann [Lehrstuhl fuer Mikro- und Nanostrukturforschung and Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM), Department Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Co-based alloys, of a composition of Co-12Al-9W, form a stable two phase γ/γ{sup '} microstructure at 900 C. γ{sup '} cubes, consisting of the L12 crystal structure are coherently embedded in a solid solution fcc (A1) γ matrix. To ensure precipitate hardening at temperatures, which are relevant to practical applications, 700-1100 C, as experienced in gas turbine applications, the stability of the γ/γ{sup '} phases is of fundamental importance. In this analysis in situ TEM studies with chip-based heating systems (by DENS solution) are applied on new Co-based superalloys. After in situ heating at apr. 900 C and controlled quenching with different quenching rates the elemental distribution at the γ/γ{sup '} interface is measured using ChemiSTEM EDX. Exploiting the driving force for interface movement resulting from temperature-dependent volume fraction of γ and γ{sup '} insight into the diffusion of individual alloying elements and the relationship between local chemistry and ordering can be gained from transient phenomena. The experimental results will be compared with theoretical calculations. This work has been carried out within the framework of the SFB-TR 103 ''Single Crystal Superalloys''.

  16. In-situ TEM investigations of graphic-epitaxy and small particles. Final Report, 1 January-31 December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1983-01-01

    Palladium was deposited inside a controlled-vacuum specimen chamber of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) onto MgO and alpha-alumina substrate surfaces. Annealing and various effects of gas exposure of the particulate Pd deposits were studied in-situ by high resolution TEM and electron diffraction. Whereas substrate temperatures of 500 C or annealing of room temperature (RT) deposits to 500 C were needed to obtain epitaxy on sapphire, RT deposits on MgO were perfectly epitaxial. For Pd/MgO a lattice expansion of 2 to 4% was noted the highest values of expansion were found for the smallest particles. The lattice expansion of small Pd particles on alumina substrates was less than 1%. Long-time RT exposure of Pd/MgO in a vacuum yielded some moblity and coalescence events, but notably fewer than for Pd on sapphire. Exposure to air or oxygen greatly enhanced the particle mobility and coalescence and also resulted in the flattening of Pd particles on MgO substrates. Electron-beam irradiation further enhanced this effect. Exposure to air for several tens of hours of Pd/MgO led to strong coalescence

  17. In situ TEM annealing of ion-amorphized Hi Nicalon S and Tyranno SA3 SiC fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet-Garcia, J., E-mail: juan.huguet-garcia@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jankowiak, A. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miro, S. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches en Métallurgie Physique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Meslin, E. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches en Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Serruys, Y. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches en Métallurgie Physique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Costantini, J.-M. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-05-01

    In this work, recrystallization of ion-amorphized Hi Nicalon Type S and Tyranno SA3 SiC fibers (4 MeV Au{sup 3+}, 2 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}) has been studied via in situ TEM annealing. Both fibers show a two-step recovery process of the radiation damage. First recovery stage starts at temperatures as low as 250 °C and implies recovery of the radiation swelling. Eventually the amorphous layer recrystallizes with no signs of polytype change (3C-SiC). Recrystallization temperatures yield 900–920 °C and 930 °C for the HNS and the TSA3 respectively. HNS fiber shows columnar recrystallization perpendicular to the amorphous–crystalline interphase with a grain growth rate of ∼20 nm min{sup −1}. On the other hand, recrystallization of TSA3 fiber is rather “spontaneous” with no preferential growth direction. The different recrystallization is attributed to the different microstructure of the fibers.

  18. In situ TEM annealing of ion-amorphized Hi Nicalon S and Tyranno SA3 SiC fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet-Garcia, J.; Jankowiak, A.; Miro, S.; Meslin, E.; Serruys, Y.; Costantini, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, recrystallization of ion-amorphized Hi Nicalon Type S and Tyranno SA3 SiC fibers (4 MeV Au"3"+, 2 × 10"1"5 cm"−"2) has been studied via in situ TEM annealing. Both fibers show a two-step recovery process of the radiation damage. First recovery stage starts at temperatures as low as 250 °C and implies recovery of the radiation swelling. Eventually the amorphous layer recrystallizes with no signs of polytype change (3C-SiC). Recrystallization temperatures yield 900–920 °C and 930 °C for the HNS and the TSA3 respectively. HNS fiber shows columnar recrystallization perpendicular to the amorphous–crystalline interphase with a grain growth rate of ∼20 nm min"−"1. On the other hand, recrystallization of TSA3 fiber is rather “spontaneous” with no preferential growth direction. The different recrystallization is attributed to the different microstructure of the fibers.

  19. Powder agglomeration study in RF silane plasmas by in situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering and TEM measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteille, C; Hollenstein, C; Dorier, J L; Gay, P; Schwarzenbach, W; Howling, A A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Bertran, E; Viera, G [Barcelona Univ., Dep. de de Fisica Aplicada I Electronica, Barcelona (Spain); Martins, R; Macarico, A [FCTUNL, Materials Science Dep., Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    1966-03-01

    To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135{sup o} and ex-situ TEM analysis demonstrate the existence of non-spherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (author) 11 figs., 48 refs.

  20. Powder agglomeration study in RF silane plasmas by in situ polarization-sensitive laser light scattering and TEM measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteille, C.; Hollenstein, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Gay, P.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Bertran, E.; Viera, G.; Martins, R.; Macarico, A.

    1966-03-01

    To determine self-consistently the time evolution of particle size and their number density in situ multi-angle polarization laser light scattering was used. Cross-polarization intensities (incident and scattered light intensities with opposite polarization) measured at 135 o and ex-situ TEM analysis demonstrate the existence of non-spherical agglomerates during the early phase of agglomeration. Later in the particle time development both techniques reveal spherical particles again. The presence of strong cross-polarization intensities is accompanied by low frequency instabilities detected on the scattered light intensities and plasma emission. It is found that the particle radius and particle number density during the agglomeration phase can be well described by the Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model. Application of this neutral particle coagulation model is justified by calculation of the particle charge whereby it is shown that particles of a few tens of nanometer can be considered as neutral under our experimental conditions. The measured particle dispersion can be well described by a Brownian Free Molecule Coagulation model including a log-normal particle size distribution. (author) 11 figs., 48 refs

  1. Short Communication on "In-situ TEM ion irradiation investigations on U3Si2 at LWR temperatures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinbin; Harp, Jason; Mo, Kun; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Baldo, Peter; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2017-02-01

    The radiation-induced amorphization of U3Si2 was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy using 1 MeV Kr ion irradiation. Both arc-melted and sintered U3Si2 specimens were irradiated at room temperature to confirm the similarity in their responses to radiation. The sintered specimens were then irradiated at 350 °C and 550 °C up to 7.2 × 1015 ions/cm2 to examine their amorphization behavior under light water reactor (LWR) conditions. U3Si2 remains crystalline under irradiation at LWR temperatures. Oxidation of the material was observed at high irradiation doses.

  2. Interactions between Lattice Dislocations and Grain Boundaries in Ni3Al Investigated by Means of In Situ TEM and Computer Modelling Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pestman, B.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1992-01-01

    The interaction between lattice dislocations and grain boundaries in Ni3Al has been investigated by means of in situ TEM deformation experiments. The interaction between screw dislocations and a coherent twin boundary could be analyzed in detail. The interaction mechanism found experimentally was

  3. Texture evolution and microstructural changes during solid-state dewetting: A correlative study by complementary in situ TEM techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niekiel, Florian; Kraschewski, Simon M.; Schweizer, Peter; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann

    2016-01-01

    The transition of a thin film into an energetically favorable set of particles at temperatures below the melting point of the bulk material is known as solid-state dewetting. In this work the dewetting behavior of 16 nm thick discontinuous Au thin films on amorphous silicon nitride membranes is quantitatively studied by complementary in situ transmission electron microscopy techniques taking advantage of the unique capabilities of a chip-based heating system. The combination of dedicated imaging and diffraction techniques is used to investigate the interplay of grain growth and texture evolution with the process of dewetting. The results show an initial coarsening of the microstructure preceding the other processes. Texture evolution is highly correlated to material retraction and agglomeration during the following dewetting process. In-plane grain rotation has been observed, acting as an additional mechanism for orientation changes. From a methodological perspective this work demonstrates the capabilities of today’s transmission electron microscopy in combination with state-of-the-art in situ instrumentation. In particular the combination of complementary information from different dedicated techniques in one and the same setup is demonstrated to be highly beneficial.

  4. In-situ Observation of Fracture Behavior on Nano Structure in NITE SiC/SiC Composite by HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Tamaki; Hamada, Kouichi; Watanabe, Seiichi; Matsuo, Genichiro; Kishimoto, Hirotatsu

    2011-01-01

    We have been successfully done in situ observation on the sequence of fracture event at the interface of NITE SiC/SiC composite examined by using miniaturized double notched shear specimen for TEM prepared by Focused Ion Beam method. In this study, we used nano-mechanics TEM experimental apparatus to investigate not only microstructure evolution and but also load and displacement curve at once in High Voltage Electron Microscope. Our results summarize as follows. Cracks were initiated at the interface between carbon coating layer on the SiC fiber and SiC matrices, and propagated along the interface. Load drop in the load and displacement curve during in-situ TEM was clearly observed at the crack initiation. The shear strength by using the miniaturized specimen is about ten times higher than that obtained by the standard testing.

  5. In situ statistical observations of EMIC waves by Arase satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, R.; Matsuoka, A.; Teramoto, M.; Nose, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Fujimoto, A.; Shinohara, M.; Tanaka, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We present in situ statistical survey of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by Arase satellite from 3 March to 16 July 2017. We identified 64 events using the fluxgate magnetometer (MGF) on the satellite. The EMIC wave is the key phenomena to understand the loss dynamics of MeV-energy electrons in the radiation belt. We will show the radial and latitudinal dependence of the wave occurance rate and the wave parameters (frequency band, coherence, polarization, and ellipticity). Especially the EMIC waves observed at localized weak background magnetic field will be discussed for the wave excitation mechanism in the deep inner magnetosphere.

  6. 'In situ' and 'Post-mortem' TEM study of the super-elastic effect in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, A.; San Juan, J.; Bocanegra, E.H.; Caillard, D.; No, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the microstructure evolution during super-elastic cycling has been performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to understand the physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-mechanical properties evolution, as well as the martensitic transformation ageing. Particularly, in this work we have studied the super-elastic effect in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys by 'in situ' TEM experiments. The bright field images and diffraction patterns have allowed us to determine, during the transformation, the kind of nucleated martensite variants and their relative orientations. Finally, we have analysed the super-elastic effect on the dislocation microstructure and on the transformation temperatures

  7. Liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloy observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, Katja; Trampert, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Melting and crystallization dynamics of the multi-component Ge-Sb-Te alloy have been investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Starting point of the phase transition study is an ordered hexagonal Ge 1 Sb 2 Te 4 thin film on Si(111) where the crystal structure and the chemical composition are verified by scanning TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, respectively. The in-situ observation of the liquid phase at 600°C including the liquid-solid and liquid-vacuum interfaces and their movements was made possible due to an encapsulation of the TEM sample. The solid-liquid interface during melting displays a broad and diffuse transition zone characterized by a vacancy induced disordered state. Although the velocities of interface movements are measured to be in the nanometer per second scale, both, for crystallization and solidification, the underlying dynamic processes are considerably different. Melting reveals linear dependence on time, whereas crystallization exhibits a non-linear time-dependency featuring a superimposed start-stop motion. Our results may provide valuable insight into the atomic mechanisms at interfaces during the liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloys. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM observation of liquid Ge-Sb-Te phase transition due to encapsulation. • During melting: Observation of non-ordered interface transition due to premelting. • During solidification: Observation of non-linear time-dependent crystallization.

  8. Liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloy observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Katja, E-mail: katja.berlin@pdi-berlin.de; Trampert, Achim

    2017-07-15

    Melting and crystallization dynamics of the multi-component Ge-Sb-Te alloy have been investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Starting point of the phase transition study is an ordered hexagonal Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film on Si(111) where the crystal structure and the chemical composition are verified by scanning TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, respectively. The in-situ observation of the liquid phase at 600°C including the liquid-solid and liquid-vacuum interfaces and their movements was made possible due to an encapsulation of the TEM sample. The solid-liquid interface during melting displays a broad and diffuse transition zone characterized by a vacancy induced disordered state. Although the velocities of interface movements are measured to be in the nanometer per second scale, both, for crystallization and solidification, the underlying dynamic processes are considerably different. Melting reveals linear dependence on time, whereas crystallization exhibits a non-linear time-dependency featuring a superimposed start-stop motion. Our results may provide valuable insight into the atomic mechanisms at interfaces during the liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloys. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM observation of liquid Ge-Sb-Te phase transition due to encapsulation. • During melting: Observation of non-ordered interface transition due to premelting. • During solidification: Observation of non-linear time-dependent crystallization.

  9. In-situ TEM on (de)hydrogenation of Pd at 0.5-4.5 bar hydrogen pressure and 20-400°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosawa, Tadahiro; Alan, Tuncay; Pandraud, Gregory; Dam, Bernard; Zandbergen, Henny

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a nanoreactor, sample holder and gas system for in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of hydrogen storage materials up to at least 4.5 bar. The MEMS-based nanoreactor has a microheater, two electron-transparent windows and a gas inlet and outlet. The holder contains various O-rings to have leak-tight connections with the nanoreactor. The system was tested with the (de)hydrogenation of Pd at pressures up to 4.5 bar. The Pd film consisted of islands being 15 nm thick and 50-500 nm wide. In electron diffraction mode we observed reproducibly a crystal lattice expansion and shrinkage owing to hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, respectively. In selected-area electron diffraction and bright/dark-field modes the (de)hydrogenation of individual Pd particles was followed. Some Pd islands are consistently hydrogenated faster than others. When thermally cycled, thermal hysteresis of about 10-16°C between hydrogen absorption and desorption was observed for hydrogen pressures of 0.5-4.5 bar. Experiments at 0.8 bar and 3.2 bar showed that the (de)hydrogenation temperature is not affected by the electron beam. This result shows that this is a fast method to investigate hydrogen storage materials with information at the nanometer scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In-situ observation of recrystallization in an AlMgScZr alloy using confocal laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taendl, J.; Nambu, S.; Orthacker, A.; Kothleitner, G.; Inoue, J.; Koseki, T.; Poletti, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a novel in-situ approach to study the recrystallization behavior of age hardening alloys. We use confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at 400 °C to investigate the static recrystallization of an AlMg4Sc0.4Zr0.12 alloy in-situ. The results are combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. It was found that CLSM is a powerful tool to visualize both the local initiation and temporal sequence of recrystallization. After fast nucleation and initial growth, the grain growth rate decreases and the grain boundary migration stops after some minutes due to Zener pinning from Al 3 (Sc,Zr) precipitates produced during the heat treatment. EBSD and TEM analyses confirm both the boundary movements and the particle-boundary interactions. - Highlights: • First time that CLSM is used to study recrystallization in-situ. • The start and end of recrystallization can be directly observed. • The procedure is easy to apply and requires only simple data interpretation. • In-situ observations on the surface correlate to modifications inside the bulk. • In-situ observations correlate to EBSD and EFTEM analyses.

  11. In-situ observation of recrystallization in an AlMgScZr alloy using confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taendl, J., E-mail: johannes.taendl@tugraz.atl [Institute of Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Nambu, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Orthacker, A.; Kothleitner, G. [Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Graz Center for Electron Microscopy, Graz (Austria); Inoue, J.; Koseki, T. [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Poletti, C. [Institute of Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    In this work we present a novel in-situ approach to study the recrystallization behavior of age hardening alloys. We use confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at 400 °C to investigate the static recrystallization of an AlMg4Sc0.4Zr0.12 alloy in-situ. The results are combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. It was found that CLSM is a powerful tool to visualize both the local initiation and temporal sequence of recrystallization. After fast nucleation and initial growth, the grain growth rate decreases and the grain boundary migration stops after some minutes due to Zener pinning from Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) precipitates produced during the heat treatment. EBSD and TEM analyses confirm both the boundary movements and the particle-boundary interactions. - Highlights: • First time that CLSM is used to study recrystallization in-situ. • The start and end of recrystallization can be directly observed. • The procedure is easy to apply and requires only simple data interpretation. • In-situ observations on the surface correlate to modifications inside the bulk. • In-situ observations correlate to EBSD and EFTEM analyses.

  12. Switching operation and degradation of resistive random access memory composed of tungsten oxide and copper investigated using in-situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Akihito; Ohno, Yuuki; Nakane, Akitoshi; Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2015-11-27

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy (in-situ TEM) was performed to investigate the switching operation of a resistive random access memory (ReRAM) made of copper, tungsten oxide and titanium nitride (Cu/WOx/TiN). In the first Set (Forming) operation to initialize the device, precipitation appeared inside the WOx layer. It was presumed that a Cu conducting filament was formed, lowering the resistance (on-state). The Reset operation induced a higher resistance (the off-state). No change in the microstructure was identified in the TEM images. Only when an additional Reset current was applied after switching to the off-state could erasure of the filament be seen (over-Reset). Therefore, it was concluded that structural change relating to the resistance switch was localized in a very small area around the filament. With repeated switching operations and increasing operational current, the WOx/electrode interfaces became indistinct. At the same time, the resistance of the off-state gradually decreased. This is thought to be caused by Cu condensation at the interfaces because of leakage current through the area other than through the filament. This will lead to device degradation through mechanisms such as endurance failure. This is the first accelerated aging test of ReRAM achieved using in-situ TEM.

  13. In Situ Observation of Antisite Defect Formation during Crystal Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M. J.; Napolitano, R. E.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    In situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to quantify antisite defect trapping during crystallization. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data revealed a marked lattice distortion which involves an a axis expansion and a c axis contraction of the stable C11b phase. The observed lattice response is proportional in magnitude to the growth rate, suggesting that the behavior is associated with the kinetic trapping of lattice defects. MD simulations demonstrate that this lattice response is due to incorporation of 1% to 2% antisite defects during growth.

  14. Secondary phases in Al_xCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys: An in-situ TEM heating study and thermodynamic appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary phases, either introduced by alloying or heat treatment, are commonly present in most high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Understanding the formation of secondary phases at high temperatures, and their effect on mechanical properties, is a critical issue that is undertaken in the present paper, using the Al_xCoCrFeNi (x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) as a model alloy. The in-situ transmission-electron-microscopy (TEM) heating observation, an atom-probe-tomography (APT) study for the reference starting materials (Al_0_._3 and Al_0_._5 alloys), and thermodynamic calculations for all three alloys, are performed to investigate (1) the aluminum effect on the secondary-phase fractions, (2) the annealing-twinning formation in the face-centered-cubic (FCC) matrix, (3) the strengthening effect of the secondary ordered body-centered-cubic (B2) phase, and (4) the nucleation path of the σ secondary phase thoroughly. Finally, the present work will substantially optimize the alloy design of HEAs and facilitate applications of HEAs to a wide temperature range.

  15. Visualising reacting single atoms under controlled conditions: Advances in atomic resolution in situ Environmental (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (E(S)TEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Edward D.; Gai, Pratibha L.

    2014-02-01

    Advances in atomic resolution Environmental (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (E(S)TEM) for probing gas-solid catalyst reactions in situ at the atomic level under controlled reaction conditions of gas environment and temperature are described. The recent development of the ESTEM extends the capability of the ETEM by providing the direct visualisation of single atoms and the atomic structure of selected solid state heterogeneous catalysts in their working states in real-time. Atomic resolution E(S)TEM provides a deeper understanding of the dynamic atomic processes at the surface of solids and their mechanisms of operation. The benefits of atomic resolution-E(S)TEM to science and technology include new knowledge leading to improved technological processes with substantial economic benefits, improved healthcare, reductions in energy needs and the management of environmental waste generation. xml:lang="fr"

  16. In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Diaye, Alpha T; Coraux, Johann; Busse, Carsten; Michely, Thomas; Gastel, Raoul van; Poelsema, Bene; MartInez-Galera, Antonio J; Gomez-RodrIguez, Jose M; Hattab, Hichem; Wall, Dirk; Heringdorf, Frank-J Meyer zu; Hoegen, Michael Horn-von

    2009-01-01

    Upon cooling, branched line defects develop in epitaxial graphene grown at high temperature on Pt(111) and Ir(111). Using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that these defects are wrinkles in the graphene layer, i.e. stripes of partially delaminated graphene. With low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), we investigate the wrinkling phenomenon in situ. Upon temperature cycling, we observe hysteresis in the appearance and disappearance of the wrinkles. Simultaneously with wrinkle formation a change in bright field imaging intensity of adjacent areas and a shift in the moire spot positions for micro diffraction of such areas takes place. The stress relieved by wrinkle formation results from the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of graphene and the substrate. A simple one-dimensional model taking into account the energies related to strain, delamination and bending of graphene is in qualitative agreement with our observations.

  17. In Situ TEM Investigation of the Electrochemical Behavior in CNTs/MnO2-Based Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Chun; Huang, Guan-Min; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Chieh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2017-09-19

    Transition metal oxides have attracted much interest owing to their ability to provide high power density in lithium batteries; therefore, it is important to understand the electrochemical behavior and mechanism of lithiation-delithiation processes. In this study, we successfully and directly observed the structural evolution of CNTs/MnO 2 during the lithiation process using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CNTs/MnO 2 were selected due to their high surface area and capacitance effect, and the lithiation mechanism of the CNT wall expansion was systematically analyzed. Interestingly, the wall spacings of CNTs/MnO 2 and CNTs were obviously expanded by 10.92% and 2.59%, respectively. The MnO 2 layer caused structural defects on the CNTs surface that could allow penetration of Li + and Mn 4+ through the tube wall and hence improve the ionic transportation speed. This study provided direct evidence for understanding the role of CNTs/MnO 2 in the lithiation process used in lithium ion batteries and also offers potential benefits for applications and development of supercapacitors.

  18. Spectral and raw quasi in-situ energy dispersive X-ray data captured via a TEM analysis of an ODS austenitic stainless steel sample under 1 MeV Kr2+ high temperature irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Adam J; Yao, Zhongwen

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article is related to the research experiment, titled: ' Quasi in-situ energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy observation of matrix and solute interactions on Y-Ti-O oxide particles in an austenitic stainless steel under 1 MeV Kr 2+ high temperature irradiation' (Brooks et al., 2017) [1]. Quasi in-situ analysis during 1 MeV Kr 2+ 520 °C irradiation allowed the same microstructural area to be observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), on an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) austenitic stainless steel sample. The data presented contains two sets of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data collected before and after irradiation to 1.5 displacements-per-atom (~1.25×10 -3  dpa/s with 7.5×10 14  ions cm -2 ). The vendor software used to process and output the data is the Bruker Esprit v1.9 suite. The data includes the spectral (counts vs. keV energy) of the quasi in-situ scanned region (512×512 pixels at 56k magnification), along with the EDX scanning parameters. The.raw files from the Bruker Esprit v1.9 output are additionally included along with the.rpl data information files. Furthermore included are the two quasi in-situ HAADF images for visual comparison of the regions before and after irradiation. This in-situ experiment is deemed ' quasi' due to the thin foil irradiation taking place at an external TEM facility. We present this data for critical and/or extended analysis from the scientific community, with applications applying to: experimental data correlation, confirmation of results, and as computer based modeling inputs.

  19. In-situ observation system for dual ion irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Shigemi; Hojou, Kiichi; Otsu, Hitoshi; Sasaki, T.A.; Izui, Kazuhiko; Tukamoto, Tetsuo; Hata, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ observation and analysis system during dual ion beam irradiation in an electron microscope. This system consists of an analytical electron microscope of JEM-4000FX type equipped with a parallel EELS and an EDS attachments and linked with two sets of ion accelerators of 40 kV. Hydrogen and helium dual-ion beam irradiation experiments were performed for SiC crystals. The result of dual-ion beam irradiation was compared with those of helium and hydrogen single ion irradiations. It is clearly seen that the dual-ion irradiation has the effect of suppressing bubble formation and growth in comparison with the case of single helium ion irradiation. (author)

  20. Improving magnetosphere in situ observations using solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsay, Khashayar; Schaub, Hanspeter; Schiff, Conrad; Williams, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    Past and current magnetosphere missions employ conventional spacecraft formations for in situ observations of the geomagnetic tail. Conventional spacecraft flying in inertially fixed Keplerian orbits are only aligned with the geomagnetic tail once per year, since the geomagnetic tail is always aligned with the Earth-Sun line, and therefore, rotates annually. Solar sails are able to artificially create sun-synchronous orbits such that the orbit apse line remains aligned with the geomagnetic tail line throughout the entire year. This continuous presence in the geomagnetic tail can significantly increase the science phase for magnetosphere missions. In this paper, the problem of solar sail formation design is explored using nonlinear programming to design optimal two-craft, triangle, and tetrahedron solar sail formations, in terms of formation quality and formation stability. The designed formations are directly compared to the formations used in NASA's Magnetospheric Multi-Scale mission.

  1. Aggregation and Fibril Morphology of the Arctic Mutation of Alzheimer’s Aβ peptide by CD, TEM, STEM and in situ AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, Nils; Hellberg, Magnus; Filippov, Andrei; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Gröbner, Gerhard; Leapman, Richard D.; Almqvist, Nils; Antzutkin, Oleg N.

    2012-01-01

    Morphology of aggregation intermediates, polymorphism of amyloid fibrils and aggregation kinetics of the “Arctic” mutant of the Alzheimer’s amyloid β-peptide, Aβ(1-40)(E22G), in a physiologically relevant TRIS buffer (pH 7.4) were thoroughly explored in comparison with the human wild type Alzheimer’s amyloid peptide, wt-Aβ(1-40), using both in situ atomic force and electron microscopy, circular dichroism and thioflavin T fluorescence assays. For arc-Aβ(1-40) at the end of the ‘lag’-period of fibrillization an abrupt appearance of ~3 nm size ‘spherical aggregates’ with a homogeneous morphology, was identified. Then, the aggregation proceeds with a rapid growth of amyloid fibrils with a variety of morphologies, while the spherical aggregates eventually disappeared during in situ measurements. Arc-Aβ(1-40) was also shown to form fibrils at much lower concentrations than wt-Aβ(1-40): ≤2.5 μM and 12.5 μM, respectively. Moreover, at the same concentration, 50 μM, the aggregation process proceeds more rapidly for arc-Aβ(1-40): The first amyloid fibrils were observed after ca 72 hours from the onset of incubation as compared to approximately 7 days for wt-Aβ(1-40). Amyloid fibrils of arc-Aβ(1-40) exhibit a large variety of polymorphs, at least five, both coiled and non-coiled distinct fibril structures were recognized by AFM, while at least four types of arc-Aβ(1-40) fibrils were identified by TEM and STEM and their mass-per-length statistics were collected suggesting supramolecular structures with two, four and six β-sheet laminae. Our results suggest a pathway of fibrillogenesis for full-length Alzheimer’s peptides with small and structurally ordered transient spherical aggregates as on-pathway immediate precursors of amyloid fibrils. PMID:22750418

  2. Towards in-situ tem analysis of PLD Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, Meint J.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; van Zalk, M.; Abelmann, Leon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel technique for fabricating Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) chips for investigating structural and piezoelectric properties of Pulse Laser Deposited (PLD) Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) thin films is presented. The method involves silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer

  3. Hysteresis in YHx films observed with in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remhof, A.; Kerssemakers, J.W.J.; Molen, S.J. van der; Griessen, R.; Kooij, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Giant hysteretic effects in the YH x hydrogen switchable mirror system are observed between x=1.9 and x=3 in pressure composition isotherms, optical and electrical properties, and mechanical stress. Polycrystalline Y films are studied by simultaneous in situ measurements of electrical resistivity, optical transmittance and x-ray diffractometry. These experiments are linked to optical microscopy of the samples. During hydrogen loading above x=1.9 the films stay in the metallic fcc phase until the optical transmittance reaches its minimum and the electrical resistance curve exhibits a characteristic feature at x=2.1. Upon further loading the system crosses the miscibility gap in which the fcc phase coexists with the hcp phase before hydrogen saturation is reached in the pure hcp phase. While the fcc phase stays at a concentration of x=2.1 in the coexistence region during loading, it remains at a concentration of x=1.9 during unloading. The hysteretic effects observed in optical transmission and electrical resistivity result from the different properties of the low concentration fcc phase YH 1.9 and the high concentration fcc phase YH 2.1 . They can be explained on the basis of the bulk phase diagram if the different stress states during loading and unloading are taken into account. These results contradict earlier interpretations of the hysteresis in thin film YH x , based on nonsimultaneous measurements of the optical and structural properties on different films

  4. In situ observation of morphological change in CdTe nano- and submicron wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davami, Keivan; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M [Division of IT Convergence Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Ghassemi, Hessam M; Yassar, Reza S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Sun, Xuhui, E-mail: ljs6951@postech.ac.kr, E-mail: m.meyyappan@nasa.gov [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-10-28

    We report growth and characterization of CdTe wires 30-400 nm in diameter by the vapor-liquid-solid technique. Individual nanowires were placed on a movable piezotube, which allowed three-dimensional motion toward a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). A bias was applied to the STM tip in contact with the nanowire, and the morphological changes due to Joule heating were observed in situ using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in real time. For thick CdTe wires (d > {approx} 150 nm), the process results in the growth of superfine nanowires (SFNWs) of 2-4 nm diameter on the surface of the wire. Smaller diameter nanowires, in contrast, disintegrate under the applied bias before the complete evolution of SFNWs on the surface.

  5. Implementation of a Light Source in a TEM Sample Holder for In-situ Studies of Photocatalytic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    can be used inside an environmental TEM (ETEM) allowing specimens to be analyzed during exposure to a controlled gas atmosphere and illumination. The holder is presently being used to study a variety of photoreactive materials and structures, including photocatalysts, photonic devices and solar cells....... For example, electron holography is being used to study p-n junctions both in the presence and in the absence of light in order to assess electron beam induced charging and discharging effects during laser light exposure [3]. Here, we present results from ETEM studies of light-induced phenomena that include...

  6. Phenomenological in-situ TEM gas exposure studies of palladium particles on MgO at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.; Osaka, T.

    1983-01-01

    It has been found that very small vapor-deposited catalytically active metal particles in the 1-2 nm size range on metal oxide substrates can undergo significant changes when they are exposed to gases such as oxygen or air, or even when allowed to 'anneal' at room temperature (RT) under vacuum conditions. The present investigation is concerned with continued in-situ gas exposures of as-deposited, 1 to 2 nm size palladium particles on MgO to air, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, CO, and water vapor at RT. It is found that the low-pressure exposure to various gases at RT can significantly affect small palladium particles supported on MgO surfaces. Exposure to oxygen for 3 min at 0.0002 m bar produces a considerable amount of coalescence, flattening of the particles, and some distinct crystallographic particle shapes.

  7. In-situ TEM visualization of vacancy injection and chemical partition during oxidation of Ni-Cr nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Min; Genc, Arda; Cheng, Huikai; Pullan, Lee; Baer, Donald R; Bruemmer, Stephen M

    2014-01-14

    Oxidation of alloy often involves chemical partition and injection of vacancies. Chemical partition is the consequence of selective oxidation, while injection of vacancies is associated with the differences of diffusivity of cations and anions. It is far from clear as how the injected vacancies behave during oxidation of metal. Using in-situ transmission electron microscopy, we captured unprecedented details on the collective behavior of injected vacancies during oxidation of metal, featuring an initial multi-site oxide nucleation, vacancy supersaturation, nucleation of a single cavity, sinking of vacancies into the cavity and accelerated oxidation of the particle. High sensitive energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy mapping reveals that Cr is preferentially oxidized even at the initial oxidation, leading to a structure that Cr oxide is sandwiched near the inner wall of the hollow particle. The work provides a general guidance on tailoring of nanostructured materials involving multi-ion exchange such as core-shell structured composite nanoparticles.

  8. Insights from in situ and environmental TEM on the oriented attachment of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles during α-Fe2O3 nanorod formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Fay, Michael W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    Acicular α-Fe2O3 nanorods (NRs), at an intermediate stage of development, were isolated using a snapshot valve-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (HS) technique, for the purpose of complementary in situ transmission electron microscopy (iTEM) and environmental TEM (ETEM) investigations of the effect......’ with the developing NR to adopt a perfect single crystal. Conversely, the heating of partially developed α-Fe2O3 NRs up to 250 °C, under vacuum, during iTEM, demonstrated the progressive coalescence of loosely packed α-Fe2O3 NPs and the coarsening of α-Fe2O3 NRs, without any direct evidence for an intermediate OA...... stage. Direct evidence was obtained for the action of an OA mechanism prior to the consumption of α-Fe2O3 NPs at the tips of developing α-Fe2O3 NRs during ETEM investigation, under an He pressure of 5 mbar at 500 °C. However, α-Fe2O3 NPs more strongly attached to the side-walls of developing α-Fe2O3 NRs...

  9. In situ observation techniques of protective oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takashi; Adachi, Takeharu; Usuki, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    In situ analyzing techniques for investigating a surface and interface change during corrosion and oxidation of metals by using Raman scattering spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) are present. The Raman spectra revealed that a crystal structure and distribution of corrosion products varied during corrosion progress at elevated temperature and high pressure electrolyte. Time dependent XRD measurements made clear the behavior of the electrochemical reduction of a rust and the iso thermal transformation of a scale on a steel. It was demonstrated that XPS was capable of the in-situ measurements for initial stage of high temperature oxidation. (author)

  10. Anomalous Resistance Hysteresis in Oxide ReRAM: Oxygen Evolution and Reincorporation Revealed by In Situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David; Baeumer, Christoph; Bernier, Nicolas; Marchewka, Astrid; La Torre, Camilla; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Menzel, Stephan; Waser, Rainer; Dittmann, Regina

    2017-06-01

    The control and rational design of redox-based memristive devices, which are highly attractive candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory and logic applications, is complicated by competing and poorly understood switching mechanisms, which can result in two coexisting resistance hystereses that have opposite voltage polarity. These competing processes can be defined as regular and anomalous resistive switching. Despite significant characterization efforts, the complex nanoscale redox processes that drive anomalous resistive switching and their implications for current transport remain poorly understood. Here, lateral and vertical mapping of O vacancy concentrations is used during the operation of such devices in situ in an aberration corrected transmission electron microscope to explain the anomalous switching mechanism. It is found that an increase (decrease) in the overall O vacancy concentration within the device after positive (negative) biasing of the Schottky-type electrode is associated with the electrocatalytic release and reincorporation of oxygen at the electrode/oxide interface and is responsible for the resistance change. This fundamental insight presents a novel perspective on resistive switching processes and opens up new technological opportunities for the implementation of memristive devices, as anomalous switching can now be suppressed selectively or used deliberately to achieve the desirable so-called deep Reset. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. In-situ TEM investigation of microstructural evolution in magnetron sputtered Al-Zr and Al-Zr-Si coatings during heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Rechendorff, Kristian; Balogh, Zoltan Imre

    2016-01-01

    The magnetron sputtered Al–Zr and Al–Zr–Si coatings were heat treated in-situ in a transmission electron microscope as well as ex-situ to observe their annealing behaviour and phase transformations. The samples were heated up to a temperature of 550 °C and then cooled to room temperature. A layer...

  12. Nanomechanical and in situ TEM characterization of boron carbide thin films on helium implanted substrates: Delamination, real-time cracking and substrate buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Framil Carpeño, David, E-mail: david.framil-carpeno@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Ohmura, Takahito; Zhang, Ling [Strength Design Group, Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Leveneur, Jérôme [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Gracefield, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Dickinson, Michelle [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Seal, Christopher [International Centre for Advanced Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kennedy, John [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Gracefield, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Hyland, Margaret [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2015-07-15

    Boron carbide coatings deposited on helium-implanted and unimplanted Inconel 600 were characterized using a combination of nanoindentation and transmission electron microscopy. Real-time coating, cracking and formation of slip bands were recorded using in situ TEM-nanoindentation, allowing site specific events to be correlated with specific features in their load–displacement curves. Cross-sections through the residual indent impression showed a correlation between pop-outs in the load–displacement curves and coating delamination, which was confirmed with cyclic indentation experiments. Inconel exhibits (-11-1) and (1-1-1) twin variants in its deformed region beneath the indenter, organized in bands with a ladder-like arrangement. The nanomechanical properties of the metal–ceramic coating combinations exhibit a marked substrate effect as a consequence of helium implantation.

  13. Nanomechanical and in situ TEM characterization of boron carbide thin films on helium implanted substrates: Delamination, real-time cracking and substrate buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Framil Carpeño, David; Ohmura, Takahito; Zhang, Ling; Leveneur, Jérôme; Dickinson, Michelle; Seal, Christopher; Kennedy, John; Hyland, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Boron carbide coatings deposited on helium-implanted and unimplanted Inconel 600 were characterized using a combination of nanoindentation and transmission electron microscopy. Real-time coating, cracking and formation of slip bands were recorded using in situ TEM-nanoindentation, allowing site specific events to be correlated with specific features in their load–displacement curves. Cross-sections through the residual indent impression showed a correlation between pop-outs in the load–displacement curves and coating delamination, which was confirmed with cyclic indentation experiments. Inconel exhibits (-11-1) and (1-1-1) twin variants in its deformed region beneath the indenter, organized in bands with a ladder-like arrangement. The nanomechanical properties of the metal–ceramic coating combinations exhibit a marked substrate effect as a consequence of helium implantation

  14. Indium hydroxide to oxide decomposition observed in one nanocrystal during in situ transmission electron microscopy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehe, Gerhard; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Gurlo, Aleksander

    2013-02-01

    The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) is used to study, in situ, spatially resolved decomposition in individual nanocrystals of metal hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. This case study reports on the decomposition of indium hydroxide (c-In(OH)3) to bixbyite-type indium oxide (c-In2O3). The electron beam is focused onto a single cube-shaped In(OH)3 crystal of {100} morphology with ca. 35 nm edge length and a sequence of HR-TEM images was recorded during electron beam irradiation. The frame-by-frame analysis of video sequences allows for the in situ, time-resolved observation of the shape and orientation of the transformed crystals, which in turn enables the evaluation of the kinetics of c-In2O3 crystallization. Supplementary material (video of the transformation) related to this article can be found online at 10.1016/j.jssc.2012.09.022. After irradiation the shape of the parent cube-shaped crystal is preserved, however, its linear dimension (edge) is reduced by the factor 1.20. The corresponding spotted selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern representing zone [001] of c-In(OH)3 is transformed to a diffuse strongly textured ring-like pattern of c-In2O3 that indicates the transformed cube is no longer a single crystal but is disintegrated into individual c-In2O3 domains with the size of about 5-10 nm. The induction time of approximately 15 s is estimated from the time-resolved Fourier transforms. The volume fraction of the transformed phase (c-In2O3), calculated from the shrinkage of the parent c-In(OH)3 crystal in the recorded HR-TEM images, is used as a measure of the kinetics of c-In2O3 crystallization within the framework of Avrami-Erofeev formalism. The Avrami exponent of ˜3 is characteristic for a reaction mechanism with fast nucleation at the beginning of the reaction and subsequent three-dimensional growth of nuclei with a constant growth rate. The structural transformation path in reconstructive decomposition of c-In(OH)3 to c

  15. In situ observation of the formation of FeSe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Wulff, Anders Christian; Yue, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the FeSe compound from a mixture of Fe and Se powders encased in a composite Cu/Nb sheath was studied in situ by means of high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Tetragonal beta-FeSe does not seem to form directly from the starting elements. Instead, a sequence of FeSe2, Fe3Se...

  16. Indium hydroxide to oxide decomposition observed in one nanocrystal during in situ transmission electron microscopy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miehe, Gerhard; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Gurlo, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) is used to study, in situ, spatially resolved decomposition in individual nanocrystals of metal hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. This case study reports on the decomposition of indium hydroxide (c-In(OH) 3 ) to bixbyite-type indium oxide (c-In 2 O 3 ). The electron beam is focused onto a single cube-shaped In(OH) 3 crystal of {100} morphology with ca. 35 nm edge length and a sequence of HR-TEM images was recorded during electron beam irradiation. The frame-by-frame analysis of video sequences allows for the in situ, time-resolved observation of the shape and orientation of the transformed crystals, which in turn enables the evaluation of the kinetics of c-In 2 O 3 crystallization. Supplementary material (video of the transformation) related to this article can be found online at (10.1016/j.jssc.2012.09.022). After irradiation the shape of the parent cube-shaped crystal is preserved, however, its linear dimension (edge) is reduced by the factor 1.20. The corresponding spotted selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern representing zone [001] of c-In(OH) 3 is transformed to a diffuse strongly textured ring-like pattern of c-In 2 O 3 that indicates the transformed cube is no longer a single crystal but is disintegrated into individual c-In 2 O 3 domains with the size of about 5–10 nm. The induction time of approximately 15 s is estimated from the time-resolved Fourier transforms. The volume fraction of the transformed phase (c-In 2 O 3 ), calculated from the shrinkage of the parent c-In(OH) 3 crystal in the recorded HR-TEM images, is used as a measure of the kinetics of c-In 2 O 3 crystallization within the framework of Avrami–Erofeev formalism. The Avrami exponent of ∼3 is characteristic for a reaction mechanism with fast nucleation at the beginning of the reaction and subsequent three-dimensional growth of nuclei with a constant growth rate. The structural transformation path in reconstructive

  17. In-situ TEM studies of nanostructured thermoelectric materials: An application to Mg-doped Zn4Sb3 alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Le, Hung Thanh; Ngo, Nong Van

    2018-01-01

    material have been dynamically captured as a function of temperature from 300 K to 573 K. On heating, we have observed clearly precipitation and growth of a Zn-rich secondary phase as nanoinclusions in the matrix of primary Zn4Sb3 phase. Elemental mapping by STEM-EDX spectroscopy reveals enrichment of Zn...

  18. High temperature in-situ observations of multi-segmented metal nanowires encapsulated within carbon nanotubes by in-situ filling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Iijima, Toru; Iwata, Takuya; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki; Sasaki, Katsuhiro; Kuroda, Kotaro

    2012-08-08

    Multi-segmented one-dimensional metal nanowires were encapsulated within carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through in-situ filling technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and environmental TEM were employed to characterize the as-prepared sample at room temperature and high temperature. The selected area electron diffractions revealed that the Pd4Si nanowire and face-centered-cubic Co nanowire on top of the Pd nanowire were encapsulated within the bottom and tip parts of the multiwall CNT, respectively. Although the strain-induced deformation of graphite walls was observed, the solid-state phases of Pd4Si and Co-Pd remain even at above their expected melting temperatures and up to 1,550 ± 50°C. Finally, the encapsulated metals were melted and flowed out from the tip of the CNT after 2 h at the same temperature due to the increase of internal pressure of the CNT.

  19. The grand challenge of developing in situ observational oceanography in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available , underwater temperature recorders (UTRs), wave buoys, as well as locally developed in situ measurement sensor and platform prototypes (dial-out UTRs, coastal and deep ocean buoys) have been incorporated into a regional in-situ observational network. A modular...

  20. In-situ transmission electron microscopy observation of slip propagation in ä3 bicrystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gemperlová, Juliana; Jacques, A.; Gemperle, Antonín; Vystavěl, Tomáš; Zárubová, Niva; Janecek, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 324, - (2002), s. 183-189 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/98/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : in- situ TEM deformation * propagation of slip * plastic deformation * grain boundary * symmetrical ä3 bicrystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2002

  1. Attraction of semiconductor nanowires: An in situ observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Gao, Qiang; Chang, Li; Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zibin; Liao, Xiaozhou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Zou, Jin; Ringer, Simon P.; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: In situ deformation transmission electron microscopy was used to study the attraction behavior of GaAs semiconductor nanowires (NWs). The NWs demonstrated an interesting phenomenon of either head-to-head or body-to-body attraction at distances that depend on the NW diameters. The NWs with a diameter of ∼25 nm attracted at a distance of ∼25 nm, while large-diameter NWs of ∼55 nm showed no obvious attraction. The underlying mechanism governing the attraction of the NWs is proposed and discussed with a mechanistic model. The diameter dependence on the NW attraction behavior is discussed. The finding provides an understanding of the Ampère force in nanostructured materials caused by an electron-beam-induced current while technologically it provides useful hints for designing NW-based devices according to the diameter-dependent attraction behavior of NWs

  2. Observations on the in situ contamination of some marine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, Pierre; Lucas, Yves

    1969-09-01

    Measurements carried out in 1966-1968 in the Bay of Ecalgrain in the La Hague region which is subjected to radioactive waste disposal, have made it possible to begin an in-situ study of fission product transfer, in particular of ruthenium 106, in marine waters. A certain number of concentration factors have been determined and compared to those obtained experimentally. From the monitoring point of view, attention is drawn to the following species which, because of their high accumulation power, give a more sensitive indication of the contamination of the site (indicator species), in particular for ruthenium: Sea-weed: Corallina officinalis; Spongiae: Pachymatisma johnstoni (amongst other species of spongiae); Ascidium: Dendrodoa grossularia. (author) [fr

  3. In situ observation of lithium hydride hydrolysis by DRIFT spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awbery, Roy P.; Broughton, Duncan A.; Tsang, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Polycrystalline LiH was studied in situ using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy to investigate the effect water vapour has on the rate of production of the corrosion products, particularly LiOH. The reaction rate of the formation of surface LiOH was monitored by measurement of the hydroxyl (OH) band at 3676 cm -1 . The initial hydrolysis rate of LiH exposed to water vapour at 50% relative humidity was found to be almost two times faster than LiH exposed to water vapour at 2% relative humidity. The hydrolysis rate was shown to be initially very rapid followed by a much slower, almost linear rate. The change in hydrolysis rate was attributed to the formation of a coherent layer of LiOH on the LiH surface. Exposure to lower levels of water vapour appeared to result in the formation of a more coherent corrosion product, resulting in effective passivation of the surface to further attack from water

  4. First In-Situ Observations of Exospheric Response to CME Impact at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J. M.; Wallace, K. L.; Sarantos, M.; Jasinksi, J. M.; Tracy, P. J.; Dewey, R. M.; Weberg, M. J.; Slavin, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first in-situ observations of enhancements to Mercury's He exosphere generated by CME impact. These results have implications for understanding exosphere generation and loss processes, as well space weathering of the planet's surface.

  5. Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum

  6. Investigating the Mechanical Behavior and Deformation Mechanisms of Ultrafinegrained Metal Films Using Ex-situ and In-situ TEM Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Ehsan

    Nanocrystalline (NC) and Ultrafine-grained (UFG) metal films exhibit a wide range of enhanced mechanical properties compared to their coarse-grained counterparts. These properties, such as very high strength, primarily arise from the change in the underlying deformation mechanisms. Experimental and simulation studies have shown that because of the small grain size, conventional dislocation plasticity is curtailed in these materials and grain boundary mediated mechanisms become more important. Although the deformation behavior and the underlying mechanisms in these materials have been investigated in depth, relatively little attention has been focused on the inhomogeneous nature of their microstructure (particularly originating from the texture of the film) and its influence on their macroscopic response. Furthermore, the rate dependency of mechanical response in NC/UFG metal films with different textures has not been systematically investigated. The objectives of this dissertation are two-fold. The first objective is to carry out a systematic investigation of the mechanical behavior of NC/UFG thin films with different textures under different loading rates. This includes a novel approach to study the effect of texture-induced plastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of the films. Efforts are made to correlate the behavior of UFG metal films and the underlying deformation mechanisms. The second objective is to understand the deformation mechanisms of UFG aluminum films using in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments with Automated Crystal Orientation Mapping. This technique enables us to investigate grain rotations in UFG Al films and to monitor the microstructural changes in these films during deformation, thereby revealing detailed information about the deformation mechanisms prevalent in UFG metal films.

