WorldWideScience

Sample records for in-class peer leaders

  1. What Do Students Experience as Peer Leaders of Learning Teams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik C.; Robbins, Brett A.; Loui, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    In a course for engineering freshmen, peer leaders facilitated optional study sessions, which implemented peer-led team learning workshops. Some leaders were paid teaching assistants, but most were undergraduate volunteers. To understand the experiences of the peer leaders, we asked them to keep weekly reflective journals. By performing a basic…

  2. Outdoor Orientation Leaders: The Effects of Peer Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, J. David; Bell, Brent J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how student (peer) leaders of college outdoor orientation programs understand the effects of their leadership experience on personal growth and development. We collected data through in-depth interviews of 36 first-time student leaders at four colleges. Findings indicate that the majority of students at all four…

  3. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.

  4. Becoming an Effective Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Harry; Jenkins, Rhiannon; Hill, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This Directions paper, written by two former Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Leaders, (West and Jenkins) and a PAL Tutor (Hill), will support any geographer considering a PAL role. It reflects their experiences of participating in a PAL scheme at the University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol, United Kingdom, and research conducted with…

  5. Evaluation of a Peer-Led Hypertension Intervention for Veterans: Impact on Peer Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E.; Patterson, Leslie; Brouwer, Amanda M.; Wendorf, Angela R.; Ertl, Kristyn; Eastwood, Dan; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Kathlyn; Whittle, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Volunteer peer leaders (PLs) benefit from their involvement in health interventions but we know little about how they compare with other non-PL volunteers or with the intervention recipients themselves. We randomized 58 veterans' service organizations' posts (e.g. VFW) to peer- versus professionally led self-management support interventions. Our…

  6. Exploring the Importance of Peers as Leaders in the Dream School Program: From the Perspectives of Peer Leaders, Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsen, Ingrid; Larsen, Torill; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Servan, Annette Kathinka

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of using peers as leaders in a secondary school intervention in Norway from the perspectives of the principals, the teachers and the peer leaders. The overall aims of the intervention are to improve the psychosocial learning environment and promote positive mental health. Five secondary schools which had used…

  7. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Snyder

    Full Text Available This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.

  8. Natural Peer Leaders as Substance Use Prevention Agents: the Teens' Life Choice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golonka, Megan M; Peairs, Kristen F; Malone, Patrick S; Grimes, Christina L; Costanzo, Philip R

    2017-07-01

    In adolescent social groups, natural peer leaders have been found to engage in more frequent experimentation with substance use and to possess disproportionate power to affect the behavior and social choices of their associated peer followers. In the current exploratory study, we used sociometrics and social cognitive mapping to identify natural leaders of cliques in a seventh grade population and invited the leaders to develop anti-drug presentations for an audience of younger peers. The program employed social-psychological approaches directed at having leaders proceed from extrinsic inducements to intrinsic identification with their persuasive products in the context of the group intervention process. The goals of the intervention were to induce substance resistant self-persuasion in the leaders and to produce a spread of this resistance effect to their peer followers. To test the intervention, we compared the substance use behaviors of the selected leaders and their peers to a control cohort. The study found preliminary support that the intervention produced changes in the substance use behavior among the leaders who participated in the intervention, but did not detect a spread to non-leader peers in the short term. This descriptive study speaks to the plausibility of employing self-persuasion paradigms to bring about change in high-risk behaviors among highly central adolescents. In addition, it highlights the viability of applying social psychological principles to prevention work and calls for more research in this area.

  9. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  10. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders' energy balance-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, B C; Shrewsbury, V A; Hardy, L L; Flood, V M; Byth, K; Shah, S

    2017-09-07

    Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA) program on SALSA peer leaders' EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15-16 year olds) who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13-14 year olds). This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders' fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415) who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P leaders' intentions, except MVPA which remained stable. The SALSA program had a positive impact on peer leaders' EBRBs, with gender and socio-economic status moderating some outcomes. ACTRN12617000712303 retrospectively registered.

  11. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  12. Evaluating Peer-Led Team Learning: A Study of Long-Term Effects on Former Workshop Peer Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafney, Leo; Varma-Nelson, Pratibha

    2007-03-01

    Peer-led team learning (PLTL) is a program of small-group workshops, attached to a course, under the direction of trained peer leaders who have completed the course. Peer leaders ensure that team members engage with the materials and with each other, they help build commitment and confidence, and they encourage discussion. Studies of PLTL have found that grades and retention improve, and students value the workshops as important in their learning. With a ten-year history, it was possible to study the impact of PLTL on former leaders as they took subsequent steps into graduate work and careers. A survey was developed, piloted, revised, and placed online. Nearly 600 former leaders from nine institutions were contacted; 119 completed surveys were received. Respondents reported that leading the workshops reinforced the breadth and depth of their own learning, helped them develop personal qualities such as confidence and perseverance, and fostered a variety of presentation and team-related skills. The respondents offered rich insights into issues in implementing workshops. This study contributes to the literature on involvement theory in the academic development of college students.

  13. Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE): integrating C-POL and social media to train peer leaders in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D

    2012-01-01

    Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA Harnessing Online Peer Education study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African-American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups.

  14. Assessing Peer Leader Skill Acquisition and Group Dynamics in a First-Year Calculus Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Rebecca; Hammond, Nicholas B.; Smith, Justin; Guerra, Dalyana

    2018-01-01

    Peer-led team learning (PLTL), specifically the model known as 'Workshops', has been shown to contribute positively and significantly to student success in STEM courses across subjects (Gosser et al., 2001). Our research adds to the SOTL literature describing the effectiveness of Workshops by reporting on the changes in student leaders. We examine…

  15. Exploration of Peer Leader Verbal Behaviors as They Intervene with Small Groups in College General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulatunga, Ushiri; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Current literature has emphasized the lack of research into verbal behaviors of teachers as a barrier to understanding the effectiveness of instructional interventions. This study focuses on the verbal behaviors of peer leaders, who serve as de facto teachers in a college chemistry teaching reform based on cooperative learning. Video data obtained…

  16. Peer Led Team Learning in Introductory Biology: Effects on Peer Leader Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

  17. [Effect of school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.

  18. Identifying potential engaging leaders within medical education: The role of positive influence on peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Tykocinski, Mark L

    2014-08-26

    Abstract Background: Previous research has paid little to no attention towards exploring methods of identifying existing medical student leaders. Aim: Focusing on the role of influence and employing the tenets of the engaging leadership model, this study examines demographic and academic performance-related differences of positive influencers and if students who have been peer-identified as positive influencers also demonstrate high levels of genuine concern for others. Methods: Three separate fourth-year classes were asked to designate classmates that had significant positive influences on their professional and personal development. The top 10% of those students receiving positive influence nominations were compared with the other students on demographics, academic performance, and genuine concern for others. Results: Besides age, no demographic differences were found between positive influencers and other students. High positive influencers were not found to have higher standardized exam scores but did receive significantly higher clinical clerkship ratings. High positive influencers were found to possess a higher degree of genuine concern for others. Conclusion: The findings lend support to (a) utilizing the engaging model to explore leaders and leadership within medical education, (b) this particular method of identifying existing medical student leaders, and (c) return the focus of leadership research to the power of influence.

  19. An Exploratory Multiple-Case Study of the Experiences of Participants in Self-Initiated Peer Support Groups among School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Collette R.

    2016-01-01

    School leaders commonly face issues of loneliness, isolation, burnout, and depression. The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore self-initiated peer support group participation for professional impact and personal impact on school leaders facing issues of loneliness, isolation, stress, and burnout. This study provides an…

  20. Peer? Expert? Teacher Leaders Struggle to Gain Trust while Establishing Their Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2011-01-01

    Instructional teacher leaders strive to help teachers build knowledge and skills to improve teaching practice. With titles such as coach or coordinator, they may receive a stipend or released time from teaching. Instructional teacher leaders rely on an array of strategies to improve instruction and enhance student learning. They conduct…

  1. Persuasion: A Leader's Edge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Mark

    2002-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, today's leaders should realize the need for persuasion. In one manner or another, leaders depend on persuasive rhetoric to convince, encourage, and energize superiors, peers, and subordinates...