  7. Short Communication on “In-situ TEM ion irradiation investigations on U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} at LWR temperatures”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin, E-mail: ymiao@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Fall, ID 83415 (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Bhattacharya, Sumit [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Baldo, Peter; Yacout, Abdellatif M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    The radiation-induced amorphization of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy using 1 MeV Kr ion irradiation. Both arc-melted and sintered U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} specimens were irradiated at room temperature to confirm the similarity in their responses to radiation. The sintered specimens were then irradiated at 350 °C and 550 °C up to 7.2 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to examine their amorphization behavior under light water reactor (LWR) conditions. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} remains crystalline under irradiation at LWR temperatures. Oxidation of the material was observed at high irradiation doses.

  8. Preparation and Loading Process of Single Crystalline Samples into a Gas Environmental Cell Holder for In Situ Atomic Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubinger, Rainer; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-06-01

    A reproducible way to transfer a single crystalline sample into a gas environmental cell holder for in situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis is shown in this study. As in situ holders have only single-tilt capability, it is necessary to prepare the sample precisely along a specific zone axis. This can be achieved by a very accurate focused ion beam lift-out preparation. We show a step-by-step procedure to prepare the sample and transfer it into the gas environmental cell. The sample material is a GaP/Ga(NAsP)/GaP multi-quantum well structure on Si. Scanning TEM observations prove that it is possible to achieve atomic resolution at very high temperatures in a nitrogen environment of 100,000 Pa.

  9. Blending Satellite Observed, Model Simulated, and in Situ Measured Soil Moisture over Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Zeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The inter-comparison of different soil moisture (SM products over the Tibetan Plateau (TP reveals the inconsistency among different SM products, when compared to in situ measurement. It highlights the need to constrain the model simulated SM with the in situ measured data climatology. In this study, the in situ soil moisture networks, combined with the classification of climate zones over the TP, were used to produce the in situ measured SM climatology at the plateau scale. The generated TP scale in situ SM climatology was then used to scale the model-simulated SM data, which was subsequently used to scale the SM satellite observations. The climatology-scaled satellite and model-simulated SM were then blended objectively, by applying the triple collocation and least squares method. The final blended SM can replicate the SM dynamics across different climatic zones, from sub-humid regions to semi-arid and arid regions over the TP. This demonstrates the need to constrain the model-simulated SM estimates with the in situ measurements before their further applications in scaling climatology of SM satellite products.

  10. In-situ observation of equilibrium transitions in Ni films; agglomeration and impurity effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Andrew M., E-mail: AMThron@lbl.gov [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Greene, Peter; Liu, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Benthem, Klaus van [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Dewetting of ultra-thin Ni films deposited on SiO{sub 2} layers was observed, in cross-section, by in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy. Holes were observed to nucleate by voids which formed at the Ni/SiO{sub 2} interface rather than at triple junctions at the free surface of the Ni film. Ni islands were observed to retract, in attempt to reach equilibrium on the SiO{sub 2} layer. SiO{sub 2} layers with 120 nm thickness were found to limit in situ heating experiments due to poor thermal conductivity of SiO{sub 2}. The formation of graphite was observed during the agglomeration of ultra-thin Ni films. Graphite was observed to wet both the free surface and the Ni/SiO{sub 2} interface of the Ni islands. Cr forms surface oxide layers on the free surface of the SiO{sub 2} layer and the Ni islands. Cr does not prevent the dewetting of Ni, however it will likely alter the equilibrium shape of the Ni islands. - Highlights: • In Situ observation of dewetting in ultra-thin Ni films sputtered on SiO{sub 2} layers. • Dewetting is observed in an edge-on position by in situ STEM. • Characterization of interface structure pre and post in situ annealing by STEM and EELS. • Analyze the effects of Cr{sub 1−x}O{sub x} and graphite impurities on the Ni film agglomeration. • Examine influence of the SiO{sub 2} layers on the dewetting process.

  11. In-situ observations of point-defect precipitation at dislocations in electron-irradiated silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, M.L.; Hardy, G.J.; Kirk, M.A.

    1986-09-01

    In-situ weak-beam observations of the development of electron irradiation damage at dislocations in silver are described. Dislocations constrict and promote in their vicinity the formation of stacking-fault tetrahedra. The possibility that these are of interstitial nature is discussed

  12. Mud volcanos and mud domes of the central Mediterranean Ridge: near bottom and in situ observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.; Foucher, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    The first high-resolution mapping of mud volcanoes and mud domes of the Central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean) presented here is based on successive in situ observations from the Nautile submersible [MEDINAUT (1998) and NAUTINIL (2003) surveys] and near-bottom side-scan sonar data

  13. Evolution of extended defects in polycrystalline Au-irradiated UO{sub 2} using in situ TEM: Temperature and fluence effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofri, C., E-mail: claire.onofri@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Sabathier, C. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baumier, C.; Bachelet, C. [CSNSM/CNRS, PARIS-SUD University, F-91400 Orsay (France); Palancher, H. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Legros, M. [CEMES/CNRS, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2016-12-15

    In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy irradiations were performed on polycrystalline UO{sub 2} thin foils with 4 MeV gold ions at three different temperatures: 600 °C, room and liquid nitrogen temperature. In order to study the dislocation evolution and to determine the growth mechanisms, the dislocation loop and line densities and the loop size repartition were monitored as a function of fluence, and irradiation temperature. We show that dislocation loops, with Burgers vectors along the <110> directions, evolve into dislocation lines with increasing fluence by a loop overlapping mechanism. Furthermore, a fluence offset is highlighted between the irradiations performed at high and low temperature due to an increase of the defect mobility. Indeed, a growth by Oswald ripening is probably activated at room temperature and 600 °C and changes the kinetic evolution of loops into lines. After this transformation, and for all the irradiation temperatures, a steady state equilibrium is reached where both extended defects (dislocation lines and small dislocations loops -around 5 nm in size-) are observed simultaneously. A continuous nucleation of small dislocation loops and of nanometer-sized cavities formed directly by irradiation is also highlighted.

  14. Silver Accumulation in the Green Microalga Coccomyxa actinabiotis: Toxicity, in Situ Speciation, and Localization Investigated Using Synchrotron XAS, XRD, and TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Thomas; Farhi, Emmanuel; Pouget, Stéphanie; Motellier, Sylvie; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Rébeillé, Fabrice; den Auwer, Christophe; Rivasseau, Corinne

    2016-01-05

    Microalgae are good candidates for toxic metal remediation biotechnologies. This study explores the cellular processes implemented by the green microalga Coccomyxa actinabiotis to take up and cope with silver over the concentration range of 10(-7) to 10(-2) M Ag(+). Understanding these processes enables us to assess the potential of this microalga for applications for bioremediation. Silver in situ speciation and localization were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Silver toxicity was evaluated by monitoring microalgal growth and photochemical parameters. Different accumulation mechanisms were brought out depending on silver concentration. At low micromolar concentration, microalgae fixed all silver initially present in solution, trapping it inside the cells into the cytosol, mainly as unreduced Ag(I) bound with molecules containing sulfur. Silver was efficiently detoxified. When concentration increased, silver spread throughout the cell and particularly entered the chloroplast, where it damaged the photosystem. Most silver was reduced to Ag(0) and aggregated to form crystalline silver nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure with a mean size of 10 nm. An additional minor interaction of silver with molecules containing sulfur indicated the concomitant existence of the mechanism observed at low concentration or nanoparticle capping. Nanoparticles were observed in chloroplasts, in mitochondria, on the plasma membrane, on cytosolic membrane structures, and in vacuoles. Above 10(-4) M Ag(+), damages were irreversible, and photosynthesis and growth were definitely inhibited. However, high silver amounts remained confined inside microalgae, showing their potential for the bioremediation of contaminated water.

  15. In situ observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, K. W.; Smith, C. W.; Lessard, M. R.; Engebretson, M. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2014-03-01

    We present in situ observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations using the Van Allen Probes. These waves are often observed using ground-based magnetometers, but are rarely observed by orbiting satellites. With the Van Allen Probes, we have seen at least 14 different pearl pulsation events during the first year of operations. These new in situ measurements allow us to identify the wave classification based on local magnetic field conditions. Additionally, by using two spacecraft, we are able to observe temporal changes in the region of observation. The waves appear to be generated at an overall central frequency, as often observed on the ground, and change polarization from left- to right-handedness as they propagate into a region where they are resonant with the crossover frequency (where R- and L-mode waves have the same phase velocity). By combining both in situ and ground-based data, we have found that the region satisfying electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave generation conditions is azimuthally large while radially narrow. The observation of a similar modulation period on the ground as in the magnetosphere contradicts the bouncing wave packet mechanism of generation.

  16. Solar Ion Processing of Major Element Surface Compositions of Mature Mare Soils: Insights from Combined XPS and Analytical TEM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C.; Keller, L. P.; Baragiola, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind ions are capable of altering the sur-face chemistry of the lunar regolith by a number of mechanisms including preferential sputtering, radiation-enhanced diffusion and sputter erosion of space weathered surfaces containing pre-existing compositional profiles. We have previously reported in-situ ion irradiation experiments supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and analytical TEM that show how solar ions potentially drive Fe and Ti reduction at the monolayer scale as well as the 10-100 nm depth scale in lunar soils [1]. Here we report experimental data on the effect of ion irradiation on the major element surface composition in a mature mare soil.

  17. Accelerator-TEM interface facility and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuansheng; Li Ming; He Jun; Yang Zheng; Zhou Lin; Wang Zesong; Guo Liping; Jiang Changzhong; Yang Shibo; Fu Dejun; Fan Xiangjun; Liu Jiarui; Lee J C

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator-TEM interface facility has been established at Wuhan University in 2008. The system consists of an H800 TEM linked to a 200 kV ion implanter and a 2 x 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. Nitrogen ions at 115 keV were successfully transported from the implanter into the TEM chamber through the interface system, and the ion currents measured at the entrance of the TEM column were between 20 and 180 nA. Structural evolution caused by ion irradiation in Si, GaAs, nanocrystal Ag was observed in situ. The in situ observation showed that the critical implantation dose for amorphization of Si is 10 14 cm -2 . The nuclear material C276 samples implanted with 115 keV Ar + was also studied, and dislocation loops sized at 3-12 nm were clearly observed after implantation to doses of over 1 x 10 15 cm -2 . The density of the loops increased with the dose. Evolution to polycrystalline and amorphous structures were observed at 5 x l0 15 cm -2 and 3 x 10 16 cm -2 , respectively. An in situ RBS/C chamber was installed on the transport line of the accelerator-TEM interface system. This enables in situ measurement of composition and location of the implanted species in lattice of the samples. In addition, a 50 kV low-energy gaseous ion generator was installed close to the TEM chamber, which facilitates in situ TEM observation of helium bubbles formed in helium-implanted materials. (authors)

  18. In situ observation of a hydrogel-glass interface during sliding friction

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Tetsurou; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ahmed, Jamil; Kamita, Gen; Yashima, Shintaro; Furukawa, Yuichiro; Ota, Yuko; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation of hydrogel contact with a solid surface in water is indispensable for understanding the friction, lubrication, and adhesion of hydrogels under water. However, this is a difficult task since the refractive index of hydrogels is very close to that of water. In this paper, we present a novel method to in situ observe the macroscopic contact of hydrogels with a solid surface based on the principle of critical refraction. This method was applied to investigate the sliding frict...

  19. Dynamical 'in situ' observation of biological samples using variable pressure scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedela, V

    2008-01-01

    Possibilities of 'in-situ' observation of non-conductive biological samples free of charging artefacts in dynamically changed surrounding conditions are the topic of this work. The observed biological sample, the tongue of a rat, was placed on a cooled Peltier stage. We studied the visibility of topographical structure depending on transition between liquid and gas state of water in the specimen chamber of VP SEM.

  20. HVEM in-situ observation of formation of helical dislocations in Ag-10at.%Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, H.; Kondo, T.

    1982-01-01

    Dissociated near-screw dislocations in Ag-10at.%Al were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons at 473K in a HVEM and the transformation of the dissociated screws into helices as a result of the interaction of point defects introduced was observed in situ using the 'weak-beam' electron microscopy. Results of observations have been analysed in terms of the 'loop-jog' model of climb of dissociated dislocations proposed by Cherns, Hirsch and Saka. (author)

  1. In situ observation of a soap-film catenoid-a simple educational physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

    2010-01-01

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as a minimal surface. Using the soap film, we create catenoids between two rings and characterize the catenoid in situ while varying the distance between the rings. The shape of the soap film is very interesting and can be explained using dynamic mechanics. By observing the catenoid, physics students can observe local extrema phenomena. We stress that in situ observation of soap-film catenoids is an appropriate physics experiment that combines theory and experimentation.

  2. In situ observation of a soap-film catenoid-a simple educational physics experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku [Department of Physics, Aichi University of Education, Kariya, 448-8542 (Japan)], E-mail: mito@auecc.aichi-edu.ac.jp

    2010-03-15

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as a minimal surface. Using the soap film, we create catenoids between two rings and characterize the catenoid in situ while varying the distance between the rings. The shape of the soap film is very interesting and can be explained using dynamic mechanics. By observing the catenoid, physics students can observe local extrema phenomena. We stress that in situ observation of soap-film catenoids is an appropriate physics experiment that combines theory and experimentati0008.

  3. The Isinglass Auroral Sounding Rocket Campaign: data synthesis incorporating remote sensing, in situ observations, and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. A.; Clayton, R.; Roberts, T. M.; Hampton, D. L.; Conde, M.; Zettergren, M. D.; Burleigh, M.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Lessard, M.; Hysell, D. L.; Varney, R. H.; Reimer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA auroral sounding rocket mission Isinglass was launched from Poker Flat Alaska in winter 2017. This mission consists of two separate multi-payload sounding rockets, over an array of groundbased observations, including radars and filtered cameras. The science goal is to collect two case studies, in two different auroral events, of the gradient scale sizes of auroral disturbances in the ionosphere. Data from the in situ payloads and the groundbased observations will be synthesized and fed into an ionospheric model, and the results will be studied to learn about which scale sizes of ionospheric structuring have significance for magnetosphere-ionosphere auroral coupling. The in situ instrumentation includes thermal ion sensors (at 5 points on the second flight), thermal electron sensors (at 2 points), DC magnetic fields (2 point), DC electric fields (one point, plus the 4 low-resource thermal ion RPA observations of drift on the second flight), and an auroral precipitation sensor (one point). The groundbased array includes filtered auroral imagers, the PFISR and SuperDarn radars, a coherent scatter radar, and a Fabry-Perot interferometer array. The ionospheric model to be used is a 3d electrostatic model including the effects of ionospheric chemistry. One observational and modelling goal for the mission is to move both observations and models of auroral arc systems into the third (along-arc) dimension. Modern assimilative tools combined with multipoint but low-resource observations allow a new view of the auroral ionosphere, that should allow us to learn more about the auroral zone as a coupled system. Conjugate case studies such as the Isinglass rocket flights allow for a test of the models' intepretation by comparing to in situ data. We aim to develop and improve ionospheric models to the point where they can be used to interpret remote sensing data with confidence without the checkpoint of in situ comparison.

  4. Direct in situ observations of single Fe atom catalytic processes and anomalous diffusion at graphene edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Fu, Lei; Eckert, Jürgen; Rümmeli, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Single-atom catalysts are of great interest because of their high efficiency. In the case of chemically deposited sp2 carbon, the implementation of a single transition metal atom for growth can provide crucial insight into the formation mechanisms of graphene and carbon nanotubes. This knowledge is particularly important if we are to overcome fabrication difficulties in these materials and fully take advantage of their distinct band structures and physical properties. In this work, we present atomically resolved transmission EM in situ investigations of single Fe atoms at graphene edges. Our in situ observations show individual iron atoms diffusing along an edge either removing or adding carbon atoms (viz., catalytic action). The experimental observations of the catalytic behavior of a single Fe atom are in excellent agreement with supporting theoretical studies. In addition, the kinetics of Fe atoms at graphene edges are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion, which again, is in agreement with our theoretical investigations. PMID:25331874

  5. The solar wind at solar maximum: comparisons of EISCAT IPS and in situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Breen

    Full Text Available The solar maximum solar wind is highly structured in latitude, longitude and in time. Coronal measurements show a very high degree of variability, with large variations that are less apparent within in situ spacecraft measurements. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS observations from EISCAT, covering distances from 20 to 100 solar radii (RS, are an ideal source of information on the inner solar wind and can be used, therefore, to cast light on its evolution with distance from the Sun. Earlier comparisons of in situ and IPS measurements under solar minimum conditions showed good large-scale agreement, particularly in the fast wind. In this study we attempt a quantitative comparison of measurements made over solar maximum by EISCAT (20–100 RS and the Wind and Ulysses spacecraft (at 215 RS and 300–1000 RS, respectively. The intervals studied were August–September 1999, May 2000, September 2000 and May 2001, the last-named being the period of the second Ulysses fast latitude scan. Both ballistic and – when possible – MHD/ballistic hybrid models were used to relate the data sets, and we compare the results obtained from these two mapping methods. The results of this study suggest that solar wind velocities measured in situ were less variable than those estimated from IPS measurements closer to the Sun, with the greatest divergence between IPS velocities and in situ measurements occurring in regions where steep longitudinal velocity gradients were seen in situ. We suggest that the interaction between streams of solar wind with different velocities leads to "smoothing" of solar wind velocities between 30–60 RS and 1 AU, and that this process continues at greater distances from the Sun.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (solar wind plasma; sources of the solar wind; instruments and techniques

  6. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  7. In-situ observation of damage evolution in TiC crystals during helium ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojou, K.; Otsu, H.; Furuno, S.; Izui, K.; Tsukamoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    In-situ observations were performed on bubble formation and growth in TiC during 20 keV helium ion irradiation over the wide range of irradiation temperatures from 12 to 1523 K. No amorphization occurred over this temperature range. The bubble densities and sizes were almost independent of irradiation temperatures from 12 to 1273 K. Remarkable growth and coalescence occurred during irradiation at high temperature above 1423 K and during annealing above 1373 K after irradiation. ((orig.))

  8. Direct transmission electron microscopy observations of martensitic transformations in Ni-rich NiTi single crystals during in situ cooling and straining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, A.; Dziaszyk, S.; Frenzel, J.; Somsen, Ch.; Dlouhy, A.; Eggeler, G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate martensitic transformations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in compression aged Ni-rich NiTi single crystals with one family of Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates. Small cylinders from a Ni-rich NiTi single crystal with a Ni content of 51.0 at.% were compression aged at 550 deg. C in the [1 1 1] B2 direction for different aging times. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) investigations show that a three-step martensitic transformation (three DSC peaks on cooling from the high temperature regime) can be observed for aging times of 4 ks. In situ cooling TEM investigations reveal that the first peak on cooling is associated with a transformation from B2 to R-phase, starting from all precipitate/matrix interfaces. On further cooling, the B19'-phase appears and grows along precipitate/matrix interfaces (second step). With further decreasing temperature, the remaining R-phase between the precipitates transforms to B19' (third peak). In situ TEM straining experiments of B2 above the martensitic start temperature reveal that first some microstructural regions directly transform in microscopic burst like events from B2 to B19'. On further straining, the B19'-phase grows along precipitate/matrix interfaces. However, no formation of R-phase precedes the formation of stress-induced B19'

  9. In situ observation of transformation in alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 under hydrogen implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Y; Ishikawa, N; Furuya, K; Kato, M

    2002-01-01

    An in situ observation of the alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 -to-Fe sub 3 O sub 4 transformation has been performed using a dual-ion-beam accelerator interfaced with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). During the hydrogen-ion implantation of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 , transformation into the new phase (gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 or Fe sub 3 O sub 4) was observed. It was also found that the orientation relationship between alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 and the new phase (gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 or Fe sub 3 O sub 4) satisfies the Shoji-Nishiyama relationship, in agreement with previous experiments. It was also found that the nearest interatomic distance does not vary by the implantation until the re-stacked phase appears, although when the re-stacked phase is formed, the lattice expansion is observed in the transformed (re-stacked) phase. Judging from these results, we have concluded that the alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 to Fe sub 3 O sub 4 transformation is induced during the hydrogen ion implantation of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3.

  10. In-Situ atomic force microscopic observation of ion beam bombarded plant cell envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Yu, L.D.; Brown, I.G.; Seprom, C.; Vilaithong, T.

    2007-01-01

    A program in ion beam bioengineering has been established at Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand, and ion beam induced transfer of plasmid DNA molecules into bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) has been demonstrated. However, a good understanding of the fundamental physical processes involved is lacking. In parallel work, onion skin cells have been bombarded with Ar + ions at energy 25 keV and fluence1-2 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 , revealing the formation of microcrater-like structures on the cell wall that could serve as channels for the transfer of large macromolecules into the cell interior. An in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) system has been designed and installed in the CMU bio-implantation facility as a tool for the observation of these microcraters during ion beam bombardment. Here we describe some of the features of the in-situ AFM and outline some of the related work

  11. In situ observation of mechanical damage within a SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo-Mora, L.; Lowe, T.; Zhao, S.; Lee, P.D.; Mummery, P.M.; Marrow, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites are candidate materials for fuel cladding in Generation IV nuclear fission reactors and as accident tolerant fuel clad in current generation plant. Experimental methods are needed that can detect and quantify the development of mechanical damage, to support modelling and qualification tests for these critical components. In situ observations of damage development have been obtained of tensile and C-ring mechanical test specimens of a braided nuclear grade SiC-SiC ceramic composite tube, using a combination of ex situ and in situ computed X-ray tomography observation and digital volume correlation analysis. The gradual development of damage by matrix cracking and also the influence of non-uniform loading are examined. - Highlights: • X-ray tomography with digital volume correlation measures 3D deformation in situ. • Cracking and damage in the microstructure can be detected using the strain field. • Fracture can initiate from the monolithic coating of a SiC-SiC ceramic composite.

  12. In-situ observations of stress-induced thin film failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.B., E-mail: zzhao@firstsolar.co [Delphi Research Labs, 51786 Shelby Parkway, Shelby Twp., MI 48315 (United States); Hershberger, J. [Laird Technologies, 4707 Detroit Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 44102 (United States); Bilello, J.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the failure modes of thin films under thermo-mechanical treatments were observed via in-situ white beam X-ray topography. The in-situ experiments were carried out using an experimental setup on Beamline 2-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Magnetron sputtered polycrystalline thin films of Ta and CrN on Si substrates were selected for the present study due to their disparate states of intrinsic residual stresses: the Ta film was anisotropically compressive and the CrN film was isotropically tensile. Under a similar heating-cooling cycle in air, the two types of films exhibited distinct failure modes, which were observed in-situ and in a quasi-real-time fashion. The failures of the samples have been interpreted based on their distinctive growth stress states, superimposed on the additional stress development associated with different forms of thermal instabilities upon heating. These included the formation of oxide for the Ta/Si sample, which led to an increase in compressive stress, and a phase change for the CrN/Si sample, which caused the isotropic stress in the film to become increasingly tensile.

  13. In-situ observations of stress-induced thin film failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.B.; Hershberger, J.; Bilello, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the failure modes of thin films under thermo-mechanical treatments were observed via in-situ white beam X-ray topography. The in-situ experiments were carried out using an experimental setup on Beamline 2-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Magnetron sputtered polycrystalline thin films of Ta and CrN on Si substrates were selected for the present study due to their disparate states of intrinsic residual stresses: the Ta film was anisotropically compressive and the CrN film was isotropically tensile. Under a similar heating-cooling cycle in air, the two types of films exhibited distinct failure modes, which were observed in-situ and in a quasi-real-time fashion. The failures of the samples have been interpreted based on their distinctive growth stress states, superimposed on the additional stress development associated with different forms of thermal instabilities upon heating. These included the formation of oxide for the Ta/Si sample, which led to an increase in compressive stress, and a phase change for the CrN/Si sample, which caused the isotropic stress in the film to become increasingly tensile.

  14. In situ observation of mechanical damage within a SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucedo-Mora, L. [Institute Eduardo Torroja for Construction Sciences-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Lowe, T. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Zhao, S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Lee, P.D. [Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Mummery, P.M. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Marrow, T.J., E-mail: james.marrow@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites are candidate materials for fuel cladding in Generation IV nuclear fission reactors and as accident tolerant fuel clad in current generation plant. Experimental methods are needed that can detect and quantify the development of mechanical damage, to support modelling and qualification tests for these critical components. In situ observations of damage development have been obtained of tensile and C-ring mechanical test specimens of a braided nuclear grade SiC-SiC ceramic composite tube, using a combination of ex situ and in situ computed X-ray tomography observation and digital volume correlation analysis. The gradual development of damage by matrix cracking and also the influence of non-uniform loading are examined. - Highlights: • X-ray tomography with digital volume correlation measures 3D deformation in situ. • Cracking and damage in the microstructure can be detected using the strain field. • Fracture can initiate from the monolithic coating of a SiC-SiC ceramic composite.

  15. Size Determination of Au Aerosol Nanoparticles by Off-Line TEM/STEM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Lisa S.; Deppert, Knut; Malm, Jan-Olle

    2006-12-01

    Determination of particle size distributions of Au aerosol nanoparticles has been performed by a TEM/STEM investigation. The particles are generated by an evaporation/condensation method and are size-selected by differential mobility analyzers (DMA) based on their electrical mobility. Off-line TEM measurements resulted in equivalent projected area diameters assuming that the particles are spherical in shape. In this paper critical factors such as magnification calibration, sampling, image analysis, beam exposure and, particle shape are treated. The study shows that the measures of central tendency; mean, median and mode, are equal as expected from a narrow size distribution. Moreover, the correlation between TEM/STEM and DMA are good, in practice 1:1. Also, STEM has the advantage over TEM due to enhanced contrast and is proposed as an alternative route for determination of particle size distributions of nanoparticles with lower contrast.

  16. Size Determination of Au Aerosol Nanoparticles by Off-Line TEM/STEM Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Lisa S.; Deppert, Knut; Malm, Jan-Olle

    2006-01-01

    Determination of particle size distributions of Au aerosol nanoparticles has been performed by a TEM/STEM investigation. The particles are generated by an evaporation/condensation method and are size-selected by differential mobility analyzers (DMA) based on their electrical mobility. Off-line TEM measurements resulted in equivalent projected area diameters assuming that the particles are spherical in shape. In this paper critical factors such as magnification calibration, sampling, image analysis, beam exposure and, particle shape are treated. The study shows that the measures of central tendency; mean, median and mode, are equal as expected from a narrow size distribution. Moreover, the correlation between TEM/STEM and DMA are good, in practice 1:1. Also, STEM has the advantage over TEM due to enhanced contrast and is proposed as an alternative route for determination of particle size distributions of nanoparticles with lower contrast

  17. In situ TEM study of the effect of M/A films at grain boundaries on crack propagation in an ultra-fine acicular ferrite pipeline steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yong; Xiao Furen; Zhang Jingwu; Shan Yiyin; Wang Wei; Yang Ke

    2006-01-01

    Microstructural refinement of structural materials generally improves their tensile properties but deteriorates their fatigue properties. However, pipeline steels with ultra-fine acicular ferrite (UFAF) possess not only high strength and toughness, but also a low fatigue-crack-growth rate (FCGR) and long fatigue-propagation life. In this paper, the micro-fracture mechanisms of an UFAF pipeline steel are investigated by in situ tensile testing in a transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that a grain-boundary-film structure composed of martensite/austenite could significantly influence the crack propagating behavior in the UFAF steel, consequently lowering the FCGR by enhancing roughness-induced crack closure during cyclic loading

  18. 3D in situ observations of glass fibre/matrix interfacial debonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martyniuk, Karolina; Sørensen, Bent F.; Modregger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    X-ray microtomography was used for 3D in situ observations of the evolution of fibre/matrix interfacial debonding. A specimen with a single fibre oriented perpendicular to the tensile direction was tested at a synchrotron facility using a special loading rig which allowed for applying a load...... transverse to the fibre. Three distinguishable damage stages were observed: (i) interfacial debond initiation at the free surface, (ii) debond propagation from the surface into the specimen and (iii) unstable debonding along the full length of the scanned volume. The high resolution microtomography provides...

  19. In situ transmission electron microscope observation of the formation of fuzzy structures on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, M; Watanabe, T; Nagashima, H; Nishijima, D; Doerner, R P; Krasheninnikov, S I; Sagara, A; Yoshida, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the formation processes of tungsten nano-structures, so called fuzz, in situ transmission electron microscope observations during helium ion irradiation and high temperature annealing have been performed. The irradiation with 3 keV He + from room temperature to 1273 K is found to cause high-density helium bubbles in tungsten with no significant change in the surface structure. At higher temperatures, surface morphology changes were observed even without helium irradiation due probably to surface diffusion of tungsten atoms driven by surface tension. It is clearly shown that this morphology change is enhanced with helium irradiation, i.e. the formation of helium bubbles. (paper)

  20. Early Winter Sea Ice Dynamics in the Ross Sea from In Situ and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Ackley, S. F.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Tison, J. L.; Hoeppner, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Ross Sea sea ice cover is one of the few regions of the cryosphere that have been expanding in recent decades. However, 2017 saw a significantly delayed autumn ice advance and record low early winter sea ice extent. Understanding the causes and impacts of this variability has been hampered by a lack of in situ observations. A winter cruise into the Ross Sea in April-June 2017 provided some of the only in situ winter observations of sea ice processes in this region in almost 20 years. We present a first look at data from arrays of drifting buoys deployed in the ice pack and outflow from these polynyas, supplemented by a suite of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Additional observations included high-resolution sonar imagery of ice deformation features from an autonomous underwater vehicle, shipboard visual observations of sea ice properties, and in situ measurements of snow and thickness and structural properties. These data show that the delay in ice advance led to a thin, highly dynamic sea ice pack, with substantial ice production and export from the Ross Ice Shelf and Terra Nova Bay polynyas. Despite these high rates of ice production, the pack ice remained thin due to rapid export and northward drift. Compared to the only prior winter observations made in 1995 and 1998, the ice was thinner, with less ridging and snow cover, reflecting a younger ice cover. Granular ice was less prevalent than in these prior cruises, particularly in the outer pack, likely due to less snow ice formation and less pancake ice formation at the advancing ice edge. Despite rapid basal ice growth, the buoy data suggest that deformation may be the dominant mechanism for sea ice thickening in the pack once an initial ice cover forms.

  1. Accelerator-tem interface facility and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; He Jun; Yang Zheng; Zhou Lin; Liu Chuansheng; Guo Liping; Jiang Changzhong; Yang Shibo; Fu Dejun; Fan Xiangjun; Liu Jiarui; Lee, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator-TEM interface facility has been established at Wuhan University. The system consists of an H800 TEM linked to a 200 kV ion implanter and a 2 x 1.7 MV tandetron accelerator. Measures were taken to isolate the TEM from mechanical vibration transmitted from the ion beam lines and good resolution was maintained with the TEM machine when operated under high zoom modes during the ion implantation. Nitrogen ions at 115 keV were successfully transported from the implanter into the TEM chamber through the interface system, and the ion currents measured at the entrance of the TEM column were between 20 and 180 nA. Structural evolution caused by ion irradiation in Si, GaAs, nanocrystal Ag were observed in situ. The TEM sample could be tilted by 52 degree and for low energy ion irradiation, real time observation was realized. The in situ observation showed that the critical implant dose for amorphization of Si is 2 x 10 14 cm -2 and it became fully amorphized at 3 x 10 15 cm -2 . Amorphization of GaAs started at 1 x 10 14 cm -2 , whereas for nanocrystal Ag, the starting dose was 6 x 10 14 cm -2 . The nuclear material C276 samples implanted with 115 keV Ar+ was also studied and dislocation loops with sizes of 3-12 nm were clearly observed after implantation to doses higher than 1 x 10 15 cm -2 . The density of the loops increased with the increase in the implant dose and evolution to polycrystalline and amorphous structures were observed at 5 x 10 15 cm -2 and 3 x 10 16 cm -2 , respectively. An in situ RBS/C chamber has been installed on the transport line of the accelerator-TEM interface system. This makes it possible to in situ measure composition and location of impurities in the lattice of the implanted samples. In addition, a 50 kV low-energy gaseous ion generator was installed close to the TEM chamber, which facilitates in situ TEM observation of helium bubbles formed in materials by helium implantation. (authors)

  2. Dynamical observation of lithium insertion/extraction reaction during charge-discharge processes in Li-ion batteries by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyamada, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with solid electrolytes are expected to be the next generation devices to overcome serious issues facing conventional LIBs with liquid electrolytes. However, the large Li-ion transfer resistance at the electrode/solid-electrolyte interfaces causes low power density and prevents practical use. In-situ-formed negative electrodes prepared by decomposing the solid electrolyte Li(1+x+3z)Alx(Ti,Ge)(2-x)Si(3z)P(3-z)O12 (LASGTP) with an excess Li-ion insertion reaction are effective electrodes providing low Li-ion transfer resistance at the interfaces. Prior to our work, however, it had still been unclear how the negative electrodes were formed in the parent solid electrolytes. Here, we succeeded in dynamically visualizing the formation by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope mode (SR-TEM-EELS). The Li-ions were gradually inserted into the solid electrolyte region around 400 nm from the negative current-collector/solid-electrolyte interface in the charge process. Some of the ions were then extracted in the discharge process, and the rest were diffused such that the distribution was almost flat, resulting in the negative electrodes. The redox reaction of Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) in the solid electrolyte was also observed in situ during the Li insertion/extraction processes. The in situ SR-TEM-EELS revealed the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in solid-state batteries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. In-situ observation of equilibrium transitions in Ni films; agglomeration and impurity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thron, Andrew M; Greene, Peter; Liu, Kai; van Benthem, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Dewetting of ultra-thin Ni films deposited on SiO2 layers was observed, in cross-section, by in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy. Holes were observed to nucleate by voids which formed at the Ni/SiO2 interface rather than at triple junctions at the free surface of the Ni film. Ni islands were observed to retract, in attempt to reach equilibrium on the SiO2 layer. SiO2 layers with 120 nm thickness were found to limit in situ heating experiments due to poor thermal conductivity of SiO2. The formation of graphite was observed during the agglomeration of ultra-thin Ni films. Graphite was observed to wet both the free surface and the Ni/SiO2 interface of the Ni islands. Cr forms surface oxide layers on the free surface of the SiO2 layer and the Ni islands. Cr does not prevent the dewetting of Ni, however it will likely alter the equilibrium shape of the Ni islands. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Gridded sunshine duration climate data record for Germany based on combined satellite and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawender, Jakub; Kothe, Steffen; Trentmann, Jörg; Pfeifroth, Uwe; Cremer, Roswitha

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to create a 1 km2 gridded daily sunshine duration data record for Germany covering the period from 1983 to 2015 (33 years) based on satellite estimates of direct normalised surface solar radiation and in situ sunshine duration observations using a geostatistical approach. The CM SAF SARAH direct normalized irradiance (DNI) satellite climate data record and in situ observations of sunshine duration from 121 weather stations operated by DWD are used as input datasets. The selected period of 33 years is associated with the availability of satellite data. The number of ground stations is limited to 121 as there are only time series with less than 10% of missing observations over the selected period included to keep the long-term consistency of the output sunshine duration data record. In the first step, DNI data record is used to derive sunshine hours by applying WMO threshold of 120 W/m2 (SDU = DNI ≥ 120 W/m2) and weighting of sunny slots to correct the sunshine length between two instantaneous image data due to cloud movement. In the second step, linear regression between SDU and in situ sunshine duration is calculated to adjust the satellite product to the ground observations and the output regression coefficients are applied to create a regression grid. In the last step regression residuals are interpolated with ordinary kriging and added to the regression grid. A comprehensive accuracy assessment of the gridded sunshine duration data record is performed by calculating prediction errors (cross-validation routine). "R" is used for data processing. A short analysis of the spatial distribution and temporal variability of sunshine duration over Germany based on the created dataset will be presented. The gridded sunshine duration data are useful for applications in various climate-related studies, agriculture and solar energy potential calculations.

  5. Advanced electron holography techniques for in situ observation of solid-state lithium ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Tsukasa, E-mail: t-hirayama@jfcc.or.jp [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Aizawa, Yuka; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sato, Takeshi [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Murata, Hidekazu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Ryuji; Fisher, Craig A.J. [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Advanced techniques for overcoming problems encountered during in situ electron holography experiments in which a voltage is applied to an ionic conductor are reported. The three major problems encountered were 1) electric-field leakage from the specimen and its effect on phase images, 2) high electron conductivity of damage layers formed by the focused ion beam method, and 3) chemical reaction of the specimen with air. The first problem was overcome by comparing experimental phase distributions with simulated images in which three-dimensional leakage fields were taken into account, the second by removing the damage layers using a low-energy narrow Ar ion beam, and the third by developing an air-tight biasing specimen holder. - Highlights: • Phase distributions derived by comparing experimental and simulated measurements. • Simulations take into account leakage electric fields. • Electric potential distributions inside Li-ion conductors are obtained. • FIB damage layers are removed using a low-energy narrow Ar ion beam. • An air-tight biasing TEM holder for protecting air-sensitive specimens is reported.

  6. Deteriorating water clarity in shallow waters: Evidence from long term MODIS and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Pan, Delu

    2018-06-01

    Water clarity (Secchi disk depth: SDD), as a proxy of water transparency, provides important information on the light availability to the water or lake ecosystem. Shallow lakes have been experienced dramatic environmental and climatic change. This study demonstrated using combination of long-term MODIS and in-situ measurements to track the dynamics of SDD with these environmental and climate changes in shallow water environments. We selected a typical turbid shallow Lake Taihu as our case study. Based on MODIS-Aqua data, an empirical model for estimating SDD was developed and validated. Subsequently, we employed the proposed model to derive the spatial and temporal SDD distribution patterns of Lake Taihu from 2003 to 2015. Combining MODIS-derived SDD time series of 2003-2015 and long-term in-situ SDD observations dated back to 1993, we elucidated SDD long-term variation trends and driving mechanism. Deteriorating water clarity from the long-term SDD observations indicated that Lake Taihu became more and more turbid and water quality was decreasing. Increasing in cyanobacterial bloom area, as a result of decreasing in wind speed and eutrophication, may partially be responsible for the decreasing trend. A predicted future decrease in the wind speed in Lake Taihu region could enhance the formation of cyanobacterial blooms and consequently lead to a further decrease in water clarity. This study suggested that coupling remote sensing monitoring and long-term in-situ observations could provide robust evidence and new insights to elucidate long-term dynamics in aquatic ecosystem evolution.

  7. MetNet - In situ observational Network and Orbital platform to investigate the Martian environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Leinonen, Jussi; Merikallio, Sini; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri; Polkko, Jouni

    2007-09-01

    MetNet Mars Mission is an in situ observational network and orbital platform mission to investigate the Martian environment and it has been proposed to European Space Agency in response to Call for proposals for the first planning cycle of Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 D/SCI/DJS/SV/val/21851. The MetNet Mars Mission is to be implemented in collaboration with ESA, FMI, LA, IKI and the payload providing science teams. The scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy 16 MetNet Landers (MNLs) on the Martian surface by using inflatable descent system structures accompanied by an atmospheric sounder and data relay onboard the MetNet Orbiter (MNO), which is based on ESA Mars Express satellite platform. The MNLs are attached on the three sides of the satellite and most of the MNLs are deployed to Mars separately a few weeks prior to the arrival to Mars. The MetNet Orbiter will perform continuous atmospheric soundings thus complementing the accurate in situ observations at the Martian ground produced by the MetNet observation network, as well as the orbiter will serve as the primary data relay between the MetNet Landers and the Earth. The MNLs are equipped with a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterisation of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatological cycles, as well as interior investigations, require simultaneous in situ meteorological, seismic and magnetic measurements from networks of stations on the Martian surface. MetNet Mars Mission will also provide a crucial support for the safety of large landing missions in general and manned Mars missions in particular. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric conditions and weather data is essential to guarantee safe landings of the forthcoming Mars mission elements.

  8. Investigation of creep threshold stresses using in situ TEM straining experiment in an Al-5Y2O3-10SiC composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S.P.; Mishra, R.S.; Robertson, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Creep behavior of metal matrix composites is similar to dispersion strengthen alloys and characterized by the presence of a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. This threshold stress is attributed, at least in dispersion-strengthened alloys, to dislocation particle interactions in which the detachment of the dislocations from the particle is the rate-limiting step. Creep experiments were performed on an Al-5Y 2 O 3 -10SiC composite in the temperature range of 473 and 573 K and the nature of the dislocation-particle interaction was determined by performing in situ straining experiments at elevated temperature in a transmission electron microscope. The threshold stress and the detachment stress are temperature dependent and the detachment stress is less than the threshold stress emphasizing the contribution of load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement phase.

  9. Gulf of Maine Harmful Algal Bloom in summer 2005 - Part 1: In Situ Observations of Coastal Hydrography and Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ruoying; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive Alexandrium fundyense bloom occurred along the coast of the Gulf of Maine in late spring and early summer, 2005. To understand the physical aspects of bloom?s initiation and development, in-situ observations from both a gulf-wide ship survey and the coastal observing network were used to characterize coastal circulation and hydrography during that time period. Comparisons between these in-situ observations and their respective long term means revealed anomalous ocean conditions d...

  10. In-situ observation of atomic self-organization processes in Xe nanocrystals embedded in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuishi, K.; Song, M.; Furuya, K.; Birtcher, R. C.; Allen, C. W.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    Self-organization processes in Xe nanocrystals embedded in Al are observed with in-situ high-resolution electron microscopy. Under electron irradiation, stacking fault type defects are produced in Xe nanocrystals. The defects recover in a layer by layer manner. Detailed analysis of the video reveals that the displacement of Xe atoms in the stacking fault was rather small for the Xe atoms at boundary between Xe and Al, suggesting the possibility of the stacking fault in Xe precipitate originating inside of precipitate, not at the Al/Xe interface

  11. In-situ observation of crack propagation in thermally sprayed coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušálek, R.; Kovářík, O.; Matějíček, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 7 (2010), s. 1807-1811 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : coating fracture * in-situ observation * alumina * stainless steel * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=GatewayURL&_method=citationSearch&_uoikey=B6TVV-4YTFBCY-5&_origin=SDEMFRHTML&_version=1&md5=896533bcc989ebaa374ff209558fbcf1

  12. Remote Sensing of the Reconnection Electric Field From In Situ Multipoint Observations of the Separatrix Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T. K. M.; Nakamura, R.; Varsani, A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Liu, Y.-H.

    2018-05-01

    A remote sensing technique to infer the local reconnection electric field based on in situ multipoint spacecraft observation at the reconnection separatrix is proposed. In this technique, the increment of the reconnected magnetic flux is estimated by integrating the in-plane magnetic field during the sequential observation of the separatrix boundary by multipoint measurements. We tested this technique by applying it to virtual observations in a two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection without a guide field and confirmed that the estimated reconnection electric field indeed agrees well with the exact value computed at the X-line. We then applied this technique to an event observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission when crossing an energetic plasma sheet boundary layer during an intense substorm. The estimated reconnection electric field for this event is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than a typical value of magnetotail reconnection.

  13. A century of ocean warming on Florida Keys coral reefs: historic in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Lidz, Barbara H.; Hudson, J. Harold; Anderson, Jeffery S.

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that global climate change over the last several decades has caused shifts in species distributions, species extinctions, and alterations in the functioning of ecosystems. However, because of high variability on short (i.e., diurnal, seasonal, and annual) timescales as well as the recency of a comprehensive instrumental record, it is difficult to detect or provide evidence for long-term, site-specific trends in ocean temperature. Here we analyze five in situ datasets from Florida Keys coral reef habitats, including historic measurements taken by lighthouse keepers, to provide three independent lines of evidence supporting approximately 0.8 °C of warming in sea surface temperature (SST) over the last century. Results indicate that the warming observed in the records between 1878 and 2012 can be fully accounted for by the warming observed in recent decades (from 1975 to 2007), documented using in situ thermographs on a mid-shore patch reef. The magnitude of warming revealed here is similar to that found in other SST datasets from the region and to that observed in global mean surface temperature. The geologic context and significance of recent ocean warming to coral growth and population dynamics are discussed, as is the future prognosis for the Florida reef tract.

  14. Do In Situ Observations Contain Signatures of Intermittent Fast Solar Wind Acceleration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, L.; Horbury, T. S.; Stansby, D.

    2017-12-01

    Disentangling local plasma properties and Solar origin structures in in situ data is a crucial aspect for the understanding of solar wind acceleration and evolution. This is particularly challenging at 1 AU and beyond, where structures of various origin have had time to interact and merge, smoothing out their main characteristics. Observations of more pristine plasma closer to the Sun are therefore needed. In preparation of the forthcoming Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe missions, Helios observations as close as to 0.3 AU - although old, not yet fully exploited - can be used to test our expectations and make new predictions. Recent observations (Matteini et al. 2014, 2015) have outlined the presence of intense (up to 1000km/s) and short-living velocity peaks that ubiquitously characterize the typical profile of the fast solar wind at 0.3 AU, suggesting that these features could be remnants of processes occurring in the Solar atmosphere and a signature of intermittent solar wind acceleration from coronal holes. We discuss results about statistics of these events, characterizing their physical properties and trying to link them with typical Solar temporal and spatial scales. Finally we also discuss how these velocity peaks will likely affect the future in situ exploration of the inner heliosphere by Solar Orbiter and the Parker Solar Probe.

  15. In-Situ Observation of Sintering Shrinkage of UO2 Compacts Derived from Different Powder Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang Soo; Kim, Dong Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Jong Hun; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In-situ observations on the shrinkage of green pellets with precisely controlled dimensions were carefully conducted by using TOM during H2 atmosphere sintering. The shrinkage retardation in IDR-UO 2 might be attributed to the larger primary particle size of IDRUO 2 than those of ADU- and AUC- UO 2 powders. It would be important to understand the different sintering characteristics of UO 2 powders according to the powder routes, when it comes to designing a new sintering process or choosing a sintering additive for new fuel pellet like PCI (Pellet Cladding Interaction) remedy pellet. In this paper, we have investigated the initial and intermediate sintering shrinkage of UO 2 from different powder routes by in-situ observation of green samples during H2 atmosphere sintering. Effect of powder characteristics of three different UO 2 powders on the initial and intermediate sintering were closely reviewed including crystal structure, powder size, specific surface area, primary crystal size, and O/U ratio

  16. In situ observations from STEREO/PLASTIC: a test for L5 space weather monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. C. Simunac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stream interaction regions (SIRs that corotate with the Sun (corotating interaction regions, or CIRs are known to cause recurrent geomagnetic storms. The Earth's L5 Lagrange point, separated from the Earth by 60 degrees in heliographic longitude, is a logical location for a solar wind monitor – nearly all SIRs/CIRs will be observed at L5 several days prior to their arrival at Earth. Because the Sun's heliographic equator is tilted about 7 degrees with respect to the ecliptic plane, the separation in heliographic latitude between L5 and Earth can be more than 5 degrees. In July 2008, during the period of minimal solar activity at the end of solar cycle 23, the two STEREO observatories were separated by about 60 degrees in longitude and more than 4 degrees in heliographic latitude. This time period affords a timely test for the practical application of a solar wind monitor at L5. We compare in situ observations from PLASTIC/AHEAD and PLASTIC/BEHIND, and report on how well the BEHIND data can be used as a forecasting tool for in situ conditions at the AHEAD spacecraft with the assumptions of ideal corotation and minimal source evolution. Preliminary results show the bulk proton parameters (density and bulk speed are not in quantitative agreement from one observatory to the next, but the qualitative profiles are similar.