  2. Developing Leaders: Implementation of a Peer Advising Program for a Public Health Sciences Undergraduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan eGriffin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peer advising is an integral part of our undergraduate advising system in the Public Health Sciences major at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. The program was developed in 2009 to address the advising needs of a rapidly growing major that went from 25 to over 530 majors between 2007 and 2014. Each year, 9-12 top performing upper-level students are chosen through an intensive application process. A major goal of the program is to provide curriculum and career guidance to students in the major and empower students in their academic and professional pursuits. The year-long program involves several components, including: staffing the drop-in advising center, attending training seminars, developing and presenting workshops for students, meeting prospective students and families, evaluating ways to improve the program, and collaborating on self-directed projects. The peer advisors also provide program staff insight into the needs and perspectives of students in the major. In turn, peer advisors gain valuable leadership and communication skills, and learn strategies for improving student success. The Peer Advising Program builds community and fosters personal and professional development for the peer advisors. In this paper, we will discuss the undergraduate peer advising model, the benefits and challenges of the program, and lessons learned. Several methods were used to understand the perceived benefits and challenges of the program and experiences of students who utilized the Peer Advising Center. The data for this evaluation were drawn from three sources: 1 archival records from the Peer Advising Center; 2 feedback from peer advisors who completed the year-long internship; and 3 a survey of students who utilized the Peer Advising Center. Results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that peer advisors gain valuable skills that they can carry into their professional world. The program is also a way to engage students in building community

  3. The Architecture of a High-Impact and Sustainable Peer Leader Program: A Blueprint for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Pat; Seabold, Jenna; Pinnegar, Fred

    2012-01-01

    The research literature in higher education is abundantly clear that each student's engagement and involvement in the college experience make a difference in the kind of education the student receives as well as the outcomes. Peer leadership programs in higher education are growing in popularity because they provide a variety of ways to…

  4. Managerial leadership assessment - Personality correlates of and sex differences in ratings by leaders, peers, and followers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Robert H.; Wilhelm, John

    1989-01-01

    A performance appraisal was conducted at a Fortune 500 airline. Evaluations of each manager were taken from his or her management, peers and subordinates. These ratings were related to personality clusters revealing patterns for males similar to those found between personality and performance in pilot populations. A case is made that piloting aircraft requires similar skills to managing other complex enterprises and that similar profiles predict success in each.

  5. Peers and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study on Selection and Socialization Effects of In-Class Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze whether in-class friends influence each other's grades, and whether adolescents tend to select friends that are similar to them in terms of academic achievement. During 1 academic year, 542 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.3 years) reported on 3 different occasions on their in-class friendship networks.…

  6. Academic Libraries and Learning Support in Collaboration. Library Based Guidance for Peer Assisted Learning Leaders at Bournemouth University: Theory and Practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Parton, Steve; Fleming, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    This article begins with an overview of the University’s pioneering Peer Assisted Learning Scheme (PAL) and describes how in 2005/6, the Library became involved, collaborating with the PAL Coordinator to develop materials for use by PAL Leaders. PAL is intended to foster cross-year support between students on the same course. It encourages students to support each other and learn co-operatively under the guidance of trained students from the year above - called PAL Leaders. Two documents were...

  7. Staff Perceptions of the Effect of the Leader in Me on Student Motivation and Peer Relationships in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    Staff and student surveys at Lane Elementary School (pseudonym) confirm that students lack motivation to complete class work and often struggle to interact appropriately with one another. Similar concerns are reported across the United States as indicated by national Gallup Poll results on student motivation, peer relationships, and feelings of…

  8. Peer Learning in a MATLAB Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckinger, Shanon

    2016-11-01

    Three forms of research-based peer learning were implemented in the design of a MATLAB programming course for mechanical engineering undergraduate students. First, a peer learning program was initiated. These undergraduate peer learning leaders played two roles in the course, (I) they were in the classroom helping students' with their work, and, (II) they led optional two hour helps sessions outside of the class time. The second form of peer learning was implemented through the inclusion of a peer discussion period following in class clicker quizzes. The third form of peer learning had the students creating video project assignments and posting them on YouTube to explain course topics to their peers. Several other more informal techniques were used to encourage peer learning. Student feedback in the form of both instructor-designed survey responses and formal course evaluations (quantitative and narrative) will be presented. Finally, effectiveness will be measured by formal assessment, direct and indirect to these peer learning methods. This will include both academic data/grades and pre/post test scores. Overall, the course design and its inclusion of these peer learning techniques demonstrate effectiveness.

  9. Individual children's interactions with teachers, peers, and tasks : The applicability of the inCLASS Pre-K in Danish preschools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Pauline L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Bleses, Dorthe

    2018-01-01

    Social competence in a preschool setting, defined as children's success in interacting with peers and teachers, and showing adaptive classroom and task-related behavior, has shown to be predictive of subsequent positive social-emotional, academic, and school outcomes. Social competence is partly

  10. Feasibility of an online and a face-to-face version of a self-management program for young adults with a rheumatic disease: experiences of young adults and peer leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerlaan, Judy; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Scholtus, Lieske; de Vos, André; Zwier, Matthijs; Bijlsma, Hans; Kruize, Aike A

    2014-03-25

    Based on the self-efficacy theory, an online and a face-to-face self-management programs 'Challenge your Arthritis' for young adults with a rheumatic disease have recently been developed. These two courses are led by young peer leaders. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of the online and face-to-face self-management program. Feasibility was evaluated on items of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, user-acceptance, and adherence to both programs in young adults and peer leaders. Additional analyses of interactions on the e-Health applications, discussion board and chat board, were conducted. Twenty-two young adults with a diagnosed rheumatic disease participated in the study: 12 young adults followed the online program and 10 followed the face-to-face program. Both programs appeared to be feasible, especially in dealing with problems in daily life, and the participants indicated the time investment as 'worthwhile'. In using the online program, no technical problems occurred. Participants found the program easy to use, user friendly, and liked the 'look and feel' of the program. Both the online and the face-to-face versions of a self-management program. 'Challenge your arthritis' were found to be feasible and well appreciated by young adults with a rheumatic disease. Because these programs are likely to be a practical aid to health practices, a randomized controlled study to investigate the effects on patient outcomes is planned.

  11. A Comparison of Student Leader and Non Leader Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marihuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)

  12. LEADER 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniels, G H; Hegedüs, L; Marso, S P

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To report preliminary data on baseline serum calcitonin concentrations and associated clinical characteristics in a global population with type 2 diabetes before liraglutide or placebo randomization. METHODS: The ongoing LEADER trial has enrolled 9340 people with type 2 diabetes and at high...... committee of thyroid experts will oversee calcitonin monitoring throughout the trial and will review all calcitonin concentrations ≥20 ng/l. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 64.3 ± 7.2 years, 64.3% were men, and mean the body mass index was 32.5 ± 6.3 kg/m(2) . The median (interquartile range...... with higher serum calcitonin concentrations that were statistically significant. A 20 ml/min/1.73 m(2) decrease in estimated GFR (eGFR) was associated with a 14% increase in serum calcitonin in women and an 11% increase in men. CONCLUSIONS: In the LEADER population, the prevalence of elevated serum calcitonin...

  13. The Perceived Impact of Peer Leadership Experiences on College Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Tracy L.; Keup, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Open-ended data from the 2009 National Survey of Peer Leaders were analyzed to explore the impact of peer leadership on academic performance. While most participants suggested the experience had no effect on academics, perceptions varied by role. Peer leaders in academic and community service roles described increased skills and understanding of…

  14. Are Peer Educators Really Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Amy Badura; Millard, Michele; Shah, Kinjal

    2008-01-01

    Objective, Participants and Methods: To determine whether peer educators are considered peers by their audiences, the authors compared 28 peer educators and 28 college students on their personal qualities using self-report surveys. Results: Students who wanted to become peer educators reported higher self-esteem, greater leadership skills, and…

  15. Romance of Leadership as a Leader Emergence Predictor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cerny, Troy A

    2008-01-01

    ...) in the case of peer ratings. The assertion that locus of control will moderate the relationship between romance of leadership and leader emergence received strong support in the case of instructor ratings (p < .001) and partial support in the case of peer ratings (p < .06).

  16. Well-connected leaders: the impact of leaders' social network ties on LMX and members' work attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Green, Stephen G; Schleicher, Deidra J

    2010-11-01

    We examined the proposition that leaders' social network ties in the larger organization influence the quality of their leader-member exchange (LMX) with their employees, which, in turn, impacts these employees' job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Using multilevel, multisource data from a field study of 184 bank employees nested within 42 branch managers, we found that leaders who had higher quality relationships with their bosses and who were more central in their peer networks were perceived by their subordinates as having greater status in the organization and, therefore, were able to form higher quality relationships with them. Further, the effects of the leaders' perceived status on LMX were stronger when subordinates were less central in their own peer network. Finally, LMX mediated the impact of leaders' perceived status in the organization on subordinates' job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Leaders of the profession and 'professional' leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Jakob Ditlev; Frederiksen, Lars Frode

    of the professional complex according to a Parsonian perspective) and a more distinct leader identity associated with business, management, and accountancy. We will attempt to go beyond some of the manifest expectations of school leaders, including expectations of their training programmes, and show how being...

  18. Perceived Benefits of Peer Leadership as Described by Junior Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Sara

    1998-01-01

    Twelve nursing students served as peer leaders during clinical rotation. Self-evaluations identified educational benefits: practice in prioritizing, enhancement of critical thinking and technical skills, awareness of peers as resources, and development of management skills. (SK)

  19. Jesus the Strategic Leader

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Gregg

    2000-01-01

    Jesus was a great strategic leader who changed the world in many ways. Close study of what he did and how he did it reveals a pattern of behavior that is extremely useful and relevant to the modern strategic leader...

  20. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  1. Elementary Mathematics Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…

  2. The Resilient Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  3. International Survey of Peer Leadership (ISPL: An Emerging Snapshot of the Status of Peer Leadership in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frade Nelia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The power and importance of peer influence in educational settings has been well documented (Cuseo, 2010; Ender & Kay, 2001; Keup, 2010. In South Africa, research supports international trends that student involvement in peer-led activities contributes to student success and ultimate throughput (Layton & McKenna, 2015; Loots, 2009; Underhill & McDonald, 2010. A plethora of research exists attesting to the benefits for students who are the recipients of peer-led activities. In South Africa, however, knowledge gaps exist pertaining to a national perspective on the experiences and, to some extent, on the benefits of peer leadership activities for peer leaders themselves. The purpose of this study is to provide an initial national snapshot of the development and experiences of peer leaders at six South African institutions of higher education, using the International Survey of Peer Leaders (ISPL. The research design adopted was a non-probability purposive sampling technique, with a sample size of N=466. Data were analysed using descriptive analyses. Findings validate previous findings and provide a more comprehensive picture of the types of peer leadership positions held, the training and support peer leaders receive, levels of engagement, and the benefits of being involved in peer-led activities.

  4. Feasibility of Recruiting Peer Educators to Promote HIV Testing Using Facebook Among Men Who have Sex with Men in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacho, Luis A; Galea, Jerome T; Young, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    A peer leader-based intervention using social media can be an effective means to encourage Peruvian gay men to test for HIV. The objective was to explore the feasibility of recruiting and training leaders to deliver a peer intervention via Facebook to promote HIV testing. Training consisted of three sessions focused on HIV epidemiology, consequences of stigma associated with HIV, and ways to use Facebook. We performed pre- and post-training evaluations to assess HIV knowledge and comfort using Facebook. We trained 34 peer leaders. At baseline, the majority of peer leaders were already qualified and knowledgeable about HIV prevention and use of social media. We found a significant increase in proportion of peer leaders who were comfortable using social media to discuss about sexual partners and about STIs. It is feasible to recruit peer leaders who are qualified to conduct a social media based HIV prevention intervention in Peru.

  5. Peer-to-Peer Networking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    networking, operating systems and embedded systems. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networking in recent times has been touted as the 'killer application' that is poised to shape the. Internet's future. The purpose of this article is to define P2P and explain its working. We also describe various models. ofP2P and diverse applications of ...

  6. Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaij, H; Oussedik, S; Hoffmeyer, P

    2014-04-01

    The maintenance of quality and integrity in clinical and basic science research depends upon peer review. This process has stood the test of time and has evolved to meet increasing work loads, and ways of detecting fraud in the scientific community. However, in the 21st century, the emphasis on evidence-based medicine and good science has placed pressure on the ways in which the peer review system is used by most journals. This paper reviews the peer review system and the problems it faces in the digital age, and proposes possible solutions.

  7. Improving health consciousness and life skills in young people through peer-leadership in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerachote, C; Kessomboon, P; Rattanasiri, A; Koju, R

    2013-01-01

    Peer leadership is widely recognized as an effective approach to health promotion and empowerment among people of similar ages, especially the youth. Such programs build peer leaders who in turn help empower the youths in their groups to improve their health and life skills related to health. Most previous studies have focused on the effectiveness of such activities in target groups but have neglected to effectively address and explore the transformations in peer leaders themselves. This descriptive study aimed to investigate the level of social change and health consciousness among student peer leaders in three Youth health promotion programs in Thailand: Friend's Corner, Smart Consumer and Volunteer Minded Young Dentists, and to compare them with the general students. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on Tyree's Social Change Model of leadership, Gould's concept and Dutta-Bergman's concept. The study population comprised of 11th grade students (N=660) from Kalasin Province in Thailand, 320 of whom were peer leaders. The findings revealed that the peer leaders scored higher than non peer leaders in all domains. Among the peer leaders, it was found that Volunteer Minded Young Dentists group had the highest scores in "controversy with civility", "social change agent" characteristics, "holistic health perceptions" and "responsibility for one's own health" regarding health consciousness. The results of this study confirmed that the peer leadership approach can help young people to develop life skills through social transformation and increase health consciousness for better status of health in the community.

  8. Developing future nurse educators through peer mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenau PA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patricia A Rosenau, Rita F Lisella, Tracey L Clancy, Lorelli S NowellFaculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaBackground: The nursing workforce and nursing education demographic trends reinforce the urgency to cultivate future nursing leaders, educators, and mentors. The changing realities of health care environments, involving crowded student placements, overtaxed clinical mentors and preceptors, and inexperienced staff, hamper student learning and professional development. Peer mentoring has been used successfully in nursing education to enhance student engagement and the quality of the student learning experience. Although various terms like peer mentor have been used to describe the role of senior students facilitating junior student learning, the literature is silent about how peer mentoring fosters the development of future nursing education leaders.Objectives: The aim of this study was to understand how peer mentorship fosters the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in an elective undergraduate peer-mentoring credit course, Introductory Concepts in Nursing Education and Leadership Through Peer-Led Learning.Design and method: This phenomenological study explored the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate students through the analysis of critical reflections of individual senior students and online discussions between triads of senior students teaching/learning across diverse junior-level theory and practice courses.Participants: Seventeen senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in the elective course participated in the study.Results: From the critical reflections and online discussions, four themes emerged: "developing teaching philosophies and pedagogies", "learning teaching strategies", "supportive peer relationship", and "benefits of the peer mentorship program".Conclusion: The creation and promotion of peer leadership

  9. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  10. Developing Global Transformational Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Rutti, Raina M.; Lorenz, Melanie P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant increases in training and development of global managers, little is known about the precursors of transformational leadership in Multilatinas. While prior cross-cultural literature suggests that being an autocratic leader is ideal in Multilatinas, using transformational leader...... of transformational leadership because they are better able to understand the differences of other cultures, and appropriately adjust their behavior....

  11. Leaders from Nursing's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondiller, Shirley H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at the lives and accomplishments of four leaders in professional nursing: (1) Loretta Ford, who championed the cause of nurse practitioners; (2) Mable Staupers, a pioneer in community health and nursing; (3) Janet Geister, a leader in private nursing; and (4) Isabel Stewart, who led the movement to standardize nursing education. (JOW)

  12. Demands for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Levine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the ways that graduate courses in teacher leadership influenced the ways that teachers described the nature of leadership and their role as educational leaders. Using Foster's (1989) four demands for school leaders as a theoretical framework, participants' perceptions are examined to determine how teachers synthesized their…

  13. What Brings People to Leadership Roles: A Phenomenological Study of Beef Industry Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, B. Lynn; Ellis, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership has been deeply studied in the literature; however, little research exists studying the role of volunteer peer leaders in non-formalized leadership roles in membership-based organizations. This phenomenological study was designed to explore the experience of beef industry leaders in leadership roles. Twelve active beef industry…

  14. Development and preliminary validation of the Scleroderma Support Group Leader Self-efficacy Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, N.E.; Gumuchian, S.T.; Delisle, V.C.; Pé pin, M.; Malcarne, V.L.; Carrier, M.E.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Pelá ez, S.; El-Baalbaki, G.; Thombs, B.D.

    2018-01-01

    Support groups are an important resource for people living with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Peer support group leaders play an important role in the success and sustainability of SSc support groups, but face challenges that include a lack of formal training. An SSc support group leader

  15. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser.......Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  16. Authenticating the Leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann

    As authentic leadership, with its dictum of being true to the self, has become increasingly influential among practitioners and mainstream leadership scholars, critical writers have drawn attention to the negative consequences of this development. Yet, few scholars have investigated the problem...... of authentication within discourse of authentic leadership. If authentic leadership is to make any sense, it is necessary to be able to distinguish the authentic from the inauthentic leader – in other words, it is necessary to authenticate the leader. This paper uses Gilles Deleuze’s reading of Plato as the point...... of departure for discussing the problem of authentication – separating the authentic leader form the inauthentic one – in the leadership guru Bill George’s model of authentic leadership. By doing so, the paper offers a way of conceptualizing the problem of authenticating leaders, as well as challenging...

  17. Leading Strategic Leader Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burleson, Willard M

    2008-01-01

    .... Although only 1 to 2 percent of the Army's senior leaders will attain a command position of strategic leadership, they are assisted by others, not only by teams specifically designed and structured...

  18. Senior Leader Credibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moosmann, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    .... Leadership at senior levels involves a different type of work than at lower organizational levels and this requires leaders to possess a different set of skills, knowledge, and attributes in order to be successful...

  19. Persuasion: A Leader's Edge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Mark

    2002-01-01

    .... Persuasive argument is a vital aspect of strategic leadership. Any leader faced with the inherent complexities of leading his or her organization through transformational change must be capable of persuading...

  20. Narcissism and Toxic Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Examples of unconscious behaviors could include brushing one’s teeth , getting dressed, or even driving a car—an individual can day-dream about a meeting...enhance its positive attributes and raise awareness of its negative ones. By definition, narcissistic leaders have “an inflated sense of self- importance ...for leaders, especially in the military, there are aspects of narcissism that are appropriate (if controlled and self-regulated) and important for

  1. Leader self-definition and leader self-serving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    The present research investigated the relationship between leader self-definition processes and leader self-serving behaviors. We hypothesized that self-definition as a leader interacts with social reference information (descriptive and injunctive) in predicting leader self-serving actions Six

  2. Peer-Led Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk of Youth: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Barnett, Jessica Penwell

    2010-01-01

    One approach in HIV prevention programming targeting youth is to use peer leaders in what is referred to as peer education programming. This paper critically reviews and synthesizes the results and lessons learned from 24 evaluated peer-led programs with an HIV/AIDS risk reduction component that target youth in the communities where they live and…

  3. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you when they think you're making a mistake or doing something risky. Socializing. Your peer group gives you opportunities to try out new social skills. Getting to know lots of different people — such as classmates or teammates — gives you a chance to learn how to expand your circle of friends, build ...