  17. In situ observations from STEREO/PLASTIC: a test for L5 space weather monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. C. Simunac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stream interaction regions (SIRs that corotate with the Sun (corotating interaction regions, or CIRs are known to cause recurrent geomagnetic storms. The Earth's L5 Lagrange point, separated from the Earth by 60 degrees in heliographic longitude, is a logical location for a solar wind monitor – nearly all SIRs/CIRs will be observed at L5 several days prior to their arrival at Earth. Because the Sun's heliographic equator is tilted about 7 degrees with respect to the ecliptic plane, the separation in heliographic latitude between L5 and Earth can be more than 5 degrees. In July 2008, during the period of minimal solar activity at the end of solar cycle 23, the two STEREO observatories were separated by about 60 degrees in longitude and more than 4 degrees in heliographic latitude. This time period affords a timely test for the practical application of a solar wind monitor at L5. We compare in situ observations from PLASTIC/AHEAD and PLASTIC/BEHIND, and report on how well the BEHIND data can be used as a forecasting tool for in situ conditions at the AHEAD spacecraft with the assumptions of ideal corotation and minimal source evolution. Preliminary results show the bulk proton parameters (density and bulk speed are not in quantitative agreement from one observatory to the next, but the qualitative profiles are similar.

  18. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations in snow cover research: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunyu

    2018-06-01

    Snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. As a major part of the cryosphere, snow cover also represents a valuable terrestrial water resource. In the context of climate change, the dynamics of snow cover play a crucial role in rebalancing the global energy and water budgets. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations are three techniques frequently utilized for snow cover investigations. However, the uncertainties caused by systematic errors, scale gaps, and complicated snow physics, among other factors, limit the usability of these three approaches in snow studies. In this paper, an overview of the advantages, limitations and recent progress of the three methods is presented, and more effective ways to estimate snow cover properties are evaluated. The possibility of improving remotely sensed snow information using ground-based observations is discussed. As a rapidly growing source of volunteered geographic information (VGI), web-based geotagged photos have great potential to provide ground truth data for remotely sensed products and hydrological models and thus contribute to procedures for cloud removal, correction, validation, forcing and assimilation. Finally, this review proposes a synergistic framework for the future of snow cover research. This framework highlights the cross-scale integration of in situ and remotely sensed snow measurements and the assimilation of improved remote sensing data into hydrological models.

  19. In Situ Observation of the Dislocation Structure Evolution During a Strain Path Change in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Lienert, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of deformation structures in individual grains embedded in polycrystalline copper specimens during strain path changes is observed in situ by high-resolution reciprocal space mapping with high-energy synchrotron radiation. A large number of individual subgrains is resolved; their be......The evolution of deformation structures in individual grains embedded in polycrystalline copper specimens during strain path changes is observed in situ by high-resolution reciprocal space mapping with high-energy synchrotron radiation. A large number of individual subgrains is resolved...... and orientation of the resolved subgrains change only slightly, while their elastic stresses are significantly altered. This indicates the existence of a microplastic regime during which only the subgrains deform plastically and no yielding of the dislocation walls occurs. After reloading above 0.3% strain......, the elastic stresses of individual subgrains are about the same as in unidirectionally deformed reference specimens. They increase only slightly during further straining—accompanied by occasional emergence of new subgrains, abundant orientation changes, and disappearance of existing subgrains....

  20. In-situ observations of Eyjafjallajökull ash particles by hot-air balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, T.; Laakso, L.; Grönholm, T.; Launiainen, S.; Evele-Peltoniemi, I.; Virkkula, A.; Leskinen, A.; Backman, J.; Manninen, H. E.; Sipilä, M.; Haapanala, S.; Hämeri, K.; Vanhala, E.; Tuomi, T.; Paatero, J.; Aurela, M.; Hakola, H.; Makkonen, U.; Hellén, H.; Hillamo, R.; Vira, J.; Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Laaksonen, A.; lehtinen, K. E. J.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2012-03-01

    The volcanic ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption seriously distracted aviation in Europe. Due to the flight ban, there were only few in-situ measurements of the properties and dispersion of the ash cloud. In this study we show in-situ observations onboard a hot air balloon conducted in Central Finland together with regional dispersion modelling with SILAM-model during the eruption. The modeled and measured mass concentrations were in a qualitative agreement but the exact elevation of the layer was slightly distorted. Some of this discrepancy can be attributed to the uncertainty in the initial emission height and strength. The observed maximum mass concentration varied between 12 and 18 μg m -3 assuming a density of 2 g m -3, whereas the gravimetric analysis of the integrated column showed a maximum of 45 μg m -3 during the first two descents through the ash plume. Ion chromatography data indicated that a large fraction of the mass was insoluble to water, which is in qualitative agreement with single particle X-ray analysis. A majority of the super-micron particles contained Si, Al, Fe, K, Na, Ca, Ti, S, Zn and Cr, which are indicative for basalt-type rock material. The number concentration profiles indicated that there was secondary production of particles possibly from volcano-emitted sulfur dioxide oxidized to sulfuric acid during the transport.

  1. Long-Term Water Temperature Variations in Daya Bay, China Using Satellite and In Situ Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Daya Bay is a shallow, semi-en closed bay in the northern section of the South China Sea. The present study analyzed variations of water temperature in Daya Bay over the past 21 years (1985 - 2005 using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR satellite remote sensing data and in situ observations. Results showed that AVHRR readings of sea surface temperature (SST increased by 0.07°C y-1. Linear regression anal y sis for monthly SST anomalies (SSTA showed a shift from negative to positive from 1995 - 1996, when the Daya Bay nuclear power station commenced operations in 1994. The slope of linear regression analysis for SSTA nearly doubled from 0.05 (1985 - 1993 to 0.09 (1994 - 2005. Monthly AVHRR images showed a thermal plume from the power station and revealed the in crease of SST over 21 years. In situ observations in water temperature also showed an in creasing trend for the same period (1985 - 2005. Variations in water temperature in Daya Bay were connected with climatic perturbations and in creasing human activity including thermal discharge from nuclear power stations and the rapid economic development around the bay area.

  2. Are Global In-Situ Ocean Observations Fit-for-purpose? Applying the Framework for Ocean Observing in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbeck, M.; Fischer, A. S.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Mowlem, M. C.; Speich, S.; Larkin, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are an increasing number of global, regional and local processes that are in need of integrated ocean information. In the sciences ocean information is needed to support physical ocean and climate studies for example within the World Climate Research Programme and its CLIVAR project, biogeochemical issues as articulated by the GCP, IMBER and SOLAS projects of ICSU-SCOR and Future Earth. This knowledge gets assessed in the area of climate by the IPCC and biodiversity by the IPBES processes. The recently released first World Ocean Assessment focuses more on ecosystem services and there is an expectation that the Sustainable Development Goals and in particular Goal 14 on the Ocean and Seas will generate new demands for integrated ocean observing from Climate to Fish and from Ocean Resources to Safe Navigation and on a healthy, productive and enjoyable ocean in more general terms. In recognition of those increasing needs for integrated ocean information we have recently launched the Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project to promote the transition from a loosely-coordinated set of existing ocean observing activities to a more integrated, more efficient, more sustainable and fit-for-purpose Atlantic Ocean Observing System. AtlantOS takes advantage of the Framework for Ocean observing that provided strategic guidance for the design of the project and its outcome. AtlantOS will advance the requirements and systems design, improving the readiness of observing networks and data systems, and engaging stakeholders around the Atlantic. AtlantOS will bring Atlantic nations together to strengthen their complementary contributions to and benefits from the internationally coordinated Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Blue Planet Initiative of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). AtlantOS will fill gaps of the in-situ observing system networks and will ensure that their data are readily accessible and useable. AtlantOS will demonstrate the utility of

  3. In situ observation of Ag-Cu-Ti liquid alloy/solid oxide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, O.V. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, 3 Krzhyzhanovsky Street, Kiev 142, 03680 (Ukraine)], E-mail: avdu@ukr.net; Krasovskyy, V.P. [Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, 3 Krzhyzhanovsky Street, Kiev 142, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2008-11-15

    In situ investigation methods are a very interesting means for understanding high-temperature interface processes. A method of direct observation of the interactions between transparent materials (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2}) and metal melts was elaborated. For the Ag-36.65 at.%Cu-8.15 at.%Ti/sapphire system, the formation of a dark compound at the interface was observed to occur at high temperature. This result does not confirm the conclusion of a neutron spectroscopy study which indicated that titanium oxides form at the interface only during solidification of the alloy. Interactions of the same alloy with SiO{sub 2} and CaF{sub 2} were also considered.

  4. Data Quality Assessment of In Situ and Altimeter Observations Through Two-Way Intercomparison Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinehut, Stephanie; Valladeau, Guillaume; Legeais, Jean-Francois; Rio, Marie-Helene; Ablain, Michael; Larnicol, Gilles

    2013-09-01

    This proceeding presents an overview of the two-way inter-comparison activities performed at CLS for both space and in situ observation agencies and why this activity is a required step to obtain accurate and homogenous data sets that can then be used together for climate studies or in assimilation/validation tools. We first describe the work performed in the frame of the SALP program to assess the stability of altimeter missions through SSH comparisons with tide gauges (GLOSS/CLIVAR network). Then, we show how the SSH comparison between the Argo array and altimeter time series allows the detection of drifts or jumps in altimeter (SALP program) but also for some Argo floats (Ifremer/Coriolis center). Lastly, we describe how the combine use of altimeter and wind observations helps the detection of drogue loss of surface drifting buoys (GDP network) and allow the computation of a correction term for wind slippage.

  5. In situ observation of structural change of nanostructured tungsten during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Miyuki; Yoshida, Naoaki; Kajita, Shin; Tokitani, Masayuki; Baba, Tomotsugu; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2014-01-01

    Deformation of fiberform nanostructure and the dynamic behavior of helium (He) bubbles in fuzz tungsten (W) during annealing have been investigated by means of in situ cross-section observation using transmission electron microscopy and He desorption rate observation using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Thermal recovery of the nanostructure, such as shrinkage and coalescence of fine structure, annihilation of He bubbles, and large desorption of He gas, occurred around 1073–1173 K. The activation energy of He was estimated from a TDS peak that appeared around 300–400 K by using the Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose model-free-kinetics method. In addition, the TDS results of fiberform nanostructured tungsten were compared with those of tungsten samples irradiated with a high-energy He ion beam

  6. In situ observation of the role of alumina particles on the crystallization behavior of slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrling, C.

    2000-09-01

    The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) allows crystallization behavior in liquid slags to he observed in situ at high temperatures. Slags in the lime-silica-alumina-magnesia system are easily tinder cooled and it is possible to construct time temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams for this system. The presence of solid alumina particles its these liquid slags was studied to determine if these particles act as heterogeneous nucleation sites that cause she precipitation of solid material within slags. The introduction of alumina particles reduced the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and increased the temperature at which crystallization was observed in the slags to close to the liquidus temperature for the slag. Crystal growth rates are in a good agreement with Ivantsov's solution of the problem of diffusion controlled dendritic growth. Alumina appears to be a potent nucleating agent in the slag systems that were studied. (author)

  7. SEALEX in-situ experiments-performance tests of repository seals: experimental observations and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokni Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes observations and numerical analysis of SEALEX performance tests installed in Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL. One of the objectives of the large scale in-situ tests is to investigate the impact of technological gaps on the long term performance of bentonite based seals. The swelling cores consist of pre-compacted blocks of a natural sodic Wyoming bentonite (MX80 type mixed with quartz sand in a ratio of 70/30 (in dry mass with different geometries (monolithic disks or four jointed disks. Several technological gaps exist within the in situ tests: Gaps between the blocks and annular gap with variable width between the bentonite-based core and the host rock. All the tests are extensively instrumented for monitoring the main Hydro-Mechanical (HM variables. Comparison of the experimental results showed that the presence of technological gaps constituted new hydration sources (annular gaps and flow paths (gaps between the blocks that changed the saturation kinetics. A coupled HM formulation that incorporates the relevant processes involved in the problem under consideration has been adopted to analyse the effect of the annular technological gap on dry density homogenization of the bentonite based core as hydration progresses. Technological gaps were demonstrated to have an impact on dry density distribution.

  8. In-situ observation of the energy dependence of defect production in Cu and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Merkel, K.L.; Baily, A.C.; Haga, K.; Meshii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The damage function, the average number of Frenkel pairs created as a function of lattice atom recoil energy, was investigated in Cu and Ni using in-situ electrical-resistivity damage-rate measurements in the high-voltage electron micrscope (HVEM) at T < 10K. Electron and proton irradiations were performed in-situ on the same polycrystalline specimens using the Argonne National Laboratory HVEM-Ion Beam Interface. Both Ni and Cu exhibit a sharp rise in the damage function above the minimum threshold energy (approx. 18 eV for Cu and approx. 20 eV for Ni) as displacements in the low-threshold energy regions of the threshold energy surface become possible. A plateau is observed for both materials (0.54 Frenkel pairs for Cu and 0.46 Frenkel pairs for Ni) indicating that no further directions become productive until much higher recoil energies. These damage functions show strong deviations from simple theoretical models, such as the Modified Kinchin-Pease damage function. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of defect production that govern the single-displacement regime of the damage function and are compared with results from recent molecular-dynamics simulations

  9. Structure observation of single solidified droplet by in situ controllable quenching based on nanocalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Bingge; Li, Linfang; Yang, Bin; Yan, Ming; Zhai, Qijie; Gao, Yulai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Controllable quenching rate up to 15,000 K/s was realized by FSC. •FSC sample was novelly characterized by FIB and HRTEM. •Solidification structure with undercooling of 110.9 K was investigated. •This study opens a new approach in rapid solidification and FSC measurement. -- Abstract: Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) based on nanocalorimetry and thin film technique is a newly developed attractive tool to investigate the solidification behavior of single droplet by in situ controllable ultrafast cooling. In this paper, we introduced this novel technique to in situ control the quenching of single Sn3.5Ag metallic droplet at cooling rate up to 15,000 K/s with corresponding undercooling of 110.9 K. In particular, the solidification structure of this real time quenched single droplet was observed and analyzed with focused ion beam (FIB), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). This research proposed a new approach to research the solidification structure of single droplet with precisely controlled size and extreme cooling rate

  10. An Intercomparison of GPS RO Retrievals with Colocated Analysis and In Situ Observations within Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry R. Winterbottom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations from four Global Position System (GPS Radio Occultation (RO missions: Global Positioning System/Meteorology, CHAallenging Minisatellite Payload, Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C, and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate and Taiwan's FORMOsa SATellite Mission #3 (COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 are collected within a 600 km radius and ±180 minute temporal window of all observed tropical cyclones (TCs from 1995 to 2006 that were recorded in the global hurricane best-track reanalysis data set (Jarvinen et al. (1984; Davis et al. (1984. A composite analysis of tropical cyclone radial mean temperature and water vapor profiles is carried out using the GPS RO retrievals which are colocated with global analysis profiles and available in situ radiosonde observations. The differences between the respective observations and analysis profiles are quantified and the preliminary results show that the observations collected within TCs correspond favorably with both the analysis and radiosonde profiles which are colocated. It is concluded that GPS RO observations will contribute significantly to the understanding and modeling of TC structures, especially those related to vertical variability of the atmospheric state within TCs.

  11. Real time, in situ observation of the photocatalytic inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingtao [School of Food and Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Xiaoxin [Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Qi, E-mail: qili@imr.ac.cn [Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shang, Jian Ku [Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    An in situ microscopy technique was developed to observe in real time the photocatalytic inactivation process of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cells by palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (TiON/PdO) under visible light illumination. The technique was based on building a photocatalytic micro-reactor on the sample stage of a fluorescence/phase contrast microscopy capable of simultaneously providing the optical excitation to activate the photocatalyst in the micro-reactor and the illumination to acquire phase contrast images of the cells undergoing the photocatalytic inactivation process. Using TiON/PdO as an example, the technique revealed for the first time the vacuolar activities inside S. cerevisiae cells subjected to a visible light photocatalytic inactivation. The vacuoles responded to the photocatalytic attack by the first expansion of the vacuolar volume and then contraction, before the vacuole disappeared and the cell structure collapsed. Consistent with the aggregate behavior observed from the cell culture experiments, the transition in the vacuolar volume provided clear evidence that photocatalytic disinfection of S. cerevisiae cells started with an initiation period in which cells struggled to offset the photocatalytic damage and moved rapidly after the photocatalytic damage overwhelmed the defense mechanisms of the cells against oxidative attack. - Highlights: • Palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxidephotocatalyst (TiON/PdO) • Effective visible-light photocatalytic disinfection of yeast cells by TiON/PdO • Real time, in situ observation technique was developed for photocatalytic disinfection. • The fluorescence/phase contrast microscope with a photocatalytic micro-reactor • Yeast cell disinfection happened before the cell structure collapsed.

  12. PREDICTION OF GEOMAGNETIC STORM STRENGTH FROM INNER HELIOSPHERIC IN SITU OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicka, M.; Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Boakes, P. D.; Törmänen, O. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 8042 Graz (Austria); Feng, L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, West Beijing Road 2 Nanjing, 210008 (China); Eastwood, J. P., E-mail: christian.moestl@oeaw.ac.at [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-20

    Prediction of the effects of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on Earth strongly depends on knowledge of the interplanetary magnetic field southward component, B{sub z}. Predicting the strength and duration of B{sub z} inside a CME with sufficient accuracy is currently impossible, forming the so-called B{sub z} problem. Here, we provide a proof-of-concept of a new method for predicting the CME arrival time, speed, B{sub z}, and resulting disturbance storm time ( Dst ) index on Earth based only on magnetic field data, measured in situ in the inner heliosphere (<1 au). On 2012 June 12–16, three approximately Earthward-directed and interacting CMEs were observed by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory imagers and Venus Express (VEX) in situ at 0.72 au, 6° away from the Sun–Earth line. The CME kinematics are calculated using the drag-based and WSA–Enlil models, constrained by the arrival time at VEX , resulting in the CME arrival time and speed on Earth. The CME magnetic field strength is scaled with a power law from VEX to Wind . Our investigation shows promising results for the Dst forecast (predicted: −96 and −114 nT (from 2 Dst models); observed: −71 nT), for the arrival speed (predicted: 531 ± 23 km s{sup −1}; observed: 488 ± 30 km s{sup −1}), and for the timing (6 ± 1 hr after the actual arrival time). The prediction lead time is 21 hr. The method may be applied to vector magnetic field data from a spacecraft at an artificial Lagrange point between the Sun and Earth or to data taken by any spacecraft temporarily crossing the Sun–Earth line.

  13. In-situ SEM observation on fracture behavior of austempered silicon alloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Crack initiation, propagation and microfracture processes of austempered high silicon cast steel have been investigated by using an in-situ tensile stage installed inside a scanning electron microscope chamber. It is revealed that micro cracks always nucleate at the yielding near imperfections and the boundary of matrix-inclusions due to the stress concentration. There are four types of crack propagations in the matrix: crack propagates along the boundary of two clusters of bainitic ferrite; crack propagates along the boundary of ferrite朼ustenite in bainitic ferrite laths; crack propagates into bainitic ferrite laths; crack nucleates and propagates in the high carbon brittle plate shape martensite which is transformed from some blocky retained austenite due to plastic deformation. Based on the observation and analysis of microfracture processes, a schematic diagram of the crack nucleation and propagation process of high silicon cast steel is proposed

  14. In situ observations of crack formation in multi-filament Bi-2223 HTS tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Horsewell, Andy; Skov-Hansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    High temperature superconducting tapes (BSCCO filaments embedded in Ag) were subjected to Uniaxial tension in an environmental scanning electron microscope, allowing in situ observation of cracking of the ceramic filaments. The first cracks were found to appear in the ceramic filaments at a strain...... around 0.15%, More cracks formed with increasing strain. The cracks covered the entire thickness of the filament. but did not Continue into the surrounding (ductile) Ag matrix. These 'tunnel cracks' appeared somewhat zigzag, indicating intergranular cracking mode. At low strains, crack blunting occurred...... at the ceramic/Ag interfaces of the tunnel cracks, At higher strain 'split cracks' formed at the tunnel cracks. The split cracks ran parallel with the ceramic/Ag interface just inside the ceramic layer....

  15. In situ observations of microstructural changes in SOFC anodes during redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Appel, C. C.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    The anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) degrades when the anode is subjected to redox cycling. The degradation has qualitatively been related to microstructural changes in the nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia anode of the tested cells. In this work, the microstructural changes were...... observed in situ using environmental scanning electron microscopy. In the reduced state, a dynamic rounding of the nickel particles occurred. The oxide growth upon re-oxidation depended on the oxidation kinetics. During rapid oxidation, the NiO particles divided into 2-4 particles, which grew...... into the surrounding voids. For slower oxidation, an external oxide layer was seen to develop around the individual particles. (c) 2006 The Electrochemical Society....

  16. In situ observations of crack arrest and bridging by nanoscale twins in copper thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Woong; Li Xiaoyan; Gao Huajian; Kumar, Sharvan

    2012-01-01

    In situ tensile experiments in a transmission electron microscope revealed that micro-cracks in ultrafine grained, free-standing, thin copper foils containing nanoscale twins initiated in matrix domains separated by the twins and then arrested at twin boundaries as twin boundary sliding proceeded. The adjacent microcracks eventually coalesced through shear failure of the bridging twins. To investigate the atomic mechanism of this rarely seen nanoscale crack bridging behavior, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to show that during crack propagation twin boundaries are impinged upon by numerous dislocations from the plastically deforming matrix. These dislocations react at the interface and evolve into substantially impenetrable dislocation walls that strongly confine crack nucleation and resist crack propagation, leading to the experimentally observed crack bridging behavior. The present results raise an approach to significantly toughening polycrystalline thin films by incorporating nanoscale twin structures into individual grains that serve as crack bridging ligaments.

  17. In situ observations of solidification processes in γ-TiAl alloys by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuleshova, Olga; Holland-Moritz, Dirk; Loeser, Wolfgang; Voss, Andrea; Hartmann, Helena; Hecht, Ulrike; Witusiewicz, Victor T.; Herlach, Dieter M.; Buechner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In situ observations of phase transformations involving melts are performed using energy-dispersive diffraction of synchrotron X-rays on electromagnetically levitated γ-TiAl alloys containing Nb. The determined primary solidification modes, confirmed by microstructure analysis, delivered new reliable data about the boundary of the α(Ti) solidification domain, which differs in the various Ti-Al-Nb phase diagram descriptions. These data have been used for a reassessment of the thermodynamic database of the ternary Ti-Al-Nb system. The new description realistically reflects the experimental findings. Liquidus and solidus temperatures determined by the pyrometric method agree fairly well with the calculated values. Direct experimental information on the nature of the reactions along the univariant lines is provided.

  18. In-situ observations of the development of heavy-ion damage in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, M.L.; Chandler, T.J.; Robertson, I.M.; Kirk, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    In-situ observations on ion-beam induced amorphisation of GaAs, GaP and Si are reported. Direct-impact amorphisation was found to occur in GaAs irradiated with 100-keV Xe + ions to low doses at low temperature (approx. 40K) in contrast to previous room temperature irradiations. In GaP and in silicon, where heavy projectiles do cause direct impact amorphisation at room temperature, the evolution of the damage structure with ion-dose was studied. The defect yield both in GaP irradiated with 100-keV Kr + ions and in Si irradiated with 100-keV Xe + ions was found to decrease monotonically with increasing dose over the dose range 10 15 to 10 17 ions m -2

  19. In situ observations of microscale damage evolution in unidirectional natural fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Madsen, Bo; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM) has been used to observe in situ damage evolution in unidirectional flax fibre yarn/polypropylene composites loaded in uniaxial tension at stress levels between 20% and 95% of the ultimate failure stress. XTM allows for 3D visualization of the internal...... damage state at each stress level. The overall aim of the study is to gain a better understanding of the damage mechanisms in natural fibre composites. This is necessary if they are to be optimized to fulfil their promising potential. Three dominating damage mechanisms have been identified: (i) interface...... splitting cracks typically seen at the interfaces of bundles of unseparated fibres, (ii) matrix shear cracks, and (iii) fibre failures typically seen at fibre defects. Based on the findings in the present study, well separated fibres with a low number of defects are recommended for composite reinforcements....

  20. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Nanostructural Changes in Phase-Change Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Meister, Stefan

    2011-04-26

    Phase-change memory (PCM) has been researched extensively as a promising alternative to flash memory. Important studies have focused on its scalability, switching speed, endurance, and new materials. Still, reliability issues and inconsistent switching in PCM devices motivate the need to further study its fundamental properties. However, many investigations treat PCM cells as black boxes; nanostructural changes inside the devices remain hidden. Here, using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observe real-time nanostructural changes in lateral Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) PCM bridges during switching. We find that PCM devices with similar resistances can exhibit distinct threshold switching behaviors due to the different initial distribution of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains, explaining variability of switching behaviors of PCM cells in the literature. Our findings show a direct correlation between nanostructure and switching behavior, providing important guidelines in the design and operation of future PCM devices with improved endurance and lower variability. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. In-situ observation of irradiation quantities using a tethered balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ralf; Gross, Steffen; Behrens, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Irradiance is a key parameter in Earth's weather and climate system. Accurate observations of the components of the radiation budget are therefore essential to create reliable time series, to analyse spatial variability and to test, validate and adapt satellite-based algorithms. This holds true for near surface measurements as well as for in-situ observations in the lower troposphere. Such measurements are difficult to realise and therefore rarely performed. A tethered balloon system manufactured by Vailsala (9 cbm) is utilised as a carrier of a radiation budget sonde operating up to 1000 m above ground. Application is limited to fair weather conditions with maximum winds of 20 km/h and visibility greater than 3 km at ground level. The experimental setup is composed of a downward and upward looking pair of Kipp&Zonen CM11 (0.305-2.8 μm) and a corresponding pair of Kipp&Zonen CG4 (4.5 - 42 μm). Instruments are categorized as WMO 'secondary standard' according to ISO9660 and can be characterised as sufficiently robust and with acceptable response time for this purpose. Instrumentation is complemented by meteorological sensors (wind, temperature, humidity) flown on a dedicated suspension close (less than 50 m distance) to radiation sonde. In-situ measurements of irradiation in flowing and turbulent air are subjected to errors due to moving platform (roll/yaw/pitch). Potential deviations to near-surface measurements are discussed and an error estimate is given. Some comparisons of results of radiative transfer calculations for simple meteorological conditions have been made so far. It can be accomplished either by referring to profiles or by evaluating time series taken at elevated levels. Profiling lacks stationarity most time of a day due to high variability of shortwave downward and thus must be interpreted carefully. First results for longwave profiles as well as evaluation of time series obtained at distinct levels above ground show good correspondence.

  2. A note on sea level variability at Clipperton Island from GEOSAT and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, George A.; Hansen, Donald V.; Bravo, Nicolas J.

    During the 1986-1989 Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) of GEOSAT, in-situ observations of sea level at Clipperton Island (10°N/109°W) and satellite-tracked free-drifting drogued buoys in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean are concurrently available. A map of the standard deviations of GEOSAT sea surface heights (2.9 years) shows a variance maximum along ˜12°N from Central America, past Clipperton to ˜160°W. Sea floor pressure gauge observations from a shallow (10m depth) site on Clipperton Island and an ERM crossover point in deep water nearby show a correlation of r = 0.76 with a residual of ±6.7 cm RMS. Approximately 17% of the difference (GEOSAT minus sea level) is characterized by a 4 cm amplitude 0° phase annual harmonic, which is probably caused by unaccounted-for tropospheric water vapor affecting the altimeter and/or ERM orbit error removal. Wintertime anticyclonic mesoscale eddies advecting past Clipperton Island each year have GEOSAT sea surface height and in-situ sea level signals of more than 30 cm, some of which are documented by the satellite-tracked drifters. Meridional profiles of the annual harmonic of zonal geostrophic current from GEOSAT and from the drifters both show synchronous maxima in the North Equatorial Countercurrent and the North Equatorial Current. Other Clipperton sea level maxima seen during late spring of each year may involve anticyclonic vortices formed along Central America the previous winter.

  3. First in-situ observations of exospheric response to CME impact at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J. M.; Wallace, K. L.; Sarantos, M.; Jasinski, J. M.; Tracy, P.; Dewey, R. M.; Weberg, M. J.; Slavin, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present the first in-situ observations of enhancements to Mercury's He exosphere generated by CME impact. We analyzed both plasma and magnetic field measurements from the Mercury Surface Space Environment, Geochemistry and Mapping (MESSENGER) spacecraft over a 60-hour period as a coronal mass ejection (CME) passed by the planet. We identified the shock, magnetic cloud and cavity regions of the moderate intensity CME while MESSENGER was in the solar wind. Inside the magnetosphere just after the CME shock passage, we observed a very active dayside magnetosphere, as evident from the high flux plasma parcels passing through the dayside and a broad northern magnetospheric cusp with exceptionally high planetary ion content. All of these signatures indicate substantial reconnection at the dayside magnetopause, making conditions that were excellent for solar wind access to Mercury's surface. The CME appeared to have been particularly enriched in He2+, causing the observed density of solar wind He2+ in the cusp to rise above 0.1 cm-3 and putting it in the top 1% of the over 3200 cusps analyzed. As the low-density CME cavity passed over the planet on the next orbit, the magnetosphere appeared much quieter, with smoother magnetic fields and a smaller, less intense northern cusp but with greatly enhanced He+ content. The elevated He+ observed density continued to increase on subsequent cusp crossings, peaking at 0.1 cm-3 36 hours after CME impact, the highest observed throughout the entire MESSENGER mission. We suggest that the enhancement in He+ indicates an increase to the neutral He exosphere density from the He-enriched CME, a phenomenon observed at the moon, possibly acting as follows: Increased access to the surface from CME-enhanced reconnection, combined with high He2+ flux, enhanced surface implantation. Neutral He atoms were then liberated at an increased rate by surface processes supplying the exosphere, causing a gradual increase in He exosphere density. This

  4. Interpretation of the Haestholmen in situ state of stress based on core damage observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.

    2000-01-01

    At the Haestholmen investigation site, direct in situ stress measurements, overcoring and hydraulic fracturing have been unsuccessful because of ring disking and horizontal hydraulic fracturing. Prior to this study, a detailed study on both core disking and ring disking was made, and based on those results an in situ state of stress interpretation method was developed. In this work this method is applied to the Haestholmen site. The interpretation is based on disk fracture type, spacing and shape. Also, the Hoek-Brown strength envelope and Poisson's ratio of intact rock are needed. The interpretation result is most reliable if both core disking and ring disking information at the same depth levels is available. A detailed core logging showed that ring disking is systematic below the -365 m level in the vertical overcoring stress measurement hole, HH-KR6. On the other hand, no representative core disking exists except for two points in two differently oriented subvertical boreholes HH-KR2 and HHKR7. Because the interpretation has to be based on ring disking only, upper and lower estimates for the vertical stress were set. These were gravitational and 67% of gravitational. Furthermore, the in situ stress state was assumed to be in horizontal and vertical planes, because the disking in vertical borehole HH-KR6 was not inclined. The interpretation resulted in a good estimate for the major horizontal stress but none of the horizontal stress rations ( 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ) or vertical stress assumptions studied are clearly more probable the others. At the 500 m level the resulting maximum horizontal stress is 41 MPa. If a linear fit through the zero depth and zero stress point is applied, the maximum horizontal stress gradient is 0.0818 z MPa/m with a standard deviation between 5 and 12 per cent. The orientation of the major horizontal stress is 108 with standard deviation of 21 degrees. The interpreted major horizontal stress state also indicated that systematic

  5. In situ observation of a hydrogel-glass interface during sliding friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsurou; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Ahmed, Jamil; Kamita, Gen; Yashima, Shintaro; Furukawa, Yuichiro; Ota, Yuko; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-08-14

    Direct observation of hydrogel contact with a solid surface in water is indispensable for understanding the friction, lubrication, and adhesion of hydrogels under water. However, this is a difficult task since the refractive index of hydrogels is very close to that of water. In this paper, we present a novel method to in situ observe the macroscopic contact of hydrogels with a solid surface based on the principle of critical refraction. This method was applied to investigate the sliding friction of a polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel with glass by using a strain-controlled parallel-plate rheometer. The study revealed that when the compressive pressure is not very high, the hydrogel forms a heterogeneous contact with the glass, and a macro-scale water drop is trapped at the soft interface. The pre-trapped water spreads over the interface to decrease the contact area with the increase in sliding velocity, which dramatically reduces the friction of the hydrogel. The study also revealed that this heterogeneous contact is the reason for the poor reproducibility of hydrogel friction that has been often observed in previous studies. Under the condition of homogeneous full contact, the molecular origin of hydrogel friction in water is discussed. This study highlights the importance of direct interfacial observation to reveal the friction mechanism of hydrogels.

  6. In situ observation of rolling contact fatigue cracks by laminography using ultrabright synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nakai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In rolling contact fatigue (RCF, cracks usually initiate from inclusions beneath the surface and propagate to the contact surface. In the present study, synchrotron radiation computed laminography (SRCL imaging was performed to observe flaking defects during the RCF of a high-strength steel. Specially fabricated inclusion-rich steel plate specimens were employed in the experiments. For the in situ observation of crack propagation, a compact RCF testing machine was developed, and a 4D analysis scheme was applied to the data obtained by SRCL. RCF tests were carried out near the measurement hatch of the beam line used SRCL to enable the successive observation of crack initiation and growth behaviors. Specimens before and after the occurrence of flaking were observed by SRCL, and flaking defects and cracks under the surface were successfully detected. As a result, details of the crack initiation and flaking process in RCF could be discussed. Shear-type horizontal cracks were found to initiate after the initiation and propagation of tensile-type vertical cracks along inclusions, where the face of the vertical cracks was perpendicular to the rolling direction and rolling surface. Therefore, the formation of vertical cracks is considered to affect shear-type crack formation and flaking, where the shape and length of inclusions also affect the initiation and propagation of vertical cracks.

  7. In-situ observations of nucleation in Al-0.1Mg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Ubhi, H.S.; Petrenec, M.

    2015-01-01

    A tensile sample of an Al-0.1Mg alloy was in-situ tested in a SEM followed by in-situ annealing to develop recrystallizing nuclei/grains. The evolution of microstructure and crystallographic orientations were characterized using the EBSD technique. Changes in the same area within the sample durin...

  8. Combining soundscape analysis with in situ observations and oceanographic data for future ecosystem evaluation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S. E.; Freeman, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reef ecosystems face many anthropogenic threats. There are urgent requirements for improved monitoring and management. Conventional assessment methods using SCUBA are costly and prone to bias and under-sampling. Here, three approaches to understanding coral reef ecology are combined to aid the goal of enhanced passive monitoring in the future: statistical analysis of oceanographic habitats, remote cameras for nocturnal surveys of benthic fauna, and soundscape analysis in the context of oceanographic setting and ecological metrics collected in-situ. Hawaiian reefs from Kure Atoll to the island of Hawaii, an area spanning two oceanographic habitats, are assessed. Multivariate analysis of acoustic, remote camera, and in-situ observational data showed significant differences in more than 20 percent of ecological and acoustic variables when grouped by oceanic regime, suggesting that large-scale oceanography substantially influences local ecological states and associated soundscapes. Acoustic variables further delineated sites by island, suggesting local conditions influence the soundscape to a greater degree. While the number of invertebrates (with an emphasis on crustaceans and echinoderms) imaged using remote cameras correlated with a number of acoustic metrics, an increasingly higher correlation between invertebrate density and spectral level was observed as acoustic bands increased in frequency from 2 to 20 kHz. In turn, correlation was also observed between the number of predatory fish and sound levels above 2 kHz, suggesting a connection between the number of invertebrates, sound levels at higher frequencies, and the presence of their predators. Comparisons between sound recordings and diversity indices calculated from observational and remote camera data indicate that greater diversity in fishes and benthic invertebrates is associated with a larger change in sound levels between day and night. Interdisciplinary analyses provide a novel view to underwater

  9. In situ alkali-silica reaction observed by x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtis, K.E.; Monteiro, P.J.M.; Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W.

    1997-01-01

    In concrete, alkali metal ions and hydroxyl ions contributed by the cement and reactive silicates present in aggregate can participate in a destructive alkali-silica reaction (ASR). This reaction of the alkalis with the silicates produces a gel that tends to imbibe water found in the concrete pores, leading to swelling of the gel and eventual cracking of the affected concrete member. Over 104 cases of alkali-aggregate reaction in dams and spillways have been reported around the world. At present, no method exists to arrest the expansive chemical reaction which generates significant distress in the affected structures. Most existing techniques available for the examination of concrete microstructure, including ASR products, demand that samples be dried and exposed to high pressure during the observation period. These sample preparation requirements present a major disadvantage for the study of alkali-silica reaction. Given the nature of the reaction and the affect of water on its products, it is likely that the removal of water will affect the morphology, creating artifacts in the sample. The purpose of this research is to observe and characterize the alkali-silica reaction, including each of the specific reactions identified previously, in situ without introducing sample artifacts. For observation of unconditioned samples, x-ray microscopy offers an opportunity for such an examination of the alkali-silica reaction. Currently, this investigation is focusing on the effect of calcium ions on the alkali-silica reaction

  10. In-situ observation of weld joint of austenitic stainless steel due to helium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, S.; Hojou, K.; Hishinuma, A.

    1992-01-01

    Microstructural evolution during helium ions irradiation in a weld metal containing 10% delta-ferrite of a weld joint of Ti-modified austenitic stainless steel were in-situ observed through a transmission electron microcopy. Very fine helium bubbles were observed in high number density in both a delta ferrite phase and a matrix to a dose of 3 x 10 19 ions·m -2 . Entirely different behavior appeared in both phases with increasing dose. Bubbles in a delta-ferrite phase were readily converted into voids during slight increment of dose, and these rapidly grew with additional increasing of dose. On the other hand, finer bubbles in a matrix were very stable during irradiation and did not grow any more up to 2 x 10 20 ions·m -2 . Swelling became much larger in a delta-ferrite phase than in a fcc matrix phase, resultantly ; This means an inverse phenomenon for conventional results that swelling is smaller in a ferrite phase than in a fcc phase. Sigma phase radiation-enhanced precipitated at the grain boundary between a delta-ferrite phase and a matrix at a dose 9 x 10 19 ions·m -2 . This phase grew in two dimensions with increasing dose. The chemical composition of the sigma phase observed during irradiation showed Cr and Mo enrichment, and Fe and Ni depletion compared with those of a sigma phase thermally produced. (author)

  11. In situ alkali-silica reaction observed by x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtis, K.E.; Monteiro, P.J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    In concrete, alkali metal ions and hydroxyl ions contributed by the cement and reactive silicates present in aggregate can participate in a destructive alkali-silica reaction (ASR). This reaction of the alkalis with the silicates produces a gel that tends to imbibe water found in the concrete pores, leading to swelling of the gel and eventual cracking of the affected concrete member. Over 104 cases of alkali-aggregate reaction in dams and spillways have been reported around the world. At present, no method exists to arrest the expansive chemical reaction which generates significant distress in the affected structures. Most existing techniques available for the examination of concrete microstructure, including ASR products, demand that samples be dried and exposed to high pressure during the observation period. These sample preparation requirements present a major disadvantage for the study of alkali-silica reaction. Given the nature of the reaction and the affect of water on its products, it is likely that the removal of water will affect the morphology, creating artifacts in the sample. The purpose of this research is to observe and characterize the alkali-silica reaction, including each of the specific reactions identified previously, in situ without introducing sample artifacts. For observation of unconditioned samples, x-ray microscopy offers an opportunity for such an examination of the alkali-silica reaction. Currently, this investigation is focusing on the effect of calcium ions on the alkali-silica reaction.

  12. Deep pelagic food web structure as revealed by in situ feeding observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, C Anela; Haddock, Steven H D; Robison, Bruce H

    2017-12-06

    Food web linkages, or the feeding relationships between species inhabiting a shared ecosystem, are an ecological lens through which ecosystem structure and function can be assessed, and thus are fundamental to informing sustainable resource management. Empirical feeding datasets have traditionally been painstakingly generated from stomach content analysis, direct observations and from biochemical trophic markers (stable isotopes, fatty acids, molecular tools). Each approach carries inherent biases and limitations, as well as advantages. Here, using 27 years (1991-2016) of in situ feeding observations collected by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), we quantitatively characterize the deep pelagic food web of central California within the California Current, complementing existing studies of diet and trophic interactions with a unique perspective. Seven hundred and forty-three independent feeding events were observed with ROVs from near-surface waters down to depths approaching 4000 m, involving an assemblage of 84 different predators and 82 different prey types, for a total of 242 unique feeding relationships. The greatest diversity of prey was consumed by narcomedusae, followed by physonect siphonophores, ctenophores and cephalopods. We highlight key interactions within the poorly understood 'jelly web', showing the importance of medusae, ctenophores and siphonophores as key predators, whose ecological significance is comparable to large fish and squid species within the central California deep pelagic food web. Gelatinous predators are often thought to comprise relatively inefficient trophic pathways within marine communities, but we build upon previous findings to document their substantial and integral roles in deep pelagic food webs. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Development and Application of a Sample Holder for In Situ Gaseous TEM Studies of Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamino, Takeo; Yaguchi, Toshie; Shimizu, Takahiro

    2017-10-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells hold great potential for stationary and mobile applications due to high power density and low operating temperature. However, the structural changes during electrochemical reactions are not well understood. In this article, we detail the development of the sample holder equipped with gas injectors and electric conductors and its application to a membrane electrode assembly of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. Hydrogen and oxygen gases were simultaneously sprayed on the surfaces of the anode and cathode catalysts of the membrane electrode assembly sample, respectively, and observation of the structural changes in the catalysts were simultaneously carried out along with measurement of the generated voltages.

  14. Dual ion beam irradiation system for in situ observation with electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Tetuo; Hojou, Kiiti; Furuno, Sigemi; Otsu, Hitosi; Izui, Kazuhiko.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new in situ observation system for dynamic processes under dual ion beam irradiation. The system consists of a modified 400 keV analytical electron microscope (JEOL, JEM-4000FX) and two 40 kV ion beam accelerators. This system allows evaluation of microscopic changes of structure and chemical bonding state of materials in the dynamic processes under two kinds of ion beam irradiations, that is required for the simulation test of the first wall of nuclear fusion reactors onto which He + , H + , and H 2 + ions are irradiated simultaneously. These two ion accelerators were equipped symmetrically both sides of the electron microscope and individually controlled. Each ion beam extracted from a duo-plasmatron ion gun is bent downward by an angle of 30deg with a mass-separating magnet, and introduced into specimen chamber of the electron microscope. Inside the specimen chamber the beam is deflected again by an angle of 30deg with an electrostatic prism so as to be incident on the specimen surface. Finally, two ion beams from both side are incident on the specimen surface at an angle of 60deg. The maximum ion current density of helium is more than 250μA/cm 2 at the specimen at an ion energy of 17 keV. Images of the electron microscope during dual ion beam irradiation are observed through a TV camera and recorded with a VTR. (author)

  15. Evaluation of surface layer flux parameterizations using in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeremy; Zhu, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Appropriate calculation of surface turbulent fluxes between the atmosphere and the underlying ocean/land surface is one of the major challenges in geosciences. In practice, the surface turbulent fluxes are estimated from the mean surface meteorological variables based on the bulk transfer model combined with the Monnin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory. Few studies have been done to examine the extent to which such a flux parameterization can be applied to different weather and surface conditions. A novel validation method is developed in this study to evaluate the surface flux parameterization using in-situ observations collected at a station off the coast of Gulf of Mexico. The main findings are: (a) the theoretical prediction that uses MOS theory does not match well with those directly computed from the observations. (b) The largest spread in exchange coefficients is shown in strong stable conditions with calm winds. (c) Large turbulent eddies, which depend strongly on the mean flow pattern and surface conditions, tend to break the constant flux assumption in the surface layer.

  16. Precipitation characteristics in tropical Africa using satellite and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, A. K.; Ichoku, I.; Huffman, G. J.; Mohr, K. I.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical Africa receives nearly all its precipitation as a result of convection. The characteristics of rain-producing systems in this region have not been well-understood, despite their crucial role in regional and global circulation. This is mainly due to the lack of in situ observations. Here, we have used precipitation records from the Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO) ground-based gauge network to improve our knowledge about the rainfall systems in the region, and to validate the recently-released IMERG precipitation product based on satellite observations from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation. The high temporal resolution of the gauge data has allowed us to identify three classes of rain events based on their duration and intensity. The contribution of each class to the total rainfall and the favorable surface atmospheric conditions for each class have been examined. As IMERG aims to continue the legacy of its predecessor, TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), and provide higher resolution data, continent-wide comparisons are made between these two products. Due to its improved temporal resolution, IMERG shows some advantages over TMPA in capturing the diurnal cycle and propagation of the meso-scale convective systems. However, the performance of the two satellite-based products varies by season, region and the evaluation statistics. The results of this study serve as a basis for our ongoing work on the impacts of biomass burning on precipitation processes in Africa.

  17. In situ observation of shear-driven amorphization in silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang; Zhong, Li; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Chongmin; Zhu, Ting; Mao, Scott X.

    2016-09-19

    Amorphous materials have attracted great interest in the scientific and technological fields. An amorphous solid usually forms under the externally driven conditions of melt-quenching, irradiation and severe mechanical deformation. However, its dynamic formation process remains elusive. Here we report the in situ atomic-scale observation of dynamic amorphization processes during mechanical straining of nanoscale silicon crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We observe the shear-driven amorphization (SDA) occurring in a dominant shear band. The SDA involves a sequence of processes starting with the shear-induced diamond-cubic to diamond-hexagonal phase transition that is followed by dislocation nucleation and accumulation in the newly formed phase, leading to the formation of amorphous silicon. The SDA formation through diamond-hexagonal phase is rationalized by its structural conformity with the order in the paracrystalline amorphous silicon, which maybe widely applied to diamond-cubic materials. Besides, the activation of SDA is orientation-dependent through the competition between full dislocation nucleation and partial gliding.

  18. [Observation in situ of differentiation from PGC to hematopoietic system cells in chicken embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong-Yu; Liu, Rong-Xiu; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2009-02-01

    To study the relationship between hematopoiesis and primordial germ cells, chick embryos at different developing stages were flatbed and located. After fixed by glutaral, the embryos were PAS and HE stained respectively, dehydrated serially, transparent, mounted, and were observed in situ or in cut sheet condition. The results showed: (1) the cellule amorphous and the disposition in chick embryo of PGCs were coincident no matter stained by PAS or HE staining, and HE staining could disclose the morphologic characteristics more clearly, exactly and completely; (2) genesis of blood island could be observed at the boundary of light and dark region of the extraembryonic blastoderm at about 26 hours; (3) both the blood vessel endothelium cells and free cells of the blood island were differentiated from PGCs. The generating of genuine yolk sac was at about 44 - 48 hours. It is concluded that the initial anatomic site of blood island genesis may be is mesoblast of extraembryonic blastoderm rather than the yolk sac; the blood vessel endothelium cells and the blood cells are generated parallel; the PGCs are the common ancestry of angioblast and HSC.

  19. Simultaneous Observations of Atmospheric Tides from Combined in Situ and Remote Observations at Mars from the MAVEN Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott L.; Liu, Guiping; Withers, Paul; Yigit, Erdal; Lo, Daniel; Jain, Sonal; Schneider, Nicholas M. (Inventor); Deighan, Justin; McClintock, William E.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the observations of longitudinal variations in the Martian thermosphere associated with nonmigrating tides. Using the Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) and the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission (MAVEN) spacecraft, this study presents the first combined analysis of in situ and remote observations of atmospheric tides at Mars for overlapping volumes, local times, and overlapping date ranges. From the IUVS observations, we determine the altitude and latitudinal variation of the amplitude of the nonmigrating tidal signatures, which is combined with the NGIMS, providing information on the compositional impact of these waves. Both the observations of airglow from IUVS and the CO2 density observations from NGIMS reveal a strong wave number 2 signature in a fixed local time frame. The IUVS observations reveal a strong latitudinal dependence in the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature. Combining this with the accurate CO2 density observations from NGIMS, this would suggest that the CO2 density variation is as high as 27% at 0-10 deg latitude. The IUVS observations reveal little altitudinal dependence in the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature, varying by only 20% from 160 to 200 km. Observations of five different species with NGIMS show that the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature varies in proportion to the inverse of the species scale height, giving rise to variation in composition as a function of longitude. The analysis and discussion here provide a roadmap for further analysis as additional coincident data from these two instruments become available.