  4. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    4.Indrianty, Sudirman

    2016-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Understanding The Dynamics Interaction Within Indonesia Healthcare Competition (Penulis: Indrianty Sudirman). Jurnal International: European Journal of Business and Management ISSN: 2222-1905 (Paper), 2222-2839 (Online), Vol. 4, No.11. Tahun 2012. Hal. 94-100. Penerbit: IISTE www.iiste.org

  5. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    27.Ade, Rosmana

    2016-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Effectiveness of Fungal and Bacterial Isolates Fruits Againts Fusarium oxysporum f, sp passifl (Penulis: Hilda Karim, Tutik Kuswinanti, Ade Rosmana Burhanuddin). International Journal of agricultural system. (IJAS) ISSN: 2337-9782. Vol. 1 . No. 2, December 2013. Penerbit: Pascasarjana Unhas. Hal.120-126 www.pasca.unhas.ac.id

  6. Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician’s leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords “Leadership” AND “Leadership traits” AND “Leadership styles” AND “Physicians’ leadership” AND “Tomorrow’s doctors” were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review. Results: The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors’ leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership. PMID:27652355

  7. Creative benefits from well-connected leaders: leader social network ties as facilitators of employee radical creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Richter, Andreas W; Clarke, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Employee radical creativity critically depends on substantive informational resources from others across the wider organization. We propose that the social network ties of employees' immediate leaders assume a central role in garnering these resources, thereby fostering their employees' radical creativity both independent of and interactively with employees' own network ties. Drawing on data from 214 employees working in 30 teams of a public technology and environmental services organization, we find that team leaders' betweenness centrality in the idea network within their teams as well as among their peer leaders provides creative benefits beyond employees' own internal and external ties. Further, employees' and leaders' ties within and external to the team interactively predict employee radical creativity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  9. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, D.; Trieschnigg, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  10. The "peer" in "peer review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, R. Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin L.; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  11. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  12. Authenticating the Leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmann Johnsen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    In the wake of a series of corporate scandals, there has been a growing call for authentic leadership in order to ensure ethical conduct in contemporary organizations. Authentic leadership, however, depends upon the ability to draw a distinction between the authentic and inauthentic leader. This ...... or her own value-commitments....

  13. Strategic Military Leaders - Leading Tomorrow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kit, Ng W

    2008-01-01

    .... Four key leadership competencies stand out. We need strategic leaders who are good at doing the right things and doing things right leaders who have the mental agility to choose the correct goals to achieve, the social intelligence to inspire...

  14. Professional Elites in "Classes" Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractModern European identity has been forged in class struggles between the French revolution and fall of the Berlin Wall, which fell twice. Once, with the rest of the city in May 1945, when a national socialist alternative to a modernizing mix of parliamentary democracy and market economy

  15. Civility in Classes and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  16. Christian School Leaders and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…

  17. Are radiography lecturers, leaders?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Julie Anne

    2013-01-01

    This review article aims to explore the concept of radiography lecturers acting as leaders to their student followers. Through a brief review of the literature, a definition of leadership is suggested and some leadership theories explored. The path-goal theory, leader–member exchange theory and the contemporary theory of transformational leadership are examined more closely. Links between lecturer-leader behaviour and student motivation and learning are tentatively suggested with transformational leadership appearing to offer the optimal leadership style for lecturers to adopt. The paucity of literature relating directly to radiography is acknowledged and areas for further research are suggested. The article concludes with some of the author's practical ideas for incorporating transformational leadership styles and behaviours into radiography education today

  18. What makes a leader?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather, it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  19. The wise leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Ikujiro; Takeuchi, Hirotaka

    2011-05-01

    In an era of increasing discontinuity, wise leadership has nearly vanished. Many leaders find it difficult to reinvent their corporations rapidly enough to cope with new technologies, demographic shifts, and consumption trends. They can't develop truly global organizations that operate effortlessly across borders. And they find it tough to ensure that their people adhere to values and ethics. The authors assert that leaders must acquire practical wisdom, or what Aristotle called phronesis: experiential knowledge that enables people to make ethically sound judgments. Wise leaders demonstrate six abilities: (i) They make decisions on the basis of what is good for the organization and for society. (2) They quickly grasp the essence of a situation and fathom the nature and meaning of people, things, and events. (3) They provide contexts in which executives and employees can interact to create new meaning. (4) They employ metaphors and stories to convert their experience into tacit knowledge that others can use. (5) They exert political power to bring people together and spur them to act. (6) They use apprenticeship and mentoring to cultivate practical wisdom in orders.

  20. Cursus Honorum: Personal Background, Careers and Experience of Political Leaders in Democracy and Dictatorship—New Data and Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Baturo

    2016-01-01

    Politics in democracy and dictatorship is markedly different; democracy and dictatorship are also associated with distinct policy outcomes. Do political regimes also select different leaders, i.e., do democratic leaders have distinct personal backgrounds to those of their peers in dictatorships, do they tend to hold different prior careers and posts while climbing the "greasy pole" of politics? The aim of this paper is to introduce the new data on leaders' careers in democracy and dictatorshi...

  1. Peer-to-Peer Simulation Architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed parallel and soft real-time simulation architecture is presented. It employs a publish-subscribe communication framework layered on a peer-to-peer Transport Control Protocol-based message passing architecture. Mechanisms for efficient...

  2. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...

  3. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...

  4. Career anchors of dentist leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuononen, Tiina; Lammintakanen, Johanna; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-08-01

    The work of a health care leader is demanding; in order to cope, leaders need motivation and support. The occurrence of intrinsic factors called career anchors (combination of one's competence, motives and values) could be a contributing factor in dentist leaders' career decisions. The aim of our study was to identify dentist leaders' career anchors and their association to dentist leaders' retention or turnover of the leadership position. Materials were gathered in 2014 via an electronic questionnaire from 156 current (Leaders) or former (Leavers) Finnish dentist leaders. Career anchor evaluation was conducted by the questionnaire and scoring-table taken from Edgar Schein's Career Anchors Self-Assessment. Both the most and the least important career anchors were detected by the highest and lowest scores and their occurrence reported as percentages. Associations between career anchor scores and tendency to stay were analyzed with logistic regression. 'Technical/Functional Competence' and 'Lifestyle' were most frequently reported as the most important and 'Entrepreneurial Creativity' and 'General Managerial Competence' as the least important career anchors. However, a higher level of 'General Managerial Competence' anchor was most significantly associated with staying in a leadership position. Instead, 'Pure Challenge' and 'Lifestyle' decreased the odds to stay. The knowledge of the important and essential career anchors of dentist leaders' and individuals' could perform crucial part in career choices and also in planning education, work opportunities and human resource policies promoting retention of dentist leaders and probably also other health care leaders.

  5. Building leaders paving the path for emerging leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Stoner, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Although the selection and development of emerging leaders is fundamental to organizational growth and success, many organizations are facing a troubling scenario - a striking gap between the leaders they need and the talent available to assume the mantle of leadership. This book, grounded in empirical investigations and philosophical insights into the study of leadership, is designed to help emerging leaders bridge the gap between 'new leader' and confident, respected difference maker. From the development of leadership skills to the practice and application of successful strategies, award-wi

  6. The new clinical leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Kim

    2012-06-01

    The complexity and cost of health care, along with a greater need for accountability calls for a new style of clinical leadership. The new clinical leader will lead reform by putting the needs of the patient first and foremost, looking at current and planned services from the patient's point of view as well as the clinician's. Excellent clinical skills will remain essential but will be supplemented by a focus on team work and mentoring, patient safety, clear communication and reduction in waste and inefficiency, leading to better financial outcomes. The new clinical leaders will understand the importance of consulting widely and engaging colleagues in creating change to improve patient care. They will develop trusting and mutually respectful relationships with health service management and be able to negotiate the delicate balance between clinical judgement, resource constraints and personal loyalties by keeping the best outcome for the patient at the forefront of their thinking. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Incentivizing Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Ann Blair

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1700s, peer review has been a part of scientific publication. Quality peer reviews take extensive time and effort yet reviewers are not often compensated. This editorial announces the new offering of the National Certification Board for Thereputic Massage & Bodywork (NCBTMB)-approved continuing education hours for our peer reviewers who complete timely reviews. Instructions to register as a peer reviewer and how to conduct a review are offered. Thank you to our 2016 and 2017 peer re...

  8. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  9. Evaluating Peer-Led Team Learning across the Two Semester General Chemistry Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Yancey D.; Ippolito, Jessica; Lewis, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) is a widely disseminated pedagogical reform that employs previously successful undergraduate students, peer leaders, to lead sessions of structured group work in the target class. Numerous studies have evaluated the impact of this reform in various post-secondary chemistry classes. Results from these studies suggest…

  10. Teaching Leaders to Lead Themselves: An Emerging Leader Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Carolyn I.; Gomez, Claudia; Valenzuela, Marcus; Perera, Yasanthi B.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an exercise that allows students to experience and understand the importance of perception in leader emergence. Based on implicit leadership theories, this exercise asks students to provide one another with anonymous feedback about what extent they exhibit various trait-based leader behaviors. This exercise, which can be…

  11. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  12. Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The sharing economy has been growing continuously in the last decade thanks to the proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to disintermediate the traditional commercial channels and to share excess resources and trade with one another effectively at a reasonably low transaction...... cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic...... activity that generates immaterial benefits and does not result in ownership of material goods. Based on a structured analysis of 41 internet-based rideshare platforms, we explore and layout the unique characteristics of peer-to-peer service sharing platforms based on three distinct temporal patterns...

  13. Setting Generality of Peer Modeling in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward G.; Darcy, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Four preschool children with autism played "Follow-the-Leader," in which a normal peer demonstrated and physically prompted a variety of actions and object manipulations that defined the activity. Following training, all four subjects generalized their imitative skill to a new setting involving new actions and object manipulations. (Author/JDD)

  14. Team Leader System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, B.J.; Lundeen, T.F.; Moon, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    Purpose of the project is to design, develop, and demonstrate an advanced, prototype computer system to support on-site inspections. The system is a highly portable field computer with on-line access to facilities information, real-time communications, positioning information, and an electronic notebook for data capture. The Team Leader System provides an inspection team with a suite of advanced communication, data gathering, and data analysis tools and can be implemented on many PC-based hardware platforms. The suitcase unit is a transportable system for on-site support in a vehicle or at a stationary location at an inspection site; the personal unit is a wearable computer for in-facility or on-foot inspections.

  15. Leading Your Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    Even though working on a problem has been your primary effort for the past year, your leadership may have heard about this once in a briefing a decade ago. Now they are basically clueless. Pretend that you are talking to your daughter's fifth-grade class. Explain how your complicated gizmo works. If possible, do not use acronyms. Define your terms. Put your work in context. Assume your leader has no idea what you do, who you work for, or what your gizmo does. That is a good place to start. Remember, taking the next century to study the problem or spending the Gross National Product to invent a new solution are probably not going to be acceptable solutions. Real engineers and technicians build real hardware that works in the real world in a reasonable manner within a reasonable time at a reasonable cost. True, skimping on time or money can cause mistakes, but folks whose gizmos are delayed unreasonably or cost more than is practical get their programs canceled, force the business into bankruptcy, or give the market over to the competition. Real engineers and technicians always consider cost and schedule in their work. Raising questions is important. However, we are in the business of doing things. Engineers and technicians are paid to get things done. Yes, you have to identify the problem, frame the design, identify the tests, perform the analysis, and assemble the hardware. But the goal is to solve the problem. Nobody ever said flying in space was easy. We make it look easy the same way that an Olympic champion makes her sport look easy: by working hard at improving performance every day. Better are the results of a well-defined test. Remember that a test on a laboratory bench is always an approximation of reality, and rules similar to those for good analysis also apply. One should always be mindful of Mechelay's rule: "It is better to be stupid than to run a stupid test." Often we try to overtest. If a piece of hardware passes an unbelievably difficult test, then

  16. Group leaders optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Anmer; Kais, Sabre

    2011-03-01

    We present a new global optimization algorithm in which the influence of the leaders in social groups is used as an inspiration for the evolutionary technique which is designed into a group architecture. To demonstrate the efficiency of the method, a standard suite of single and multi-dimensional optimization functions along with the energies and the geometric structures of Lennard-Jones clusters are given as well as the application of the algorithm on quantum circuit design problems. We show that as an improvement over previous methods, the algorithm scales as N 2.5 for the Lennard-Jones clusters of N-particles. In addition, an efficient circuit design is shown for a two-qubit Grover search algorithm which is a quantum algorithm providing quadratic speedup over the classical counterpart.

  17. The uncompromising leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstat, Russell A; Beer, Michael; Foote, Nathaniel; Fredberg, Tobias; Norrgren, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Managing the tension between performance and people is at the heart of the CEO's job. But CEOs under fierce pressure from capital markets often focus solely on the shareholder, which can lead to employee disenchantment. Others put so much stock in their firms' heritage that they don't notice as their organizations slide into complacency. Some leaders, though, manage to avoid those traps and create high-commitment, high-performance (HCHP) companies. The authors' in-depth research of HCHP CEOs reveals several shared traits: These CEOs earn the trust of their organizations through their openness to the unvarnished truth. They are deeply engaged with their people, and their exchanges are direct and personal. They mobilize employees around a focused agenda, concentrating on only one or two initiatives. And they work to build collective leadership capabilities. These leaders also forge an emotionally resonant shared purpose across their companies. That consists of a three-part promise: The company will help employees build a better world and deliver performance they can be proud of, and will provide an environment in which they can grow. HCHP CEOs approach finding a firm's moral and strategic center in a competitive market as a calling, not an engineering problem. They drive their firms to be strongly market focused while at the same time reinforcing their firms' core values. They are committed to short-term performance while also investing in long-term leadership and organizational capabilities. By refusing to compromise on any of these terms, they build great companies.

  18. Tartus alustas tegevust LEADER infokeskus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tartus alustas tegevust LEADER infokeskus, mille eesmärk on informeerida ja nõustada maakondade omavalitsustöötajate, ettevõtjate ning MTÜde esindajaid, kes on huvitatud Eesti riikliku arengukava meetme "Kohaliku initsiatiivi arendamine - LEADER-tüüpi meetme raames toetuse saamisest ning selleks vajalike partnerlusel põhinevate kohalike tegevusgruppide loomisest"

  19. From the Field: Learning Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Kathleen; Jones, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is essential to successful schools. One of the ways to support effective school leadership is to share ideas and best practices to address the common challenges faced by school leaders. This question and response format addresses common challenges and questions from practicing school leaders in the manner that a mentor might respond to…

  20. Nerio: Leader Election and Edict Ordering

    OpenAIRE

    van Renesse, Robbert; Schneider, Fred B.; Gehrke, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Coordination in a distributed system is facilitated if there is a unique process, the leader, to manage the other processes. The leader creates edicts and sends them to other processes for execution or forwarding to other processes. The leader may fail, and when this occurs a leader election protocol selects a replacement. This paper describes Nerio, a class of such leader election protocols.

  1. Argumentation as a Lens to Examine Student Discourse in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry for College General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulatunga, Ushiri Kumarihamy

    This dissertation work entails three related studies on the investigation of Peer-Led Guided Inquiry student discourse in a General Chemistry I course through argumentation. The first study, Argumentation and participation patterns in general chemistry peer-led sessions, is focused on examining arguments and participation patterns in small student groups without peer leader intervention. The findings of this study revealed that students were mostly engaged in co-constructed arguments, that a discrepancy in the participation of the group members existed, and students were able to correct most of the incorrect claims on their own via argumentation. The second study, Exploration of peer leader verbal behaviors as they intervene with small groups in college general chemistry, examines the interactive discourse of the peer leaders and the students during peer leader intervention. The relationship between the verbal behaviors of the peer leaders and the student argumentation is explored in this study. The findings of this study demonstrated that peer leaders used an array of verbal behaviors to guide students to construct chemistry concepts, and that a relationship existed between student argument components and peer leader verbal behaviors. The third study, Use of Tolumin's Argumentation Scheme for student discourse to gain insight about guided inquiry activities in college chemistry , is focused on investigating the relationship between student arguments without peer leader intervention and the structure of published guided inquiry ChemActivities. The relationship between argumentation and the structure of the activities is explored with respect to prompts, questions, and the segmented Learning Cycle structure of the ChemActivities. Findings of this study revealed that prompts were effective in eliciting arguments, that convergent questions produced more arguments than directed questions, and that the structure of the Learning Cycle successfully scaffolded arguments. A

  2. Ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness: the role of prototypicality and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and

  3. HyperPeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate...... material of interest and this paper presents the HyperPeer Hierarchy of Resemblance (HR) searching algorithm, which provides an efficient search as well as partitioning of the network into groups of common interest....

  4. o'Peer: open peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    I have built a "demonstration" website at http://oPeer.org to illustrate how peer review and publication might be improved relative to the current model, which was designed and implemented in an era when scientific communication was either face-to-face or relied upon human delivery of ink marks on dead trees.

  5. Digital portfolio og peer to peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ditte; Bahrenscheer, Jesper Glarborg

    2017-01-01

    studerende og øget transfer mellem teori og praksis. Artiklen tager afsæt i erfaringerne fra udvikling, anvendelse og evaluering af den digitale portfolio og peer to peer feedback. Portfolien er digital og tilknyttet Metropols Learning Management System. De studerende uploader individuelt ugentligt deres...

  6. o'Peer: open peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J H

    2014-01-01

    I have built a ''demonstration'' website at http://oPeer.org to illustrate how peer review and publication might be improved relative to the current model, which was designed and implemented in an era when scientific communication was either face-to-face or relied upon human delivery of ink marks on dead trees

  7. Remembering the Leaders of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingchen; Xue, Yan; DeSoto, K Andrew; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we examined Chinese students' memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China's history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger and DeSoto, 2014). Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader's recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory.