  20. Towards soil property retrieval from space: Proof of concept using in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Ranmalee; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Rüdiger, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable that controls the exchange of water and energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. However, the temporal evolution of soil moisture is neither easy to measure nor monitor at large scales because of its high spatial variability. This is mainly a result of the local variation in soil properties and vegetation cover. Thus, land surface models are normally used to predict the evolution of soil moisture and yet, despite their importance, these models are based on low-resolution soil property information or typical values. Therefore, the availability of more accurate and detailed soil parameter data than are currently available is vital, if regional or global soil moisture predictions are to be made with the accuracy required for environmental applications. The proposed solution is to estimate the soil hydraulic properties via model calibration to remotely sensed soil moisture observation, with in situ observations used as a proxy in this proof of concept study. Consequently, the feasibility is assessed, and the level of accuracy that can be expected determined, for soil hydraulic property estimation of duplex soil profiles in a semi-arid environment using near-surface soil moisture observations under naturally occurring conditions. The retrieved soil hydraulic parameters were then assessed by their reliability to predict the root zone soil moisture using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator model. When using parameters that were retrieved using soil moisture observations, the root zone soil moisture was predicted to within an accuracy of 0.04 m3/m3, which is an improvement of ∼0.025 m3/m3 on predictions that used published values or pedo-transfer functions.

  1. Detection of Bay of Bengal eddies from TOPEX and in situ observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, A.K.S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Ali, M.M.; Sharma, R.

    good qualitative agreement with the subsurface isotherm features (troughs and ridges) of the in situ temperature profiles. However, this agreement does not extend to the surface and hence SST patterns are not good indicators of eddy positions in the Bay...

  2. In Situ Observation of Hard Surrounding Rock Displacement at 2400-m-Deep Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Yao, Zhi-Bin; Li, Shao-Jun; Wu, Shi-Yong; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Hao-Sen; Zhong, Shan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results of in situ investigation of the internal displacement of hard surrounding rock masses within deep tunnels at China's Jinping Underground Laboratory Phase II. The displacement evolution of the surrounding rock during the entire excavation processes was monitored continuously using pre-installed continuous-recording multi-point extensometers. The evolution of excavation-damaged zones and fractures in rock masses were also observed using acoustic velocity testing and digital borehole cameras, respectively. The results show four kinds of displacement behaviours of the hard surrounding rock masses during the excavation process. The displacement in the inner region of the surrounding rock was found to be greater than that of the rock masses near the tunnel's side walls in some excavation stages. This leads to a multi-modal distribution characteristic of internal displacement for hard surrounding rock masses within deep tunnels. A further analysis of the evolution information on the damages and fractures inside the surrounding rock masses reveals the effects of excavation disturbances and local geological conditions. This recognition can be used as the reference for excavation and supporting design and stability evaluations of hard-rock tunnels under high-stress conditions.

  3. In situ observation of the reaction of scandium and carbon by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Arellano, Erick A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.m [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Universidad del Papaloapan, Circuito Central 200, Parque Industrial, Tuxtepec 68301 (Mexico); Winkler, Bjorn [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lujan Center. Mail Stop H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Senyshyn, Anatoliy [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt, Petersensstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kammler, Daniel R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Avalos-Borja, Miguel [CNyN, UNAM, A. Postal 2681, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Exist two ScC cubic phases with B1-structure type differing in site occupancy of C. {yields} A new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase is formed at 1473(50) K. {yields} The recrystallization of alpha-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. - Abstract: The formation of scandium carbides by reaction of the elements has been investigated by in situ neutron diffraction up to 1823 K. On heating, the recrystallization of {alpha}-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. The formation of Sc{sub 2}C and ScC (NaCl-B1 type structure) phases has been detected at 1323 and 1373 K, respectively. The formation of a new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase was observed at 1473(50) K. Once the scandium carbides are formed they are stable upon heating or cooling. No other phases were detected in the present study, in which the system was always carbon saturated. The thermal expansion coefficients of all phases have been determined, they are constant throughout the temperature interval studied.

  4. Precipitation Characteristics in Tropical Africa Using Satellite and In-Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Amin; Ichoku, Charles; Huffman, George; Mohr, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Tropical Africa receives nearly all its precipitation as a result of convection. The characteristics of rain-producing systems in this region, despite their crucial role in regional and global circulation, have not been well-understood. This is mainly due to the lack of in situ observations. Here, we have used precipitation records from the Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO) to improve our knowledge about the rainfall systems in the region, and to validate the recently-released IMERG precipitation product. The high temporal resolution of the gauge data has allowed us to identify three classes of rain events based on their duration and intensity. The contribution of each class to the total rainfall and the favorable surface atmospheric conditions for each class have been examined. As IMERG aims to continue the legacy of its predecessor, TMPA, and provide higher resolution data, continent-wide comparisons are made between these two products. IMERG, due to its improved temporal resolution, shows some advantages over TMPA in capturing the diurnal cycle and propagation of the meso-scale convective systems. However, the performance of the two satellite-based products varies by season, region and the evaluation statistics. The results of this study serve as a basis for our ongoing work on the impacts of biomass burning on precipitation processes in Africa.

  5. Tomographic Heating Holder for In Situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel C.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Fernández, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    distributions and changes in active surface area are quantified from tilt series of images acquired after subjecting the specimens to increasing temperatures. The porosity of the alumina support and the sintering mechanisms of the catalysts are shown to depend on distance from the heating filament....

  6. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  7. In situ observation of syntactic foams under hydrostatic pressure using X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachambre, J.; Maire, E.; Adrien, J.; Choqueuse, D.

    2013-01-01

    Syntactic foams (hollow glass microspheres embedded in a polymeric matrix) are being used increasingly for the purpose of thermal insulation in ultradeep water. A better understanding of the damage mechanisms of these materials at the microsphere scale under such a hydrostatic loading condition is of prior importance in determining actual material limits, improving phenomenological modelling and developing novel formulations in the future. To achieve this goal, a study based on X-ray microtomography was performed on two syntactic foam materials (polypropylene and polyurethane matrix) and a standard foamed PP. A special set up has been designed in order to allow the X-ray microtomographic observation of the material during hydrostatic pressure loading using ethanol as the pressure fluid. Spatial resolution of (3.5 μm) 3 and in situ non-destructive scanning allowed a unique qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composite microstructure during stepwise isotropic compression by hydrostatic pressure up to 50 MPa. The collapse of weaker microspheres were observed during pressure increase and the damage parameters could be estimated. It is shown that the microspheres which are broken or the porosities which are close to the surface in the foamed PP are filled by a fluid (either the ethanol or the polymeric matrix itself). The hydrostatic pressure decreases the volume of the foam only slightly. In the PU matrix, ethanol diffusion is seen to induce swelling of the matrix, which is an unexpected phenomenon but reveals the high potential of X-ray microtomographic observation to improve diffusion analysis in complex media

  8. Diagnostics of the Tropical Tropopause Layer from in-situ observations and CCM data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Volk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A suite of diagnostics is applied to in-situ aircraft measurements and one Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM data to characterize the vertical structure of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL. The diagnostics are based on vertical tracer profiles and relative vertical tracer gradients, using tropopause-referenced coordinates, and tracer-tracer relationships in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS.

    Observations were obtained during four tropical campaigns performed from 1999 to 2006 with the research aircraft Geophysica and have been compared to the output of the ECHAM5/MESSy CCM. The model vertical resolution in the TTL (~500 m allows for appropriate comparison with high-resolution aircraft observations and the diagnostics used highlight common TTL features between the model and the observational data.

    The analysis of the vertical profiles of water vapour, ozone, and nitrous oxide, in both the observations and the model, shows that concentration mixing ratios exhibit a strong gradient change across the tropical tropopause, due to the role of this latter as a transport barrier and that transition between the tropospheric and stratospheric regimes occurs within a finite layer. The use of relative vertical ozone and carbon monoxide gradients, in addition to the vertical profiles, helps to highlight the region where this transition occurs and allows to give an estimate of its thickness. The analysis of the CO-O3 and H2O-O3 scatter plots and of the Probability Distribution Function (PDF of the H2O-O3 pair completes this picture as it allows to better distinguish tropospheric and stratospheric regimes that can be identified by their different chemical composition.

    The joint analysis and comparison of observed and modelled data allows to state that the model can represent the background TTL structure and its seasonal variability rather accurately. The model

  9. In situ observation and analysis of ultrasonic capillary effect in molten aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakis, I; Xu, W W; Eskin, D G; Lee, P D; Kotsovinos, N

    2015-11-01

    An in situ synchrotron radiographic study of a molten Al-10 wt% Cu alloy under the influence of an external ultrasonic field was carried out using the Diamond-Manchester Branchline pink X-ray imaging at the Diamond Light Source in UK. A bespoke test rig was used, consisting of an acoustic transducer with a titanium sonotrode coupled with a PID-controlled resistance furnace. An ultrasonic frequency of 30 kHz, with a peak to peak amplitude at 140 microns, was used, producing a pressure output of 16.9 MPa at the radiation surface of the 1-mm diameter sonotrode. This allowed quantification of not only the cavitation bubble formation and collapse, but there was also evidence of the previously hypothesised ultrasonic capillary effect (UCE), providing the first direct observations of this phenomenon in a molten metallic alloy. This was achieved by quantifying the re-filling of a pre-existing groove in the shape of a tube (which acted as a micro-capillary channel) formed by the oxide envelope of the liquid sample. Analytical solutions of the flow suggest that the filling process, which took place in very small timescales, was related to micro-jetting from the collapsing cavitation bubbles. In addition, a secondary mechanism of liquid penetration through the groove, which is related with the density distribution of the oxides inside the groove, and practically to the filtration of aluminium melt from oxides, was revealed. The observation of the almost instantaneous re-filling of a micro-capillary channel with the metallic melt supports the hypothesised sono-capillary effect in technologically important liquids other than water, like metallic alloys with substantially higher surface tension and density. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In-situ observations of bubble growth in basaltic, andesitic and rhyodacitic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotta, M.; Ni, H.; Keppler, H.

    2013-12-01

    Bubble growth strongly affects the physical properties of degassing magmas and their eruption dynamics. Natural samples and products from quench experiments provide only a snapshot of the final state of volatile exsolution, leaving the processes occurring during its early stages unconstrained. In order to fill this gap, we present in-situ high-temperature observations of bubble growth in magmas of different compositions (basalt, andesite and rhyodacite) at 1100 to 1240 °C and 1 bar, obtained using a moissanite cell apparatus. The data show that nucleation occurs at very small degrees of supersaturaturation (bubbles occurring simultaneously with the nucleation of crystals. During the early stages of exsolution, melt degassing is the driving mechanism of bubble growth, with coalescence becoming increasingly important as exsolution progresses. Ostwald ripening occurs only at the end of the process and only in basaltic melt. The average bubble growth rate (GR) ranges from 3.4*10-6 to 5.2*10-7 mm/s, with basalt and andesite showing faster growth rates than rhyodacite. The bubble number density (NB) at nucleation ranges from 1.8*108 to 7.9*107 cm-3 and decreases exponentially over time. While the rhyodacite melt maintained a well-sorted bubble-size distribution (BSD) through time, the BSD's of basalt and andesite are much more inhomogeneous. Our experimental observations demonstrate that bubble growth cannot be ascribed to a single mechanism but is rather a combination of many processes, which depend on the physical properties of the melt. Depending on coalescence rate, annealing of bubbles following a single nucleation event can produce complex bubble size distributions. In natural samples, such BSD's may be misinterpreted as resulting from several separate nucleation events. Incipient crystallization upon cooling of a magma may allow bubble nucleation already at very small degrees of supersaturation and could therefore be an important trigger for volatile release and

  11. In situ observations of oxide fracture on austenitic stainless steels relevant to IASCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, J.; Burke, M.G.; Scenini, F.

    2015-01-01

    Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) and Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) are important failure modes in the nuclear industry, yet the exact mechanism(s) responsible for these complex failure phenomena are not fully understood. In particular, considerable attention is being focused on SCC and IASCC initiation and the behaviour of the oxidised metal surface during straining in a relevant environment. Experimental observations and data for oxide fracture at the grain boundary are limited, but are also required for the development of crack growth models. In this work, the role of strain localization on surface oxide fracture has been examined via: 1) in situ straining experiments using a state-of-the-art imaging autoclave; and 2) ex situ studies using pre-oxidised samples in a FEG-SEM with a micro-tensile stage. The work was conducted using three materials: 1) a non-irradiated archive Type 316 Stainless Steel, 2) a 1 dpa proton-irradiated Type 316 Stainless Steel, and 3) a model alloy designed to simulate the grain boundary composition resulting from radiation induced segregation. The observations were performed on samples pre-oxidized at 320 C. degrees in high purity, water containing 30 cm 3 /kg of dissolved H 2 and 2 ppm Li additions. The samples were strained in tension and the surface deformation measured via Digital Image Correlation. This technique provided quantitative data regarding the intergranular strains associated with oxide fracture. Oxide fracture and strain development were also related to the local irradiation-induced microstructure and grain boundary character. The results from this work contribute to the mechanistic information on the role of strain localization and composition on the incubation stages of IASCC. (authors)

  12. Direct transmission electron microscopy observations of martensitic transformations in Ni-rich NiTi single crystals during in situ cooling and straining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kröger, A.; Dziaszyk, S.; Frenzel, J.; Somsen, Ch.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Eggeler, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 481, Sp. Iss. (2008), s. 452-456 ISSN 0921-5093. [ESOMAT 2006. Bochum, 10.09.2006-15.09.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : In situ TEM * NiTi single crystal * Martensitic transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  13. Microstructure evolution during cyclic tests on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. TEM observation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordana, M.F., E-mail: giordana@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Giroux, P.-F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Alvarez-Armas, I. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Sauzay, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Armas, A. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Kruml, T. [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno, 616 62 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low cycle fatigue test are carried out on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EUROFER 97 shows a pronounced cyclic softening accompanied by microstructural changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cycling induces a decrement in dislocation density and subgrain growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple mean-field model based on crystalline plasticity is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mean subgrain size evolution is predicted by modelling. - Abstract: The 9% Cr quenched and tempered reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel EUROFER 97 is one of the candidates for structural components of fusion reactors. Isothermal, plastic strain-controlled, low-cycle fatigue tests are performed. Tested at room temperature, this steel suffers a cyclic softening effect linked to microstructural changes observed by transmission electron microscopy, such as the decrease of dislocation density inside subgrains or the growth of subgrain size. From the assumed mechanisms of softening a simple mean-field model based on crystalline plasticity is proposed to predict these microstructure evolutions during cycling and monotonic deformation.

  14. Antimicrobial Potential and Chemical Characterization of Serbian Liverwort (Porella arboris-vitae: SEM and TEM Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Porella arboris-vitae extracts was determined by solid phase microextraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS, and 66 constituents were identified. The dominant compounds in methanol extract of P. arboris-vitae were β-caryophyllene (14.7%, α-gurjunene (10.9%, α-selinene (10.8%, β-elemene (5.6%, γ-muurolene (4.6%, and allo-aromadendrene (4.3% and in ethanol extract, β-caryophyllene (11.8%, α-selinene (9.6%, α-gurjunene (9.4%, isopentyl alcohol (8.8%, 2-hexanol (3.7%, β-elemene (3.7%, allo-aromadendrene (3.7%, and γ-muurolene (3.3% were the major components. In ethyl acetate extract of P. arboris-vitae, undecane (11.3%, β-caryophyllene (8.4%, dodecane (6.4%, α-gurjunene (6%, 2-methyldecane (5.1%, hemimellitene (4.9%, and D-limonene (3.9% were major components. The antimicrobial activity of different P. arboris-vitae extracts was evaluated against selected food spoilage microorganisms using microbroth dilution method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC varied from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/mL and 1.25 to 2 mg/mL for yeast and bacterial strains, respectively. Significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations due to the effect of methanolic and ethanolic P. arboris-vitae extracts on S. Enteritidis have also been observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results provide the evidence of antimicrobial potential of P. arboris-vitae extracts and suggest its potential as natural antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  15. Spectrometer and Radiative Transfer Model Comparison using High Sun In-Situ Observations in Pretoria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, MD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is need for reliable in-situ spectral solar irradiance measurements. For instance, the spectrally resolved irradiance may be used to infer its influence on radiative forcing of climate and in solar energy applications. In any case, reliable...

  16. Dynamic restoration of severely predeformed, ultrafine-grained pure Cu at 373 K observed in situ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Petr; Blum, W.; Dvořák, Jiří; Eisenlohr, P.; Petrenec, M.; Sklenička, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 134, DEC (2017), s. 329-334 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ECAP * Dynamic grain coarsening * UFG copper * In situ Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  17. In situ observations of bubble growth in basaltic, andesitic and rhyodacitic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotta, M.; Ni, H.; Keppler, H.

    2014-02-01

    Bubble growth strongly affects the physical properties of degassing magmas and their eruption dynamics. Natural samples and products from quench experiments provide only a snapshot of the final state of volatile exsolution, leaving the processes occurring during its early stages unconstrained. In order to fill this gap, we present in situ high-temperature observations of bubble growth in magmas of different compositions (basalt, andesite and rhyodacite) at 1,100 to 1,240 °C and 0.1 MPa (1 bar), obtained using a moissanite cell apparatus. The data show that nucleation occurs at very small degrees of supersaturaturation (bubbles occurring simultaneously with the nucleation of crystals. During the early stages of exsolution, melt degassing is the driving mechanism of bubble growth, with coalescence becoming increasingly important as exsolution progresses. Ostwald ripening occurs only at the end of the process and only in basaltic melt. The average bubble growth rate ( G R) ranges from 3.4 × 10-6 to 5.2 × 10-7 mm/s, with basalt and andesite showing faster growth rates than rhyodacite. The bubble number density ( N B) at nucleation ranges from 7.9 × 104 mm-3 to 1.8 × 105 mm-3 and decreases exponentially over time. While the rhyodacite melt maintained a well-sorted bubble size distribution (BSD) through time, the BSDs of basalt and andesite are much more inhomogeneous. Our experimental observations demonstrate that bubble growth cannot be ascribed to a single mechanism but is rather a combination of many processes, which depend on the physical properties of the melt. Depending on coalescence rate, annealing of bubbles following a single nucleation event can produce complex bubble size distributions. In natural samples, such BSDs may be misinterpreted as resulting from several separate nucleation events. Incipient crystallization upon cooling of a magma may allow bubble nucleation already at very small degrees of supersaturation and could therefore be an important

  18. In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy synthesis observation of nanostructured carbon coated LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, M. L.; Laul, D.; Veillette, R.; Serventi, A. M.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.; Zaghib, K.

    In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies of the structural transformations that occur during the synthesis of carbon-coated LiFePO 4 (C-LiFePO 4) and heat treatment to elevated temperatures were conducted in two different electron microscopes. Both microscopes have sample holders that are capable of heating up to 1500 °C, with one working under high vacuum and the other capable of operating with the sample surrounded by a low gaseous environment. The C-LiFePO 4 samples were prepared using three different compositions of precursor materials with Fe(0), Fe(II) or Fe(III), a Li-containing salt and a polyethylene- block-poly(ethylene glycol)-50% ethylene oxide or lactose. The in situ TEM studies suggest that low-cost Fe(0) and a low-cost carbon-containing compound such as lactose are very attractive precursors for mass production of C-LiFePO 4, and that 700 °C is the optimum synthesis temperature. At temperatures higher than 800 °C, LiFePO 4 has a tendency to decompose. The same in situ measurements have been made on particles without carbon coat. The results show that the homogeneous deposit of the carbon deposit at 700 °C is the result of the annealing that cures the disorder of the surface layer of bare LiFePO 4. Electrochemical tests supported the conclusion that the C-LiFePO 4 derived from Fe(0) is the most attractive for mass production.

  19. In-situ observation of the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to crystalline hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammeier, Jessica; Hippler, Dorothee; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Sacher, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2*nH2O; ACP) is often a precursor phase of the mineral (hydroxy-) apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) that can be formed in natural settings during both authigenic and biogenic mineral formation. Particularly, in the biomineralization process of fish tissue, ACP has shown to be an important transient phase. In solution ACP rapidly transforms into the crystalline phase. The transformation rate highly depends on the physico-chemical conditions of the solution: Ca & P availability, pH and temperature. In natural settings Ca can be provided by different sources: from (1) seawater, (2) porewater, or (3) diagenetically-altered carbonates, whereas local supersaturation of P can be induced by microbial activity. In this study, we performed phosphate precipitation experiments in order to monitor the transformation process of the ACP to crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. During the experiments the temperature was kept constant at 20.0 ± 0.01 ° C and pH at 9 ± 0.1. 50 ml of 0.3 CaCl 2H2O was titrated at a rate of 5 ml/min to an equal volume of 0.2 M Na2HPO4. The pH was kept constant by titration of 1 M NaOH. During the experiment samples were taken from the solution and instantly filtered. The obtained solid samples were lyophilized and analyzed with XRD, ATR and SEM. The respective solution samples were analyzed using ion chromatography and ICP OES, coupling the spectroscopic data with detailed solution chemistry data. We observed transformation of ACP to HAP to occur within 14 hours, illustrated in a clear peak shift in Raman spectra from 950 cm-1 to 960 cm-1. The obtained results are discussed in the aspects of distribution of major elements during the formation of phosphates and/or the diagenetic alteration of carbonates to phosphates in geologic settings. Financial support by DFG-FG 736 and NAWI Graz is kindly acknowledged.

  20. WaterML, an Information Standard for the Exchange of in-situ hydrological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, D.; Taylor, P.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2012-04-01

    The WaterML 2.0 Standards Working Group (SWG), working within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and in cooperation with the joint OGC-World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG), has developed an open standard for the exchange of water observation data; WaterML 2.0. The focus of the standard is time-series data, commonly generated from in-situ style monitoring. This is high value data for hydrological applications such as flood forecasting, environmental reporting and supporting hydrological infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems), which is commonly exchanged, but a lack of standards inhibits efficient reuse and automation. The process of developing WaterML required doing a harmonization analysis of existing standards to identify overlapping concepts and come to agreement on a harmonized definition. Generally the formats captured similar requirements, all with subtle differences, such as how time-series point metadata was handled. The in-progress standard WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, and is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language version 3.2.1, making use of the OGC Observations & Measurements standards. WaterML2.0 is designed as an extensible schema to allow encoding of data to be used in a variety of exchange scenarios. Example areas of usage are: exchange of data for operational hydrological monitoring programs; supporting operation of infrastructure (e.g. dams, supply systems); cross-border exchange of observational data; release of data for public dissemination; enhancing disaster management through data exchange; and exchange in support of national reporting The first phase of WaterML2.0 focused on structural definitions allowing for the transfer of time-series, with less work on harmonization of vocabulary items such as quality codes. Vocabularies from various organizations tend to be specific and take time to

  1. Observation of methanol behavior in fuel cells in situ by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Oc Hee; Han, Kee Sung; Shin, Chang Woo; Lee, Juhee; Kim, Seong-Soo; Um, Myung Sup; Joh, Han-Ik; Kim, Soo-Kil; Ha, Heung Yong

    2012-04-16

    The chemical conversion of methanol in direct methanol fuel cells was followed in situ by NMR spectroscopy. Comparing data of the methanol oxidation on Pt and PtRu anode catalysts allowed the role of Ru in both Faradaic and non-Faradaic reactions to be investigated. The spatial distributions of chemicals could also be determined. (Picture: T1-T4=inlet and outlet tubes.). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. In situ observation and neutron diffraction of NiTi powder sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; Liss, Klaus-Dieter; Cao, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated NiTi powder sintering behaviour from elemental powder mixtures of Ni/Ti and Ni/TiH 2 using in situ neutron diffraction and in situ scanning electron microscopy. The sintered porous alloys have open porosities ranging from 2.7% to 36.0%. In comparison to the Ni/Ti compact, dehydrogenation occurring in the Ni/TiH 2 compact leads to less densification yet higher chemical homogenization only after high-temperature sintering. For the first time, direct evidence of the eutectoid phase transformation of NiTi at 620 °C is reported by in situ neutron diffraction. A comparative study of cyclic stress–strain behaviours of the porous NiTi alloys made from Ni/Ti and Ni/TiH 2 compacts indicate that the samples sintered from the Ni/TiH 2 compact exhibited a much higher porosity, larger pore size, lower fracture strength, lower close-to-overall porosity ratio and lower Young’s modulus. Instead of enhanced densification by the use of TiH 2 as reported in the literature, this study shows an adverse effect of TiH 2 on powder densification in NiTi

  3. Modeling of coronal mass ejections with the STEREO heliospheric imagers verified with in situ observations by the Heliophysics System Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, Christian; Isavnin, Alexey; Kilpua, Emilia; Bothmer, Volker; Mrotzek, Nicolas; Boakes, Peter; Rodriguez, Luciano; Krupar, Vratislav; Eastwood, Jonathan; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard; Barnes, David; Winslow, Reka; Helcats Team

    2017-04-01

    We present the first study to verify modeling of CMEs as observed by the heliospheric imagers on the two STEREO spacecraft with a large scale dataset of in situ plasma and magnetic field observations from the Heliophysics System Observatory, including MESSENGER, VEX, Wind, and the in situ measurements on the two STEREO spacecraft. To this end, we have established a new interplanetary CME catalog (ICMECAT) for these spacecraft by gathering and updating individual ICME lists. In addition, we have re-calculated the in situ parameters in a consistent way, resulting in 668 events observed between 2007-2015. We then calculated the efficacy of the STEREO/HI instruments for predicting (in hindsight) with the SSEF30 model the arrival time and speed of CMEs as well as hit/miss ratios. We also show how ICMECAT gives decent statistics concerning CME impacts on all of the terrestrial planets, including Mars. The results show some major implications for future heliospheric imagers which may be used for space weather forecasting. Our effort should also serve as a baseline for the upcoming new era in heliospheric science with Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus, BepiColombo returning partly comparable observations in the next decade. The presented work has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/ 2007-2013) under grant agreement No. 606692 [HELCATS].

  4. TEM and SEM observation of uranium induced renal necrosis and the result of chelates treatment on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan; Li Baoxing; Lai Chixiang; You Zhanyun

    1987-01-01

    The TEM (transmission electron microscope) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) observation of uranium induced renal necrosis and the result of chelates treatment on rats are reported. Ultrastructural changes in kidney related with the impairment of intracellular fluid transportation can be found after acute uranium intoxication in rats, such as: condensation and swelling of mitochondria, matrix edema, dilatation of intercellular space, disappearance of basal folds, thickening of basal web, intensification of basal lamina of the proximal convoluted tubule epithelium cells, and foot processes swelling, diminishing of endothelium fenestrae of the renal glomerulus. Heavy metal chelates DTPA and H-73-10 treatment may result in intracellular fluid accumulation and condensed grannule formation in lysosome. Treatment with these chelates in the critical stage of uranium intoxication may accelerate the necrosis instead of diminishing. This may be related to the augment of the load of lysosome and intracellular system of fluid transportation

  5. In-situ aircraft observations of ice concentrations within clouds over the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Grosvenor, D. P.; Choularton, T. W.; Lachlan-Cope, T.; Gallagher, M. W.; Crosier, J.; Bower, K. N.; Ladkin, R. S.; Dorsey, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    In-situ aircraft observations of ice crystal concentrations in Antarctic clouds are presented for the first time. Orographic, layer and wave clouds around the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice shelf regions were penetrated by the British Antarctic Survey's Twin Otter aircraft, which was equipped with modern cloud physics probes. The clouds studied were mostly in the free troposphere and hence ice crystals blown from the surface are unlikely to have been a major source for the ice phas...

  6. Viscoplastic behaviour including damage for deep argillaceous rocks: from in situ observations to constitutives equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souley, Mountaka; Ghoreychi, Mehdi; Armand, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    viscoplastic model which aims to improve the viscoplastic strain prediction in the EDZ (Excavated Damaged Zone) is proposed by introducing damage variable in Lemaitre's model. The mains characteristics of the model are: (a) the short-term behaviour is based on a generalized Hoek-Brown model; (b) the long-term behaviour is based on the modified Lemaitre's model, the changes of viscoplastic strain rates due to damage (in pre peak phase) and failure (post-peak and residual phases) are taken into account by varying the creep activation energy and the strain-hardening as a function of the current damage rate. In addition, in order to prevent the overestimation of volumetric strain the associated flow rule initially assumed is revisited for the short term behaviour. The proposed model is implemented in FLAC3D C . In order to verify both constitutive equations and their implementations, several simulations of classical laboratory tests (uniaxial/triaxial, mono/multi stage creep and relaxation) are performed. As practical applications, the proposed model has been used to predict the behaviour of two galleries of the laboratory (at -490 m level): parallel and perpendicular to the major horizontal stress. Comparison between predicted results and the in situ measurements are then presented and discussed Finally the model limitations as well as possible improvements are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  7. LOCAL AIR: Local Aerosol monitoring combining in-situ and Remote Sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Caggiano, Rosa; Donvito, Angelo; Giannini, Vincenzo; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Sarli, Valentina; Trippetta, Serena

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosols have effects on climate, environment and health. Although the importance of the study of aerosols is well recognized, the current knowledge of the characteristics and their distribution is still insufficient, and there are large uncertainties in the current understanding of the role of aerosols on climate and the environment, both on a regional and local level. Overcoming these uncertainties requires a search strategy that integrates data from multiple platforms (eg, terrestrial, satellite, ships and planes) and the different acquisition techniques (for example, in situ measurements, remote sensing, modeling numerical and data assimilation) (Yu et al., 2006). To this end, in recent years, there have been many efforts such as the creation of networks dedicated to systematic observation of aerosols (eg, European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme-EMEP, European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork-EARLINET, MicroPulse Lidar Network- MPLNET, and Aerosol Robotic NETwork-AERONET), the development and implementation of new satellite sensors and improvement of numerical models. The recent availability of numerous data to the ground, columnar and profiles of aerosols allows to investigate these aspects. An integrated approach between these different techniques could be able to provide additional information, providing greater insight into the properties of aerosols and their distribution and overcoming the limits of each single technique. In fact, the ground measurements allow direct determination of the physico-chemical properties of aerosols, but cannot be considered representative for large spatial and temporal scales and do not provide any information about the vertical profile of aerosols. On the other hand, the remote sensing techniques from the ground and satellite provide information on the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols both in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL), mainly characterized by the presence of aerosols originating from

  8. In situ observation of self-assembled Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} nanowires growth on anisotropic Ge (1 1 0) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-Peng, E-mail: LI.Zhipeng@nims.go.jp [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, S117542 (Singapore); Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based on Nanomaterials Science, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Tok, Engsoon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, S117542 (Singapore); Foo, Yonglim [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, S117602 (Singapore)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} nanowries growth and shape evolution on Ge (1 1 0) studied by in situ UHV-TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single type of morphology and unique orientation of nanowires formed at elevated temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uniform control of the nanowires morphology at different temperatures can be succeeded. -- Abstract: Self-assembled iron germanide nanowires (NWs) were grown by directly depositing Fe onto a Ge (1 1 0) substrate, in an in situ ultra-high vacuum transmission electron microscope from 430 to 500 Degree-Sign C. All observed NWs had a similar length/width aspect ratio ({approx}8:1) at all deposition temperatures, as well as the same elongation orientation with respect to the underlying Ge (1 1 0) substrate. The growth dynamics was investigated by real time observations of NWs growth at elevated temperatures. It is elucidated that the formation of NWs in similar shape at all deposited temperatures is attributed to the similar activation energy barriers in length and width of NWs, which can result in the constant growth rate independent of growth temperatures. Furthermore, the difference in pre-exponential factor along the length and width of growing islands arose due to the anisotropic constraint of the Ge (1 1 0) substrate, leading to the unique elongation of NWs. This growth dynamics suggests the possibility of uniform control of the morphology of self-assembled NWs, as well as other morphologies of bottom-up fabricated devices, at different deposition temperatures.

  9. In situ observation of triple junction motion during recovery of heavily deformed aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hughes, Darcy A.; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    -junctions are pinned by deformation-induced interconnecting and lamellar boundaries, which slow down the recovery process and lead to a stop-go migration pattern. This pinning mechanism stabilizes the deformation microstructure, i.e. the structure is stabilized by balancing the driving and pinning forces controlling......Microstructural evolution during in situ annealing of heavily cold-rolled aluminum has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, confirming that an important recovery mechanism is migration of triple junctions formed by three lamellar boundaries (Y-junctions). The migrating Y...

  10. Nucleation of recrystallization observed in situ in the bulk of a deformed metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Axel W.; Poulsen, Henning F.; Margulies, Lawrence; Gundlach, Carsten; Xing Qingfeng; Huang Xiaoxu; Jensen, Dorte Juul

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation of recrystallization is studied in situ in the bulk by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction. Copper samples cold rolled 20% are investigated. The crystallographic orientations near triple junction lines are characterized before, during and after annealing. Three nuclei are identified and it is shown that two nuclei are twin related to their parent grain and one nucleus has an orientation, which is neither present in the deformed parent grains nor first order twin related to any of them. Data on the nucleation kinetics is also presented

  11. AFM observation of Fe-Al single crystals under in situ deformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, J.; Cieslar, M.; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 618-621 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/10/0438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * Fe 3 Al * TEM Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  12. In situ QXAFS observation of the reduction of Fe2O3 and CaFe2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masao; Takayama, Toru; Murao, Reiko; Nomura, Masaharu; Uemura, Yohei; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    In situ QXAFS studies of the reduction of α-Fe 2 O 3 and CaFe 2 O 4 were conducted to determine their reduction kinetics and mechanisms. The reduction of α-Fe 2 O 3 involved two steps, the first being a very fast process in which Fe 3+ was reduced to Fe 2+ and the second being the reduction of Fe 2+ to Fe metal over a longer period. In contrast, the reduction of Fe in CaFe 2 O 4 was a single first-order reaction, although an induction period was clearly observed at the beginning of the reduction process. The reduction processes were successfully studied using a combination of in situ QXAFS spectra at the Ca and Fe K-edges.

  13. In-situ observation of deuteride formation in palladium electrochemical cathode by X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takao; Oka, Takashi; Taniguchi, Ryoichi

    1990-01-01

    In-situ X-ray diffraction observation of palladium foil cathode (10 μm) was carried out during electrolysis of 0.1N-LiOD heavy water solution in order to estimate the deuterium content in palladium during the detection of charged particles in our previous work. A complete transformation into β-palladium deuteride phase was observed, and its maximum lattice constant 4.06 A was evaluated as corresponding to D/Pd = 0.73. The deuterium concentration in the previous work was estimated as higher than this considering the difference in cell conditions. (author)

  14. Statistical Similarities Between WSA-ENLIL+Cone Model and MAVEN in Situ Observations From November 2014 to March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, C. L.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Dewey, R. M.; Lee, C. O.; Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D. A.

    2018-02-01

    Normal solar wind flows and intense solar transient events interact directly with the upper Martian atmosphere due to the absence of an intrinsic global planetary magnetic field. Since the launch of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission, there are now new means to directly observe solar wind parameters at the planet's orbital location for limited time spans. Due to MAVEN's highly elliptical orbit, in situ measurements cannot be taken while MAVEN is inside Mars' magnetosheath. To model solar wind conditions during these atmospheric and magnetospheric passages, this research project utilized the solar wind forecasting capabilities of the WSA-ENLIL+Cone model. The model was used to simulate solar wind parameters that included magnetic field magnitude, plasma particle density, dynamic pressure, proton temperature, and velocity during a four Carrington rotation-long segment. An additional simulation that lasted 18 Carrington rotations was then conducted. The precision of each simulation was examined for intervals when MAVEN was in the upstream solar wind, that is, with no exospheric or magnetospheric phenomena altering in situ measurements. It was determined that generalized, extensive simulations have comparable prediction capabilities as shorter, more comprehensive simulations. Generally, this study aimed to quantify the loss of detail in long-term simulations and to determine if extended simulations can provide accurate, continuous upstream solar wind conditions when there is a lack of in situ measurements.

  15. Evaluation of OMI operational standard NO2 column retrievals using in situ and surface-based NO2 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lamsal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the standard operational nitrogen dioxide (NO2 data product (OMNO2, version 2.1 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA's Aura satellite using a combination of aircraft and surface in~situ measurements as well as ground-based column measurements at several locations and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory over the continental US. Despite considerable sampling differences, NO2 vertical column densities from OMI are modestly correlated (r = 0.3–0.8 with in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 from aircraft, ground-based observations of NO2 columns from MAX-DOAS and Pandora instruments, in situ surface NO2 measurements from photolytic converter instruments, and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory. Overall, OMI retrievals tend to be lower in urban regions and higher in remote areas, but generally agree with other measurements to within ± 20%. No consistent seasonal bias is evident. Contrasting results between different data sets reveal complexities behind NO2 validation. Since validation data sets are scarce and are limited in space and time, validation of the global product is still limited in scope by spatial and temporal coverage and retrieval conditions. Monthly mean vertical NO2 profile shapes from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry-transport model (CTM used in the OMI retrievals are highly consistent with in situ aircraft measurements, but these measured profiles exhibit considerable day-to-day variation, affecting the retrieved daily NO2 columns by up to 40%. This assessment of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns, together with the comparison of OMI-retrieved and model-simulated NO2 columns, could offer diagnostic evaluation of the model.

  16. In situ observations of contrail micro-physics and implications for their radiative impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, M R [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States); Arnott, W P; Hallett, J [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    1998-12-31

    Increasing levels of air traffic have raised concerns about the potential effects of aircraft exhaust on the climate. Current knowledge is expanded by examining in situ data from 21 contrails sampled at altitudes of 9.3 - 12.5 km and temperatures of -47 deg C to -66 deg C. The airborne equipment allowed measurements of particles as small as 2 {mu}m in diameter, which have not previously been reported. The microphysical characteristics of the contrails, which occurred in both clear and cloudy air, are presented and compared with natural cirrus properties. Computations of the wavelength-dependent radiative properties of the sampled particle distributions are also presented and compared with laboratory measurements. Finally, implications of these findings for climatic assessment are discussed. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  17. In situ observations of contrail micro-physics and implications for their radiative impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, M.R. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States); Arnott, W.P.; Hallett, J. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    1997-12-31

    Increasing levels of air traffic have raised concerns about the potential effects of aircraft exhaust on the climate. Current knowledge is expanded by examining in situ data from 21 contrails sampled at altitudes of 9.3 - 12.5 km and temperatures of -47 deg C to -66 deg C. The airborne equipment allowed measurements of particles as small as 2 {mu}m in diameter, which have not previously been reported. The microphysical characteristics of the contrails, which occurred in both clear and cloudy air, are presented and compared with natural cirrus properties. Computations of the wavelength-dependent radiative properties of the sampled particle distributions are also presented and compared with laboratory measurements. Finally, implications of these findings for climatic assessment are discussed. (R.P.) 9 refs.

  18. Source attribution using FLEXPART and carbon monoxide emission inventories for the IAGOS In-situ Observation database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Alain; Sauvage, Bastien; Pétetin, Hervé; Auby, Antoine; Boulanger, Damien; Thouret, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Since 1994, the IAGOS program (In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System http://www.iagos.org) and its predecessor MOZAIC has produced in-situ measurements of the atmospheric composition during more than 46000 commercial aircraft flights. In order to help analyzing these observations and further understanding the processes driving their evolution, we developed a modelling tool SOFT-IO quantifying their source/receptor link. We improved the methodology used by Stohl et al. (2003), based on the FLEXPART plume dispersion model, to simulate the contributions of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from the ECCAD database (http://eccad.aeris-data.fr) to the measured carbon monoxide mixing ratio along each IAGOS flight. Thanks to automated processes, contributions are simulated for the last 20 days before observation, separating individual contributions from the different source regions. The main goal is to supply add-value products to the IAGOS database showing pollutants geographical origin and emission type. Using this information, it may be possible to link trends in the atmospheric composition to changes in the transport pathways and to the evolution of emissions. This tool could be used for statistical validation as well as for inter-comparisons of emission inventories using large amounts of data, as Lagrangian models are able to bring the global scale emissions down to a smaller scale, where they can be directly compared to the in-situ observations from the IAGOS database.

  19. Atoms in Action: Observing Atomic Motion with Dynamic in situ X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jordan Michael

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are rich in both structural diversity and application. These materials are comprised of metal atoms or clusters which are connected in a three-dimensional polymer-like network by bridging organic linker molecules. One of the major attractive features in MOFs is their permanent pore space which can potentially be used to adsorb or exchange foreign molecules from/with the surrounding environment. While MOFs are an active area of scientific interest, MOF materials are still relatively new, only 20 years old. As such, there is still much that needs to be understood about these materials before they can be effectively applied to widespread chemical problems like CO2 sequestration or low-pressure hydrogen fuel storage. One of the most important facets of MOF chemistry to understand in order to rationally design MOF materials with tailor-made properties is the relationship between the structural features in a MOF and the chemical and physical properties of that material. By examining in detail the atomic structure of a MOF with known properties under a variety of conditions, scientists can begin to unravel the guiding principles which govern these relationships. X-ray diffraction remains one of the most effective tools for determining the structure of a crystalline material with atomic resolution, and has been applied to the determination of MOF structures for years. Typically these experiments have been carried out using powder X-ray diffraction, but this technique lacks the high-resolution structural information found in single-crystal methods. Some studies have been reported which use specialized devices, sometimes called Environmental Control Cells, to study single crystalline MOFs under non-ambient chemical conditions in situ . However, these in situ studies are performed under static conditions. Even in cases where the ECC provides continued access to the local chemical environment during diffraction data collections, the

  20. In Situ Observation of Gypsum-Anhydrite Transition at High Pressure and High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan-Jiang; ZHENG Hai-Fei

    2012-01-01

    An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC).The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 MPa.With increasing temperature,the anhydrite (CaSO4) phase precipitates at 250 320℃ in the pressure range of 1.0 1.5 GPa,indicating that under a saturated water condition,both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite.A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(GPa) =0.0068T - 0.7126 (250℃≤T≤320℃).Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber,showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is irreversible at high pressure and high temperature.%An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 Mpa. With increasing temperature, the anhydrite (CaSO4) phase precipitates at 250-320℃ in the pressure range of 1.0-1.5 Gpa, indicating that under a saturated water condition, both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite. A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(Gpa) = 0.0068T - 0.7126 (250℃≤T≤320℃). Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber, showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is

  1. In situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-precision analyses of the isotopic composition of methane in ambient air can potentially be used to discriminate between different source categories. Due to the complexity of isotope ratio measurements, such analyses have generally been performed in the laboratory on air samples collected in the field. This poses a limitation on the temporal resolution at which the isotopic composition can be monitored with reasonable logistical effort. Here we present the performance of a dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS-based technique for in situ analysis of the isotopic composition of methane under field conditions. Both systems were deployed at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly measurements for a period of more than 5 months. The IRMS and QCLAS instruments were in excellent agreement with a slight systematic offset of (+0.25 ± 0.04 ‰ for δ13C and (−4.3 ± 0.4 ‰ for δD. This was corrected for, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD. The high-precision and high-temporal-resolution dataset not only reveals the overwhelming contribution of isotopically depleted agricultural CH4 emissions from ruminants at the Cabauw site but also allows the identification of specific events with elevated contributions from more enriched sources such as natural gas and landfills. The final dataset was compared to model calculations using the global model TM5 and the mesoscale model FLEXPART-COSMO. The results of both models agree better with the measurements when the TNO-MACC emission inventory is used in the models than when the EDGAR inventory is used. This suggests that high-resolution isotope measurements have the potential to further constrain the methane budget when they are performed at multiple sites that are representative for

  2. Combined Multipoint Remote and In Situ Observations of the Asymmetric Evolution of a Fast Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    OpenAIRE

    Rollett, T.; Moestl, C.; Temmer, M.; Frahm, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Veronig, A. M.; Vrsnak, B.; Amerstorfer, U. V.; Farrugia, C. J.; Zic, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012 March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the...

  3. Implementing an integrated in-situ coaching, observational audit, and story-telling intervention to support safe surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthey, Jane; McCormack, Katie; Coombes, Julie; Gilbert, Douglas; Farrar, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes an intervention that combined in-situ coaching, observational audits and story-telling to educate theatre teams at University College London Hospitals about the Five steps to safer surgery (NPSA 2010). Our philosophy was to educate theatre teams about 'what goes right' (good catches, exemplary leadership etc) as well as 'what could be improved'. Results showed improvements on 'behavioural reliability' metrics, a 68% increase in near miss reporting and a reduction in surgical harm incidents. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.

  4. In-situ observation of Asian pollution transported into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roiger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On a research flight on 10 July 2008, the German research aircraft Falcon sampled an air mass with unusually high carbon monoxide (CO, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and water vapour (H2O mixing ratios in the Arctic lowermost stratosphere. The air mass was encountered twice at an altitude of 11.3 km, ~800 m above the dynamical tropopause. In-situ measurements of ozone, NO, and NOy indicate that this layer was a mixed air mass containing both air from the troposphere and stratosphere. Backward trajectory and Lagrangian particle dispersion model analysis suggest that the Falcon sampled the top of a polluted air mass originating from the coastal regions of East Asia. The anthropogenic pollution plume experienced strong up-lift in a warm conveyor belt (WCB located over the Russian east-coast. Subsequently the Asian air mass was transported across the North Pole into the sampling area, elevating the local tropopause by up to ~3 km. Mixing with surrounding Arctic stratospheric air most likely took place during the horizontal transport when the tropospheric streamer was stretched into long and narrow filaments. The mechanism illustrated in this study possibly presents an important pathway to transport pollution into the polar tropopause region.

  5. Evaluation of a cavity ring-down spectrometer for in situ observations of 13CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. J. Worthy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of wide-spread application of new optical techniques to monitor δ13C in atmospheric CO2 there is a growing need to ensure well-calibrated measurements. We characterized one commonly available instrument, a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS system used for continuous in situ monitoring of atmospheric 13CO2. We found no dependency of δ13C on the CO2 concentration in the range of 303–437 ppm. We designed a calibration scheme according to the diagnosed instrumental drifts and established a quality assurance protocol. We find that the repeatability (1-σ of measurements is 0.25‰ for 10 min and 0.15‰ for 20 min integrated averages, respectively. Due to a spectral overlap, our instrument displays a cross-sensitivity to CH4 of 0.42 ± 0.024‰ ppm−1. Our ongoing target measurements yield standard deviations of δ13C from 0.22‰ to 0.28‰ for 10 min averages. We furthermore estimate the reproducibility of our system for ambient air samples from weekly measurements of a long-term target gas to be 0.18‰. We find only a minuscule offset of 0.002 ± 0.025‰ between the CRDS and Environment Canada's isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS results for four target gases used over the course of one year.

  6. Seasonal variability of the Red Sea, from satellite gravity, radar altimetry, and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahr, John; Smeed, David A.; Leuliette, Eric; Swenson, Sean

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal variations of sea surface height (SSH) and mass within the Red Sea are caused mostly by exchange of heat with the atmosphere and by flow through the strait opening into the Gulf of Aden to the south. That flow involves a net mass transfer into the Red Sea during fall and out during spring, though in summer there is an influx of cool water at intermediate depths. Thus, summer water in the south is warmer near the surface due to higher air temperatures, but cooler at intermediate depths. Summer water in the north experiences warming by air-sea exchange only. The temperature affects water density, which impacts SSH but has no effect on mass. We study this seasonal cycle by combining GRACE mass estimates, altimeter SSH measurements, and steric contributions derived from the World Ocean Atlas temperature climatology. Among our conclusions are: mass contributions are much larger than steric contributions; the mass is largest in winter, consistent with winds pushing water into the Red Sea in fall and out during spring; the steric signal is largest in summer, consistent with surface warming; and the cool, intermediate-depth water flowing into the Red Sea in spring has little impact on the steric signal, because contributions from the lowered temperature are offset by effects of decreased salinity. The results suggest that the combined use of altimeter and GRACE measurements can provide a useful alternative to in situ data for monitoring the steric signal.

  7. Precipitation Characteristics in West and East Africa from Satellite and in Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Amin K.; Ichoku, Charles M.; Mohr, Karen I.; Huffman, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data, three precipitation classes are identified for rainy seasons of West and East Africa: weak convective rainfall (WCR), strong convective rainfall (SCR), and mesoscale convective systems (MCSs).Nearly 75% of the total seasonal precipitation is produced by the SCR and MCSs, even though they represent only 8% of the rain events. Rain events in East Africa tend to have a longer duration and lower intensity than in West Africa, reflecting different characteristics of the SCR and MCS events in these two regions. Surface heating seems to be the primary convection trigger for the SCR, particularly in East Africa, whereas the WCR requires a dynamical trigger such as low-level convergence. The data are used to evaluate the performance of the recently launched Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG)project. The IMERG-based precipitation shows significant improvement over its predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), particularly in capturing the MCSs, due to its improved temporal resolution.

  8. In situ observation of carbon nanotube layer growth on microbolometers with substrates at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatoš, Vojtěch; Gablech, Imrich; Ilic, B. Robert; Pekárek, Jan; Neužil, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have near unity infrared (IR) absorption efficiency, making them extremely attractive for IR imaging devices. Since CNT growth occurs at elevated temperatures, the integration of CNTs with IR imaging devices is challenging and has not yet been achieved. Here, we show a strategy for implementing CNTs as IR absorbers using differential heating of thermally isolated microbolometer membranes in a C2H2 environment. During the process, CNTs were catalytically grown on the surface of a locally heated membrane, while the substrate was maintained at an ambient temperature. CNT growth was monitored in situ in real time using optical microscopy. During growth, we measured the intensity of light emission and the reflected light from the heated microbolometer. Our measurements of bolometer performance show that the CNT layer on the surface of the microbolometer membrane increases the IR response by a factor of (2.3 ± 0.1) (mean ± one standard deviation of the least-squares fit parameters). This work opens the door to integrating near unity IR absorption, CNT-based, IR absorbers with hybrid complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor focal plane array architectures.

  9. In situ observations of the atomistic mechanisms of Ni catalyzed low temperature graphene growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patera, Laerte L; Africh, Cristina; Weatherup, Robert S; Blume, Raoul; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Castellarin-Cudia, Carla; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schloegl, Robert; Comelli, Giovanni; Hofmann, Stephan; Cepek, Cinzia

    2013-09-24

    The key atomistic mechanisms of graphene formation on Ni for technologically relevant hydrocarbon exposures below 600 °C are directly revealed via complementary in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For clean Ni(111) below 500 °C, two different surface carbide (Ni2C) conversion mechanisms are dominant which both yield epitaxial graphene, whereas above 500 °C, graphene predominantly grows directly on Ni(111) via replacement mechanisms leading to embedded epitaxial and/or rotated graphene domains. Upon cooling, additional carbon structures form exclusively underneath rotated graphene domains. The dominant graphene growth mechanism also critically depends on the near-surface carbon concentration and hence is intimately linked to the full history of the catalyst and all possible sources of contamination. The detailed XPS fingerprinting of these processes allows a direct link to high pressure XPS measurements of a wide range of growth conditions, including polycrystalline Ni catalysts and recipes commonly used in industrial reactors for graphene and carbon nanotube CVD. This enables an unambiguous and consistent interpretation of prior literature and an assessment of how the quality/structure of as-grown carbon nanostructures relates to the growth modes.

  10. In Situ Observation of Gypsum-Anhydrite Transition at High Pressure and High Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuan-Jiang; Zheng Hai-Fei

    2012-01-01

    An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 MPa. With increasing temperature, the anhydrite (CaSO 4 ) phase precipitates at 250–320°C in the pressure range of 1.0–1.5GPa, indicating that under a saturated water condition, both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO 4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite. A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(GPa) = 0.0068T−0.7126 (250°C≤T≤320°C). Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber, showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is irreversible at high pressure and high temperature. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  11. In situ observation · analytical technologies of high temperature superconductor for fusion reactor at ultra low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, Takayoshi; Sun, Wei; Fukutomi, Katsuo; Togano, Kazumasa; Saito, Tetsuya; Hiraga, Kenji; Takeda, Toshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    An image installation program of SPARK station 20 was accomplished. It can induce continuously 2.1 MB TEM image at 5 sheet/sec until 160 sheets. An image processing (shift addition) program was developed at first in the world. The program can overlap many sheet of TEM images by shifting them to the correct position. Other image processing programs such as flatfielding and reducing noise processing were developed. High temperature lattice fringe image of superconductive oxide Bi2223 in the drift chamber can be observed at low temperature by using the above image processing programs. New type laser device for filament radiation which consists of argon ion laser was developed as the first step of development of high brightness electron gun. Bi2212 single crystal was determined by the large angle convergent beam electron diffraction. The results showed the crystal structure belonged to Bbmb. (S.Y.)

  12. In-situ observation of strain evolution in CP-Ti during uniaxial tensile loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettles, C. J.; Gibson, M. A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Tomus, D.; Lynch, P. A.

    2010-07-01

    First results are presented for in-situ tensile loading experiments performed on the Powder Diffraction beamline at the Australian Synchrotron facility. For direct measurement of strain evolution, the beamline was fitted with a uniaxial tensile stage and a high-resolution CCD detector. Precise calibration of the experimental diffraction geometry, taking into account slight misalignment of the detector (pitch, roll, yaw), was achieved by simulation of the ring patterns recorded from the standard reference material LaB 6 (660). The material examined was a commercially pure titanium strip, which from prior electron microscopy studies, was found to have an average grain size of ˜20-30 μm. Tensile specimens conformed to ASTM E8, with a gauge length of 25 mm. To probe the bulk material properties all experiments were performed at 20 keV. In these preliminary experiments, measurement of the relative change in the interplanar lattice spacing was used to monitor the elastic response in seven crystallographic orientations during the loading cycle. To overcome problems encountered with grain size and associated discontinuous Debye-Scherrer ring patterns, two strategies were implemented to measure the Bragg peak (2 θB) positions. In cases where the radial integration routine provided inconsistent results for peak determination, a new approach based on determining the averaged sum of 2 θB positions from individual spots making up the ring pattern was utilised. Results obtained for the diffraction elastic modulus were found to be in agreement with predictions based on the single-crystal and Neerfield-Hill crystal coupling models.

  13. In Situ Observations of Snow Metamorphosis Acceleration Induced by Dust and Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrate the dependence of shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance on snow specific surface area (SSA) and others examine the direct darkening effect dust and black carbon (BC) deposition has on snow and ice-covered surfaces. The extent to which these light absorbing aerosols (LAAs) accelerate snow metamorphosis, however, is challenging to assess in situ as measurement techniques easily disturb snowpack. Here, we use two Near-Infrared Emitting Reflectance Domes (NERDs) to measure 1300 and 1550nm bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) of natural snow and experimental plots with added dust and BC. We obtain NERD measurements and subsequently collect and transport snow samples to the nearby U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab for micro computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Snow 1300 (1550) nm BRFs evolve from 0.6 (0.15) in fresh snow to 0.2 (0.03) after metamorphosis. Hourly-scale time evolving snow surface BRFs and SSA estimates from micro-CT reveal more rapid SWIR darkening and snow metamorphosis in contaminated versus natural plots. Cloudiness and high wind speeds can completely obscure these results if LAAs mobilize before absorbing enough radiant energy. These findings verify experimentally that dust and BC deposition can accelerate snow metamorphosis and enhance snow albedo feedback in sunny, calm weather conditions. Although quantifying the enhancement of snow albedo feedback induced by LAAs requires further surface temperature, solar irradiance, and impurity concentration measurements, this study provides experimental verification of positive feedback occurring where dust and BC accelerate snow metamorphosis.

  14. In situ observation data from the grouper roi (Cephalopholis argus) removal project in West Hawaii from 2010-2011 (NODC Accession 0082197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ observations of the introduced predatory grouper roi (Cephalopholis argus) were taken within the coral reef ecosystem of Puako, northwest side of the Island...

  15. Harmonising and semantically linking key variables from in-situ observing networks of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System, AtlantOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Louise; Buck, Justin

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements at regional, national and international scales. The EU Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project aims to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that strengthens the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and contributes to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation. One goal is to ensure that data from different and diverse in-situ observing networks are readily accessible and useable to a wider community, including the international ocean science community and other stakeholders in this field. To help achieve this goal, the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) produced a parameter matrix to harmonise data exchange, data flow and data integration for the key variables acquired by multiple in-situ AtlantOS observing networks such as ARGO, Seafloor Mapping and OceanSITES. Our solution used semantic linking of controlled vocabularies and metadata for parameters that were "mappable" to existing EU and international standard vocabularies. An AtlantOS Essential Variables list of terms (aggregated level) based on Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECV), GOOS Essential Ocean Variables (EOV) and other key network variables was defined and published on the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (version 2.0) as collection A05 (http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/A05/current/). This new vocabulary was semantically linked to standardised metadata for observed properties and units that had been validated by the AtlantOS community: SeaDataNet parameters (P01), Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names (P07) and SeaDataNet units (P06). Observed properties were mapped to biological entities from the internationally assured AphiaID from the WOrld Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), http

  16. In-Situ Observation of Sintering Shrinkage of UO{sub 2} Compacts Derived from Different Powder Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang Soo; Kim, Dong Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Jong Hun; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In-situ observations on the shrinkage of green pellets with precisely controlled dimensions were carefully conducted by using TOM during H2 atmosphere sintering. The shrinkage retardation in IDR-UO{sub 2} might be attributed to the larger primary particle size of IDRUO{sub 2} than those of ADU- and AUC- UO{sub 2} powders. It would be important to understand the different sintering characteristics of UO{sub 2} powders according to the powder routes, when it comes to designing a new sintering process or choosing a sintering additive for new fuel pellet like PCI (Pellet Cladding Interaction) remedy pellet. In this paper, we have investigated the initial and intermediate sintering shrinkage of UO{sub 2} from different powder routes by in-situ observation of green samples during H2 atmosphere sintering. Effect of powder characteristics of three different UO{sub 2} powders on the initial and intermediate sintering were closely reviewed including crystal structure, powder size, specific surface area, primary crystal size, and O/U ratio.

  17. A propagation tool to connect remote-sensing observations with in-situ measurements of heliospheric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Génot, V.; Bouchemit, M.; Dufourg, N.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Lavarra, M.; Penou, M.; Jacquey, C.; André, N.; Caussarieu, S.; Toniutti, J.-P.; Popescu, D.; Buchlin, E.; Caminade, S.; Alingery, P.; Davies, J. A.; Odstrcil, D.; Mays, L.

    2017-11-01

    The remoteness of the Sun and the harsh conditions prevailing in the solar corona have so far limited the observational data used in the study of solar physics to remote-sensing observations taken either from the ground or from space. In contrast, the 'solar wind laboratory' is directly measured in situ by a fleet of spacecraft measuring the properties of the plasma and magnetic fields at specific points in space. Since 2007, the solar-terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) has been providing images of the solar wind that flows between the solar corona and spacecraft making in-situ measurements. This has allowed scientists to directly connect processes imaged near the Sun with the subsequent effects measured in the solar wind. This new capability prompted the development of a series of tools and techniques to track heliospheric structures through space. This article presents one of these tools, a web-based interface called the 'Propagation Tool' that offers an integrated research environment to study the evolution of coronal and solar wind structures, such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). These structures can be propagated from the Sun outwards to or alternatively inwards from planets and spacecraft situated in the inner and outer heliosphere. In this paper, we present the global architecture of the tool, discuss some of the assumptions made to simulate the evolution of the structures and show how the tool connects to different databases.

  18. In situ observation of modulated light emission of fiber fuse synchronized with void train over hetero-core splice point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Todoroki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fiber fuse is a process of optical fiber destruction under the action of laser radiation, found 20 years ago. Once initiated, opical discharge runs along the fiber core region to the light source and leaves periodic voids whose shape looks like a bullet pointing the direction of laser beam. The relation between damage pattern and propagation mode of optical discharge is still unclear even after the first in situ observation three years ago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fiber fuse propagation over hetero-core splice point (Corning SMF-28e and HI 1060 was observed in situ. Sequential photographs obtained at intervals of 2.78 micros recorded a periodic emission at the tail of an optical discharge pumped by 1070 nm and 9 W light. The signal stopped when the discharge ran over the splice point. The corresponding damage pattern left in the fiber core region included a segment free of periodicity. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial modulation pattern of the light emission agreed with the void train formed over the hetero-core splice point. Some segments included a bullet-shaped void pointing in the opposite direction to the laser beam propagation although the sequential photographs did not reveal any directional change in the optical discharge propagation.

  19. In-situ observation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in AA2024-T3 under constant load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Frankel, G.S.; Zoofan, B.; Rokhlin, S.I.

    2007-01-01

    A specially designed setup was used to apply a constant load to a thin sheet sample of AA2024-T3 and, using microfocal X-ray radiography, to observe in situ the resulting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) from the exposed edge of the sample. The growth of and competition between multiple IGSCC sites was monitored. In many experiments twin cracks initiated close to each other. Furthermore, the deepest crack at the beginning of every experiment was found to slow or stop growing, and was then surpassed by another crack that eventually penetrated through the sample. These observations cannot be explained by the theory of fracture mechanics in inert environments. The possible mechanisms underlying the competition between cracks are discussed

  20. Experimental Observations of In-Situ Secondary Electron Yield Reduction in the PEP-II Particle Accelerator Beam Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders (LC) such as ILC and CLIC. To test a series of promising possible electron cloud mitigation techniques as surface coatings and grooves, in the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed several test vacuum chambers including (i) a special chamber to monitor the variation of the secondary electron yield of technical surface materials and coatings under the effect of ion, electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line; (ii) chambers with grooves in a straight magnetic-free section; and (iii) coated chambers in a dedicated newly installed 4-magnet chicane to study mitigations in a magnetic field region. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R and D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the LC damping ring, focusing on the first experimental area and on results of the reduction of the secondary electron yield due to in situ conditioning.

  1. Surface Snow Density of East Antarctica Derived from In-Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, S.; Du, W.; Chen, J.; Xie, H.; Tong, X.; Li, R.

    2018-04-01

    Models based on physical principles or semi-empirical parameterizations have used to compute the firn density, which is essential for the study of surface processes in the Antarctic ice sheet. However, parameterization of surface snow density is often challenged by the description of detailed local characterization. In this study we propose to generate a surface density map for East Antarctica from all the filed observations that are available. Considering that the observations are non-uniformly distributed around East Antarctica, obtained by different methods, and temporally inhomogeneous, the field observations are used to establish an initial density map with a grid size of 30 × 30 km2 in which the observations are averaged at a temporal scale of five years. We then construct an observation matrix with its columns as the map grids and rows as the temporal scale. If a site has an unknown density value for a period, we will set it to 0 in the matrix. In order to construct the main spatial and temple information of surface snow density matrix we adopt Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method to decompose the observation matrix and only take first several lower-order modes, because these modes already contain most information of the observation matrix. However, there are a lot of zeros in the matrix and we solve it by using matrix completion algorithm, and then we derive the time series of surface snow density at each observation site. Finally, we can obtain the surface snow density by multiplying the modes interpolated by kriging with the corresponding amplitude of the modes. Comparative analysis have done between our surface snow density map and model results. The above details will be introduced in the paper.

  2. B33C-0612: Evaluation of Simulated Biospheric Carbon Dioxide Fluxes and Atmospheric Concentrations Using Global in Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Johnson, Matthew S.; Potter, Christopher S.; Genovese, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) are largely controlled by anthropogenic emission sources and biospheric sources/sinks. Global biospheric fluxes of CO2 are controlled by complex processes facilitating the exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. These processes which play a key role in these terrestrial ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges are currently not fully understood, resulting in large uncertainties in the quantification of biospheric CO2 fluxes. Current models with these inherent deficiencies have difficulties simulating the global carbon cycle with high accuracy. We are developing a new modeling platform, GEOS-Chem-CASA by integrating the year-specific NASA-CASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) biosphere model with the GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observation System-Chemistry) chemical transport model to improve the simulation of atmosphere-terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange. We use NASA-CASA to explicitly represent the exchange of CO2 between terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere by replacing the baseline GEOS-Chem land net CO2 flux and forest biomass burning CO2 emissions. We will present the estimation and evaluation of these "bottom-up" land CO2 fluxes, simulated atmospheric mixing ratios, and forest disturbance changes over the last decade. In addition, we will present our initial comparison of atmospheric column-mean dry air mole fraction of CO2 predicted by the model and those retrieved from NASA's OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) satellite instrument and model-predicted surface CO2 mixing ratios with global in situ observations. This evaluation is the first step necessary for our future work planned to constrain the estimates of biospheric carbon fluxes through "top-down" inverse modeling, which will improve our understanding of the processes controlling atmosphere-terrestrial ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges, especially over regions which lack in

  3. Copper implantation defects in MgO observed by positron beam analysis, RBS and X-TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huis, M.A. van; Fedorov, A.V.; Veen, A. van; Smulders, P.J.M.; Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    2000-01-01

    In this work, effects of copper ion implantation in MgO were studied. (1 0 0) MgO samples were implanted with 50 keV Cu ions and thermally annealed stepwise in air for 30 minutes at 550, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1350 K. After ion implantation and after each annealing step, the samples were analysed with positron beam analysis (PBA). Use was also made of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry/channeling (RBS-C) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM). The combination of these techniques enabled to monitor the depth resolved evolution of both created defects and the copper atom depth distribution. PBA results show that copper implantation at a dose of 10 15 ions cm -2 yields a single layer of vacancy type defects after annealing. However a copper implantation at a dose of 10 16 ions cm -2 clearly yields two layers of defects in the material after annealing, separated by an intermediate layer. In both layers nanocavities have been identified. RBS experimental results show that the implanted copper atoms diffuse into the bulk material during annealing. X-TEM and channeling results show that after annealing, the lattice of the copper nanoprecipitates is epitaxial to the MgO host lattice. Under some circumstances, copper precipitates and small voids can co-exist. Furthermore, X-TEM measurements show that the nanocavities have rectangular shapes

  4. Review: advances in in situ and satellite phenological observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Shin; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida; Inoue, Tomoharu; Saitoh, Taku M.; Suzuki, Rikie

    2016-04-01

    To accurately evaluate the responses of spatial and temporal variation of ecosystem functioning (evapotranspiration and photosynthesis) and services (regulating and cultural services) to the rapid changes caused by global warming, we depend on long-term, continuous, near-surface, and satellite remote sensing of phenology over wide areas. Here, we review such phenological studies in Japan and discuss our current knowledge, problems, and future developments. In contrast with North America and Europe, Japan has been able to evaluate plant phenology along vertical and horizontal gradients within a narrow area because of the country's high topographic relief. Phenological observation networks that support scientific studies and outreach activities have used near-surface tools such as digital cameras and spectral radiometers. Differences in phenology among ecosystems and tree species have been detected by analyzing the seasonal variation of red, green, and blue digital numbers (RGB values) extracted from phenological images, as well as spectral reflectance and vegetation indices. The relationships between seasonal variations in RGB-derived indices or spectral characteristics and the ecological and CO2 flux measurement data have been well validated. In contrast, insufficient satellite remote-sensing observations have been conducted because of the coarse spatial resolution of previous datasets, which could not detect the heterogeneous plant phenology that results from Japan's complex topography and vegetation. To improve Japanese phenological observations, multidisciplinary analysis and evaluation will be needed to link traditional phenological observations with "index trees," near-surface and satellite remote-sensing observations, "citizen science" (observations by citizens), and results published on the Internet.

  5. Radiation ordering in quenched alloys observed 'in situ' in the high voltage microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendeloo, G. van; Landuyt, J. van; Amelinckx, S.

    1979-01-01

    Different alloys with a face centered cubic disordered structure have been electron irradiated in the quenched or short range order state under direct observation in a high voltage electron microscope. Ordering due to 1 MeV irradiation has been observed in Au 4 MN, Ni 4 Mo and Cu 3 Pd. Care has been taken to avoid ordering due to the thermal effect of the electron beam. It has been demonstrated that although similar states of order can be achieved by thermal and irradiation ordering, the path followed can be different. (author)

  6. In situ observation of plutonium transfer processes in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.-C.; Fraizier, Andre

    1975-09-01

    A preliminary observation of plutonium transfer processes in the marine environment was carried out and showed that concentration of the radionuclide was lower when marine organisms stood at a higher trophic level. This observation supplemented by an investigation on contamination pathways showed that plutonium was not concentrated along the food chain and its uptake occured preferentially by direct contact of species with seawater, a process chiefly affecting producers and primary consumers. It appeared that the marine sediment was not a significant vector of plutonium transfer in burrowing species [fr

  7. Utilizing Free and Open Source Software to access, view and compare in situ observations, EO products and model output data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Aleksander; Hamre, Torill; Lygre, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    The GreenSeas project (Development of global plankton data base and model system for eco-climate early warning) aims to advance the knowledge and predictive capacities of how marine ecosystems will respond to global change. A main task has been to set up a data delivery and monitoring core service following the open and free data access policy implemented in the Global Monitoring for the Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The aim is to ensure open and free access to historical plankton data, new data (EO products and in situ measurements), model data (including estimates of simulation error) and biological, environmental and climatic indicators to a range of stakeholders, such as scientists, policy makers and environmental managers. To this end, we have developed a geo-spatial database of both historical and new in situ physical, biological and chemical parameters for the Southern Ocean, Atlantic, Nordic Seas and the Arctic, and organized related satellite-derived quantities and model forecasts in a joint geo-spatial repository. For easy access to these data, we have implemented a web-based GIS (Geographical Information Systems) where observed, derived and forcasted parameters can be searched, displayed, compared and exported. Model forecasts can also be uploaded dynamically to the system, to allow modelers to quickly compare their results with available in situ and satellite observations. We have implemented the web-based GIS(Geographical Information Systems) system based on free and open source technologies: Thredds Data Server, ncWMS, GeoServer, OpenLayers, PostGIS, Liferay, Apache Tomcat, PRTree, NetCDF-Java, json-simple, Geotoolkit, Highcharts, GeoExt, MapFish, FileSaver, jQuery, jstree and qUnit. We also wanted to used open standards to communicate between the different services and we use WMS, WFS, netCDF, GML, OPeNDAP, JSON, and SLD. The main advantage we got from using FOSS was that we did not have to invent the wheel all over again, but could use

  8. In-situ observation of Cu-Pt core-shell nanoparticles in the atomic scale by XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xusheng; Liu, Shoujie; Chen, Xing; Cheng, Jie; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zhiyun; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu; Marcelli, Augosto

    2013-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles play an important role in potential industrial applications, such as catalysis, optoelectronics, information storage and biological labeling. Herein, homogeneous Cu-Pt core-shell nanoparticles with the averaged size of 8 nm have been synthesized by chemical methods. Cu atoms diffusion process, which motivated by heating, was observed in-situ by using temperature-dependent x-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Results show that Cu diffuse gradually from Cu core to Pt shell in these nanoparticles with increasing temperature. We also found the surface ligand (O) bonded Pt at the room temperature and were removed gradually by heating the sample. The analysis of the diffusion process in bimetallic nanoparticles will provide important guideline for their designing and tuning.

  9. Evaluating the skills of isotope-enabled general circulation models against in situ atmospheric water vapor isotope observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Risi, C.; Werner, M.

    2017-01-01

    The skills of isotope-enabled general circulation models are evaluated against atmospheric water vapor isotopes. We have combined in situ observations of surface water vapor isotopes spanning multiple field seasons (2010, 2011, and 2012) from the top of the Greenland Ice Sheet (NEEM site: 77.45°N......: 2014). This allows us to benchmark the ability to simulate the daily water vapor isotope variations from five different simulations using isotope-enabled general circulation models. Our model-data comparison documents clear isotope biases both on top of the Greenland Ice Sheet (1-11% for δ18O and 4...... boundary layer water vapor isotopes of the Baffin Bay region show strong influence on the water vapor isotopes at the NEEM deep ice core-drilling site in northwest Greenland. Our evaluation of the simulations using isotope-enabled general circulation models also documents wide intermodel spatial...

  10. In situ observations during chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on polycrystalline copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Blume, Raoul; Kling, Jens

    2014-01-01

    processing, and that this negatively affects the stability of h-BN on the catalyst. For extended air exposure Cu oxidation is observed, and upon re-heating in vacuum an oxygen-mediated disintegration of the h-BN film via volatile boron oxides occurs. Importantly, this disintegration is catalyst mediated, i...

  11. Upscaling In Situ Soil Moisture Observations To Pixel Averages With Spatio-Temporal Geostatistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jianghao; Ge, Yong; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M.; Zhou, Chenghu

    2015-01-01

    Validation of satellite-based soil moisture products is necessary to provide users with an assessment of their accuracy and reliability and to ensure quality of information. A key step in the validation process is to upscale point-scale, ground-based soil moisture observations to satellite-scale

  12. In situ NMR observation of the lithium extraction/insertion from LiCoO2 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Keiji; Murakami, Miwa; Takamatsu, Daiko; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are currently accepted to be one of the most suitable energy storage resources in portable electronic devices because of their high gravimetric and volumetric energy density. To understand the behavior of Li + ions on electrochemical lithium extraction/insertion process, we performed in situ 7 Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements for LiCoO 2 cathode in a plastic cell battery, and the spectral evolutions of the 7 Li NMR signal of Li x CoO 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were well investigated. Very narrow solid solution region of Li x CoO 2 (∼0.99 ≤ x 2 signal at ∼0 ppm, which is related to the localized nature of the electronic spin of paramagnetic Co 4+ ion formed at the very early delithiation stage. With further decreasing the signal intensity of LiCoO 2 , a Knight-shifted signal corresponding to an electrically conductive Li x CoO 2 phase emerged at x = 0.97, which then monotonously decreased in intensity for x x CoO 2 . These observations acquired in situ fully confirm the earlier studies obtained in ex situ measurements, although the present study offers more quantitative information. Moreover, it was shown that the peak position of the NMR shift for Li x CoO 2 moved as a function of lithium content, which behavior is analogous to the change in its c lattice parameter. Also, the growth and consumption of dendritic/mossy metallic lithium on the counter electrode was clearly observed during the charge/discharge cycles

  13. In situ observation of thermal relaxation of interstitial-vacancy pair defects in a graphite gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urita, Koki; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio; Sugai, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2005-01-01

    Direct observation of individual defects during formation and annihilation in the interlayer gap of double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT) is demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The interlayer defects that bridge two adjacent graphen layers in DWNT are stable for a macroscopic time at the temperature below 450 K. These defects are assigned to a cluster of one or two interstitial-vacancy pairs (I-V pairs) and often disappear just after their formation at higher temperatures due to an instantaneous recombination of the interstitial atom with vacancy. Systematic observations performed at the elevated temperatures find a threshold for the defect annihilation at 450-500 K, which, indeed, corresponds to the known temperature for the Wigner energy release

  14. In situ observation of thermal relaxation of interstitial-vacancy pair defects in a graphite gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urita, Koki; Suenaga, Kazu; Sugai, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Iijima, Sumio

    2005-04-22

    Direct observation of individual defects during formation and annihilation in the interlayer gap of double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT) is demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The interlayer defects that bridge two adjacent graphen layers in DWNT are stable for a macroscopic time at the temperature below 450 K. These defects are assigned to a cluster of one or two interstitial-vacancy pairs (I-V pairs) and often disappear just after their formation at higher temperatures due to an instantaneous recombination of the interstitial atom with vacancy. Systematic observations performed at the elevated temperatures find a threshold for the defect annihilation at 450-500 K, which, indeed, corresponds to the known temperature for the Wigner energy release.

  15. A breeding site model for regional, dynamical malaria simulations evaluated using in situ temporary ponds observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest O. Asare; Adrian M. Tompkins; Leonard K. Amekudzi; Volker Ermert

    2016-01-01

    Daily observations of potential mosquito developmental habitats in a suburb of Kumasi in central Ghana reveal a strong variability in their water persistence times, which ranged between 11 and 81 days. The persistence of the ponds was strongly tied with rainfall, location and size of the puddles. A simple power-law relationship is found to fit the relationship between the average pond depth and area well. A prognostic water balance model is derived that describes the temporal evolution of the...

  16. Assessing GOCE Gravity Models using Altimetry and In-situ Ocean Current Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Honecker, Johanna

    gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features and the associated geostrophic surface currents reveal improvements for all of the ocean's current systems. In this study, a series of 23 newer gravity models including observations from...... as quantified quality measures associated with the 23 GOCE gravity models.......The Gravity and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth's gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. Previous results have demonstrated a significant advance in our ability to determine the ocean's general circulation. The improved...

  17. In-situ observations of young contrails – overview and selected results from the CONCERT campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Voigt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lineshaped contrails were detected with the research aircraft Falcon during the CONCERT – CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT – campaign in October/November 2008. The Falcon was equipped with a set of instruments to measure the particle size distribution, shape, extinction and chemical composition as well as trace gas mixing ratios of sulfur dioxide (SO2, reactive nitrogen and halogen species (NO, NOy, HNO3, HONO, HCl, ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO. During 12 mission flights over Europe, numerous contrails, cirrus clouds and a volcanic aerosol layer were probed at altitudes between 8.5 and 11.6 km and at temperatures above 213 K. 22 contrails from 11 different aircraft were observed near and below ice saturation. The observed NO mixing ratios, ice crystal and soot number densities are compared to a process based contrail model. On 19 November 2008 the contrail from a CRJ-2 aircraft was penetrated in 10.1 km altitude at a temperature of 221 K. The contrail had mean ice crystal number densities of 125 cm−3 with effective radii reff of 2.6 μm. The presence of particles with r>50 μm in the less than 2 min old contrail suggests that natural cirrus crystals were entrained in the contrail. Mean HONO/NO (HONO/NOy ratios of 0.037 (0.024 and the fuel sulfur conversion efficiency to H2SO4S of 2.9 % observed in the CRJ-2 contrail are in the range of previous measurements in the gaseous aircraft exhaust. On 31 October 2010 aviation NO emissions could have contributed by more than 40% to the regional scale NO levels in the mid-latitude lowest stratosphere. The CONCERT observations help to better quantify the climate impact from contrails and will be used to investigate the chemical processing of trace gases on contrails.

  18. In Situ Observation of Intermittent Dissipation at Kinetic Scales in the Earth's Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Wan, M.; Haggerty, C. C.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Paterson, W. R.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Moore, T. E.; Ergun, R. E.; Burch, J. L.

    2018-03-01

    We present a study of signatures of energy dissipation at kinetic scales in plasma turbulence based on observations by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) in the Earth’s magnetosheath. Using several intervals, and taking advantage of the high-resolution instrumentation on board MMS, we compute and discuss several statistical measures of coherent structures and heating associated with electrons, at previously unattainable scales in space and time. We use the multi-spacecraft Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) technique to study the intermittent structure of the magnetic field. Furthermore, we examine a measure of dissipation and its behavior with respect to the PVI as well as the current density. Additionally, we analyze the evolution of the anisotropic electron temperature and non-Maxwellian features of the particle distribution function. From these diagnostics emerges strong statistical evidence that electrons are preferentially heated in subproton-scale regions of strong electric current density, and this heating is preferentially in the parallel direction relative to the local magnetic field. Accordingly, the conversion of magnetic energy into electron kinetic energy occurs more strongly in regions of stronger current density, a finding consistent with several kinetic plasma simulation studies and hinted at by prior studies using lower resolution Cluster observations.

  19. Development of gridded solar radiation data over Belgium based on Meteosat and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journée, Michel; Vanderveken, Gilles; Bertrand, Cédric

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge on solar resources is highly important for all forms of solar energy applications. With the recent development in solar-based technologies national meteorological services are faced with increasing demands for high-quality and reliable site-time specific solar resource information. Traditionally, solar radiation is observed by means of networks of meteorological stations. Costs for installation and maintenance of such networks are very high and national networks comprise only few stations. Consequently the availability of ground-based solar radiation measurements has proven to be spatially and temporally inadequate for many applications. To overcome such a limitation, a major effort has been undertaken at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI) to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information on the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface over the Belgian territory. Only space-based observations can deliver a global coverage of the solar irradiation impinging on horizontal surface at the ground level. Because only geostationary data allow to capture the diurnal cycle of the solar irradiance at the Earth's surface, a method that combines information from Meteosat Second Generation satellites and ground-measurement has been implemented at RMI to generate high resolution solar products over Belgium on an operational basis. Besides these new products, the annual and seasonal variability of solar energy resource was evaluated, solar radiation climate zones were defined and the recent trend in solar radiation was characterized.

  20. Synoptic maps of solar wind parameters from in situ spacecraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1995-01-01

    Solar wind observations from the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-8 (IMP-8) and Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) spacecraft from 1982 until 1988 are combined to construct synoptic maps of solar wind parameters near 1 AU. Each map consists of 6 months of hourly averaged solar wind data, binned by heliographic latitude and Carrington longitude and projected back to the Sun. These maps show the structure and time evolution of solar wind streams near 1 AU in the heliographic latitudes of +/- 7.25 deg and provide and explicit picture of several phenomena, such as gradients, changes in the inclination of the heliospheric current sheet, and the relative positions of various structures in the inner heliosphere, that is difficult to obtain from single-spacecraft observations. The stream structure varied significantly during the last solar cycle. Between 1982 and early 1985, solar wind parameters did not depend strongly on heliographic latitude. During the last solar minimum, the solar wind developed significant latitudinal structure, and high-speed streams were excluded from the vicinity of the solar equator. The interplanetary magnetic field was strongly correlated with the coronal field, and the current sheet tended to coincide with the coronal neutral line. The solar wind speed showed the expected correlations with temperature, interplanetary magnetic field, and distance from the current sheet. The solar wind speed was anticorrelated with density, but the regions of highest density occurred east of the heliospheric current sheet and the regions of lowest solar wind speed. This is consistent with compression at the leading edge of high-speed streams.

  1. In Situ SEM Observations of Fracture Behavior of Laser Welded-Brazed Al/Steel Dissimilar Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongbo; Tan, Caiwang; Li, Liqun; Ma, Ninshu

    2018-03-01

    Laser welding-brazing of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy to DP590 dual-phase steel with Al-Si12 flux-cored filler wire was performed. The microstructure at the brazing interface was characterized. Fracture behavior was observed and analyzed by in situ scanning electron microscope. The microstructure of the brazing interface showed that inhomogeneous intermetallic compounds formed along the thickness direction, which had a great influence on the crack initiation and propagation. In the top region, the reaction layer at the interface consisted of scattered needle-like Fe(Al,Si)3 and serration-shaped Fe1.8Al7.2Si. In the middle region, the compound at the interface was only serration-shaped Fe1.8Al7.2Si. In the bottom region, the interface was composed of lamellar-shaped Fe1.8Al7.2Si. The cracks were first detected in the bottom region and propagated from bottom to top along the interface. At the bottom region, the crack initiated and propagated along the Fe1.8Al7.2Si/weld seam interface during the in situ tensile test. When the crack propagated into the middle region, a deflection of crack propagation appeared. The crack first propagated along the steel/Fe1.8Al7.2Si interface and then moved along the weld seam until the failure of the joint. The tensile strength of the joint was 146.5 MPa. Some micro-cracks were detected at Fe(Al,Si)3 and the interface between the steel substrate and Fe(Al,Si)3 in the top region while the interface was still connected.

  2. Comparison of continuous in situ CO2 observations at Jungfraujoch using two different measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibig, M. F.; Steinbacher, M.; Buchmann, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Laan, S.; Ranjan, S.; Leuenberger, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is being measured at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch by the division of Climate and Environmental Physics at the University of Bern (KUP) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer (NDIR) in combination with a paramagnetic O2 analyzer. In January 2010, CO2 measurements based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) as part of the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network were added by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa). To ensure a smooth transition - a prerequisite when merging two data sets, e.g., for trend determinations - the two measurement systems run in parallel for several years. Such a long-term intercomparison also allows the identification of potential offsets between the two data sets and the collection of information about the compatibility of the two systems on different time scales. A good agreement of the seasonality, short-term variations and, to a lesser extent mainly due to the short common period, trend calculations is observed. However, the comparison reveals some issues related to the stability of the calibration gases of the KUP system and their assigned CO2 mole fraction. It is possible to adapt an improved calibration strategy based on standard gas determinations, which leads to better agreement between the two data sets. By excluding periods with technical problems and bad calibration gas cylinders, the average hourly difference (CRDS - NDIR) of the two systems is -0.03 ppm ± 0.25 ppm. Although the difference of the two data sets is in line with the compatibility goal of ±0.1 ppm of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the standard deviation is still too high. A significant part of this uncertainty originates from the necessity to switch the KUP system frequently (every 12 min) for 6 min from ambient air to a working gas in order to correct short-term variations of the O2 measurement system. Allowing additional time for

  3. Comparison of continuous in-situ CO2 observations at Jungfraujoch using two different measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibig, M. F.; Steinbacher, M.; Buchmann, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Laan, S.; Ranjan, S.; Leuenberger, M. C.

    2014-07-01

    Since 2004, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is measured at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch by the division of Climate and Environmental Physics at the University of Bern (KUP) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer (NDIR) in combination with a paramagnetic O2 analyzer. In January 2010, CO2 measurements based on cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) as part of the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network have been added by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa). To ensure a smooth transition - a prerequisite when merging two datasets e.g. for trend determinations - the two measurement systems run in parallel for several years. Such a long-term intercomparison also allows identifying potential offsets between the two datasets and getting information about the compatibility of the two systems on different time scales. A good agreement of the seasonality as well as for the short-term variations was observed and to a lesser extent for trend calculations mainly due to the short common period. However, the comparison revealed some issues related to the stability of the calibration gases of the KUP system and their assigned CO2 mole fraction. It was possible to adapt an improved calibration strategy based on standard gas determinations, which lead to better agreement between the two data sets. By excluding periods with technical problems and bad calibration gas cylinders, the average hourly difference (CRDS - NDIR) of the two systems is -0.03 ppm ± 0.25 ppm. Although the difference of the two datasets is in line with the compatibility goal of ±0.1 ppm of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the standard deviation is still too high. A significant part of this uncertainty originates from the necessity to switch the KUP system frequently (every 12 min) for 6 min from ambient air to a working gas in order to correct short-term variations of the O2 measurement system. Allowing additionally for signal

  4. Abnormal gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water observed with in situ environmental SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Shu, Jiapei; Chen, Qing

    2017-04-24

    Gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water is studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Abnormal phenomena are observed. At a fixed pressure of 450 Pa, with the temperature set to -7 °C, direct desublimation happens, and ice grows continuously along the substrate surface. At 550 Pa, although ice is the stable phase according to the phase diagram, metastable liquid droplets first nucleate and grow to ~100-200 μm sizes. Ice crystals nucleate within the large sized droplets, grow up and fill up the droplets. Later, the ice crystals grow continuously through desublimation. At 600 Pa, the metastable liquid grows quickly, with some ice nuclei floating in it, and the liquid-solid coexistence state exists for a long time. By lowering the vapour pressure and/or increasing the substrate temperature, ice sublimates into vapour phase, and especially, the remaining ice forms a porous structure due to preferential sublimation in the concave regions, which can be explained with surface tension effect. Interestingly, although it should be forbidden for ice to transform into liquid phase when the temperature is well below 0 °C, liquid like droplets form during the ice sublimation process, which is attributed to the surface tension effect and the quasiliquid layers.

  5. Tracking Filament Evolution in the Low Solar Corona Using Remote Sensing and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Manan; Landi, Enrico; Lepri, Susan. T.

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, we analyze a filament eruption associated with an interplanetary coronal mass ejection that arrived at L1 on 2011 August 5. In multiwavelength Solar Dynamic Observatory/Advanced Imaging Assembly (AIA) images, three plasma parcels within the filament were tracked at high cadence along the solar corona. A novel absorption diagnostic technique was applied to the filament material traveling along the three chosen trajectories to compute the column density and temperature evolution in time. Kinematics of the filamentary material were estimated using STEREO/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager and STEREO/COR1 observations. The Michigan Ionization Code used inputs of these density, temperature, and speed profiles for the computation of ionization profiles of the filament plasma. Based on these measurements, we conclude that the core plasma was in near ionization equilibrium, and the ionization states were still evolving at the altitudes where they were visible in absorption in AIA images. Additionally, we report that the filament plasma was heterogeneous, and the filamentary material was continuously heated as it expanded in the low solar corona.

  6. A breeding site model for regional, dynamical malaria simulations evaluated using in situ temporary ponds observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest O. Asare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily observations of potential mosquito developmental habitats in a suburb of Kumasi in central Ghana reveal a strong variability in their water persistence times, which ranged between 11 and 81 days. The persistence of the ponds was strongly tied with rainfall, location and size of the puddles. A simple power-law relationship is found to fit the relationship between the average pond depth and area well. A prognostic water balance model is derived that describes the temporal evolution of the pond area and depth, incorporating the power-law geometrical relation. Pond area increases in response to rainfall, while evaporation and infiltration act as sink terms. Based on a range of evaluation metrics, the prognostic model is judged to provide a good representation of the pond coverage evolution at most sites. Finally, we demonstrate that the prognostic equation can be generalised and equally applied to a grid-cell to derive a fractional pond coverage, and thus can be implemented in spatially distributed models for relevant vector- borne diseases such as malaria.

  7. A breeding site model for regional, dynamical malaria simulations evaluated using in situ temporary ponds observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Ernest O; Tompkins, Adrian M; Amekudzi, Leonard K; Ermert, Volker

    2016-03-31

    Daily observations of potential mosquito developmental habitats in a suburb of Kumasi in central Ghana reveal a strong variability in their water persistence times, which ranged between 11 and 81 days. The persistence of the ponds was strongly tied with rainfall, location and size of the puddles. A simple power-law relationship is found to fit the relationship between the average pond depth and area well. A prognostic water balance model is derived that describes the temporal evolution of the pond area and depth, incorporating the power-law geometrical relation. Pond area increases in response to rainfall, while evaporation and infiltration act as sink terms. Based on a range of evaluation metrics, the prognostic model is judged to provide a good representation of the pond coverage evolution at most sites. Finally, we demonstrate that the prognostic equation can be generalised and equally applied to a grid-cell to derive a fractional pond coverage, and thus can be implemented in spatially distributed models for relevant vector- borne diseases such as malaria.

  8. In-situ observation and transport modelling of arsenic in Gangetic plain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Gupta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to investigate the arsenic movement and impacts on the residual concentrations on groundwater pollution load. The Gangetic plain area in the Ballia, Uttar Pradesh is selected as study area, which is also reported to extreme arsenic pollution in soil-water system. A modelling approach is developed to assess the arsenic flux in partially saturated zone using data of soil texture, soil hydraulic properties and stratigraphy. Soil type, slope, and land-use cover is considered for estimating the transient flux at the top boundary from daily precipitation and evapotranspiration data of the study area. Solute transport in the subsurface is predicted by the mass transfer equation, which is derived by integrating Darcy's law with the equation of mass balance. The arsenic profiles of varying hydrogeological conditions associated with different locations in the study area are presented as breakthrough curves. The results shows that the arsenic transport is dominated by the advective flux and strongly depends on the soil-moisture flow conditions. Which may increases the arsenic load to underlaying groundwater resources. The simulated results suggest that mobility plays a vital role arsenic transport as well as on adsorbed arsenic concentration in subsurface. Likewise, the adsorption isotherms show that the high peak curve for Bairai and low at Sikarderpur. A higher pollution risk is observed in the Belthara Road, whereas a lower vulnerability is computed in the north and northeast regions. This study can help in strategising sustainable groundwater management and protection planning of identified regions of India. Keywords: Arsenic transport, Adsorption, Subsurface, Sustainable groundwater management

  9. An Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, David F.; Ott, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    About one-half of the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two sinks, and their location and year-to-year variability are, however, not well understood. We use two different approaches, batch Bayesian synthesis inversion and variational data assimilation, to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. One of our objectives is to assess different sources of uncertainties in inferred fluxes, including uncertainties in prior flux estimates and observations, and differences in inversion techniques. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes and uncertainties from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates and two sets of fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Here, our inversions incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, filtered and bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals for the batch inversion and at 3 x 3.75 weekly for the variational system. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived consistently for the two inversion systems using the PCTM atmospheric transport model driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We compare the posterior fluxes and uncertainties derived using different data sets and the two inversion approaches, and evaluate the posterior atmospheric concentrations against independent data including aircraft measurements. The optimized fluxes generally resemble those from other studies. For example, the results indicate that the terrestrial biosphere is a net CO2 sink, and a GOSAT-only inversion suggests a shift in

  10. Deep and surface circulation in the Northwest Indian Ocean from Argo, surface drifter, and in situ profiling current observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, S. A.; Dimarco, S. F.; Stoessel, M. M.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The northwest Indian Ocean is a region of complex circulation and atmospheric influence. The Persian (Arabian) Gulf and Red Sea contribute toward the complexity of the region. This study encompasses the surface and deep circulation in the region ranging from 0°N-35°N and 40°E-80°E from January 2002-December 2009. Emphasis is in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea (roughly from 21°N-26°N and 56°E-63°E) using a variety of in situ and observation data sets. While there is a lot known about the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, little is known about the Oman Sea. Circulation in the northwest Indian Ocean is largely influenced by seasonal monsoon winds. From the winter monsoon to the summer monsoon, current direction reverses. Marginal sea inflow and outflow are also seasonally variable, which greatly impacts the physical water mass properties in the region. In situ and observation data sets include data from Argo floats (US GODAE), surface drifters (AOML) and an observation system consisting of 4 independent moorings and a cabled ocean observatory in the Oman Sea. The observing system in the Oman Sea was installed by Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. beginning in 2005, and measures current, temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and turbidity, using the Aanderaa Recording Doppler Current Profiler (RDCP) 600 and the Aanderaa Recording Current Meter (RCM) 11. The cabled ocean observatory measures dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity between 65 m and 1000 m and reports in real-time. Argo floats in the region have a parking depth range from 500 m to 2000 m. At 1000 m depth, 98% of the velocity magnitudes range from less than 1 cm/s to 20 cm/s. The Somali Current and Northeast/Southwest Monsoon Currents are present, reversing from summer to winter. At 2000 m depth, the Somali and Monsoon Currents are still present but have smaller velocities with 98% ranging from less than 1 cm/s to 13 cm/s. At both 1000 m and 2000 m, larger velocities occur

  11. Characterization of Ice and Snow In-Situ Properties During the Main Weather Regimes Observed in The Olympic Mountain Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borque, P.; Finlon, J.; Nesbitt, S. W.; McFarquhar, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from the Olympic Mountain Experiment (OLYMPEX) present a unique opportunity to analyze a vast catalogue of in-situ microphysical information over a variety of mid-latitude precipitation types. Data collected by the Citation Research Aircraft was processed using the University of Illinois/Oklahoma Optical Array Probe Processing Software to give not only bulk cloud properties (e.g., total number concentration, ice water content (IWC), and parameters describing gamma fits to observed size distributions) but also particle-by-particle properties (e.g., aspect ratio, perimeter, and projected area). In this work, we analyzed these properties in association with the different processes (e.g., aggregation, riming and accretion) occurring under the three main weather sectors (warm, prefrontal, and postfrontal) present over the OLYMPEX region. Bulk and particle properties present statistically different characteristics over the different sectors of the weather system analyzed. For example, the IWC over the warm sector presents a bimodal distribution with the primary maximum present at 0.055 g m-3 and a secondary maximum at 0.235 g m-3; whereas over the postfrontal sector the IWC has a unique maximum at 0.005 g m-3. The higher frequency of occurrence of mass-weighted mean crystal diameter (Dm) occurs at 1.57mm for the warm sector and 0.125mm for the postfrontal sector. In summary, the warm sector is characterized by large IWC, large Dm, shape parameter of the gamma distribution (μ) close to zero, and lighter particles (following a simple mass-diameter relation), all consistent with aggregation being the dominant process. In contrast, observations from the postfrontal sector show smaller IWCs, smaller Dm, negative μ, and heavier particles, all consistent with rimed particles dominating the region. Evidence for this was also seen with particle images from the in-situ probes showing large aggregates present in the warm sector and rimed particles in the postfrontal

  12. Observations of El Niño impacts using in situ GLOBE protocols and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Destaerke, D.