  8. Peer Influence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Simpson, Shelly; Najera, John; Weiner, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that peer influence can be negative, by increasing the likelihood that a youth will engage in high-risk behaviors and make risky decisions. However, peer influence can also be positive and protect a youth from these same high-risk activities. This article examines the extent of peer influence and then describes the Alternative…

  9. Peer Tutoring for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Viviene A.; Lynnes, Michelle D.

    2008-01-01

    Peer tutoring is a pedagogical technique that has promise to improve outcomes for students with a disability within existing resource constraints. Published empirically-based papers on peer-tutoring were descriptively analysed. Synthesis of these studies revealed that peer tutoring is effective in inclusive physical education contexts. Evidence…

  10. The team and its leader: Multilevel effects of network embeddedness on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, A; Moser, C.; Deichmann, D.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on team performance has largely ignored the embeddedness of a team in a larger network of peers over time. In this paper, we argue that team performance can be explained by the network position of the team leader, but also by the aggregate network position of other team members.

  11. Beyond Decision Making for Outdoor Leaders: Expanding the Safety Behavior Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeff S.

    2016-01-01

    The study of safety behaviour of designated outdoor leaders primarily revolves around their decision making and judgement. The last ten years, however, have seen relatively little peer-reviewed research regarding guide or instructor safety cognition and behaviour. The narrow decision making focus of modern work makes for a field of study…

  12. Promoted from Within: Preparing Beginning Educational Leaders for Executive Loneliness That Occurs in Their New Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Joe; McBride, Jackie

    2017-01-01

    This was a study conducted with four first-year educational leaders who were interviewed to determine whether they experienced feelings of isolation and disengagement from individuals who had been peers in the work-place. Each respondent was promoted from within their educational organization to a leadership position and was interviewed to…

  13. [Communication among hospital leaders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberey-Knuessi, Véronique; Heeb, Jean-Luc; De Morgan, Paula Emilie

    2013-12-01

    New management styles imposed on hospital institutions in recent years, have fundamentally changed the organization of the latter. Many texts discuss the consequences, specifically on the field of communication. The aim of this study was to understand the real impact of new management methods on communication by managers in hospital, but also on care teams in termes of satisfaction and/or stress. This two-year study was conducted among 900 executives in hospitals in Western Switzerland using a mixed methodology. A first phase of questionnaires highlighted the problematic areas, while a second phase in the form of organized group interviews in each hospital, had the objective of achieving a better understanding of the relationship between management and communication. The latter proved to be particularly significant in terms of results, and this is the one we focused on in this article.These results indeed show that a crucial role is given to communication by carers, and, at the same time a lessening of the time devoted to relationships, both among peers and with patients. Frustration then arises, which is not without consequences both for the management of patients and the institutions themselves. It is by means of these results that awareness is raised of the omnipresence of communication at all levels and the major advantages that positive dynamic supports. And, on the contrary, of the serious problems which may arise from management practice that do not give due importance to the dimension of communication, present in all sectors of the hospital.

  14. Employees' Perceptions of Their Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović-Stojanović Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research about employees and the leaders who are included in leading the organization, as an important segment of the modern business. The aim of this research is to show the real picture about presence new strategies of leaders in the organizations, as well as the analysis of the perception of employees about their leaders. The research in business organizations conducted on the sample of leaders and employees. The construction of high-quality questionnaire represents the important segment of modern statistical and business researches. The issues in questionnaire construction are very complex and they are in the focus of all statistical and research methodologies. It was conducted on the sample of at least 250 examinees (employees in bigger companies in Serbia. Research results showed that understanding communication satisfaction, with its link to job satisfaction, should provide an ability to better target resources to improve communication satisfaction issues.

  15. Teambuilding: A Strategic Leader Imperative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Putko, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    .... An Army Training and Leader Development Panel (ATLDP) - 2001 cited team building components in need of improvement to include command climate empowerment of subordinates, mentorship, counseling, accountability, and feedback...

  16. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R; Noblet, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner's management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of 'harvest readiness' and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior.

  17. Remembering the Leaders of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchen eFu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined Chinese students’ memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China’s history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger & DeSoto, 2014. Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders thanks to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader’s recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory.

  18. Cooperation in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradowski, T.; Mrowinski, M.J.; Kosinski, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of a research conducted on a simple model of a peer-to-peer network (a network in which users exchange files directly, without any central server involved). The conditions necessary for the file exchange process to be efficient and stable are investigated through numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on the master equation. Ways of preventing free-riding (selfish behavior, when users download files without sharing them) are also discussed.(author)

  19. What Is an Innovative Educational Leader?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marron, Joseph M.; Cunniff, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlined the traits of an innovative educational leader in our changing society. It discussed the difference in a manager and leader, as well as the specific dispositions that differentiate the innovative educational leader from what many consider the average leader. The authors used the acronym "HELPSS" to highlight the…

  20. Gender, Communication Styles, and Leader Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Timko, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    We study gender differences in the behavior, communication, and effectiveness of randomly selected leaders in a laboratory experiment using the turnaround game. Leaders can send nonbinding pre‐play text messages to try to convince followers to coordinate on the Pareto‐efficient equilibrium. The treatment variations consist of the gender of the leader, and whether the communication is one‐way (only leaders send messages) or two‐way (first followers send messages to their leader, and subsequent...

  1. Narcissistic leaders: An asset or a liability? Leader visibility, follower responses, and group-level absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevicka, Barbara; Van Vianen, Annelies E M; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Voorn, Bart C M

    2018-03-19

    Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, research has thus far shown inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and effectiveness in the eyes of followers. Here we draw on leader distance theory (Shamir, 1995) and implicit leader theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) to propose that followers' assessment of a narcissistic leader and followers' overall job attitudes depend on the leader's visibility to the followers. The more opportunities followers have to observe narcissistic leaders the more they will experience these leaders' toxic behavior (e.g., exploitativeness) and the less they will perceive the leader as effective. To test our hypotheses we collected multisource, longitudinal data from 175 retail stores and obtained subjective (followers' perceptions of leader effectiveness and their overall job attitudes) as well as objective (leaders' organizational experience at time of hire, employee absenteeism trends) indices of leader functionality. Results showed that narcissistic leaders had less organizational experience at the time they were hired. Moreover, when followers had fewer opportunities to observe their leader, leader narcissism was positively related to perceived leadership effectiveness and job attitudes. However, when followers had more opportunity to observe their leader, the positive relationship disappeared. Finally, leader narcissism was neither positively nor negatively associated with absenteeism, whereas absenteeism declined over time under non-narcissistic leaders. These findings advance our knowledge of how followers respond to narcissistic leaders and how these leaders function in organizational settings where they have legitimate positions of power. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Impact of supplemental instruction leader on the success of supplemental instruction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Haslam, Jeanne

    Supplemental instruction utilizes peer-assisted study sessions to provide review sessions on course material and an opportunity to discuss and work out problems. The impact of supplemental instruction on student performance is well researched and used in a large number of universities around the world due to its proven success. However, the impact of the student leader who plays a significant role in this model is rarely discussed in the literature. We present a case study on the impact of student leader on the success of supplemental instruction model. This case study was done for an Introductory Physics course correlating student performance and the supplemental instruction sessions they attended. Further analysis revealed that the academic performance and work ethics of the student leader has a significant impact on the success of the supplemental instruction model. Important factors to consider when selecting a student leader, the challenges and possible remedies will also be discussed.

  3. Travel opinion leaders and seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    While opinion leadership has been recognized as important in tourism, there has been very little empirical research investigating the phenomenon. Given new developments in social media technologies, it is especially important to understand whether travel opinion leadership and seeking are drivers...... of specific social media perceptions and behaviours. Based on an online survey of US online travellers, this paper seeks to identify travel opinion leaders and seekers and their characteristics. Further, the research conducted investigated linkages between travel opinion leadership/seeking and travel social...... media use. The findings suggest that travel opinion leadership and seeking are distinct but connected. Both opinion leaders and seekers are technology savvy, young, educated, involved in travel planning and engaged in social media use for travel. What distinguishes opinion leaders is their greater...

  4. Preparing nurse leaders for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Carol

    2008-11-01

    This article highlights eight leadership competencies likely to be an essential part of the nurse leader's repertoire in 2020. Planning for the future is difficult, even when environments are relatively static. When environments are dynamic, the challenges multiply exponentially. Unfortunately, few environments have been more unpredictable in the 21st century than health care. The healthcare system is in chaos, as is much of the business world. It is critical then that contemporary nursing and healthcare leaders identify skill sets that will be needed by nurse leaders in 2020 and begin now to create the educational models and management development programs necessary to assure these skills are present. Essential nurse leader competencies for 2020 include: (i) A global perspective or mindset regarding healthcare and professional nursing issues. (ii) Technology skills which facilitate mobility and portability of relationships, interactions, and operational processes. (iii) Expert decision-making skills rooted in empirical science. (iv) The ability to create organization cultures that permeate quality healthcare and patient/worker safety. (v) Understanding and appropriately intervening in political processes. (vi) Highly developed collaborative and team building skills. (vii) The ability to balance authenticity and performance expectations. (viii) Being able to envision and proactively adapt to a healthcare system characterized by rapid change and chaos. Nursing education programmes and healthcare organizations must be begin now to prepare nurses to be effective leaders in 2020. This will require the formal education and training that are a part of most management development programmes as well as a development of appropriate attitudes through social learning. Proactive succession planning will also be key to having nurse leaders who can respond effectively to the new challenges and opportunities that will be presented to them in 2020.

  5. Combined Logistics Officers Advanced Course (CLOAC): Leader Development for Future Ordnance Strategic Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shipley, Claude

    1998-01-01

    Formal training is one of the methods for development of strategic leaders. The development of strategic Ordnance leaders is rooted initially with an officer first becoming competent as a leader and knowledgeable in their technical skills...

  6. Leader performance and prototypicality : Their inter-relationship and impact on leaders' identity entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffens, Niklas K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Ryan, Michelle K.; Kessler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that leader performance and leader prototypicality are both predictors of leader endorsement. While performance and prototypicality have generally been considered to be independent, this paper suggests that performance and prototypicality are interdependent and have a

  7. Death patterns among Nigerian leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Kenneth C; Ugochukwu, Ozoemenam M; Nzegwu, Martin A

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the patterns of death amongst Nigerian leaders since independence, thus providing a feasible avenue to avoid their recurrence if possible especially amongst the political elite who currently hold power. Using available unclassified authentic public information, all leaders who had ruled Nigeria since her independence on 1 October, 1960 until her 45th birthday on 1 October 2005, irrespective of whether they are dead or alive were included. Data was extracted and analyzed. On 1 October 2005, Nigeria celebrated 45 years as a sovereign nation. Within this period, the country has had eleven leaders, all of whom were men. Only three (27.3%) were civilians, while eight (72.7%) were army generals. Of the eleven leaders, four (36.4%) had died before Nigeria reached its 45th birthday and all of these four (100%) died while still in office. Three of the dead leaders (75%) were assassinated, while one (25%) died suddenly in mysterious circumstances, believed to be the result of poisoning by unknown external powerful interest groups. Three of the deaths (75%) occurred during violent periods of Nigeria's checkered history (1966-1970 and 1993-1999), showing that periods of national and international strife appeared to be the weakest link in chains of events that led to their death while in office. Autopsies were neither requested nor performed on any of the dead leaders, signifying an entrenched culture of nonchalance, a lack of a coordinated national coroner's law and contempt for accurate and detailed death records. Worse still, no valid tenable death certificate has ever been issued. In other words, no attempt has been made to determine the cause of death of four of the nation's former leaders. Only hurried national burials were accorded two (50%) of them while the other two (50%), who died in the coup and revenge coup of 1966, were completely neglected, and not even given a decent national burial. The facts identified above will serve as

  8. Ethical leader behavior and leader effectiveness: the role of prototypicality and trust

    OpenAIRE

    Kalshoven, K.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The study examines factors that mediate the impact of ethical leader behavior on leader effectiveness. Little is known about how ethical leadership impacts leader effectiveness. We hypothesized that prototypicality and trust sequentially mediate the relationship between ethical leader behavior and perceived leader effectiveness. The group prototype forms an ideal representation of the group’s identity, prescribing appropriate attitudes and behaviors. Ethical leaders are role models and thus a...

  9. Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader prototypicality

    OpenAIRE

    van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    Self-sacrificing behavior of the leader and the extent to which the leader is representative of the group (i.e., group prototypical) are proposed to interact to influence leadership effectiveness. The authors expected self-sacrificing leaders to be considered more effective and to be able to push subordinates to a higher performance level than non-self-sacrificing leaders, and these effects were expected to be more pronounced for less prototypical leaders than for more prototypical leaders. T...

  10. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  11. Ethics, a neglected dimension of power relationships of physician leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Baril, Thomas E

    2006-09-01

    Physician leaders in obstetrics and gynecology find themselves in complex power relationships with administrative subordinates, administrative peers, and administrative superiors. The ethical dimensions of these power relationships have not been examined previously. The authors draw on the work of 3 major historic figures (John Gregory, Thomas Hobbes, and Friedrich Hoffmann) to identify for the first time 3 major types of power relationships and organizational cultures. Gregorian power relationships and organizational cultures are characterized by shared fiduciary responsibility that advances the core mission of a health care organization. Hobbesian power relationships and organizational cultures are characterized by relentless self-interest in a zero-sum game. Hoffmannian power relationships and organizational cultures are characterized by enlightened self-interest in a win-win game. The authors analyze the ethical dimensions of power relationships of physician leaders with subordinates, peers, and superiors and of organizational cultures. The authors support transformational leadership toward Gregorian power relationships and organizational cultures, using, when necessary, Hoffmannian power relationships and organizational cultures as a way station.

  12. Strategic Communications for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Vicki; McGowan, James; Donegan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Gunther, McGowan and Donegan draw on their own experiences and those of others in the field, to explain the importance of communication in school leadership. In focusing on the communication process--why it's critical for schools, and how it can be executed well--they make the case that communication must be a primary emphasis for leaders, not an…

  13. LEADER-tegevusest / Ene Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapuu, Ene

    2009-01-01

    Läänemaa LEADER-tegevusgrupi eesmärk on maakonna kui terviku ühtne areng, et kogu Läänemaa oleks vajalike teenustega kaetud ning ettevõtjad julgeks ning suudaks uute teenuste ja toodetega turule tulla

  14. The psychology of ethical leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hoogervorst (Niek)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe collateral damage to companies caused by unethical behaviour can be enormous, especially when it is perceived to be systemic within an organisation. We look to leaders to set an example. So how can they be encouraged to set aside selfinterest and provide an ethical role model for

  15. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, Ilir; Žigić, K.

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  16. Competition policy and market leaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maci, I.; Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 375 (2008), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : competition policy * market leaders * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp375.pdf

  17. Understanding the Supplemental Instruction Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrian; Moore, Lori

    2018-01-01

    This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…

  18. Do leaders affect ethical conduct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Adda, Giovanna; Darai, Donja; Pavanini, Nicola; Weber, Roberto A.

    2017-01-01

    We study whether leaders influence the unethical conduct of followers. To avoid selection issues present in natural environments, we use an experiment in which we create simple laboratory firms and assign leadership roles at random. In our first experiment, firms engage in competition and unethical

  19. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a a message to a given peer. However, determining the

  20. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in

  1. Peer selection in peer-to-peer networks with semantic topologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in the

  2. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; van Harmelen, Frank

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in the

  3. Blog enabled peer-to-peer learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kami

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to simulate development of a community oral health plan using technology-based tools at the students' disposal. The specific research questions were: Will students use the Internet to identify community oral health issues and develop solutions to address the issues? Will blogs be a good tool to discuss and engage students in conversation with each other and to connect them with community oral health resources? How will blogging impact future academic and personal communications for the student? Dental hygiene students (n=30) participated in a community oral health course for 7 weeks. Students were asked to create a blog on which they would post weekly assignments and respond to 2 of their peer's blogs each week. Methods for data collection were post-treatment survey (15 items) analyzed for descriptive statistics and an analysis of written blog content according to a counting and coding scheme. Students used the Internet to identify issues and problem solving scenarios. Blogs were a good tool to engage students in discussions on oral health issues and peer-to-peer learning. Qualitative discourse analysis revealed evidence of critical thought and discourse throughout blog posts. Students referenced the Internet in blogs, while specific instances of resource sharing and provision of solutions to peers were less common. Students felt blogging encouraged them to engage with one another. Twenty percent of participating students have extended their use of blogging for both academic and personal purposes.

  4. The failure-tolerant leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farson, Richard; Keyes, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    "The fastest way to succeed," IBM's Thomas Watson, Sr., once said, "is to double your failure rate." In recent years, more and more executives have embraced Watson's point of view, coming to understand what innovators have always known: Failure is a prerequisite to invention. But while companies may grasp the value of making mistakes at the level of corporate practices, they have a harder time accepting the idea at the personal level. People are afraid to fail, and corporate culture reinforces that fear. In this article, psychologist and former Harvard Business School professor Richard Farson and coauthor Ralph Keyes discuss how companies can reduce the fear of miscues. What's crucial is the presence of failure-tolerant leaders--executives who, through their words and actions, help employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Such leaders don't just accept productive failure, they promote it. Drawing from their research in business, politics, sports, and science, the authors identify common practices among failure-tolerant leaders. These leaders break down the social and bureaucratic barriers that separate them from their followers. They engage at a personal level with the people they lead. They avoid giving either praise or criticism, preferring to take a nonjudgmental, analytical posture as they interact with staff. They openly admit their own mistakes rather than trying to cover them up or shifting the blame. And they try to root out the destructive competitiveness built into most organizations. Above all else, failure-tolerant leaders push people to see beyond traditional definitions of success and failure. They know that as long as a person views failure as the opposite of success, rather than its complement, he or she will never be able to take the risks necessary for innovation.