    2015-12-01

    The El Niño phenomenon is a periodic ocean condition that occurs every two to ten years in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific Ocean. It alters the normal patterns of ocean circulation, surface temperature, and evaporation, causing noticeable and often severe changes in weather conditions in many areas of the world. El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and usually reaches its peak between December and February time period. El Niño and its worldwide consequences are studied by the school network of the GLOBE Program (www.globe.gov) which brings together students, teachers, and scientists in support of student research and validation of international Earth science research projects. Since the start of the GLOBE Program over 20 years ago, GLOBE classrooms utilize carefully developed daily, weekly, or seasonally protocols such as maximum, minimum and current temperatures, rainfall, soil moisture, and others, to measure changes in the environment. The data collected by the students is entered in an online GLOBE database. In addition to the student-contributed data, automated stations also collect and send measurements to the GLOBE database.Students compare their data with global data acquired by satellites to help validate the satellite data. With a potentially historic-level El Niño event thought to be on the horizon--possibly one of the strongest in 50 years—we will propose an emphasis on measurements from GLOBE schools that will support studies and satellite observations of El Niño. We plan to provide the schools with additional satellite data sets such as ocean temperature measurements from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), sea surface elevation measurements from Jason-2 and 3 (after it launches), and others to be identified. We wish to address and support the following educational objectives: - Demonstrate how El Niño affects local precipitation and temperature across the globe, - Link teachers

  13. Development of in-situ observation system of dynamic contact interface between dies and materials during microforming operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Tetsuhide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of diamond like carbon (DLC films are reported in several microforming processes, in view of its great tribological performance owe to the low friction and the high chemical stability. However, due to its high internal residual stress, the film properties with the low adhesion strength and the high wear rate under severe tribological conditions are still remain as technical issues. However, since the dynamic variation of the contact state cannot be observed during the forming operation, it is difficult to recognize the origin and the influential tribological factors of tool life for DLC coated microforming die. Therefore, the appropriate DLC film properties for the contact state in microforming operation have not been clarified. To observe the dynamic variation of the contact state during the microforming operation, present study developed a novel microforming die assembly installed the in-situ observation system with silica glass die and high speed recording camera. By using this system, the dynamic delamination behaviour of DLC films during the progressive micro-bending process was successfully demonstrated. The influential factors for the durability of DLC coated microdies were discussed.

  14. In situ observation of D-rich carbonaceous globules embedded in NWA 801 CR2 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Minako; Kobayashi, Sachio; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2013-12-01

    Eighty-five D-rich carbonaceous particles were identified in the matrix of the NWA 801 CR2 chondrite using isotope microscopy. The occurrence of 67 D-rich carbonaceous particles was characterized using secondary electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental mapping. The close association of H and C, and D-enrichment suggests that the D-rich carbonaceous particles correspond to organic matter. The D-rich organic particles were scattered ubiquitously throughout the matrix at a concentration of approximately 660 ppm. The morphology of the D-rich carbonaceous particles is globular up to about 1 μm in diameter and is classified into four types: ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates. The ring globules are ring-shaped organic matter containing silicate and/or oxide, with or without a void in the center. This is the first report of silicate and oxide grains surrounded by D-rich organic matter. The globule aggregates are composed of several D-rich organic globules mixed with silicates. Morphology of ring globules is very similar to core-mantle grain produced in the molecular cloud or in the outer solar nebula inferring by astronomy, suggesting that the organic globules have formed by UV photolysis in the ice mantle. Silicates or oxides attached to D-rich organic globules are the first observation among chondrites so far and may be unique nature of CR2 chondrites. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates are δD = 3000-4800, 2900-8100, 2700-11,000, and 2500-11,000‰, respectively. Variations of D/H ratio of these organic globules seemed to be attributed to variations of D/H ratio of the organic radicals or differences of content of the D-rich organic radicals. There are no significant differences in the hydrogen isotopic compositions among the four types of D-rich carbonaceous matter. The D-enrichments suggest that these organic globules have

  15. EVIDENCE OF THE SOLAR EUV HOT CHANNEL AS A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FROM REMOTE-SENSING AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONG, H. Q.; CHEN, Y.; Wang, B. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); ZHANG, J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); CHENG, X. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); HU, Q.; LI, G. [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); WANG, Y. M., E-mail: hqsong@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-07-20

    Hot channels (HCs), high-temperature erupting structures in the lower corona of the Sun, have been proposed as a proxy of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) since their initial discovery. However, it is difficult to provide definitive proof given the fact that there is no direct measurement of the magnetic field in the corona. An alternative method is to use the magnetic field measurement in the solar wind from in situ instruments. On 2012 July 12, an HC was observed prior to and during a coronal mass ejection (CME) by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly high-temperature images. The HC is invisible in the EUVI low-temperature images, which only show the cooler leading front (LF). However, both the LF and an ejecta can be observed in the coronagraphic images. These are consistent with the high temperature and high density of the HC and support that the ejecta is the erupted HC. Meanwhile, the associated CME shock was identified ahead of the ejecta and the sheath through the COR2 images, and the corresponding ICME was detected by the Advanced Composition Explorer, showing the shock, sheath, and magnetic cloud (MC) sequentially, which agrees with the coronagraphic observations. Further, the MC average Fe charge state is elevated, containing a relatively low-ionization-state center and a high-ionization-state shell, consistent with the preexisting HC observation and its growth through magnetic reconnection. All of these observations support that the MC detected near the Earth is the counterpart of the erupted HC in the corona for this event. The study provides strong observational evidence of the HC as an MFR.

  16. Evidence of the Solar EUV Hot Channel as a Magnetic Flux Rope from Remote-sensing and in situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H.

    2015-12-01

    Hot channels (HCs), high-temperature erupting structures in the lower corona of the Sun, have been proposed as a proxy of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) since their initial discovery. However, it is difficult to provide definitive proof given the fact that there is no direct measurement of the magnetic field in the corona. An alternative method is to use the magnetic field measurement in the solar wind from in situ instruments. On 2012 July 12, an HC was observed prior to and during a coronal mass ejection (CME) by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly high-temperature images. The HC is invisible in the EUVI low-temperature images, which only show the cooler leading front (LF). However, both the LF and an ejecta can be observed in the coronagraphic images. These are consistent with the high temperature and high density of the HC and support that the ejecta is the erupted HC. Meanwhile, the associated CME shock was identified ahead of the ejecta and the sheath through the COR2 images, and the corresponding ICME was detected by the Advanced Composition Explorer, showing the shock, sheath, and magnetic cloud (MC) sequentially, which agrees with the coronagraphic observations. Further, the MC average Fe charge state is elevated, containing a relatively low-ionization-state center and a high-ionization-state shell, consistent with the preexisting HC observation and its growth through magnetic reconnection. All of these observations support that the MC detected near the Earth is the counterpart of the erupted HC in the corona for this event. The study provides strong observational evidence of the HC as an MFR.

  17. Sol-to-Gel Transition in Fast Evaporating Systems Observed by in Situ Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, Plinio; Malfatti, Luca; Carboni, Davide; Takahashi, Masahide

    2015-06-22

    The in situ observation of a sol-to-gel transition in fast evaporating systems is a challenging task and the lack of a suitable experimental design, which includes the chemistry and the analytical method, has limited the observations. We synthesise an acidic sol, employing only tetraethylorthosilicate, SiCl4 as catalyst and deuterated water; the absence of water added to the sol allows us to follow the absorption from the external environment and the evaporation of deuterated water. The time-resolved data, obtained by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy on an evaporating droplet, enables us to identify four different stages during evaporation. They are linked to specific hydrolysis and condensation rates that affect the uptake of water from external environment. The second stage is characterized by a decrease in hydroxyl content, a fast rise of condensation rate and an almost stationary absorption of water. This stage has been associated with the sol-to-gel transition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. An in situ hand calibration method using a pseudo-observation scheme for low-end inertial measurement units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, You; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang

    2012-01-01

    MEMS chips have become ideal candidates for various applications since they are small sized, light weight, have low power consumption and are extremely low cost and reliable. However, the performance of MEMS sensors, especially their biases and scale factors, is highly dependent on environmental conditions such as temperature. Thus a quick and convenient calibration is needed to be conducted by users in field without any external equipment or any expert knowledge of calibration. A novel and efficient in situ hand calibration method is presented to meet these demands in this paper. The algorithm of the proposed calibration method makes use of the navigation algorithm of the loosely-coupled GPS/INS integrated systems, but replaces the GPS observations with a kind of pseudo-observations, which can be stated as follows: if an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was rotating approximately around its measurement center, the range of its position and its linear velocity both would be within a limited scope. Using a Kalman filtering algorithm, the biases and scale factors of both accelerometer triad and gyroscope triad can be calibrated together within a short period (about 30 s), requiring only motions by hands. Real test results show that the proposed method is suitable for most consumer grade MEMS IMUs due to its zero cost, easy operation and sufficient accuracy. (paper)

  19. Building capacity for in-situ phenological observation data to support integrated biodiversity information at local to national scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Earth observations from a variety of platforms and across a range of scales are required to support research, natural resource management, and policy- and decision-making in a changing world. Integrated earth observation data provides multi-faceted information critical to decision support, vulnerability and change detection, risk assessments, early warning and modeling, simulation and forecasting in the natural resource societal benefit area. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is a national-scale science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology - the study of seasonal life-cycle events such as leafing, flowering, reproduction, and migration - as a tool to understand the response of biodiversity to environmental variation and change. USA-NPN provides a hierarchical, national monitoring framework that enables other organizations to leverage the capacity of the Network for their own applications - minimizing investment and duplication of effort - while promoting interoperability and sustainability. Over the last decade, the network has focused on the development of a centralized database for in-situ (ground based) observations of plants and animals, now with 8 M records for the period 1954-present. More recently, we have developed a workflow for the production and validation of spatially gridded phenology products based on models that couple the organismal data with climatological and meteorological data at daily time-steps and relatively fine spatial resolutions ( 2.5 km to 4 km). These gridded data are now ripe for integration with other modeled or earth observation gridded data, e.g., indices of drought impact or land surface reflectance. This greatly broadens capacity to scale organismal observational data to landscapes and regions, and enables novel investigations of biophysical interactions at unprecedented scales, e.g., continental-scale migrations. Sustainability emerges from identification of stakeholder needs, segmentation of

  20. Forest-Observation-System.net - towards a global in-situ data repository for biomass datasets validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepashchenko, D.; Chave, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Davies, S. J.; Lewis, S. L.; Perger, C.; Dresel, C.; Fritz, S.; Scipal, K.

    2017-12-01

    Forest monitoring is high on the scientific and political agenda. Global measurements of forest height, biomass and how they change with time are urgently needed as essential climate and ecosystem variables. The Forest Observation System - FOS (http://forest-observation-system.net/) is an international cooperation to establish a global in-situ forest biomass database to support earth observation and to encourage investment in relevant field-based observations and science. FOS aims to link the Remote Sensing (RS) community with ecologists who measure forest biomass and estimating biodiversity in the field for a common benefit. The benefit of FOS for the RS community is the partnering of the most established teams and networks that manage permanent forest plots globally; to overcome data sharing issues and introduce a standard biomass data flow from tree level measurement to the plot level aggregation served in the most suitable form for the RS community. Ecologists benefit from the FOS with improved access to global biomass information, data standards, gap identification and potential improved funding opportunities to address the known gaps and deficiencies in the data. FOS closely collaborate with the Center for Tropical Forest Science -CTFS-ForestGEO, the ForestPlots.net (incl. RAINFOR, AfriTRON and T-FORCES), AusCover, Tropical managed Forests Observatory and the IIASA network. FOS is an open initiative with other networks and teams most welcome to join. The online database provides open access for both metadata (e.g. who conducted the measurements, where and which parameters) and actual data for a subset of plots where the authors have granted access. A minimum set of database values include: principal investigator and institution, plot coordinates, number of trees, forest type and tree species composition, wood density, canopy height and above ground biomass of trees. Plot size is 0.25 ha or large. The database will be essential for validating and calibrating

  1. Preparation and observation of an artifact-free Ge2Sb2Te5 TEM specimen by the small angle cleavage technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.S.; Kim, H.G.

    2006-01-01

    The amorphous Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin film for the application to the non-volatile memory device was prepared by the pulsed laser deposition on a SiO2/Si substrate. The amorphous Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 which has the T C around 150 deg. C is readily crystallized when exposed to a comparable heat such as the Ar beam irradiation during the conventional ion milling process. Retaining its amorphous initial phase is important in order to precisely observe and understand the crystallization behaviour whether it be the sample for a pure materialistic research or applied into the device. To avoid such deterioration of the film's amorphous nature, the complete mechanical TEM specimen preparation which is called the small angle cleavage technique (SACT) was adopted to show thermally undisturbed, an artifact-free amorphous Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 TEM specimen. The two distinctive amorphous and crystalline phases has been observed by the HRTEM study

  2. Comparison of atmospheric CH4 concentration observed by GOSAT and in-situ measurements in Thailand and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, S.; Ono, A.; Ishikawa, S.; Terao, Y.; Takeuchi, W.

    2012-12-01

    The concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4) has more than doubled since pre-industrial levels and the observed long-term changes in the CH4 concentration have been attributed to anthropogenic activity. However, despite the importance of atmospheric CH4 in global warming, the strength of individual sources of CH4 remains highly uncertain [e.g.,Dlugokencky et al., 2011]. To characterize and quantify the emissions of CH4 especially in Monsoon Asia and Siberia, which are the most important regions as CH4 source, we started a new project, "Characterization and Quantification of global methane emissions by utilizing GOSAT and in-situ measurements " by support of the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (ERTDF) from June 2012 under the umbrella of Ministry of Environment Japan. The projects includes (1) satellite data applications, (2) in-situ measurements in Siberia, over Western Pacific and in Monsoon Asia, (3) development of the inverse model to derive CH4 emissions by top-down approach, and (4) flux measurements in Siberia and Asia to improve the bottom-up inventories. As an initiatory approach in the project, we started air sampling in Thailand and India where there are only a few CH4 data of direct sampling with high precision. We took eight air samples at Kohn Kaen and Pimai in Thailand on June 9 and 10, 2012. The high CH4 concentration near rice paddy field contrasted to the lower CH4 concentration near Cassava field. We are planning to take more samples in India in mid-August. The satellite CH4 data including GOSAT and SCIAMACHY are also compared with the Land Surface Water Coverage (LSWC) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The analysis revealed the seasonal variation in of xCH4 is closely related to the variation of the LSWC, coupled with NDVI. However, the satellite measurements are all column-averaged mixing ratio (xCH4), and therefore do not necessarily reflect high CH4 concentration near the surface over the emission

  3. Of reef fishes, overfishing and in situ observations of fish traps in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Beets, J.

    1998-01-01

    Fishing with a variety of methods and gears, including traps, is allowed within the waters of Virgin Islands National Park (St. 10hn, U.S. Virgin Islands). Randall's 1 9 6 1 observation of the effects of overushing in nearshore waters off Sto John has been followed by three and a half decades of reports documenting the declining reef fish catch in the Virgin Islands and much of the Caribbean. To assess the state of the trap fishery in St. John waters, traps set by fishers were visually censused in situ in 1992, 1993 and 1994 both inside and outside park waters. Fifty-nine species of fishes representing 23 families and 1340 individuals were identified from 285 traps set in five habitat types (coral reef, octocoral hard-bottom, seagrass beds, algal plains and non-living substrate). The greatest number of observed traps were in algal plain (31%) and gorgonian habitat (27%), pointing to greater exploitation of deeper, non­ coral habitats. Coral habitat accounted for the most species trapped (41), whereas the mean number of fishes per trap was highest in algal plain (5.7, se=0.6). Six species made up 51% of all fish observed in traps. The Acanthuridae was the most abundant family. Species composition and number of fishes per trap were similar inside and outside park waters. Scarids and serranids were more frequently observed in traps inside the park. Between 1992 and 1994. patterns in the data emerged: smaller numbers of fish per trap; shifts to smaller size classes; fewer serranids, lutjanids, sparids, and balistids, and all feeding guilds except herbivores per trap; more acanthurids per trap. Compared with other trap data from the Virgin Islands and the Caribbean - Florida region, the mean number of fish and biomass per St. John trap are low, serranid numbers are low, and acanthurid and herbivore numbers are high. The reef-associated fishes of St. John appear to be overexploited.

  4. Validation of satellite-derived tropical cyclone heat potential with in situ observations in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagamani, P.V.; Ali, M.M.; Goni, G.J.; Dinezio, P.N.; Pezzullo, J.C.; UdayaBhaskar, T.V.S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Nisha, K.

    validation with in situ estimations for quantification of their reliability and consistency. Once the validation has been carried out, the satellite-derived TCHP values with their improved tempo- ral and spatial properties can be conveniently used...

  5. Real-Time Observation of Platinum Redispersion on Ceria-Based Oxide by In-situ Turbo-XAS in Fluorescence Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasutaka; Dohmae, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Toshitaka; Shinjoh, Hirofumi; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yasuo; Guilera, Gemma; Pascarelli, Sakura; Newton, Mark; Matsumoto, Shin'ichi

    2007-01-01

    A real-time observation of the redispersion behavior of sintered Pt on ceria-based oxide was made possible by in-situ time-resolved Turbo-XAS in fluorescence mode. 2 wt% Pt/Ce-Zr-Y mixed oxide samples were prepared, and then treated under an aging condition. The average Pt particle size measured by CO absorption method after aging was 7 nm. Redispersion treatments of the previously aged catalyst were carried out at 600 deg. C within an in-situ XAS cell in a cyclical flow of reducing/oxidizing gases. Pt L3-edge XANES spectra were collected every 1.1 second under in-situ conditions. From a change in the XANES spectra, we observed that the Pt particle size of the aged catalyst decreased from 7 to 5 nm after 60 seconds and then to 3 nm after 1000 seconds

  6. A web portal for accessing, viewing and comparing in situ observations, EO products and model output data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Aleksander; Hamre, Torill; Lygre, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    The GreenSeas project (Development of global plankton data base and model system for eco-climate early warning) aims to advance the knowledge and predictive capacities of how marine ecosystems will respond to global change. A main task has been to set up a data delivery and monitoring core service following the open and free data access policy implemented in the Global Monitoring for the Environment and Security (GMES) programme. A key feature of the system is its ability to compare data from different datasets, including an option to upload one's own netCDF files. The user can for example search in an in situ database for different variables (like temperature, salinity, different elements, light, specific plankton types or rate measurements) with different criteria (bounding box, date/time, depth, Longhurst region, cruise/transect) and compare the data with model data. The user can choose model data or Earth observation data from a list, or upload his/her own netCDF files to use in the comparison. The data can be visualized on a map, as graphs and plots (e.g. time series and property-property plots), or downloaded in various formats. The aim is to ensure open and free access to historical plankton data, new data (EO products and in situ measurements), model data (including estimates of simulation error) and biological, environmental and climatic indicators to a range of stakeholders, such as scientists, policy makers and environmental managers. We have implemented a web-based GIS(Geographical Information Systems) system and want to demonstrate the use of this. The tool is designed for a wide range of users: Novice users, who want a simple way to be able to get basic information about the current state of the marine planktonic ecosystem by utilizing predefined queries and comparisons with models. Intermediate level users who want to explore the database on their own and customize the prefedined setups. Advanced users who want to perform complex queries and

  7. A new culture system for in situ observation of the growth and development of Eucyclops serrulatus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hee; Chang, Cheon-Young

    2005-01-01

    A practical and convenient method of rearing Eucyclops serrulatus in a microculture environment is described. A complete life cycle of E. serrulatus was maintained in a narrow space on a microscope slide glass on which a cover glass of 22 x 40 mm in size was mounted at a height of 0.8 mm. The culture medium was constituted by bottled mineral water boiled with grains of Glycine max (soybean). Chilomonas paramecium, a free-living protozoan organism, was provided as live food. Growth of nauplii hatched from eggs to the first stage of copepodite took an average of 7.7 days, and the growth of copepodite 1 to the egg-bearing adult female took an average of 20.1 days in the microculture cell with an average life time of 44.7 days. Continuous passage of copepods was successfully maintained as long as sufficient medium and food were provided. The microculture method enables an in situ microscopic observation on the growth and developmental process of helminth larvae experimentally infected to copepods as well as of copepod itself. Furthermore, it does not require anesthetization and, therefore, minimize the amount of stress exposed to copepods during the handling process. PMID:16340303

  8. Investigation of the 2006 Alexandrium fundyense Bloom in the Gulf of Maine: In situ Observations and Numerical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhen; He, Ruoying; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Anderson, Donald M; Keafer, Bruce A

    2009-09-30

    In situ observations and a coupled bio-physical model were used to study the germination, initiation, and development of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) Alexandrium fundyense bloom in 2006. Hydrographic measurements and comparisons with GOM climatology indicate that 2006 was a year with normal coastal water temperature, salinity, current and river runoff conditions. A. fundyense cyst abundance in bottom sediments preceding the 2006 bloom was at a moderate level compared to other recent annual cyst survey data. We used the coupled bio-physical model to hindcast coastal circulation and A. fundyense cell concentrations. Field data including water temperature, salinity, velocity time series and surface A. fundyense cell concentration maps were applied to gauge the model's fidelity. The coupled model is capable of reproducing the hydrodynamics and the temporal and spatial distributions of A. fundyense cell concentration reasonably well. Model hindcast solutions were further used to diagnose physical and biological factors controlling the bloom dynamics. Surface wind fields modulated the bloom's horizontal and vertical distribution. The initial cyst distribution was found to be the dominant factor affecting the severity and the interannual variability of the A. fundyense bloom. Initial cyst abundance for the 2006 bloom was about 50% of that prior to the 2005 bloom. As the result, the time-averaged gulf-wide cell concentration in 2006 was also only about 60% of that in 2005. In addition, weaker alongshore currents and episodic upwelling-favorable winds in 2006 reduced the spatial extent of the bloom as compared with 2005.

  9. Combining literature review, acoustic mapping and in situ observations: an overview of coralligenous assemblages in Liguria (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Cánovas Molina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A review and update of the existing knowledge on the coralligenous assemblages of Liguria (NW Italy was conducted as an essential step towards management measures for their conservation according to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. By combining a literature review, acoustic mapping and in situ observations on a geographic information systems platform, we were able to assess the distribution and heterogeneity of coralligenous assemblages and the main pressures affecting them. The reliability of the literature was previously estimated using a dependability index. The coralligenous assemblages cover an area of 130.9 ha and range from 10 to 113 m depth. Twelve different biological facies (five of them not included in the EUNIS list were identified and four main geomorphotypes (plungingcliffs, paleocliffs, rockfalls and shoals were recognized. Incident light values influenced the distribution of four facies in Portofino promontory. Pressures were found on 33% of the coralligenous assemblages investigated, mainly due to fishing activities, mass mortality events, invasive species and occasional mucilaginous events. Our results showed a high spatial, geomorphological and biological heterogeneity of coralligenous assemblages in Liguria.

  10. In-Situ Observation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Ordered Mesoporous Hard Carbon by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Zhao, Jinkui; Dai, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to better understand the electrochemical processes occurring during the cycling of a lithium-ion half-cell containing ordered mesoporous hard carbon using time-resolved in situ small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Utilizing electrolytes containing mixtures of deuterated (2H) and non-deuterated (1H) carbonates, we have addressed the challenging task of monitoring the formation and evolution of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. An evolution occurs in the SEI layer during discharge from a composition dominated by a higher scattering length density (SLD) lithium salt, to a lower SLD lithium salt for the ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC) mixture employed. By comparing half-cells containing different solvent deuteration levels, we show that it is possible to observe both SEI formation and lithium intercalation occurring concurrently at the low voltage region in which lithium intercalates into the hard carbon. These results demonstrate that SANS can be employed to monitor complicated electrochemical processes occurring in rechargeable batteries, in a manner that simultaneously provides information on the composition and microstructure of the electrode.

  11. Adenocarcinoma in situ and associated human papillomavirus type distribution observed in two clinical trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ault, Kevin A; Joura, Elmar A; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2011-01-01

    , we include all women who had at least one follow-up visit postenrollment. Healthy women (17,622) aged 15-26 with no history of HPV disease and a lifetime number of less than five sex partners (average follow-up of 3.6 years) were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at day 1, months 2......The primary objective of this report is to describe the detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and associated human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution that was observed in the context of two phase 3 clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. In this intention-to-treat analysis......, and 6. Women underwent colposcopy and biopsy according to a Papanicolaou triage algorithm. All tissue specimens were tested for 14 HPV types and were adjudicated by a pathology panel. During the trials, 22 women were diagnosed with AIS (six vaccine and 16 placebo). There were 25 AIS lesions in total...

  12. Diffusion-controlled growth of hydrogen pores in aluminum-silicon castings: In situ observation and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, R.C.; Sridhar, S.; Zhang, W.; Lee, P.D.

    2000-01-24

    In situ observations were made of the nucleation and growth kinetics of hydrogen porosity during the directional solidification of aluminium-7 wt% silicon (Al7Si) with TiB{sub 2} grain refiner added, using an X-ray temperature gradient stage (XTGS). The effect of altering the solidification velocity on the growth rate and morphology of the porosity formed was characterized by tracking individual pores with digital analysis of the micro-focal video images. It was found that increasing the solidification velocity caused the pore radius to decrease and pore density to increase. Insight gained from the experimental results was used to develop a computational model of the evolution of hydrogen pores during solidification of aluminum-silicon cast alloys. The model solves for the diffusion-limited growth of the pores in spherical coordinates, using a deterministic solution of the grain nucleation and growth as a sub-model to calculate the parameters that depend upon the fraction solid. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the effects of equiaxed grain density, pore density, initial hydrogen content and cooling rate. The model agrees with the experimental results within the resolution limits of the XTGS experiments performed.

  13. In Situ Observations of Thermoreversible Gelation and Phase Separation of Agarose and Methylcellulose Solutions under High Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometani, Noritsugu; Tanabe, Masahiro; Su, Lei; Yang, Kun; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi

    2015-06-04

    Thermoreversible sol-gel transitions of agarose and methylcellulose (MC) aqueous solutions on isobaric cooling or heating under high pressure up to 400 MPa have been investigated by in situ observations of optical transmittance and falling-ball experiments. For agarose, which undergoes the gelation on cooling, the application of pressure caused a gradual rise in the cloud-point temperature over the whole pressure range examined, which is almost consistent with the pressure dependence of gelling temperature estimated by falling-ball experiments, suggesting that agarose gel is stabilized by compression and that the gelation occurs nearly in parallel with phase separation under ambient and high-pressure conditions. For MC, which undergoes the gelation on heating, the cloud-point temperature showed a slight rise with an initial elevation of pressure up to ∼150 MPa, whereas it showed a marked depression above 200 MPa. In contrast, the gelling temperature of MC, which is nearly identical to the cloud-point temperature at ambient pressure, showed a monotonous rise with increasing pressure up to 350 MPa, which means that MC undergoes phase separation prior to gelation on heating under high pressure above 200 MPa. Similar results were obtained for the melting process of MC gel on cooling. The unique behavior of the sol-gel transition of MC under high pressure has been interpreted in terms of the destruction of hydrophobic hydration by compression.

  14. Transforming in-situ observations of CME-driven shock accelerated protons into the shock's reference frame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Robinson

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the solar energetic particle event following solar activity from 14, 15 April 2001 which includes a "bump-on-the-tail" in the proton energy spectra at 0.99 AU from the Sun. We find this population was generated by a CME-driven shock which arrived at 0.99 AU around midnight 18 April. As such this population represents an excellent opportunity to study in isolation, the effects of proton acceleration by the shock. The peak energy of the bump-on-the-tail evolves to progressively lower energies as the shock approaches the observing spacecraft at the inner Lagrange point. Focusing on the evolution of this peak energy we demonstrate a technique which transforms these in-situ spectral observations into a frame of reference co-moving with the shock whilst making allowance for the effects of pitch angle scattering and focusing. The results of this transform suggest the bump-on-the-tail population was not driven by the 15 April activity but was generated or at least modulated by a CME-driven shock which left the Sun on 14 April. The existence of a bump-on-the-tail population is predicted by models in Rice et al. (2003 and Li et al. (2003 which we compare with observations and the results of our analysis in the context of both the 14 April and 15 April CMEs. We find an origin of the bump-on-the-tail at the 14 April CME-driven shock provides better agreement with these modelled predictions although some discrepancy exists as to the shock's ability to accelerate 100 MeV protons.

    Keywords. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (Energetic particles; Flares and mass ejections – Space plasma physics (Transport processes

  15. In situ observation of ultrasonic cavitation-induced fragmentation of the primary crystals formed in Al alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tzanakis, Iakovos; Eskin, Dmitry; Mi, Jiawei; Connolley, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The cavitation-induced fragmentation of primary crystals formed in Al alloys were investigated for the first time by high-speed imaging using a novel experimental approach. Three representative primary crystal types, Al 3 Ti, Si and Al 3 V with different morphologies and mechanical properties were first extracted by deep etching of the corresponding Al alloys and then subjected to ultrasonic cavitation processing in distilled water. The dynamic interaction between the cavitation bubbles and primary crystals was imaged in situ and in real time. Based on the recorded image sequences, the fragmentation mechanisms of primary crystals were studied. It was found that there are three major mechanisms by which the primary crystals were fragmented by cavitation bubbles. The first one was a slow process via fatigue-type failure. A cyclic pressure exerted by stationary pulsating bubbles caused the propagation of a crack pre-existing in the primary crystal to a critical length which led to fragmentation. The second mechanism was a sudden process due to the collapse of bubbles in a passing cavitation cloud. The pressure produced upon the collapse of the cloud promoted rapid monotonic crack growth and fast fracture in the primary crystals. The third observed mechanism was normal bending fracture as a result of the high pressure arising from the collapse of a bubble cloud and the crack formation at the branch connection points of dendritic primary crystals. The fragmentation of dendrite branches due to the interaction between two freely moving dendritic primary crystals was also observed. A simplified fracture analysis of the observed phenomena was performed. The specific fragmentation mechanism for the primary crystals depended on their morphology and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In-situ aircraft observations of ice concentrations within clouds over the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Grosvenor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In-situ aircraft observations of ice crystal concentrations in Antarctic clouds are presented for the first time. Orographic, layer and wave clouds around the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice shelf regions were penetrated by the British Antarctic Survey's Twin Otter aircraft, which was equipped with modern cloud physics probes. The clouds studied were mostly in the free troposphere and hence ice crystals blown from the surface are unlikely to have been a major source for the ice phase. The temperature range covered by the experiments was 0 to −21 °C. The clouds were found to contain supercooled liquid water in most regions and at heterogeneous ice formation temperatures ice crystal concentrations (60 s averages were often less than 0.07 l−1, although values up to 0.22 l−1 were observed. Estimates of observed aerosol concentrations were used as input into the DeMott et al. (2010 ice nuclei (IN parameterisation. The observed ice crystal number concentrations were generally in broad agreement with the IN predictions, although on the whole the predicted values were higher. Possible reasons for this are discussed and include the lack of IN observations in this region with which to characterise the parameterisation, and/or problems in relating ice concentration measurements to IN concentrations. Other IN parameterisations significantly overestimated the number of ice particles. Generally ice particle concentrations were much lower than found in clouds in middle latitudes for a given temperature.

    Higher ice crystal concentrations were sometimes observed at temperatures warmer than −9 °C, with values of several per litre reached. These were attributable to secondary ice particle production by the Hallett Mossop process. Even in this temperature range it was observed that there were regions with little or no ice that were dominated by supercooled liquid water. It is likely that in some cases this was due to a

  17. Development of a dynamic web mapping service for vegetation productivity using earth observation and in situ sensors in a sensor web based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Bergsma, A.R.; Chuma, B.; Bruin, de S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS). A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the

  18. Correlating TEM images of damage in irradiated materials to molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeublin, R.; Caturla, M.-J.; Wall, M.; Felter, T.; Fluss, M.; Wirth, B.D.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Victoria, M.

    2002-01-01

    TEM image simulations are used to couple the results from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to experimental TEM images. In particular we apply this methodology to the study of defects produced during irradiation. MD simulations have shown that irradiation of FCC metals results in a population of vacancies and interstitials forming clusters. The limitation of these simulations is the short time scales available, on the order of 100 s of picoseconds. Extrapolation of the results from these short times to the time scales of the laboratory has been difficult. We address this problem by two methods: we perform TEM image simulations of MD simulations of cascades with an improved technique, to relate defects produced at short time scales with those observed experimentally at much longer time scales. On the other hand we perform in situ TEM experiments of Au irradiated at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, and study the evolution of the produced damage as the temperature is increased to room temperature. We find that some of the defects observed in the MD simulations at short time scales using the TEM image simulation technique have features that resemble those observed in laboratory TEM images of irradiated samples. In situ TEM shows that stacking fault tetrahedra are present at the lowest temperatures and are stable during annealing up to room temperature, while other defect clusters migrate one dimensionally above -100 deg. C. Results are presented here

  19. New insights into the toxicity of mineral fibres: A combined in situ synchrotron μ-XRD and HR-TEM study of chrysotile, crocidolite, and erionite fibres found in the tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Bursi Gandolfi, Nicola; Pollastri, Simone; Burghammer, Manfred; Tibaldi, Eva; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Pollok, Kilian; Langenhorst, Falko; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Dražić, Goran

    2017-05-15

    Along the line of the recent research topic aimed at understanding the in vivo activity of mineral fibres and their mechanisms of toxicity, this work describes the morpho-chemical characteristics of the mineral fibres found in the tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intraperitoneal/intrapleural injection of UICC chrysotile, UICC crocidolite and erionite-Na from Nevada (USA). The fibres are studied with in situ synchrotron powder diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity of these mineral fibres. In contact with the tissues of the rats, chrysotile fibres are prone to dissolve, with leaching of Mg and production of a silica rich relict. On the other hand, crocidolite and erionite-Na fibres are stable even for very long contact times within the tissues of the rats, showing just a thin dissolution amorphous halo. These findings support the model of a lower biopersistence of chrysotile with respect to crocidolite and erionite-Na but the formation of a silica-rich fibrous residue after the pseudo-amorphization of chrysotile may justify a higher cytotoxic potential and intense inflammatory activity of chrysotile in the short term in contact with the lung tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative analysis of atmosphere temperature variability for Northern Eurasia based on the Reanalysis and in-situ observed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulgina, T.; Genina, E.; Gordov, E.; Nikitchuk, K.

    2009-04-01

    At present numerous data archives which include meteorological observations as well as climate processes modeling data are available for Earth Science specialists. Methods of mathematical statistics are widely used for their processing and analysis. In many cases they represent the only way of quantitative assessment of the meteorological and climatic information. Unified set of analysis methods allows us to compare climatic characteristics calculated on the basis of different datasets with the purpose of performing more detailed analysis of climate dynamics for both regional and global levels. The report presents the results of comparative analysis of atmosphere temperature behavior for the Northern Eurasia territory for the period from 1979 to 2004 based on the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis AMIP II, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25 Reanalysis, ECMWF ERA-40 Reanalysis data and observation data obtained from meteorological stations of the former Soviet Union. Statistical processing of atmosphere temperature data included analysis of time series homogeneity of climate indices approved by WMO, such as "Number of frost days", "Number of summer days", "Number of icing days", "Number of tropical nights", etc. by means of parametric methods of mathematical statistics (Fisher and Student tests). That allowed conducting comprehensive research of spatio-temporal features of the atmosphere temperature. Analysis of the atmosphere temperature dynamics revealed inhomogeneity of the data obtained for large observation intervals. Particularly, analysis performed for the period 1979 - 2004 showed the significant increase of the number of frost and icing days approximately by 1 day for every 2 years and decrease roughly by 1 day for 2 years for the number of summer days. Also it should be mentioned that the growth period mean temperature have increased by 1.5 - 2° C for the time period being considered. The usage of different Reanalysis datasets in conjunction with in-situ observed

  1. COMBINED MULTIPOINT REMOTE AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS OF THE ASYMMETRIC EVOLUTION OF A FAST SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollett, T.; Möstl, C.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Amerstorfer, U. V. [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Frahm, R. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Vršnak, B.; Žic, T. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, 1000 Zagreb (Croatia); Farrugia, C. J. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Zhang, T. L., E-mail: tanja.rollett@gmx.at [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2014-07-20

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012  March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind, and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the novel constrained self-similar expansion method. In addition, we used a drag-based model to investigate the influence of the ambient solar wind on the CME's propagation. We found that two preceding CMEs heading in different directions disturbed the overall shape of the CME and influenced its propagation behavior. While the Venus-directed segment underwent a gradual deceleration (from ∼2700 km s{sup –1} at 15 R {sub ☉} to ∼1500 km s{sup –1} at 154 R {sub ☉}), the Earth-directed part showed an abrupt retardation below 35 R {sub ☉} (from ∼1700 to ∼900 km s{sup –1}). After that, it was propagating with a quasi-constant speed in the wake of a preceding event. Our results highlight the importance of studies concerning the unequal evolution of CMEs. Forecasting can only be improved if conditions in the solar wind are properly taken into account and if attention is also paid to large events preceding the one being studied.

  2. Fusing Mobile In Situ Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing of Chemical Release Emissions to Improve Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Leifer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and spacebased remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and space-based remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Understanding urban atmospheric transport in the Los Angeles Basin, where topographic influences on transport patterns are significant, was improved by leveraging the Aliso Canyon leak as an atmospheric tracer. Plume characterization data was collected by the AutoMObile trace Gas (AMOG Surveyor, a commuter car modified for science. Mobile surface in situ CH4 and winds were measured by AMOG Surveyor under Santa Ana conditions to estimate an emission rate of 365±30% Gg yr-1. Vertical profiles were collected by AMOG Surveyor by leveraging local topography for vertical profiling to identify the planetary boundary layer at ~700 m. Topography significantly constrained plume dispersion by up to a factor of two. The observed plume trajectory was used to validate satellite aerosol optical depth-inferred atmospheric transport, which suggested the plume first was driven offshore, but then veered back towards land. Numerical long-range transport model predictions confirm this interpretation. This study demonstrated a novel application of satellite aerosol remote

  3. In situ WetSTEM observation of gold nanorod self-assembly dynamics in a drying colloidal droplet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, F.; Wandrol, P.; Proška, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2014), s. 385-393 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA ČR GAP205/10/0348 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : gold nanorods * self-assembly * in situ Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  4. Observations of Bathymetry-Induced Ocean Roughness Modulation in In-situ Surface Slope Measurements and Coincident Airborne SAR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommenginger, C.P.; Robinson, I.S.; Willoughby, J.; Greidanus, H.S.F.; Taylor, V.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical results from a field experiment in the southern North Sea have demonstrated the possibility to detect bathymetry-induced sea surface roughness modulation in the coastal zone using high frequency in-situ slope measurements provided by the Towed Laser Slopemeter. A strong correlation between

  5. UHV-TEM/TED observation of Ag islands grown on Si( 1 1 1 ) 3× 3-Ag surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Yoshifumi; Nakade, Hiroyuki; Shigeki, Sinya; Hirayama, Hiroyuki; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2001-11-01

    Growths of Ag islands on Si(1 1 1)3×3-Ag surface at room temperature were observed by UHV transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. The Ag islands grown after six monolayer deposition had neither (1 0 0) nor (1 1 0) orientation, but had two complex epitaxial orientations dominantly. One was striped islands which gave rise to a diffraction pattern commensurate with the 3×3 lattice of the Si(1 1 1) surface. The other was the coagulated islands whose diffraction pattern indicated the Ag(1 -3 4) sheet grown parallel to the Si(1 1 1) surface.

  6. Angstrom analysis with dynamic in-situ aberration corrected electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, P L; Boyes, E D

    2010-01-01

    Following the pioneering development of atomic resolution in-situ environmental TEM (ETEM) for direct probing of gas-solid reactions, recent developments are presented of dynamic real time in-situ studies at the Angstrom level in an aberration corrected electron microscope. The in-situ data from Pt-Pd nanoparticles on carbon with the corresponding FFT/optical diffractogram (OD) illustrate an achieved resolution of 0 C and higher, in a double aberration corrected JEOL 2200 FS TEM/STEM employing a wider gap objective pole piece and gas tolerant TMP column pumping system. Direct observations of dynamic biofuel catalysts under controlled calcinations conditions and quantified with catalytic reactivity and physico-chemical studies show the benefits in-situ aberration correction in unveiling the evolution of surface active sites necessary for the development efficient heterogeneous catalysts. The new results open up opportunities for dynamic studies of materials in an aberration corrected environment and direct future development activities.

  7. Tem Observation Of Precipitate Structures In Al-Zn-Mg Alloys With Additions Of Cu/Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Al-Zn-Mg alloy has been known as one of the aluminum alloys with the good age-hardening ability and the high strength among commercial aluminum alloys. The mechanical property of the limited ductility, however, is required to further improvement. In this work, three alloys, which were added Cu or Ag into the Al-Zn-Mg alloy, were prepared to compare the effect of the additional elements on the aging behavior. The content of Ag and Cu were 0.2at.% and the same as, respectively. Ag or Cu added alloy showed higher maximum hardness than base alloy. The particle shape and rod shape precipitates were observed in all alloys peak-aged at 423K. According to addition of Ag or Cu, the number density of the precipitates increased higher than that of base alloy.

  8. In situ observations of meteor smoke particles (MSP during the Geminids 2010: constraints on MSP size, work function and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in situ observations of meteoric smoke particles (MSP obtained during three sounding rocket flights in December 2010 in the frame of the final campaign of the Norwegian-German ECOMA project (ECOMA = Existence and Charge state Of meteoric smoke particles in the Middle Atmosphere. The flights were conducted before, at the maximum activity, and after the decline of the Geminids which is one of the major meteor showers over the year. Measurements with the ECOMA particle detector yield both profiles of naturally charged particles (Faraday cup measurement as well as profiles of photoelectrons emitted by the MSPs due to their irradiation by photons of a xenon-flash lamp. The column density of negatively charged MSPs decreased steadily from flight to flight which is in agreement with a corresponding decrease of the sporadic meteor flux recorded during the same period. This implies that the sporadic meteors are a major source of MSPs while the additional influx due to the shower meteors apparently did not play any significant role. Surprisingly, the profiles of photoelectrons are only partly compatible with this observation: while the photoelectron current profiles obtained during the first and third flight of the campaign showed a qualitatively similar behaviour as the MSP charge density data, the profile from the second flight (i.e., at the peak of the Geminids shows much smaller photoelectron currents. This may tentatively be interpreted as a different MSP composition (and, hence, different photoelectric properties during this second flight, but at this stage we are not in a position to conclude that there is a cause and effect relation between the Geminids and this observation. Finally, the ECOMA particle detector used during the first and third flight employed three instead of only one xenon flash lamp where each of the three lamps used for one flight had a different window material resulting in different cut off wavelengths for these

  9. Micro/nanoscale mechanical characterization and in situ observation of cracking of laminated Si3N4/BN composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaodong; Zou Linhua; Ni Hai; Reynolds, Anthony P.; Wang Changan; Huang Yong

    2008-01-01

    Micro/nanoscale mechanical characterization of laminated Si 3 N 4 /BN composites was carried out by nanoindentation techniques. A custom-designed micro mechanical tester was integrated with an optical microscope and an atomic force microscope to perform in situ three-point bending tests on notched Si 3 N 4 /BN composite bend specimens where the crack initiation and propagation were imaged simultaneously with the optical microscope and atomic force microscope during bending loading. The whole fracture process was in situ captured. It was found that crack deflection was initiated/induced by the pre-existing microvoids and microcracks in BN interfacial layers. New fracture mechanisms were proposed to provide guidelines for the design of biomimetic nacre-like composites

  10. In situ observation of high temperature tensile deformation and low cycle fatigue response in a nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xudong, E-mail: lxdong0700@hotmail.com; Du, Jinhui; Deng, Qun

    2013-12-20

    High temperature tension and low cycle fatigue experiments of IN718 alloy have been performed in the electro-hydraulic servo system with scanning electron microscope at 455 °C. Fatigue crack initiation and propagation process are investigated in situ. Results show that the carbide and twin grain are the crack source of the low cycle fatigue of IN718 alloy, and the low cycle fatigue life of the alloy increases with the decrease in grain size.

  11. Development of a Dynamic Web Mapping Service for Vegetation Productivity Using Earth Observation and in situ Sensors in a Sensor Web Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sytze de Bruin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS. A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the Netherlands with a spatial resolution of 250 m. Daily available MODIS surface reflectance products and meteorological parameters obtained through a Sensor Observation Service (SOS were used as input for a vegetation productivity model. This paper presents the vegetation productivity model, the sensor data sources and the implementation of the automated processing facility. Finally, an evaluation is made of the opportunities and limitations of sensor web based approaches for the development of web services which combine both satellite and in situ sensor sources.

  12. Quantitative analysis for in situ sintering of 3% yttria-stablized zirconia in the transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Hasti; Holland, Troy B.; Benthem, Klaus van

    2015-01-01

    Studying particle-agglomerate systems compared to two-particle systems elucidates different stages of sintering by monitoring both pores and particles. We report on in situ sintering of 3% yttria-stablized zirconia particle agglomerates in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Real-time TEM observations indicate neck formation and growth, particle coalescence and pore closure. A MATLAB-based image processing tool was developed to calculate the projected area of the agglomerate with and without internal pores during in situ sintering. We demonstrate the first densification curves generated from sequentially acquired TEM images. The in situ sintering onset temperature was then determined to be at 960 °C. Densification curves illustrated that the agglomerate projected area which excludes the internal observed pores also shrinks during in situ sintering. To overcome the common projection problem for TEM analyses, agglomerate mass-thickness maps were obtained from low energy-loss analysis combined with STEM imaging. The decrease in the projected area was directly related to the increase in mass-thickness of the agglomerate, likely caused by hidden pores existing in the direction of the beam. Access to shrinkage curves through in situ TEM analysis provides a new avenue to investigate fundamental mechanisms of sintering through directly correlating microstructural changes during consolidation with mesoscale densification behavior

  13. Quantitative analysis for in situ sintering of 3% yttria-stablized zirconia in the transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Hasti [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holland, Troy B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Benthem, Klaus van, E-mail: benthem@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Studying particle-agglomerate systems compared to two-particle systems elucidates different stages of sintering by monitoring both pores and particles. We report on in situ sintering of 3% yttria-stablized zirconia particle agglomerates in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Real-time TEM observations indicate neck formation and growth, particle coalescence and pore closure. A MATLAB-based image processing tool was developed to calculate the projected area of the agglomerate with and without internal pores during in situ sintering. We demonstrate the first densification curves generated from sequentially acquired TEM images. The in situ sintering onset temperature was then determined to be at 960 °C. Densification curves illustrated that the agglomerate projected area which excludes the internal observed pores also shrinks during in situ sintering. To overcome the common projection problem for TEM analyses, agglomerate mass-thickness maps were obtained from low energy-loss analysis combined with STEM imaging. The decrease in the projected area was directly related to the increase in mass-thickness of the agglomerate, likely caused by hidden pores existing in the direction of the beam. Access to shrinkage curves through in situ TEM analysis provides a new avenue to investigate fundamental mechanisms of sintering through directly correlating microstructural changes during consolidation with mesoscale densification behavior.

  14. Quantitative analysis for in situ sintering of 3% yttria-stablized zirconia in the transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Hasti; Holland, Troy B; van Benthem, Klaus

    2015-05-01

    Studying particle-agglomerate systems compared to two-particle systems elucidates different stages of sintering by monitoring both pores and particles. We report on in situ sintering of 3% yttria-stablized zirconia particle agglomerates in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Real-time TEM observations indicate neck formation and growth, particle coalescence and pore closure. A MATLAB-based image processing tool was developed to calculate the projected area of the agglomerate with and without internal pores during in situ sintering. We demonstrate the first densification curves generated from sequentially acquired TEM images. The in situ sintering onset temperature was then determined to be at 960 °C. Densification curves illustrated that the agglomerate projected area which excludes the internal observed pores also shrinks during in situ sintering. To overcome the common projection problem for TEM analyses, agglomerate mass-thickness maps were obtained from low energy-loss analysis combined with STEM imaging. The decrease in the projected area was directly related to the increase in mass-thickness of the agglomerate, likely caused by hidden pores existing in the direction of the beam. Access to shrinkage curves through in situ TEM analysis provides a new avenue to investigate fundamental mechanisms of sintering through directly correlating microstructural changes during consolidation with mesoscale densification behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In situ observation of low temperature growth of Ge on Si(1 1 1) by reflection high energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Andreas; Fissel, Andreas; Bugiel, Eberhard; Wietler, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of the initial stages of epitaxial growth of Ge on Si(1 1 1) in situ by RHEED. • Impact of growth temperature on strain evolution for temperatures between 200 °C and 400 °C. • Epitaxy with a high degree of structural perfection already at growth temperature of 200 °C. • Ordered interfacial dislocation networks already at 200 °C. • Tensile strain contribution of Si(1 1 1) 7 × 7-surface reconstruction to strain relaxation process for epitaxial growth of Ge. - Abstract: In this paper we investigate the initial stages of epitaxial growth of Ge on Si(1 1 1) and the impact of growth temperature on strain evolution in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) for temperatures between 200 °C and 400 °C. The change in surface morphology from a flat wetting layer to subsequent islanding that is characteristic for Stranski–Krastanov growth is monitored by spot intensity analysis. The corresponding critical layer thickness is determined to 3.1 < d c < 3.4 ML. In situ monitoring of the strain relaxation process reveals a contribution of the Si(1 1 1) 7 × 7-surface reconstruction to the strain relaxation process. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that the Ge islands exhibit a high degree of structural perfection and an ordered interfacial misfit dislocation network already at a growth temperature of 200 °C is established. The temperature dependency of island shape, density and height is characterized by atomic force microscopy and compared to the RHEED investigations.

  16. First observations of tropospheric δD data observed by ground- and space-based remote sensing and surface in-situ measurement techniques at MUSICA's principle reference station (Izaña Observatory, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias; Christner, Emanuel; Rodríguez, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Dyroff, Christoph; Wiegele, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of the project MUSICA (Multiplatform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi global tropospheric water vapor isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. Therefore, new ground- and space-based remote sensing observations (NDACC-FTIR and IASI/METOP) are combined with in-situ measurements. This work presents the first comparison between in-situ and remote sensing observations made at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The in-situ measurements are made by a Picarro L2120-i water vapor isotopologue analyzer. At Izaña the in-situ data are affected by local small-scale mixing processes: during daylight, the thermally buoyant upslope flow prompts the mixing between the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the low Free Troposphere (FT). However, the remote sensors detect δD values averaged over altitudes that are more representative for the free troposphere. This difference has to be considered for the comparison. In general, a good agreement between the MUSICA remote sensing and the in situ H2O-versus-δD plots is found, which demonstrates that the MUSICA δD remote sensing products add scientifically valuable information to the H2O data.

  17. Study on the fabrication of Al matrix composites strengthened by combined in-situ alumina particle and in-situ alloying elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zanjun; Yang Bin; Cui Hua; Zhang Jishan

    2003-01-01

    A new idea to fabricate aluminum matrix composites strengthened by combined in-situ particle strengthening and in-situ alloying has been proposed. Following the concept of in-situ alloying and in-situ particle strengthening, aluminum matrix composites reinforced by Cu and α-Al 2 O 3 particulate (material I) and the same matrix reinforced by Cu, Si alloying elements and α-Al 2 O 3 particulate (material II) have been obtained. SEM observation, EDS and XRD analysis show that the alloy elements Cu and Si exist in the two materials, respectively. In-situ Al 2 O 3 particulates are generally spherical and their mean size is less than 0.5 μm. TEM observation shows that the in-situ α-Al 2 O 3 particulates have a good cohesion with the matrix. The reaction mechanism of the Al 2 O 3 particulate obtained by this method was studied. Thermodynamic considerations are given to the in-situ reactions and the distribution characteristic of in-situ the α-Al 2 O 3 particulate in the process of solidification is also discussed

  18. Developing a western Siberia reference site for tropospheric water vapour isotopologue observations obtained by different techniques (in situ and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gribanov

    2014-06-01

    water cycle, affected by changes in air mass origin, non-convective and convective processes and continental recycling. Novel remote sensing and in situ measuring techniques have recently offered opportunities for monitoring atmospheric water vapour isotopic composition. Recently developed infrared laser spectrometers allow for continuous in situ measurements of surface water vapour δDv and δ18Ov. So far, very few intercomparisons of measurements conducted using different techniques have been achieved at a given location, due to difficulties intrinsic to the comparison of integrated with local measurements. Nudged simulations conducted with high-resolution isotopically enabled general circulation models (GCMs provide a consistent framework for comparison with the different types of observations. Here, we compare simulations conducted with the ECHAM5-wiso model with two types of water vapour isotopic data obtained during summer 2012 at the forest site of Kourovka, western Siberia: hourly ground-based FTIR total atmospheric columnar δDv amounts, and in situ hourly Picarro δDv measurements. There is an excellent correlation between observed and predicted δDv at surface while the comparison between water column values derived from the model compares well with FTIR estimates.

  19. Present status and future prospects of spherical aberration corrected TEM/STEM for study of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    The present status of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is described from the viewpoint of the observation of nanomaterials. Characteristic features in TEM and STEM are explained using the experimental data obtained by our group and other research groups. Cs correction up to the 3rd-order aberration of an objective lens has already been established and research interest is focused on correcting the 5th-order spherical aberration and the chromatic aberration in combination with the development of a monochromator below an electron gun for smaller point-to-point resolution in optics. Another fundamental area of interest is the limitation of TEM and STEM resolution from the viewpoint of the scattering of electrons in crystals. The minimum size of the exit-wave function below samples undergoing TEM imaging is determined from the calculation of scattering around related atomic columns in the crystals. STEM does not have this limitation because the resolution is, in principle, determined by the probe size. One of the future prospects of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is the possibility of extending the space around the sample holder by correcting the chromatic and spherical aberrations. This wider space will contribute to the ease of performing in situ experiments and various combinations of TEM and other analysis methods. High-resolution, in situ dynamic and 3D observations/analysis are the most important keywords in the next decade of high-resolution electron microscopy. (topical review)

  20. Evaluation of AirMSPI photopolarimetric retrievals of smoke properties with in-situ observations collected during the ImPACT-PM field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Seidel, F.; Diner, D. J.; Seinfeld, J.; Bates, K. H.; Kong, W.; Kenseth, C.; Cappa, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce and evaluate an approach for obtaining closure between in situ and polarimetric remote sensing observations of smoke properties obtained during the collocated CIRPAS Twin Otter and ER-2 aircraft measurements of the Lebec fire event on July 8, 2016. We investigate the utility of multi-angle, spectropolarimetric remote sensing imagery to evaluate the relative contribution of organics, non-organic and black carbon particles to smoke particulate composition. The remote sensing data were collected during the Imaging Polarimetric and Characterization of Tropospheric Particular Matter (ImPACT-PM) field campaign by the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI), which flew on NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The ImPACT-PM field campaign was a joint JPL/Caltech effort to combine measurements from the Terra Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), AirMSPI, in situ airborne measurements, and a chemical transport model to validate remote sensing retrievals of different types of airborne particulate matter with a particular emphasis on carbonaceous aerosols. The in-situ aerosol data were collected with a suite of Caltech instruments on board the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft and included the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), the Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2). The CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft was also equipped with the Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), nephelometer, a particle counter, and meteorological sensors. We found that the multi-angle polarimetric observations are capable of fire particulate emission monitoring by particle type as inferred from the in-situ airborne measurements. Modeling of retrieval sensitivities show that the characterization of black carbon is the most challenging. The work aims at evaluating multi-angle, spectropolarimetric capabilities for particulate matter characterization in support of the Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) satellite investigation

  1. In-situ SCC observation on thermally-sensitized type 304 stainless steel irradiated to 1 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, J.; Nemoto, Y.; Tsukada, T.; Usami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hide, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is concerned as being one of the specific problems for water-cooled first wall/blanket components in the design activity of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). To examine the crack initiation and growth behaviors of IASCC, in-situ observation on gage length of specimens was conducted during slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in high temperature water. Results from in-situ observation on Type 304 stainless steel (SS) irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2} have been reported already. Type 304 SS was subjected to a solution annealing (SA), a thermally sensitization (TS) or a cold working (CW, 20%) and irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). After neutron irradiation, SSRT for the specimens was conducted in oxygenated high purity water at 561 K. The gage length of the specimen was observed through a window equipped on an autoclave during the SSRT. Subsequently, fracture surface examination was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In fracture surface examination of the specimens irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}, almost entire intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was exhibited for the TS material while mixtures of transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) and ductile dimple fracture were observed for the SA and the CW materials. Although crack initiation was observed immediately after maximum stress for the CW irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2}, crack initiation was observed immediately before maximum stress (99% of maximum stress) for the CW irradiated to 1.0 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} in in-situ observation. (authors)

  2. Mapping Submerged Habitats and Mangroves of Lampi Island Marine National Park (Myanmar from in Situ and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giardino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we produced the first thematic maps of submerged and coastal habitats of Lampi Island (Myanmar from in situ and satellite data. To focus on key elements of bio-diversity typically existing in tropical islands the detection of corals, seagrass, and mangrove forests was addressed. Satellite data were acquired from Landsat-8; for the purpose of validation Rapid-Eye data were also used. In situ data supporting image processing were collected in a field campaign performed from 28 February to 4 March 2015 at the time of sensors overpasses. A hybrid approach based on bio-optical modeling and supervised classification techniques was applied to atmospherically-corrected Landsat-8 data. Bottom depth estimations, to be used in the classification process of shallow waters, were in good agreement with depth soundings (R2 = 0.87. Corals were classified with producer and user accuracies of 58% and 77%, while a lower accuracy (producer and user accuracies of 50% was found for the seagrass due to the patchy distribution of meadows; accuracies more than 88% were obtained for mangrove forests. The classification indicated the presence of 18 mangroves sites with extension larger than 5 km2; for 15 of those the coexistence of corals and seagrass were also found in the fronting bays, suggesting a significant rate of biodiversity for the study area.

  3. Direct in situ transmission electron microscopy observation of Al push up during early stages of the Al-induced layer exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birajdar, B.I.; Antesberger, T.; Butz, B.; Stutzmann, M.; Spiecker, E.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of Al transport during Al-induced layer exchange and crystallization of amorphous Si (a-Si) has been investigated by in situ and analytical transmission electron microscopy. Significant grain boundary realignment and coarsening of Al grains close to the Si crystallization growth front as well as push up of excess Al into the a-Si layer at distances even a few micrometers away from the crystallization front were observed. Stress-mediated diffusion of Al is postulated to explain the experimental observations.

  4. In situ atomic-level observation of the formation of platinum silicide at platinum-silicon oxide interfaces under electron irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nagase

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In situ atomic-level observation of the formation of Pt2Si at Pt/SiOx interface by electronic excitation under electron irradiation was performed by using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Scanning of an electron-beam probe stimulates silicide formation at the Pt/SiOx interface; the change in the Pt column corresponding to Pt2Si formation with a crystallographic orientation of (001Pt//(001Pt2Si and [110]Pt//[110]Pt2Si was observed in high-angle annular dark-field images.

  5. Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH[subscript 3]CHF[subscript 2]) from in situ and air archive observations

    OpenAIRE

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2015-01-01

    High frequency, in situ observations from 11 globally distributed sites for the period 1994–2014 and archived air measurements dating from 1978 onward have been used to determine the global growth rate of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH[subscript 3]CHF[subscript 2]). These observations have been combined with a range of atmospheric transport models to derive global emission estimates in a top-down approach. HFC-152a is a greenhouse gas with a short atmospheric lifetime of about 1.5 years. Si...

  6. Observation of an electron band above the Fermi level in FeTe0.55Se0.45 from in-situ surface doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Ma, J.; Qian, T.; Richard, P.; Ding, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Y.-M.; Fedorov, A. V.; Denlinger, J. D.; Gu, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    We used in-situ potassium (K) evaporation to dope the surface of the iron-based superconductor FeTe 0.55 Se 0.45 . The systematic study of the bands near the Fermi level confirms that electrons are doped into the system, allowing us to tune the Fermi level of this material and to access otherwise unoccupied electronic states. In particular, we observe an electron band located above the Fermi level before doping that shares similarities with a small three-dimensional pocket observed in the cousin, heavily electron-doped KFe 2−x Se 2 compound.

  7. OMI and Ground-Based In-Situ Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Observations over Several Important European Cities during 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiru Paraschiv

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 content over several important European cities during 2005–2014 using space observations and ground-based in-situ measurements. The NO2 content was derived using the daily observations provided by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, while the NO2 volume mixing ratio measurements were obtained from the European Environment Agency (EEA air quality monitoring stations database. The European cities selected are: Athens (37.98° N, 23.72° E, Berlin (52.51° N, 13.41° E, Bucharest (44.43° N, 26.10° E, Madrid (40.38° N, 3.71° W, Lisbon (38.71° N, 9.13° W, Paris (48.85° N, 2.35° E, Rome (41.9° N, 12.50° E, and Rotterdam (51.91° N, 4.46° E. We show that OMI NO2 tropospheric column data can be used to assess the evolution of NO2 over important European cities. According to the statistical analysis, using the seasonal variation, we found good correlations (R > 0.50 between OMI and ground-based in-situ observations for all of the cities presented in this work. Highest correlation coefficients (R > 0.80 between ground-based monitoring stations and OMI observations were calculated for the cities of Berlin, Madrid, and Rome. Both types of observations, in-situ and remote sensing, show an NO2 negative trend for all of locations presented in this study.

  8. Ex-situ and in-situ observations of the effects of gamma radiation on lithium ion battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuting; Bashian, Nicholas H.; Hemmelgarn, Chase W.; Thio, Wesley J.; Lyons, Daniel J.; Zheng, Yuan F.; Cao, Lei R.; Co, Anne C.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation effects induced by gamma rays on battery performance were investigated by measuring the capacity and resistance of a series of battery coin cells in-situ directly under gamma radiation and ex-situ. An experimental setup was developed to charge and discharge batteries directly under gamma radiation, equipped with precise temperature control, at The Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Lab. Latent effects induced by gamma radiation on battery components directly influence their performance. Charge and discharge capacity and overall resistance throughout a time span of several weeks post irradiation were monitored and compared to control groups. It was found that exposure to gamma radiation does not significantly alter the available capacity and the overall cell resistance immediately, however, battery performance significantly decreases with time post irradiation. Also, batteries exposed to a higher cumulative dose showed close-to-zero capacity at two-week post irradiation.

  9. Application of TEM to highly reactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, W.M.; Prinz, F.

    1982-01-01

    In the following a method for the preparation and observation of sodium TEM specimens and the first TEM micrograph ever to be published on the dislocation microstructure of sodium are reported. (orig./IHOE) [de

  10. In-Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anders Thais; Slot, Susanne; Paltved, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    , and organisational characteristic. Therefore, it might fail to fully mimic real clinical team processes. Though research on in situ simulation in healthcare is in its infancy, literature is abundant on patient safety and team training1. Patient safety reporting systems that identify risks to patients can improve......Introduction: In situ simulation offers on-site training to healthcare professionals. It refers to a training strategy where simulation technology is integrated into the clinical encounter. Training in the simulation laboratory does not easily tap into situational resources, e.g. individual, team...... patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support. This study explored the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports for in situ simulation and short-term observations were used to create learning objectives and training scenarios. Method: This study used an interventional case...

  11. High Ice Water Content at Low Radar Reflectivity near Deep Convection. Part I ; Consistency of In Situ and Remote-Sensing Observations with Stratiform Rain Column Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Grandin, A.; Dezitter, F.; Weber, M.; Strapp, J. W.; Korolev, A. V.; Williams, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Occurrences of jet engine power loss and damage have been associated with flight through fully glaciated deep convection at -10 to -50 degrees Centigrade. Power loss events commonly occur during flight through radar reflectivity (Zeta (sub e)) less than 20-30 decibels relative to Zeta (dBZ - radar returns) and no more than moderate turbulence, often overlying moderate to heavy rain near the surface. During 2010-2012, Airbus carried out flight tests seeking to characterize the highest ice water content (IWC) in such low-radar-reflectivity regions of large, cold-topped storm systems in the vicinity of Cayenne, Darwin, and Santiago. Within the highest IWC regions encountered, at typical sampling elevations (circa 11 kilometers), the measured ice size distributions exhibit a notably narrow concentration of mass over area-equivalent diameters of 100-500 micrometers. Given substantial and poorly quantified measurement uncertainties, here we evaluate the consistency of the Airbus in situ measurements with ground-based profiling radar observations obtained under quasi-steady, heavy stratiform rain conditions in one of the Airbus-sampled locations. We find that profiler-observed radar reflectivities and mean Doppler velocities at Airbus sampling temperatures are generally consistent with those calculated from in situ size-distribution measurements. We also find that column simulations using the in situ size distributions as an upper boundary condition are generally consistent with observed profiles of radar reflectivity (Ze), mean Doppler velocity (MDV), and retrieved rain rate. The results of these consistency checks motivate an examination of the microphysical pathways that could be responsible for the observed size-distribution features in Ackerman et al. (2015).

  12. In situ measurements and transmission electron microscopy of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Seongwon; Olson, Eric; Zuo Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    We present the design and operation of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET). The device is configured with microfabricated slits, which allows direct observation of CNTs in a FET using TEM and measurement of electrical transport while inside the TEM. As demonstrations of the device architecture, two examples are presented. The first example is an in situ electrical transport measurement of a bundle of carbon nanotubes. The second example is a study of electron beam radiation effect on CNT bundles using a 200 keV electron beam. In situ electrical transport measurement during the beam irradiation shows a signature of wall- or tube-breakdown. Stepwise current drops were observed when a high intensity electron beam was used to cut individual CNT bundles in a device with multiple bundles

  13. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  14. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine; Basso, Nara R.S.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  15. Use of In-Situ and Remotely Sensed Snow Observations for the National Water Model in Both an Analysis and Calibration Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, L. R.; Gochis, D.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Barlage, M. J.; Fall, G. M.; Olheiser, C.

    2017-12-01

    Since version 1.0 of the National Water Model (NWM) has gone operational in Summer 2016, several upgrades to the model have occurred to improve hydrologic prediction for the continental United States. Version 1.1 of the NWM (Spring 2017) includes upgrades to parameter datasets impacting land surface hydrologic processes. These parameter datasets were upgraded using an automated calibration workflow that utilizes the Dynamic Data Search (DDS) algorithm to adjust parameter values using observed streamflow. As such, these upgrades to parameter values took advantage of various observations collected for snow analysis. In particular, in-situ SNOTEL observations in the Western US, volunteer in-situ observations across the entire US, gamma-derived snow water equivalent (SWE) observations courtesy of the NWS NOAA Corps program, gridded snow depth and SWE products from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), gridded remotely sensed satellite-based snow products (MODIS,AMSR2,VIIRS,ATMS), and gridded SWE from the NWS Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS). This study explores the use of these observations to quantify NWM error and improvements from version 1.0 to version 1.1, along with subsequent work since then. In addition, this study explores the use of snow observations for use within the automated calibration workflow. Gridded parameter fields impacting the accumulation and ablation of snow states in the NWM were adjusted and calibrated using gridded remotely sensed snow states, SNODAS products, and in-situ snow observations. This calibration adjustment took place over various ecological regions in snow-dominated parts of the US for a retrospective period of time to capture a variety of climatological conditions. Specifically, the latest calibrated parameters impacting streamflow were held constant and only parameters impacting snow physics were tuned using snow observations and analysis. The adjusted parameter datasets were then used to

  16. Discussion on Microwave-Matter Interaction Mechanisms by In Situ Observation of "Core-Shell" Microstructure during Microwave Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenchao; Xu, Feng; Li, Yongcun; Hu, Xiaofang; Dong, Bo; Xiao, Yu

    2016-02-23

    This research aims to deepen the understanding of the interaction mechanisms between microwave and matter in a metal-ceramic system based on in situ synchrotron radiation computed tomography. A special internal "core-shell" microstructure was discovered for the first time and used as an indicator for the interaction mechanisms between microwave and matter. Firstly, it was proved that the microwave magnetic field acted on metal particles by way of inducing an eddy current in the surface of the metal particles, which led to the formation of a "core-shell" microstructure in the metal particles. On this basis, it was proposed that the ceramic particles could change the microwave field and open a way for the microwave, thereby leading to selective heating in the region around the ceramic particles, which was verified by the fact that all the "core-shell" microstructure was located around ceramic particles. Furthermore, it was indicated that the ceramic particles would gather the microwaves, and might lead to local heating in the metal-ceramic contact region. The focusing of the microwave was proved by the quantitative analysis of the evolution rate of the "core-shell" microstructure in a different region. This study will help to reveal the microwave-matter interaction mechanisms during microwave sintering.

  17. A MEMS-based heating holder for the direct imaging of simultaneous in-situ heating and biasing experiments in scanning/transmission electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Luigi; Konings, Stan; Dona, Pleun; Evertz, Francis; Mitterbauer, Christoph; Faber, Pybe; Schampers, Ruud; Jinschek, Joerg R

    2016-04-01

    The introduction of scanning/transmission electron microscopes (S/TEM) with sub-Angstrom resolution as well as fast and sensitive detection solutions support direct observation of dynamic phenomena in-situ at the atomic scale. Thereby, in-situ specimen holders play a crucial role: accurate control of the applied in-situ stimulus on the nanostructure combined with the overall system stability to assure atomic resolution are paramount for a successful in-situ S/TEM experiment. For those reasons, MEMS-based TEM sample holders are becoming one of the preferred choices, also enabling a high precision in measurements of the in-situ parameter for more reproducible data. A newly developed MEMS-based microheater is presented in combination with the new NanoEx™-i/v TEM sample holder. The concept is built on a four-point probe temperature measurement approach allowing active, accurate local temperature control as well as calorimetry. In this paper, it is shown that it provides high temperature stability up to 1,300°C with a peak temperature of 1,500°C (also working accurately in gaseous environments), high temperature measurement accuracy (in-situ S/TEM imaging experiments, but also elemental mapping at elevated temperatures using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, it has the unique capability to enable simultaneous heating and biasing experiments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2015-01-01

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures

  19. (001) 3C SiC/Ni contact interface: In situ XPS observation of annealing induced Ni2Si formation and the resulting barrier height changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengeler, Sven; Kaiser, Bernhard; Chaussende, Didier; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2017-04-01

    The electronic states of the (001) 3C SiC/Ni interface prior and post annealing are investigated via an in situ XPS interface experiment, allowing direct observation of the induced band bending and the transformation from Schottky to ohmic behaviour for the first time. A single domain (001) 3C SiC sample was prepared via wet chemical etching. Nickel was deposited on the sample in multiple in situ deposition steps via RF sputtering, allowing observation of the 3C SiC/Ni interface formation. Over the course of the experiments, an upward band bending of 0.35 eV was observed, along with defect induced Fermi level pinning. This indicates a Schottky type contact behaviour with a barrier height of 0.41 eV. The subsequent annealing at 850 °C for 5 min resulted in the formation of a Ni2Si layer and a reversal of the band bending to 0.06 eV downward. Thus explaining the ohmic contact behaviour frequently reported for annealed n-type 3C SiC/Ni contacts.

  20. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru, E-mail: kamiya@toyota-ti.ac.jp [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Suzuki, Hidetoshi [Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Koto 1-1-1, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-11-14

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures.

  1. CH4 emissions from European Major Population Centers: Results from aircraft-borne CH4 in-situ observations during EMeRGe-Europe campaign 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiger, A.; Klausner, T.; Schlager, H.; Ziereis, H.; Huntrieser, H.; Baumann, R.; Eirenschmalz, L.; Joeckel, P.; Mertens, M.; Fisher, R.; Bauguitte, S.; Young, S.; Andrés Hernández, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban environments represent large and diffuse area sources of CH4 including emissions from pipeline leaks, industrial/sewage treatment plants, and landfills. However, there is little knowledge about the exact magnitude of these emissions and their contribution to total anthropogenic CH4. Especially in the context of an urbanizing world, a better understanding of the methane footprint of urban areas is crucial, both with respect to mitigation and projection of climate impacts. Aircraft-borne in-situ measurements are particularly useful to both quantify emissions from such area sources, as well as to study their impact on the regional distribution. However, airborne CH4 observations downstream of European cities are especially sparse.Here we report from aircraft-borne CH4 in-situ measurements as conducted during the HALO aircraft campaign EMeRGe (Effect of Megacities on the Transport and Transformation of Pollutants on the Regional to Global Scales) in July 2017, which was led by the University of Bremen, Germany. During seven research flights, emissions from a variety of European (Mega)-cities were probed at different altitudes from 3km down to 500m, including measurements in the outflows of London, Rome, Po Valley, Ruhr and Benelux. We will present and compare the CH4 distribution measured downstream of the various studied urban hot-spots. With the help of other trace gas measurements (including e.g. CO2, CO, O3, SO2), observed methane enhancements will be attributed to the different potential source types. Finally, by the combination of in-situ measurements and regional model simulations using the EMAC-MECO(n) model, the contribution of emissions from urban centers to the regional methane budget over Europe will be discussed.

  2. SO2 Emissions and Lifetimes: Estimates from Inverse Modeling Using In Situ and Global, Space-Based (SCIAMACHY and OMI) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulkyu; Martin Randall V.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Lee, Hanlim; Dickerson, RUssell R.; Hains, Jennifer C.; Krotkov, Nickolay; Richter, Andreas; Vinnikov, Konstantine; Schwab, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Top-down constraints on global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are inferred through inverse modeling using SO2 column observations from two satellite instruments (SCIAMACHY and OMI). We first evaluated the S02 column observations with surface SO2 measurements by applying local scaling factors from a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to SO2 columns retrieved from the satellite instruments. The resulting annual mean surface SO2 mixing ratios for 2006 exhibit a significant spatial correlation (r=0.86, slope=0.91 for SCIAMACHY and r=0.80, slope = 0.79 for OMI) with coincident in situ measurements from monitoring networks throughout the United States and Canada. We evaluate the GEOS-Chem simulation of the SO2 lifetime with that inferred from in situ measurements to verity the applicability of GEOS-Chem for inversion of SO2 columns to emissions. The seasonal mean SO2 lifetime calculated with the GEOS-Chem model over the eastern United States is 13 h in summer and 48 h in winter, compared to lifetimes inferred from in situ measurements of 19 +/- 7 h in summer and 58 +/- 20 h in winter. We apply SO2 columns from SCIAMACHY and OMI to derive a top-down anthropogenic SO2 emission inventory over land by using the local GEOS-Chem relationship between SO2 columns and emissions. There is little seasonal variation in the top-down emissions (SO2 emissions (52.4 Tg S/yr from SCIAMACHY and 49.9 Tg S / yr from OMI) closely agrees with the bottom-up emissions (54.6 Tg S/yr) in the GEOS-Chem model and exhibits consistency in global distributions with the bottom-up emissions (r = 0.78 for SCIAMACHY, and r = 0.77 for OMI). However, there are significant regional differences.

  3. SEM and TEM Observation of the Surfaces of the Fine-Grained Particles Retrieved from the Muses-C Regio on the Asteroid 25413 Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Tanaka, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Konno, M.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Surface materials on airless solar system bodies exposed to interplanetary space are gradually changed their visible to near-infrared reflectance spectra by the process called "space weathering", which makes the spectra darker and redder. Hapke et al. proposed a model of space weathering: vapor deposition of nanophase reduced iron (npFe(sup 0)) on the surfaces of the grains within the very surface of lunar regolith. This model has been proved by detailed observation of the surfaces of the lunar soil grains by transmission electron microscope (TEM). They demonstrated that npFe(sup 0) was formed by a combination of vapor deposition and irradiation effects. In other words, both micrometeorite impacts and irradiation by solar wind and galactic cosmic ray play roles on the space weathering on the Moon. Because there is a continuum of reflectance spectra from those of Q-type asteroids (almost the same as those of ordinary chondrites) to those of S-type asteroids, it is strongly suggested that reflectance spectra of asteroids composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials were modified over time to those of S-type asteroids due to space weathering. It is predicted that a small amount of npFe(sup 0) on the surface of grains in the asteroidal regolith composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials is the main agent of asteroidal space weathering.

  4. TEM of nanostructured metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnthaler, H.P.; Waitz, T.; Rentenberger, C.; Mingler, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructuring has been used to improve the mechanical properties of bulk metals and alloys. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including atomic resolution is therefore appropriate to study these nanostructures; four examples are given as follows. (1) The early stages of precipitation at RT were investigated in an Al-Mg-Si alloy. By high resolution TEM it is shown that the precipitates lie on (0 0 1) planes having an ordered structure. (2) In Co alloys the fronts of martensitic phase transformations were analysed showing that the transformation strains are very small thus causing no surface relief. (3) Re-ordering and recrystallization were studied by in situ TEM of an Ni 3 Al alloy being nanocrystalline after severe plastic deformation. (4) In NiTi severe plastic deformation is leading to the formation of amorphous shear bands. From the TEM analysis it is concluded that the amorphization is caused by plastic shear instability starting in the shear bands

  5. Flat mount preparation for observation and analysis of zebrafish embryo specimens stained by whole mount in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christina N; Li, Yue; Marra, Amanda N; Verdun, Valerie; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-07-17

    The zebrafish embryo is now commonly used for basic and biomedical research to investigate the genetic control of developmental processes and to model congenital abnormalities. During the first day of life, the zebrafish embryo progresses through many developmental stages including fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, segmentation, and the organogenesis of structures such as the kidney, heart, and central nervous system. The anatomy of a young zebrafish embryo presents several challenges for the visualization and analysis of the tissues involved in many of these events because the embryo develops in association with a round yolk mass. Thus, for accurate analysis and imaging of experimental phenotypes in fixed embryonic specimens between the tailbud and 20 somite stage (10 and 19 hours post fertilization (hpf), respectively), such as those stained using whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), it is often desirable to remove the embryo from the yolk ball and to position it flat on a glass slide. However, performing a flat mount procedure can be tedious. Therefore, successful and efficient flat mount preparation is greatly facilitated through the visual demonstration of the dissection technique, and also helped by using reagents that assist in optimal tissue handling. Here, we provide our WISH protocol for one or two-color detection of gene expression in the zebrafish embryo, and demonstrate how the flat mounting procedure can be performed on this example of a stained fixed specimen. This flat mounting protocol is broadly applicable to the study of many embryonic structures that emerge during early zebrafish development, and can be implemented in conjunction with other staining methods performed on fixed embryo samples.

  6. The impact of urban morphology and land cover on the sensible heat flux retrieved by satellite and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawuc, L.; Łobocki, L.; Kaminski, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in various applications for urban environments research. However, remotely-sensed radiative surface temperature is not equivalent to kinetic nor aerodynamic surface temperature (Becker and Li, 1995; Norman and Becker, 1995). Thermal satellite observations of urban areas are also prone to angular anisotropy which is directly connected with the urban structure and relative sun-satellite position (Hu et al., 2016). Sensible heat flux (Qh) is the main component of surface energy balance in urban areas. Retrieval of Qh, requires observations of, among others, a temperature gradient. The lower level of temperature measurement is commonly replaced by remotely-sensed radiative surface temperature (Chrysoulakis, 2003; Voogt and Grimmond, 2000; Xu et al., 2008). However, such replacement requires accounting for the differences between aerodynamic and radiative surface temperature (Chehbouni et al., 1996; Sun and Mahrt, 1995). Moreover, it is important to avoid micro-scale processes, which play a major role in the roughness sublayer. This is due to the fact that Monin-Obukhov similarity theory is valid only in dynamic sublayer. We will present results of the analyses of the impact of urban morphology and land cover on the seasonal changes of sensible heat flux (Qh). Qh will be retrieved by two approaches. First will be based on satellite observations of radiative surface temperature and second will be based on in-situ observations of kinetic road temperature. Both approaches will utilize wind velocity, and air temperature observed in-situ. We will utilize time series of MODIS LST observations for the period of 2005-2014 as well as simultaneous in-situ observations collected by road weather network (9 stations). Ground stations are located across the city of Warsaw, outside the city centre in low-rise urban structure. We will account for differences in urban morphology and land cover in the proximity of ground stations. We will

  7. In Situ Observations and Sampling of Volcanic Emissions with Unmanned Aircraft: A NASA/UCR Case Study at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, David; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Bland, Geoffrey; Fladeland, Matthew; Madrigal, Yetty; Corrales, Ernesto; Alan, Alfredo; Alegria, Oscar; Realmuto, Vincent; Miles, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning new technology in the design and development of robotic aircraft-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)-presents unprecedented opportunities for the volcanology community to observe, measure, and sample eruption plumes and drifting volcanic clouds in situ. While manned aircraft can sample dilute parts of such emissions, demonstrated hazards to air breathing, and most particularly turbine, engines preclude penetration of the zones of highest ash concentrations. Such areas within plumes are often of highest interest with respect to boundary conditions of applicable mass-loading retrieval models, as well as Lagrangian, Eulerian, and hybrid transport models used by hazard responders to predict plume trajectories, particularly in the context of airborne hazards. Before the 2010 Ejyafyallajokull eruption in Iceland, ICAO zero-ash-tolerance rules were typically followed, particularly for relatively uncrowded Pacific Rim airspace, and over North and South America, where often diversion of aircraft around ash plumes and clouds was practical. The 2010 eruption in Iceland radically changed the paradigm, in that critical airspace over continental Europe and the United Kingdom were summarily shut by local civil aviation authorities and EURO CONTROL. A strong desire emerged for better real-time knowledge of ash cloud characteristics, particularly ash concentrations, and especially for validation of orbital multispectral imaging. UAV platforms appear to provide a viable adjunct, if not a primary source, of such in situ data for volcanic plumes and drifting volcanic clouds from explosive eruptions, with prompt and comprehensive application to aviation safety and to the basic science of volcanology. Current work is underway in Costa Rica at Turrialba volcano by the authors, with the goal of developing and testing new small, economical UAV platforms, with miniaturized instrument payloads, within a volcanic plume. We are underway with bi-monthly deployments of tethered SO2-sondes

  8. In-situ Crystallization of Highly Volatile Commercial Mold Flux Using an Isolated Observation System in the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Yong; Ryu, Jae Wook; Sohn, Il

    2014-08-01

    The in situ crystallization behavior of highly volatile commercial mold fluxes for medium carbon steels was investigated using the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) equipped with an optimized isolated observation system. The highly volatile compounds of the mold flux were suppressed during heating allowing direct observation in the CLSM. Cooling rates of 25, 50, 100, 400, and 800 K/min were incorporated and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of 4 different commercial mold fluxes for medium carbon steels were developed. Identification of the crystalline phase was conducted with XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. A cuspidine crystalline was observed in all samples at various cooling rates. With higher basicity, CaF2, and NaF, the crystallization of the fluxes was enhanced according to the CCT diagram. As the slag structure becomes depolymerized, the diffusion rate of the cathodic ions seems to increase.

  9. Data-driven fault mechanics: Inferring fault hydro-mechanical properties from in situ observations of injection-induced aseismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Viesca, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    In the absence of in situ field-scale observations of quantities such as fault slip, shear stress and pore pressure, observational constraints on models of fault slip have mostly been limited to laboratory and/or remote observations. Recent controlled fluid-injection experiments on well-instrumented faults fill this gap by simultaneously monitoring fault slip and pore pressure evolution in situ [Gugleilmi et al., 2015]. Such experiments can reveal interesting fault behavior, e.g., Gugleilmi et al. report fluid-activated aseismic slip followed only subsequently by the onset of micro-seismicity. We show that the Gugleilmi et al. dataset can be used to constrain the hydro-mechanical model parameters of a fluid-activated expanding shear rupture within a Bayesian framework. We assume that (1) pore-pressure diffuses radially outward (from the injection well) within a permeable pathway along the fault bounded by a narrow damage zone about the principal slip surface; (2) pore-pressure increase ativates slip on a pre-stressed planar fault due to reduction in frictional strength (expressed as a constant friction coefficient times the effective normal stress). Owing to efficient, parallel, numerical solutions to the axisymmetric fluid-diffusion and crack problems (under the imposed history of injection), we are able to jointly fit the observed history of pore-pressure and slip using an adaptive Monte Carlo technique. Our hydrological model provides an excellent fit to the pore-pressure data without requiring any statistically significant permeability enhancement due to the onset of slip. Further, for realistic elastic properties of the fault, the crack model fits both the onset of slip and its early time evolution reasonably well. However, our model requires unrealistic fault properties to fit the marked acceleration of slip observed later in the experiment (coinciding with the triggering of microseismicity). Therefore, besides producing meaningful and internally consistent

  10. In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chong M.; Xu, Wu; Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Salmon, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The critical challenge facing the lithium ion battery development is the basic understanding of the structural evolution during the cyclic operation of the battery and the consequence of the structural evolution on the properties of the battery. Although transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopy have been evolved to a stage such that it can be routinely used to probe into both the structural and chemical composition of the materials with a spatial resolution of a single atomic column, a direct in-situ TEM observation of structural evolution of the materials in lithium ion battery during the dynamic operation of the battery has never been reported. This is related to three factors: high vacuum operation of a TEM; electron transparency requirement of the region to be observed, and the difficulties dealing with the liquid electrolyte of lithium ion battery. In this paper, we report the results of exploring the in-situ TEM techniques for observation of the interface in lithium ion battery during the operation of the battery. A miniature battery was fabricated using a nanowire and an ionic liquid electrolyte. The structure and chemical composition of the interface across the anode and the electrolyte was studied using TEM imaging, electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. In addition, we also explored the possibilities of carrying out in-situ TEM studies of lithium ion batteries with a solid state electrolyte.

  11. Quality Improvement of the Satellite Soil Moisture Products by Fusing In Situ and GNSS-R Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q.; Xu, H.; Li, T.; Shen, H.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a fundamental role in the hydrological cycle as well as in the energy partitioning. On this basis, it is of great concern to derive a long-term soil moisture time series on a global scale and monitor its temporal and spatial variations for practical applications. Although passive and active microwave satellites have been shown to provide useful retrievals of near-surface soil moisture at regional and global scales, the limitations in retrieval accuracy prevent them from high-quality applications in specific areas. On the other hand, measuring soil moisture straightly through in situdevices, such as soil moisture probes, is high accuracy, but is not able to derive global soil moisture maps. Recently, the ground-based GNSS-R method is emerging in monitoring near-surface soil moisture variations but still over limited spatial scales. In this paper, a multi-source data fusion method was applied to synthesize regional high-quality soil moisture products from 2015 to 2017 in western parts of the continental United States. Firstly, we put all the three soil moisture datasets into the generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model. The input signals of the model are SMOS and SMAP satellite-derived passive level 3 soil moisture daily products combined with date and latitude and longitude information, while the in situ measured and GNSS-R retrieved soil moisture are used as target. Finally, we apply the model to all the soil moisture time series in the experiment area and obtain two high-quality regional soil moisture products for SMOS and SMAP, respectively. The results before fusion show that the correlation coefficients between site-specific soil moisture and satellite-derived soil moisture are 0.39 for SMOS and 0.27 for SMAP and that unbiased root-mean-square errors (ubRMSE) are 0.113 for SMOS and 0.128 for SMAP, respectively. After applying the GRNN-R, the model fitted correlation coefficients have reached 0.72 for SMOS and 0.75 for SMAP and the

  12. Stereoscopic methods in TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.E.

    1975-07-01

    Stereoscopic methods used in TEM are reviewed. The use of stereoscopy to characterize three-dimensional structures observed by TEM has become widespread since the introduction of instruments operating at 1 MV. In its emphasis on whole structures and thick specimens this approach differs significantly from conventional methods of microstructural analysis based on three-dimensional image reconstruction from a number of thin-section views. The great advantage of stereo derives from the ability to directly perceive and measure structures in three-dimensions by capitalizing on the unsurpassed human ability for stereoscopic matching of corresponding details on picture pairs showing the same features from different viewpoints. At this time, stereo methods are aimed mainly at structural understanding at the level of dislocations, precipitates, and irradiation-induced point-defect clusters in crystal and on the cellular irradiation-induced point-defect clusters in crystal and on the cellular level of biological specimens. 3-d reconstruction methods have concentrated on the molecular level where image resolution requirements dictate the use of very thin specimens. One recent application of three-dimensional coordinate measurements is a system developed for analyzing depth variations in the numbers, sizes and total volumes of voids produced near the surfaces of metal specimens during energetic ion bombardment. This system was used to correlate the void volumes at each depth along the ion range with the number of atomic displacements produced at that depth, thereby unfolding the entire swelling versus dose relationship from a single stereo view. A later version of this system incorporating computer-controlled stereo display capabilities is now being built

  13. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB2/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.-R.; Zhao, Y.-T.; Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB 2 /6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB 2 /6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB 2 particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB 2 particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB 2 /6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character

  14. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, B.-R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250022 (China); Zhao, Y.-T., E-mail: 278075525@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB{sub 2}/6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB{sub 2} particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB{sub 2} particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character.

  15. Neutron is a marvelous probe to see the living things as it is alive. Real time and in-situ observation on living polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering was employed in order to perform a real time and in-situ observation on a polymerization-induced self-assembly process in in-vivo or in-vitro systems; precise living anionic polymerization of poly-styrene-b-polyisoprene, pre-irradiation radical polymerization of polystyrene onto a polytetrafluoroethylene film, and microbial or enzymatic polymerization of cellulose. The aim of these studies is to clarify self-organizations of macro-molecular assemblies appeared in open non-equilibrium systems, which are exposed to external energy and mass flows induced by chemical reactions. The open non-equilibrium systems are believed to be important for understanding pattern formations not only in materials processing in industry but also in living things. Small-angle scattering observed for the systems was investigated according to the methods established for condensed matter physics (fractal and computational analyses), bridging with synthetic chemistry and molecular biology. (author)

  16. Mass-induced sea level variations in the Red Sea from GRACE, steric-corrected altimetry, in situ bottom pressure records, and hydrographic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Zhong, M.; Hsu, H. T.

    2014-08-01

    An annual amplitude of ∼18 cm mass-induced sea level variations (SLV) in the Red Sea is detected from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites and steric-corrected altimetry from 2003 to 2011. The annual mass variations in the region dominate the mean SLV, and generally reach maximum in late January/early February. The annual steric component of the mean SLV is relatively small (mass-induced SLV. In situ bottom pressure records at the eastern coast of the Red Sea validate the high mass variability observed by steric-corrected altimetry and GRACE. In addition, the horizontal water mass flux of the Red Sea estimated from GRACE and steric-corrected altimetry is validated by hydrographic observations.

  17. In situ x-ray observations of the diamond formation process in the C-H sub 2 O-MgO system

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, T; Shimomura, O

    2002-01-01

    The diamond formation process in aqueous fluid catalyst under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions has been observed for the first time. Quench experiments and in situ x-ray diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation have been performed upon a mixture of brucite (Mg(OH) sub 2) and graphite as the starting material. It was confirmed that brucite decomposed into periclase and H sub 2 O at 3.6 GPa and 1050 deg. C while its complete melting occurred at 6.2 GPa and 1150 deg. C, indicating that the solubility of MgO in H sub 2 O greatly increases with increasing pressure. The conversion of carbon from its graphite to its diamond form in aqueous fluid was observed at 7.7 GPa and 1835 deg. C.

  18. Development of an autoclave with zirconia crystal windows for in-situ observation of sample surface under primary water conditions of pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumura, Takuya; Totsuka, Nobuo; Arioka, Koji [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Nakajima, Nobuo

    2002-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanism for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is important for improving the reliability of structural materials in the primary system of pressurized water reactors (PWR). For this purpose, visualization of corrosion material surface in the primary coolant environment is effective, but it was impossible because of lack of suitable window material. Yttria stabilized zirconia was newly selected as a candidate for in-situ window material in the primary coolant environment of PWR. Its sufficient corrosion resistance was proved by measuring the transmissivity of light after being immersed in the primary coolant environment. A new autoclave with two windows of yttria-stabilized zirconia was developed. The corrosion material surfaces of Alloy600 and SUS304 in the primary coolant environment were clearly observed with this autoclave. Observations of cracks generated on the surface of SUS304 specimen, suggest that its generation time depends on temperature. (author)

  19. In situ direct observation of photocorrosion in ZnO crystals in ionic liquid using a laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ishioka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ZnO photocatalysts in water react with environmental water molecules and corrode under illumination. ZnO nanorods in water can also grow because of water splitting induced by UV irradiation. To investigate their morphological behavior caused by crystal growth and corrosion, here we developed a new laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope and observed crystal ZnO nanorods immersed in ionic liquid. Exposing the specimen holder to a laser with a wavelength of 325 nm, we observed the photocorrosion in situ at the atomic scale for the first time. This experiment revealed that Zn and O atoms near the interface between the ZnO nanorods and the ionic liquid tended to dissolve into the liquid. The polarity and facet of the nanorods were strongly related to photocorrosion and crystal growth.

  20. Ocean EcoSystem Modelling Based on Observations from Satellite and In-Situ Data: First Results from the OSMOSIS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, M.-H.; Buongiorno-Nardelli, B.; Calmettes, B.; Conchon, A.; Droghei, R.; Guinehut, S.; Larnicol, G.; Lehodey, P.; Matthieu, P. P.; Mulet, S.; Santoleri, R.; Senina, I.; Stum, J.; Verbrugge, N.

    2015-12-01

    Micronekton organisms are both the prey of large ocean predators, and themselves also the predators of eggs and larvae of many species from which most fishes. The micronekton biomass concentration is therefore a key explanatory variable that is usually missing in fish population and ecosystem models to understand individual behaviour and population dynamics of large oceanic predators. In that context, the OSMOSIS (Ocean ecoSystem Modelling based on Observations from Satellite and In-Situ data) ESA project aims at demonstrating the feasibility and prototyping an integrated system going from the synergetic use of many different variables measured from space to the modelling of the distribution of micronektonic organisms. In this paper, we present how data from CRYOSAT, GOCE, SMOS, ENVISAT, together with other non-ESA satellites and in-situ data, can be merged to provide the required key variables needed as input of the micronekton model. Also, first results from the optimization of the micronekton model are presented and discussed.

  1. In situ observation of magnetic vortex manipulation by external fields in amorphous CeFeB ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Shulan; Zhang, Ming; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Licong; Xiong, Jiefu; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tongyun; Hu, Fengxia; Shen, Baogen; Sun, Jirong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we show the real-space observation of the magnetic domain configuration in amorphous Ce 14 Fe 80 B 6 ribbon using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Cross-tie domain walls composed of magnetic vortices (Vs) and antivortices (AVs) are observed. The evolution of Vs/AVs manipulated by temperature, in-plane magnetic field, and electrical current is clearly demonstrated. Magnetic V nucleation and annihilation in pair are observed because of the stimulus of external fields.

  2. The Microwave Radiative Properties of Falling Snow Derived from Nonspherical Ice Particle Models. Part II: Initial Testing Using Radar, Radiometer and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William S.; Tian, Lin; Grecu, Mircea; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Johnson, Benjamin; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Bansemer, Aaron; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Wang, James R.; Meneghini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two different particle models describing the structure and electromagnetic properties of snow are developed and evaluated for potential use in satellite combined radar-radiometer precipitation estimation algorithms. In the first model, snow particles are assumed to be homogeneous ice-air spheres with single-scattering properties derived from Mie theory. In the second model, snow particles are created by simulating the self-collection of pristine ice crystals into aggregate particles of different sizes, using different numbers and habits of the collected component crystals. Single-scattering properties of the resulting nonspherical snow particles are determined using the discrete dipole approximation. The size-distribution-integrated scattering properties of the spherical and nonspherical snow particles are incorporated into a dual-wavelength radar profiling algorithm that is applied to 14- and 34-GHz observations of stratiform precipitation from the ER-2 aircraft-borne High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) radar. The retrieved ice precipitation profiles are then input to a forward radiative transfer calculation in an attempt to simulate coincident radiance observations from the Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR). Much greater consistency between the simulated and observed CoSMIR radiances is obtained using estimated profiles that are based upon the nonspherical crystal/aggregate snow particle model. Despite this greater consistency, there remain some discrepancies between the higher moments of the HIWRAP-retrieved precipitation size distributions and in situ distributions derived from microphysics probe observations obtained from Citation aircraft underflights of the ER-2. These discrepancies can only be eliminated if a subset of lower-density crystal/aggregate snow particles is assumed in the radar algorithm and in the interpretation of the in situ data.

  3. Comparisons of cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine air based on in-situ observations from the NSF HIPPO, EU INCA and NASA ATTREX campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, M.; Schumann, U.; Jensen, J. B.; Minikin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative forcing of cirrus clouds is influenced by microphysical (e.g., ice crystal number concentration and size distribution) and macroscopic properties. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In this work, we use airborne in-situ observations to compare cirrus cloud properties between polluted and pristine regions. Our dataset includes: the NSF HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011), the EU Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign (2000) and the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) campaign (2014). The combined dataset include observations of both extratropical (HIPPO and INCA) and tropical (ATTREX) cirrus, over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We use the in-situ measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio as a pollution indicator, and compare ice microphysical properties (i.e., ice crystal number concentration (Nc) and number-weighted mean diameter (Dc)) between air masses with higher and lower CO. All analyses are restricted to T ≤ -40°C. By analyzing ice crystals (Fast-2DC, 87.5-1600 µm) in HIPPO, we found that Dc decreases with increasing CO concentration at multiple constant pressure levels. In addition, analysis of INCA data shows that Nc and extinction of small ice particles (FSSP 3-20 µm) increases with increasing CO. Particles < 87.5 µm in Fast-2DC data are not considered due to uncertainty in sample volume, and the FSSP measurements are subject to possible shattering. We further analyze the ice crystals (SPEC FCDP, 1-50 µm) in the tropical tropopause layer in ATTREX. At -70°C to -90°C, we found that the average Nc (Dc) increases (decreases) at higher CO. Overall, our results suggest that extratropical and tropical cirrus are likely to have more numerous small ice particles, when sampled in the more polluted background. Back

  4. Sample Preparation Methodologies for In Situ Liquid and Gaseous Cell Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electropolished Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang Li; Schilling, Sibylle; Zaluzec, Nestor J; Burke, M Grace

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies utilizing in situ liquid and/or gaseous cell scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) have been reported. Because of the difficulty in the preparation of suitable specimens, these environmental S/TEM studies have been generally limited to studies of nanoscale structured materials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, or sputtered thin films. In this paper, we present two methodologies which have been developed to facilitate the preparation of electron-transparent samples from conventional bulk metals and alloys for in situ liquid/gaseous cell S/TEM experiments. These methods take advantage of combining sequential electrochemical jet polishing followed by focused ion beam extraction techniques to create large electron-transparent areas for site-specific observation. As an example, we illustrate the application of this methodology for the preparation of in situ specimens from a cold-rolled Type 304 austenitic stainless steel sample, which was subsequently examined in both 1 atm of air as well as fully immersed in a H2O environment in the S/TEM followed by hyperspectral imaging. These preparation techniques can be successfully applied as a general procedure for a wide range of metals and alloys, and are suitable for a variety of in situ analytical S/TEM studies in both aqueous and gaseous environments.

  5. (001) 3C SiC/Ni contact interface: In situ XPS observation of annealing induced Ni{sub 2}Si formation and the resulting barrier height changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengeler, Sven, E-mail: stengeler@surface.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute of Material Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Kaiser, Bernhard [Institute of Material Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Chaussende, Didier [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Jaegermann, Wolfram [Institute of Material Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Schottky behavior (Φ{sub B} = 0.41 eV) and Fermi level pining were found pre annealing. • Ni{sub 2}Si formation was confirmed for 5 min at 850 °C. • 3C/Ni{sub 2}Si Fermi level alignment is responsible for ohmic contact behavior. • Wet chemical etching (Si–OH/C–H termination) does not impair Ni{sub 2}Si formation. - Abstract: The electronic states of the (001) 3C SiC/Ni interface prior and post annealing are investigated via an in situ XPS interface experiment, allowing direct observation of the induced band bending and the transformation from Schottky to ohmic behaviour for the first time. A single domain (001) 3C SiC sample was prepared via wet chemical etching. Nickel was deposited on the sample in multiple in situ deposition steps via RF sputtering, allowing observation of the 3C SiC/Ni interface formation. Over the course of the experiments, an upward band bending of 0.35 eV was observed, along with defect induced Fermi level pinning. This indicates a Schottky type contact behaviour with a barrier height of 0.41 eV. The subsequent annealing at 850 °C for 5 min resulted in the formation of a Ni{sub 2}Si layer and a reversal of the band bending to 0.06 eV downward. Thus explaining the ohmic contact behaviour frequently reported for annealed n-type 3C SiC/Ni contacts.

  6. (001) 3C SiC/Ni contact interface: In situ XPS observation of annealing induced Ni_2Si formation and the resulting barrier height changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengeler, Sven; Kaiser, Bernhard; Chaussende, Didier; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Schottky behavior (Φ_B = 0.41 eV) and Fermi level pining were found pre annealing. • Ni_2Si formation was confirmed for 5 min at 850 °C. • 3C/Ni_2Si Fermi level alignment is responsible for ohmic contact behavior. • Wet chemical etching (Si–OH/C–H termination) does not impair Ni_2Si formation. - Abstract: The electronic states of the (001) 3C SiC/Ni interface prior and post annealing are investigated via an in situ XPS interface experiment, allowing direct observation of the induced band bending and the transformation from Schottky to ohmic behaviour for the first time. A single domain (001) 3C SiC sample was prepared via wet chemical etching. Nickel was deposited on the sample in multiple in situ deposition steps via RF sputtering, allowing observation of the 3C SiC/Ni interface formation. Over the course of the experiments, an upward band bending of 0.35 eV was observed, along with defect induced Fermi level pinning. This indicates a Schottky type contact behaviour with a barrier height of 0.41 eV. The subsequent annealing at 850 °C for 5 min resulted in the formation of a Ni_2Si layer and a reversal of the band bending to 0.06 eV downward. Thus explaining the ohmic contact behaviour frequently reported for annealed n-type 3C SiC/Ni contacts.

  7. Application of Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy coupled with three-wavelength two-beam interferometry to the in situ direct observation of the growth process of a crystal in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Katsuo

    1988-01-01

    Direct visualization of three dimensional transfer process of both heat and mass around a growing crystal and mono-molecular growth layers on the surface is possible in situ by means of high resolution Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy coupled with three wavelength two beam Mach-Zehnder interferometry. This in situ observation is very suitable for the verification of the growth mechanism of a crystal in a solution or a melt in microgravity.

  8. In situ observation of Cu-Ni alloy nanoparticle formation by X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy: Influence of Cu/Ni ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Chiarello, Gian Luca

    2014-01-01

    Silica-supported, bimetallic Cu-Ni nanomaterials were prepared with different ratios of Cu to Ni by incipient wetness impregnation without a specific calcination step before reduction. Different in situ characterization techniques, in particular transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray...... diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were applied to follow the reduction and alloying process of Cu-Ni nanoparticles on silica. In situ reduction of Cu-Ni samples with structural characterization by combined synchrotron XRD and XAS reveals a strong interaction between Cu and Ni species......, which results in improved reducibility of the Ni species compared with monometallic Ni. At high Ni concentrations silica-supported Cu-Ni alloys form a homogeneous solid solution of Cu and Ni, whereas at lower Ni contents Cu and Ni are partly segregated and form metallic Cu and Cu-Ni alloy phases. Under...

  9. Validation of Sentinel-3A altimetry data by using in-situ multi-platform observations near Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Román, Antonio; Heslop, Emma; Reeve, Krissy; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pujol, Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Torner, Marc; Tintoré, Joaquín; Pascual, Ananda

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) Sea Level Thematic Assembly Center (SL-TAC), a glider mission was undertaken between May and June 2016 along the same track as the overpass of the Sentinel 3A satellite in the Southern Mallorca region. Moreover, a one-day ship mission on May 30, synchronous with the overpass of the satellite, captured two transects of moving vessel ADCP close to the coastal area. The aim was to compare the along track altimeter products and multi-platform in-situ observations in the southern coastal zone of the Mallorca Island and the Algerian Basin. In addition, we explored the potential of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Mode (SARM) instrumentation of Sentinel-3 mission, which enables the satellite to measure nearest the coasts with both higher spatial resolution and higher precision than previous missions. With the ultimate goal of contributing to a more complete understanding of both ocean and coastal physical processes and the biogeochemical impacts. The analyses presented here are conducted through the comparison of Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) obtained from the Sentinel-3A altimetry measurements along ground-track #713 and Dynamic Height (DH) derived from temperature and salinity profiles measured by the glider along the trajectory followed by the satellite. Moreover, currents derived from altimetry and in-situ glider data along the track followed by the satellite; and from ADCP data collected in the coastal region are analysed. Results show a good agreement between ADT from altimetry and DH from glider data with maximum differences of around 2 cm that promote a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1 cm, the correlation coefficient between both datasets is 0.89. The satellite data closely resemble the geostrophic velocity pattern observed by the glider measurements along the Algerian Current, and also the ADCP data in the coastal zone, exhibiting a RMSE lower than 10 cm/s and a correlation coefficient

  10. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds by combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations during VERDI, RACEPAC and ACLOUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Borrmann, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Herber, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Jourdan, Olivier; Krämer, Martina; Lüpkes, Christof; Mertes, Stephan; Neuber, Roland; Petzold, Andreas; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds a series of airborne research campaigns has been initiated by a collaboration of German research institutes. Clouds in areas dominated by a close sea-ice cover were observed during the research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) which both were based in Inuvik, Canada. The aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany did cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort with in total 149 flight hours (62h during VERDI, 87h during RACEPAC). For May/June 2017 a third campaign ACLOUD (Arctic Clouds - Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes) with base in Svalbard is planned within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 to investigate Arctic clouds in the transition zone between open ocean and sea ice. The aim of all campaigns is to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft subsequently, for RACEPAC and ACLOUD two identical aircraft are coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The campaign showed that in this way radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably and remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of the projects including the progress in instrumentation. Differences in the general synoptic and sea ice situation and related changes in cloud properties at the different locations and seasons will be

  11. Gemini Near Infrared Field Spectrograph Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy MRK 573: In Situ Acceleration of Ionized and Molecular Gas Off Fueling Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Machuca, C.; Diniz, M. R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Riffel, R. A.; Schmitt, H. R.; Baron, F.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A. N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in approximately 700 x 2100 pc(exp 2) circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  12. Long-range protein electron transfer observed at the single-molecule level: In situ mapping of redox-gated tunneling resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Farver, O; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    on the redox potential. Maximum resonance appears around the equilibrium redox potential of azurin with an on/off current ratio of approximate to 9. Simulation analyses, based on a two-step interfacial ET model for the scanning tunneling microscopy redox process, were performed and provide quantitative......A biomimetic long-range electron transfer (ET) system consisting of the blue copper protein azurin, a tunneling barrier bridge, and a gold single-crystal electrode was designed on the basis of molecular wiring self-assembly principles. This system is sufficiently stable and sensitive in a quasi...... constants display tunneling features with distance-decay factors of 0.83 and 0.91 angstrom(-1) in H2O and D2O, respectively. Redox-gated tunneling resonance is observed in situ at the single-molecule level by using electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy, exhibiting an asymmetric dependence...

  13. Is the TEM obsolescent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The TEM has undergone many revolutions since its invention 70 years ago, but is now a very mature instrument. The major functions of imaging, diffraction and analysis were invented decades ago. Much of the instrument development in the last 20 years has come in peripheral improvements such as ease of operation and computer control which, nevertheless, have made no substantial differences to basic operational methods. The TEM remains a predominantly manual instrument, still providing analog viewing and recording, well into the digital age. Indeed any operator of a Siemens Elmiskop 1 TEM from the 1950s would be more than skilled enough to operate a modern FEG TEM, with little more than a few minutes of training. It is arguable that no other cutting-edge scientific instrument is so basically unchanged in its method of operation over the last five decades, as the TEM. This state of affairs is a recipe for obsolescence. Students today are not interested in mastering the complexities of balancing potentiometers (which are still necessary for good centered dark-field operation) or manipulating sets of tilt controls to move from to , while fighting to maintain eucentricity and a recognizable image on the screen at 200 kX. Students are already masters of the mouse, keyboard or joystick and expect information to be generated, stored, processed and analyzed rapidly and efficiently under full computer control. We need to provide today's students with an instrument to challenge their skills, not those of their parents. There is nothing preventing the creation of a TEM that is under full computer control, except perhaps the notion that the TEM is an instrument worthy of mastery per se, rather than being simply a tool for the characterization of materials. In contrast, the SEM has never been seen as a 'real' electron microscope and consequently has found its way into many more research, education and commercial operations than the TEM. The SEM has also evolved

  14. Simultaneous in-situ observations of the signatures of dayside reconnection at the high- and low-latitude magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wild

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We present magnetic field and particle data recorded by the Cluster and Geotail satellites in the vicinity of the high- and low-latitude dayside magnetopause, respectively, on 17 February 2003. A favourable conjunction of these spacecraft culminated in the observation of a series of flux transfer events (FTEs, characterised by bipolar perturbations in the component of the magnetic field normal to the magnetopause, an enhancement in the overall magnetic field strength, and field tilting effects in the plane of the magnetopause whilst the satellites were located on the magnetosheath side of the boundary. Whilst a subset of the FTE signatures observed could be identified as being either normal or reverse polarity, the rapid succession of events observed made it difficult to classify some of the signatures unambiguously. Nevertheless, by considering the source region and motion of flux tubes opened by magnetic reconnection at low latitudes (i.e. between Cluster and Geotail, we demonstrate that the observations are consistent with the motion of northward (southward and tailward moving flux tubes anchored in the Northern (Southern Hemisphere passing in close proximity to the Cluster (Geotail satellites. We are able to demonstrate that a multi-spacecraft approach, coupled with a realistic model of flux tube motion in the magnetosheath, enables us to infer the approximate position of the reconnection site, which in this case was located at near-equatorial latitudes.

  15. In situ energetic particle observations at comet Halley recorded by instrumentation aboard the Giotto and Vega 1 missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Daly, P.; Kirsch, E.; Wilken, B.; O' Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Kecskemety, K.; Somogyi, A.; Coates, A.

    1989-04-01

    Three important observations recorded in the energetic particle data secured at Halley's comet during March 1986 are reviewed. These include (a) quasi periodic variations of cometary ion fluxes observed inbound and outbound by both the EPONA instrument aboard Giotto and by the Tunde-M instrument aboard Vega 1. A possible explanation of the results in terms of a spin modulation of the outgassing rate of the nucleus is discussed; (b) by combining the EPONA data with JPA-IIS data it is possible to infer that the ion fluxes measured at encounter by EPONA were of the water group. These particles displayed energies in excess of those attained by the pick-up process acting alone. Comparisons between energy spectra prepared using the composite observational data and, corresponding, theoretically derived plots suggest that, downstream of the shock (inbound), stochastic (second-order-Fermi) acceleration may have contributed to energizing the particles; (c) large fluxes of electrons (E>300keV) and ions (E>3.5 MeV) were unexpectedly recorded by EPONA in the magnetic cavity. The observed enhancements (up to approximately three orders of magnitude) appear to be cometary in origin.

  16. In-situ calibration and validation of Cryosat-2 observations over arctic sea ice north of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerland, Sebastian; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Spreen, Gunnar

    CryoSat-2's radar altimeter allows to observe the panArctic sea ice thickness up to 88°N on a monthly basis. However, calibration and validation are crucial to assess limitations and accuracy of the altimeter, and to better quantify the uncertainties involved in converting sea ice freeboard to th...

  17. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis wind products with in situ wave glider wind observations in the Southern Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmidt, KM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available observations in the Southern Ocean 2 3 Kevin M. Schmidta, Sebastiaan Swartb,c,d, Chris Reasonc, Sarah Nicholsonb,c 4 a Marine Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa 5 b Southern Ocean Carbon & Climate Observatory, Council...

  18. In situ energetic particle observations at comet Halley recorded by instrumentation aboard the Giotto and Vega 1 missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Daly, P.; Kirsch, E.; Wilken, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Kecskemety, K.; Somogyi, A.

    1989-01-01

    Three important observations recorded in the energetic particle data secured at Halley's comet during March 1986 are reviewed. These include (a) quasi periodic variations of cometary ion fluxes observed inbound and outbound by both the EPONA instrument aboard Giotto and by the Tunde-M instrument aboard Vega 1. A possible explanation of the results in terms of a spin modulation of the outgassing rate of the nucleus is discussed; (b) by combining the EPONA data with JPA-IIS data it is possible to infer that the ion fluxes measured at encounter by EPONA were of the water group. These particles displayed energies in excess of those attained by the pick-up process acting alone. Comparisons between energy spectra prepared using the composite observational data and, corresponding, theoretically derived plots suggest that, downstream of the shock (inbound), stochastic (second-order-Fermi) acceleration may have contributed to energizing the particles; (c) large fluxes of electrons (E>300keV) and ions (E>3.5 MeV) were unexpectedly recorded by EPONA in the magnetic cavity. The observed enhancements (up to approximately three orders of magnitude) appear to be cometary in origin

  19. Unravel the submesoscale dynamics of the phytoplanktonic community in the NW Mediterranean Sea by in situ observations: the 2015 OSCAHR cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrec, Pierre; Doglioli, Andrea M.; Grégori, Gérald; Della Penna, Alice; Wagener, Thibaut; Rougier, Gille; Bhairy, Nagib; Dugenne, Mathilde; Lahbib, Soumaya; Thyssen, Melilotus

    2017-04-01

    Submesoscale phenomena have been recently recognized as a key factor in physical-biological-biogeochemical interactions, even if it remains unclear how these processes affect the global state of the ocean. Significant large-scale impacts of submesoscale structures on primary production and influence on the phytoplankton community structure and diversity have also been reported. In the past decade submesoscale dynamics have been predominately studied through the analysis of numerical simulations. Observing the coupled physical and biogeochemical variability at this scale remains challenging due to the ephemeral nature of submesoscale structures. The in-situ study of such structures necessitates multidisciplinary approaches involving in situ observations, remote sensing and modeling. Last progresses in biogeochemical sensor development and advanced methodology including Lagrangian real-time adaptative strategies represent outstanding opportunities. The OSCAHR (Observing Submesoscale Coupling At High Resolution) campaign has been conducted thanks to a multidisciplinary approach in order to improve the understanding of submesoscale processes. An ephemeral submesoscale structure was first identified in the Ligurian Sea in fall 2015 using both satellite and numerical modeling data before the campaign. Afterwards, advanced observing systems for the physical, biological and biogeochemical characterization of the sea surface layer at a high spatial and temporal frequency were deployed during a 10-days cruise. A MVP (Moving Vessel Profiler) was used to obtain high resolution CTD profiles associated to a new pumping system with 1-m vertical resolution. Moreover, along the ship track, in addition to the standard measurements of seawater surface samples (Chl-a, nutrients, O2, SST, SSS …), we deployed an automated flow cytometer for near real-time characterization of phytoplankton functional groups (from micro-phytoplankton down to cyanobacteria). The observed submesoscale

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Present status and future prospects of spherical aberration corrected TEM/STEM for study of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present status of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is described from the viewpoint of the observation of nanomaterials. Characteristic features in TEM and STEM are explained using the experimental data obtained by our group and other research groups. Cs correction up to the 3rd-order aberration of an objective lens has already been established and research interest is focused on correcting the 5th-order spherical aberration and the chromatic aberration in combination with the development of a monochromator below an electron gun for smaller point-to-point resolution in optics. Another fundamental area of interest is the limitation of TEM and STEM resolution from the viewpoint of the scattering of electrons in crystals. The minimum size of the exit-wave function below samples undergoing TEM imaging is determined from the calculation of scattering around related atomic columns in the crystals. STEM does not have this limitation because the resolution is, in principle, determined by the probe size. One of the future prospects of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is the possibility of extending the space around the sample holder by correcting the chromatic and spherical aberrations. This wider space will contribute to the ease of performing in situ experiments and various combinations of TEM and other analysis methods. High-resolution, in situ dynamic and 3D observations/analysis are the most important keywords in the next decade of high-resolution electron microscopy.

  1. Storm Time Global Observations of Large-Scale TIDs From Ground-Based and In Situ Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarulema, John Bosco; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Katamzi-Joseph, Zama T.; Moldwin, Mark B.; Buchert, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the ionosphere's response to the largest storm of solar cycle 24 during 16-18 March 2015. We have used the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) total electron content data to study large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) over the American, African, and Asian regions. Equatorward large-scale TIDs propagated and crossed the equator to the other side of the hemisphere especially over the American and Asian sectors. Poleward TIDs with velocities in the range ≈400-700 m/s have been observed during local daytime over the American and African sectors with origin from around the geomagnetic equator. Our investigation over the American sector shows that poleward TIDs may have been launched by increased Lorentz coupling as a result of penetrating electric field during the southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field, Bz. We have observed increase in SWARM satellite electron density (Ne) at the same time when equatorward large-scale TIDs are visible over the European-African sector. The altitude Ne profiles from ionosonde observations show a possible link that storm-induced TIDs may have influenced the plasma distribution in the topside ionosphere at SWARM satellite altitude.

  2. In-situ observations of a bi-modal ion distribution in the outer coma of comet P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Feldman, W. C.; Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Stuedemann, W.

    1987-01-01

    Observations obtained by the Johnstone Plasma Analyzer on the Giotto fly-by of comet Halley showed a fairly sudden decrease in the count rate of energetic (about 30 KeV) water-group ions inside about 500,000 km from the nucleus. This decrease was accompanied by the appearance of a new water-group ion population at slightly lower energies (less than 10 KeV). Close inspection reveals that this lower-energy peak was also present somewhat earlier in the postshock flow but only became prominent near the sudden transition just described. It is shown that the observed bimodal ion distribution is well explained in terms of the velocity history of the accreting solar wind flow in the outer coma. The decline in count rate of the energetic pick-up distribution is due to a relatively sudden slowing of the bulk flow there and not to a loss of particles. Hence, charge-exchange cooling of the flow is probably not important at these distances from the nucleus. The observations suggest that pitch-angle scattering is fairly efficient at least after the bow shock, but that energy diffusion is probably not very efficient.

  3. In Situ Observation of Oxygen Vacancy Dynamics and Ordering in the Epitaxial LaCoO3 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Young-Min; He, Qian; Mishra, Rohan; Qiao, Liang; Biegalski, Michael D; Lupini, Andrew R; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2017-07-25

    Vacancy dynamics and ordering underpin the electrochemical functionality of complex oxides and strongly couple to their physical properties. In the field of the epitaxial thin films, where connection between chemistry and film properties can be most clearly revealed, the effects related to oxygen vacancies are attracting increasing attention. In this article, we report a direct, real-time, atomic level observation of the formation of oxygen vacancies in the epitaxial LaCoO 3 thin films and heterostructures under the influence of the electron beam utilizing scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). In the case of LaCoO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattice, the formation of the oxygen vacancies is shown to produce quantifiable changes in the interatomic distances, as well as qualitative changes in the symmetry of the Co sites manifested as off-center displacements. The onset of these changes was observed in both the [100] pc and [110] pc orientations in real time. Additionally, annular bright field images directly show the formation of oxygen vacancy channels along [110]pc direction. In the case of 15 u.c. LaCoO 3 thin film, we observe the sequence of events during beam-induced formation of oxygen vacancy ordered phases and find them consistent with similar processes in the bulk. Moreover, we record the dynamics of the nucleation, growth, and defect interaction at the atomic scale as these transformations happen. These results demonstrate that we can track dynamic oxygen vacancy behavior with STEM, generating atomic-level quantitative information on phase transformation and oxygen diffusion.

  4. In situ probing of the evolution of irradiation-induced defects in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.; Hattar, K.; Misra, A.

    2013-01-01

    Through in situ Cu 3+ ion irradiation at room temperature in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), we have investigated the evolution of defect clusters as a function of the radiation dose at different distances from the 3 {1 1 2} incoherent twin boundary (ITB) in Cu. Post in situ ion irradiation, high resolution TEM was used to explore the types of defects, which are composed of a high-density of vacancy stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and sparsely distributed interstitial Frank loops. During irradiation, defect clusters evolve through four stages: (i) incubation, (ii) non-interaction, (iii) interaction and (iv) saturation; and the corresponding density was observed to initially increase with irradiation dose and then approach saturation. No obvious denuded zone is observed along the 3 {1 1 2} ITB and the configuration of defects at the boundary displays as truncated SFTs. Several defect evolution models have been proposed to explain the observed phenomena

  5. In-situ observation of oxidation of Ti(0001) surface by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Takakuwa, Y; Yoshigoe, A; Teraoka, Y; Mizuno, Y; Tonda, H; Homma, T

    2003-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the initial oxidation kinetics of Ti(0001) surface was investigated by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and real-time photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation of surface- and bulk-sensitive photon energies. LEED observation revealed that oxide layers grow epitaxially with different surface structures depending on temperature: 1x1 at 200degC and sq root 3 x sq root 3 at 400degC. From the oxygen uptake curve measured by O 1s photo-electron intensity, it was clarified that oxygen diffusion through the epitaxially grown oxide layer is significantly enhanced with raising temperature, making the oxide layer thicker than 70A at 400degC. The chemical shift components observed for Ti 2p showed that TiO sub 2 becomes predominant at the subsurface with O sub 2 dose, while the stoichiometry of oxide near the interface is maintained as TiO and Ti sub 2 O sub 3 , for both cases at 200degC and 400degC. Thus it is concluded that the epitaxial growth of a very thin oxide on the Ti...

  6. Aerosol Optical Depths over Oceans: a View from MISR Retrievals and Collocated MAN and AERONET in Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Marcin L.; Garay, Michael J.; Diner, David J.; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In this study, aerosol optical depths over oceans are analyzed from satellite and surface perspectives. Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol retrievals are investigated and validated primarily against Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) observations. Furthermore, AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data from 19 island and coastal sites is incorporated in this study. The 270 MISRMAN comparison points scattered across all oceans were identified. MISR on average overestimates aerosol optical depths (AODs) by 0.04 as compared to MAN; the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error are 0.95 and 0.06, respectively. A new screening procedure based on retrieval region characterization is proposed, which is capable of substantially reducing MISR retrieval biases. Over 1000 additional MISRAERONET comparison points are added to the analysis to confirm the validity of the method. The bias reduction is effective within all AOD ranges. Setting a clear flag fraction threshold to 0.6 reduces the bias to below 0.02, which is close to a typical ground-based measurement uncertainty. Twelve years of MISR data are analyzed with the new screening procedure. The average over ocean AOD is reduced by 0.03, from 0.15 to 0.12. The largest AOD decrease is observed in high latitudes of both hemispheres, regions with climatologically high cloud cover. It is postulated that the screening procedure eliminates spurious retrieval errors associated with cloud contamination and cloud adjacency effects. The proposed filtering method can be used for validating aerosol and chemical transport models.

  7. In-situ observations of flux ropes formed in association with a pair of spiral nulls in magnetotail plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ruilong; Xie, Lun; He, Jiansen [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); PKU/UCLA Joint Research Institute in Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Chen, Li-Jen [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Wang, Xiaogang [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dunlop, Malcolm [School of Astronautics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bogdanova, Yulia V. [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Yao, Zhonghua; Fazakerley, Andrew N. [UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Xiao, Chijie [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Signatures of secondary islands are frequently observed in the magnetic reconnection regions of magnetotail plasmas. In this paper, magnetic structures with the secondary-island signatures observed by Cluster are reassembled by a fitting-reconstruction method. The results show three-dimensionally that a secondary island event can manifest the flux rope formed with an A{sub s}-type null and a B{sub s}-type null paired via their spines. We call this A{sub s}-spine-B{sub s}-like configuration the helically wrapped spine model. The reconstructed field lines wrap around the spine to form the flux rope, and an O-type topology is therefore seen on the plane perpendicular to the spine. Magnetized electrons are found to rotate on and cross the fan surface, suggesting that both the torsional-spine and the spine-fan reconnection take place in the configuration. Furthermore, detailed analysis implies that the spiral nulls and flux ropes were locally generated nearby the spacecraft in the reconnection outflow region, indicating that secondary reconnection may occur in the exhaust away from the primary reconnection site.

  8. Impact of deep convection in the tropical tropopause layer in West Africa: in-situ observations and mesoscale modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fierli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of the impact of convection on the composition of the tropical tropopause layer region (TTL in West-Africa during the AMMA-SCOUT campaign. Geophysica M55 aircraft observations of water vapor, ozone, aerosol and CO2 during August 2006 show perturbed values at altitudes ranging from 14 km to 17 km (above the main convective outflow and satellite data indicates that air detrainment is likely to have originated from convective cloud east of the flights. Simulations of the BOLAM mesoscale model, nudged with infrared radiance temperatures, are used to estimate the convective impact in the upper troposphere and to assess the fraction of air processed by convection. The analysis shows that BOLAM correctly reproduces the location and the vertical structure of convective outflow. Model-aided analysis indicates that convection can influence the composition of the upper troposphere above the level of main outflow for an event of deep convection close to the observation site. Model analysis also shows that deep convection occurring in the entire Sahelian transect (up to 2000 km E of the measurement area has a non negligible role in determining TTL composition.

  9. In situ X-ray observation of semi-solid deformation and failure in Al-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillion, A.B., E-mail: andre.phillion@ubc.ca [School of Engineering, University of British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Hamilton, R.W.; Fuloria, D.; Leung, A.C.L.; Rockett, P. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Connolley, T. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Lee, P.D. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Semi-solid deformation has been directly observed in an Al-12 wt.% Cu alloy through the combination of real-time synchrotron X-ray radiography and a bespoke high-temperature tensile tester over a range of fraction solid from 0.35 to 0.98. During deformation at low and moderate fraction solids, the X-ray radiographs indicate that there is significant feeding of interdendritic liquid in the region of strain localization prior to crack formation. Furthermore, the measured load required to initiate localized tensile deformation was found to be similar over the range of fraction solid 0.35 to 0.66. At higher fraction solids, the radiographic observations are consistent with classical hot tearing behaviour: limited liquid flow due to low permeability; void nucleation and coalescence; and final failure. Based on these results, a three-stage mechanism for semi-solid failure is proposed which includes the effects of liquid flow and micro-neck formation.

  10. In-situ observations of flux ropes formed in association with a pair of spiral nulls in magnetotail plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ruilong; Xie, Lun; He, Jiansen; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Chen, Li-Jen; Wang, Xiaogang; Dunlop, Malcolm; Bogdanova, Yulia V.; Yao, Zhonghua; Fazakerley, Andrew N.; Xiao, Chijie

    2016-01-01

    Signatures of secondary islands are frequently observed in the magnetic reconnection regions of magnetotail plasmas. In this paper, magnetic structures with the secondary-island signatures observed by Cluster are reassembled by a fitting-reconstruction method. The results show three-dimensionally that a secondary island event can manifest the flux rope formed with an A_s-type null and a B_s-type null paired via their spines. We call this A_s-spine-B_s-like configuration the helically wrapped spine model. The reconstructed field lines wrap around the spine to form the flux rope, and an O-type topology is therefore seen on the plane perpendicular to the spine. Magnetized electrons are found to rotate on and cross the fan surface, suggesting that both the torsional-spine and the spine-fan reconnection take place in the configuration. Furthermore, detailed analysis implies that the spiral nulls and flux ropes were locally generated nearby the spacecraft in the reconnection outflow region, indicating that secondary reconnection may occur in the exhaust away from the primary reconnection site.

  11. Global atmospheric budget of acetaldehyde: 3-D model analysis and constraints from in-situ and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Millet

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We construct a global atmospheric budget for acetaldehyde using a 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem, and use an ensemble of observations to evaluate present understanding of its sources and sinks. Hydrocarbon oxidation provides the largest acetaldehyde source in the model (128 Tg a−1, a factor of 4 greater than the previous estimate, with alkanes, alkenes, and ethanol the main precursors. There is also a minor source from isoprene oxidation. We use an updated chemical mechanism for GEOS-Chem, and photochemical acetaldehyde yields are consistent with the Master Chemical Mechanism. We present a new approach to quantifying the acetaldehyde air-sea flux based on the global distribution of light absorption due to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM derived from satellite ocean color observations. The resulting net ocean emission is 57 Tg a−1, the second largest global source of acetaldehyde. A key uncertainty is the acetaldehyde turnover time in the ocean mixed layer, with quantitative model evaluation over the ocean complicated by known measurement artifacts in clean air. Simulated concentrations in surface air over the ocean generally agree well with aircraft measurements, though the model tends to overestimate the vertical gradient. PAN:NOx ratios are well-simulated in the marine boundary layer, providing some support for the modeled ocean source. We introduce the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1 for acetaldehyde and ethanol and use it to quantify their net flux from living terrestrial plants. Including emissions from decaying plants the total direct acetaldehyde source from the land biosphere is 23 Tg a−1. Other terrestrial acetaldehyde sources include biomass burning (3 Tg a−1 and anthropogenic emissions (2 Tg a−1. Simulated concentrations in the continental boundary layer are generally unbiased and capture the spatial

  12. Visible/near-infrared spectral diversity from in situ observations of the Bagnold Dune Field sands in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Achilles, Cherie; Bell, James F.; Bender, Steve; Cloutis, Edward; Ehlmann, Bethany; Fraeman, Abigail; Gasnault, Olivier; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Maurice, Sylvestre; Pinet, Patrick; Thompson, Lucy; Wellington, Danika; Wiens, Roger C.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Bagnold Dune campaign conducted by Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of dune sands were acquired using Mast Camera (Mastcam) multispectral imaging (445-1013 nm) and Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) passive point spectroscopy (400-840 nm). By comparing spectra from pristine and rover-disturbed ripple crests and troughs within the dune field, and through analysis of sieved grain size fractions, constraints on mineral segregation from grain sorting could be determined. In general, the dune areas exhibited low relative reflectance, a weak 530 nm absorption band, an absorption band near 620 nm, and a spectral downturn after 685 nm consistent with olivine-bearing sands. The finest grain size fractions occurred within ripple troughs and in the subsurface and typically exhibited the strongest 530 nm bands, highest relative reflectances, and weakest red/near-infrared ratios, consistent with a combination of crystalline and amorphous ferric materials. Coarser-grained samples were the darkest and bluest and exhibited weaker 530 nm bands, lower relative reflectances, and stronger downturns in the near-infrared, consistent with greater proportions of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. These grains were typically segregated along ripple crests and among the upper surfaces of grain flows in disturbed sands. Sieved dune sands exhibited progressive decreases in reflectance with increasing grain size, as observed in laboratory spectra of olivine size separates. The continuum of spectral features observed between the coarse- and fine-grained dune sands suggests that mafic grains, ferric materials, and air fall dust mix in variable proportions depending on aeolian activity and grain sorting.

  13. Detecting Patterns of Changing Carbon Uptake in Alaska Using Sustained In Situ and Remote Sensing CO2 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, N.; Miller, C. E.; Commane, R.; Wofsy, S. C.; Koven, C.; Lawrence, D. M.; Lindaas, J.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Sweeney, C.

    2015-12-01

    The future trajectory of Arctic ecosystems as a carbon sink or source is of global importance due to vast quantities of carbon in permafrost soils. Over the last few years, a sustained set of airborne (NOAA-PFA, NOAA-ACG, and CARVE) and satellite (OCO-2 and GOSAT) atmospheric CO2 mole fraction measurements have provided unprecedented space and time scale sampling density across Alaska, making it possible to study the Arctic carbon cycle in more detail than ever before. Here, we use a synthesis of airborne and satellite CO2 over the 2009-2013 period with simulated concentrations from CLM4.5 and GEOS-Chem to examine the extent to which regional-scale carbon cycle changes in Alaska can be distinguished from interannual variability and long-range transport. We show that observational strategies focused on sustained profile measurements spanning continental interiors provide key insights into magnitude, duration, and variability of Summer sink activity, but that cold season sources are currently poorly resolved due to lack of sustained spatial sampling. Consequently, although future CO2 budgets dominated by enhanced cold season emission sources under climate warming and permafrost thaw scenarios are likely to produce substantial changes to near-surface CO2 gradients and seasonal cycle amplitude, they are unlikely to be detected by current observational strategies. We conclude that airborne and ground-based networks that provide more spatial coverage in year round profiles will help compensate for systematic sampling gaps in NIR passive satellite systems and provide essential constraints for Arctic carbon cycle changes.

  14. HONO and Inorganic Fine Particle Composition in Typical Monsoon Region with Intensive Anthropogenic Emission: In-situ Observations and Source Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Nie, W.; Ding, A.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most typical monsoon area with probably the most largest population intensity in the world. With sharply economic development and the large anthropogenic emissions, fine particle pollution have been one of the major air quality problem and may further have impact on the climate system. Though a lot of control policy (sulfur emission have been decreasing from 2007) have been conducted in the region, studies showed the sulfate in fine particles still take major fraction as the nitrate from nitrogen oxides increased significantly. In this study, the role of inorganic chemical compositions in fine particles was investigated with two years in-situ observation. Sulfate and Nitrate contribute to fine particle mass equally in general, but sulfate contributes more during summer and nitrate played more important role in winter. Using lagrangian dispersion backward modeling and source contribution clustering method, the impact of airmass coming from different source region (industrial, dust, biogenic emissions, etc) on fine particle inorganic compositions were discussed. Furthermore, we found two unique cases showing in-situ implications for sulfate formation by nitrogen dioxide oxidation mechanisms. It was showed that the mixing of anthropogenic pollutants with long-range transported mineral dust and biomass burning plume would enhance the sulfate formation by different chemistry mechanisms. This study focus on the complex aspects of fine particle formation in airmasses from different source regions: . It highlights the effect of NOx in enhancing the atmospheric oxidization capacity and indicates a potentially very important impact of increasing NOx on air pollution formation and regional climate change in East Asia.

  15. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by potential native plants and their microscopic observation of root growing on stabilised distillery sludge as a prospective tool for in situ phytoremediation of industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    The safe disposal of post-methanated distillery sludge (PMDS) in the environment is challenging due to high concentrations of heavy metals along with other complex organic pollutants. The study has revealed that PMDS contained high amounts of Fe (2403), Zn (210), Mn (126), Cu (73.62), Cr (21.825), Pb (16.33) and Ni (13.425 mg kg -1 ) along with melanoidins and other co-pollutants. The phytoextraction pattern in 15 potential native plants growing on sludge showed that the Blumea lacera, Parthenium hysterophorous, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Cannabis sativa, Basella alba, Tricosanthes dioica, Amaranthus spinosus L., Achyranthes sp., Dhatura stramonium, Sacchrum munja and Croton bonplandianum were noted as root accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn, while S. munja, P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, C. album, T. dioica, D. stramonium, B. lacera, B. alba, Kalanchoe pinnata and Achyranthes sp. were found as shoot accumulator for Fe. In addition, A. spinosus L. was found as shoot accumulator for Zn and Mn. Similarly, all plants found as leaf accumulator for Fe, Zn and Mn except A. spinosus L. and Ricinus communis. Further, the BCF of all tested plants were noted 1. This revealed that metal bioavailability to plant is poor due to strong complexation of heavy metals with organic pollutants. This gives a strong evidence of hyperaccumulation for the tested metals from complex distillery waste. Furthermore, the TEM observations of root of P. hysterophorous, C. sativa, Solanum nigrum and R. communis showed formation of multi-nucleolus, multi-vacuoles and deposition of metal granules in cellular component of roots as a plant adaptation mechanism for phytoextraction of heavy metal-rich polluted site. Hence, these native plants may be used as a tool for in situ phytoremediation and eco-restoration of industrial waste-contaminated site.

  16. Remotely Sensed Predictions and In Situ Observations of Lower Congo River Dynamics in Support of Fish Evolutionary Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, N.; Bjerklie, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ongoing research into the evolution of fishes in the lower Congo River suggests a close tie between diversity and hydraulic complexity of flow in the channel. For example, fish populations on each side of the rapids at the head of the lower Congo are within 1.5 km of one another, a distance normally allowing for interbreeding in river systems of comparable size, yet these fish populations show about 5% divergence in their mitochondrial DNA signatures. The proximal reason for this divergence is hydraulic complexity: the speed and turbulence of water moving through the thalweg is a barrier to dispersal for these fishes. Further examination of fish diversity suggests additional correlations of evolutionary divergence of fish clades in association with geomorphic and hydraulic features such as deep pools, extensive systems of rapids, alternating sections of fast and slow current, and recurring whirlpools. Due to prohibitive travel costs, limited field time, and the large geographic domain (approximately 400 river km) of the study area, we undertook a nested set of remote sensing analyses to extract habitat features, geomorphic descriptors, and hydraulic parameters including channel forming velocity, depth, channel roughness, slope, and shear stress. Each of these estimated parameters is mapped for each 1 km segment of the river from the rapids described above to below Inga Falls, a massive cataract where several endemic fish species have been identified. To validate remote sensing estimates, we collected depth and velocity data within the river using gps-enabled sonar measurements from a kayak and Doppler profiling from a motor-driven dugout canoe. Observations corroborate remote sensing estimates of geomorphic parameters. Remote sensing-based estimates of channel-forming velocity and depth were less than the observed maximum channel depth but correlated well with channel properties within 1 km reach segments. This correspondence is notable. The empirical models used

  17. In Situ Observation of Rock Spalling in the Deep Tunnels of the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (2400 m Depth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Xu, Hong; Qiu, Shi-Li; Li, Shao-Jun; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Hao-Sen; Cheng, Yuan; Gao, Yao-Hui

    2018-04-01

    To study rock spalling in deep tunnels at China Jinping Underground Laboratory Phase II (CJPL-II), photogrammetry method and digital borehole camera were used to quantify key features of rock spalling including orientation, thickness of slabs and the depth of spalling. The failure mechanism was analysed through scanning electron microscope and numerical simulation based on FLAC3D. Observation results clearly showed the process of rock spalling failure: a typical spalling pattern around D-shaped tunnels after top-heading and bottom bench were discovered. The orientation and thickness of the slabs were obtained. The slabs were parallel to the excavated surfaces of the tunnel and were related to the shape of the tunnel surface and orientation of the principal stress. The slabs were alternately thick and thin, and they gradually increased in thickness from the sidewall inwards. The form and mechanism of spalling at different locations in the tunnels, as influenced by stress state and excavation, were analysed. The result of this study was helpful to those rethinking the engineering design, including the excavation and support of tunnels, or caverns, at high risk of spalling.

  18. Rocket in situ observation of equatorial plasma irregularities in the region between E and F layers over Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savio Odriozola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage VS-30 Orion rocket was launched from the equatorial rocket launching station in Alcântara, Brazil, on 8 December 2012 soon after sunset (19:00 LT, carrying a Langmuir probe operating alternately in swept and constant bias modes. At the time of launch, ground equipment operated at equatorial stations showed rapid rise in the base of the F layer, indicating the pre-reversal enhancement of the F region vertical drift and creating ionospheric conditions favorable for the generation of plasma bubbles. Vertical profiles of electron density estimated from Langmuir probe data showed wave patterns and small- and medium-scale plasma irregularities in the valley region (100–300 km during the rocket upleg and downleg. These irregularities resemble those detected by the very high frequency (VHF radar installed at Jicamarca and so-called equatorial quasi-periodic echoes. We present evidence suggesting that these observations could be the first detection of this type of irregularity made by instruments onboard a rocket.

  19. In-situ observation of the chemical erosion of graphite in the scrape-off-layer of TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipps, V.; Vietzke, E.; Erdweg, M.

    1989-01-01

    A sniffer probe system has been used to investigate the chemical erosion during interaction of the TEXTOR scrape-off plasma with a pyrolytic graphite plate at temperatures up to 1400 0 C. Floating potential conditions as well as 200 V bias has been applied at plasma ion fluxes of about 10 18 ions/cm 2 sec. Methane formation was found to be 8x10 -3 CH 4 /H and 1.5x10 -2 CD 4 /D + for room temperature graphite and floating potential increasing by a factor of two at temperature around 500 0 C. Biasing the graphite decreases the methane yield at room temperature and increase it in the maximum temperature range. CO formation due to chemical interaction of oxygen ions with the graphite reaches ratios between 3 and 6x10 -2 CO/D(H) near the limiter edge under normal TEXTOR scrape-off conditions and exceeds the chemical hydro-(deutero-)carbon formation significantly. The results are discussed in view of the present status of hydro-(deutero-)carbon formation on graphite and carbon impurity observations made in fusion experiments. (orig.)

  20. Quantifying the surface energy fluxes in South Greenland during the 2012 high melt episodes using in-situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Fausto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two high melt episodes occurred on the Greenland ice sheet in July 2012, during which nearly the entire ice sheet surface experienced melting. Observations from an automatic weather station (AWS in the lower ablation area in South Greenland reveal the largest daily melt rates (up to 28 cm d-1 ice equivalent ever recorded on the ice sheet. The two melt episodes lasted 6 days, equivalent to 6% of the June-August melt period, but contributed 14 % to the total annual ablation of 8.5 m ice equivalent. We employ a surface energy balance model driven by AWS data to quantify the relative importance of the energy budget components contributing to melt through the melt season. During the days with largest daily melt rates, surface turbulent heat input peaked at 552 Wm-2, 77 % of the surface melt energy, which is otherwise typically dominated by absorbed solar radiation. We find that rain contributed ca. 7 % to melt during these episodes.

  1. In situ observation of fluoride-ion-induced hydroxyapatite-collagen detachment on bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, J H; Thurner, P J; Lauer, M E; Bosma, B L; Schitter, G; Fantner, G E; Izumi, M; Weaver, J C; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2007-01-01

    The topography of freshly fractured bovine and human bone surfaces was determined by the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fracture surfaces from both kinds of samples exhibited complex landscapes formed by hydroxyapatite mineral platelets with lateral dimensions ranging from ∼90 nm x 60 nm to ∼20 nm x 20 nm. Novel AFM techniques were used to study these fracture surfaces during various chemical treatments. Significant topographical changes were observed following exposure to aqueous solutions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or highly concentrated sodium fluoride (NaF). Both treatments resulted in the apparent loss of the hydroxyapatite mineral platelets on a timescale of a few seconds. Collagen fibrils situated beneath the overlying mineral platelets were clearly exposed and could be resolved with high spatial resolution in the acquired AFM images. Time-dependent mass loss experiments revealed that the applied agents (NaF or EDTA) had very different resulting effects. Despite the fact that the two treatments exhibited nearly identical results following examination by AFM, bulk bone samples treated with EDTA exhibited a ∼70% mass loss after 72 h, whereas for the NaF-treated samples, the mass loss was only of the order of ∼10%. These results support those obtained from previous mechanical testing experiments, suggesting that enhanced formation of superficial fluoroapatite dramatically weakens the protein-hydroxyapatite interfaces. Additionally, we discovered that treatment with aqueous solutions of NaF resulted in the effective extraction of noncollagenous proteins from bone powder

  2. From near-surface to root-zone soil moisture using an exponential filter: an assessment of the method based on in-situ observations and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journal