  5. Peer Support for Diabetes Management in Primary Care and Community Settings in Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhimin; Fisher, Edwin B; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a peer leader-support program (PLSP) for diabetes self-management in China in terms of acceptability and feasibility; implementation; perceived advantages; disadvantages and barriers; reach and recruitment; effectiveness in terms of diabetes knowledge and clinical impacts; adoption; and sustainability. Within each of 3 cities in Anhui Province, 2 subcommunities were randomly assigned to usual care or PLSP. Peer leaders and staff of Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) co-led biweekly educational meetings. Peer leaders also led biweekly discussion meetings, promoted regular care through the CHSCs, organized informal health promotion activities (eg, walking and tai chi groups), and provided informal individual support to participants through casual contact. Qualitative evaluations indicated acceptance of and positive responses to the program among patients, peer leaders, and CHSC staff. Implementation was successful in 2 of 3 subcommunities, the third failing for lack of staff resources. Reported advantages included peer support as a bridge between CHSCs and their patients. In 2 sites where the PLSP was implemented, analyses controlling for baseline differences and site showed significant benefits for PLSP relative to controls (P management. The PLSP was well accepted, feasible given sufficient administrative and staff resources, effective for those who participated, and generalizable to other sites and health problems. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  6. Strategic Planning and Doctor Of Nursing Practice Education: Developing Today's and Tomorrow's Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nancy L; Garrison, Kenneth F; Brown, Mary-Michael; Pintz, Christine; Bocchino, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning and thinking skills are essential for today's nurse leaders. Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs provide an opportunity for developing effective nurse strategists. A well-designed strategy course can stimulate intellectual growth at all levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Discussion forums in online education provide new opportunities for rich interaction among peers en route to development of well-informed strategic plans. An interprofessional perspective adds a rich and vital aspect to doctoral nursing education and it serves to inform strategic plan development. A roadmap for teaching strategic planning to current and future nursing leaders will guide the integration of essential content into DNP programs.

  7. Structured Query Translation in Peer to Peer Database Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehedi Masud

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a query translation mechanism between heterogeneous peers in Peer to Peer Database Sharing Systems (PDSSs. A PDSS combines a database management system with P2P functionalities. The local databases on peers are called peer databases. In a PDSS, each peer chooses its own data model and schema and maintains data independently without any global coordinator. One of the problems in such a system is translating queries between peers, taking into account both the schema and data heterogeneity. Query translation is the problem of rewriting a query posed in terms of one peer schema to a query in terms of another peer schema. This paper proposes a query translation mechanism between peers where peers are acquainted in data sharing systems through data-level mappings for sharing data.

  8. The Nurse Leader Role in Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Cole; Sumagaysay, Dio; Cueman, Marie; Chappell, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Leaders from the American Organization of Nurse Executives describe the dynamic state of today's healthcare system related to crisis management. Adaptive leadership, driven by strong values and morality, can guide leaders and organizations through the most difficult times.

  9. Kansas nurse leader residency programme: advancing leader knowledge and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qiuhua; Peltzer, Jill; Teel, Cynthia; Pierce, Janet

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Kansas Nurse Leader Residency (KNLR) programme in improving nurses' leadership knowledge and skills and its acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. The Future of Nursing Report (Institute of Medicine, 2011) calls for nurses to lead change and advance health. The 6-month KNLR programme was developed by the Kansas Action Coalition to support nurses' leadership development. Nurses (n = 36) from four nursing specialties (acute care, long-term care, public health and school health) participated in the programme. The adapted Leader Knowledge and Skill Inventory was used to assess leadership knowledge and skills. Programme acceptability, feasibility and implementation fidelity also were evaluated. The programme completion rate was 67.7% (n = 24). Programme completers had significantly improved self-assessed and mentor-assessed leadership knowledge and skills (p programme gains were maintained 3 months after programme completion. The KNLR programme effectively improved leadership knowledge and skills and was positively evaluated by participants. The implementation of the KNLR programme using a hybrid format of in-person sessions and online modules was feasible across four specialty areas in both rural and urban regions. The next steps include the development of an advanced programme. Residency programmes for new nurse leaders are critical for successful transition into management positions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Recruiting leaders: an analysis of leadership advertisements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.; Caley, A.; Dewe, P.

    2007-01-01

    Recruiting the right leaders is an important challenge for organisations. How do organisations find these leaders? This article looks at the recruitment of leaders through advertisements. We address to what extent the 'vocabulary of leadership' originating in influential leadership theories is

  11. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  12. Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente

    2006-01-01

    We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...... are run. We illustrate the operation of the solution in two scenarios, both in the framework of mobile ad hoc networks. In the first scenario, we assume the presence of an offline certification authority and we show how mobility helps to set up security associations for secure routing; in this case...... by visual contact and by the activation of an appropriate secure side channel of their personal device; we show that the process can be fuelled by taking advantage of trusted acquaintances. We then show that the proposed solution is generic: It can be deployed on any mobile network and it can be implemented...

  13. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lymberopoulos, L.; Pittaras, C.; Grammatikou, M.; Papavassiliou, S.; Maglaris, V.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause

  14. Promoting Residential Renewable Energy via Peer-to-Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Nissilä, Heli; Tainio, Pasi

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer learning is gaining increasing attention in nonformal community-based environmental education. This article evaluates a novel modification of a concept for peer-to-peer learning about residential energy solutions (Open Homes). We organized collective "Energy Walks" visiting several homes with novel energy solutions and…

  15. A peer-to-peer traffic safety campaign program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement a peer-to-peer drivers safety program designed for high school students. : This project builds upon an effective peer-to-peer outreach effort in Texas entitled Teens in the Driver Seat (TDS), the : nati...

  16. Child Pornography in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Chad M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…

  17. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  18. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  19. Structures and Algorithms for Peer-to-Peer Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Moritz

    2009-01-01

    Peer-to-peer overlay networks are distributed systems, without any hierarchical organization or centralized control. Peers form self-organizing overlay networks that are on top of the Internet. Both parts of this thesis deal with peer-to-peer overlay networks, the first part with unstructured ones used to build a large scale Networked Virtual Environment. The second part gives insights on how the users of a real life structured peer-to-peer network behave, and how well the proposed algorithms...

  20. Strategic Communication for Tactical Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    made by many different instruments into a single, harmonious work of music . The conductor of the orchestra represents senior strategic communication...defining a tactical- level leader challenging. However, FM 3-0 eventually gives some further resolution and states that tactics “are typically ...visitors will be compared against other websites of its genre . For example, to determine if Metacafe.com is a well-established and mainstream video

  1. LEADERS AND PROJECTS - COMMON ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vacar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a small part of a long empirical and practical research and it began from the necessity of models to be followed in organizations and the way they can generate that expected behavior from others. Nowadays, projects seem to be the modern way of doing things in organizations because of their advantages. The article tries to present common issues between leaders and projects, both of them being as determinant factors for organizational success.

  2. From One Leader to Another

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    regulation. Commanders cannot tolerate financial irresponsibility, neglect, dishonesty or evasiveness . If a Soldier is not trying to resolve unpaid...weather injuries to diarrhea, and from pneumonia, encephalitis to viruses . The medical readiness of these troops could have been higher if leaders played...understand just how false this is, we have to recognize that everyone has a “breaking point.” No one is immune to the lingering effects of the struggles

  3. Proven Solutions for New Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Serving as a new principal is not only demanding, it can also be a lonely job. But successful leadership doesn't happen in a vacuum, and principals need to know from their peers best practices about everything from focusing on instruction to planning fire drills. With this in mind, "Principal" magazine created a virtual roundtable--between…

  4. Leader Affect and Leadership Effectiveness: How leader affective displays influence follower outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this dissertation is to uncover the relationship between leader affective displays and leadership effectiveness. Five empirical studies were conducted to test the influence of several leader affective displays on different follower outcomes that indicate leadership effectiveness. The results showed that leader happy displays enhance followers’ creative performance, whereas leader sad displays enhance followers’ analytical performance. In addition, a leader displaying ha...

  5. Facing an incompetent leader: The effects of a nonexpert leader on subordinates' perception and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Darioly, Annick; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a leader's task-incompetence on how subordinates perceive and interact with their leader. In Study 1, 80 participants in a subordinate role interacted via e-mail and in Study 2, 80 participants interacted face-to-face with either a competent or an incompetent leader on a problem-solving task. Participants' dominance behaviour, how much they resisted the leader's influence, their perception of the leader, and their task involvement were assessed. As predicted, su...

  6. The impact of previous leaders on the evaluation of new leaders: an alternative to prototype matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Barbara A; Lord, Robert G

    2007-11-01

    In 2 studies, this research demonstrated the existence of leader transference, a cognitive process whereby mental representations of previous leaders are activated and used for evaluation when new, similar leaders are encountered. The 1st study demonstrated that exposure to a new leader who was similar to a past leader led to erroneous generalization of leader characteristics and associated underlying attributions. The 2nd study showed that expectations of just treatment and abuse were also subject to transfer from old to new, similar leaders, although positive and negative affective responses were not. Results suggested that individuals exposed to a leader who was not reminiscent of an old leader were more likely to use a general leader prototype to form leader expectations, whereas individuals exposed to a leader who was similar to an old leader activated a significant other mental representation for use in making judgments. These results have implications for individual- and relational-level processes as characterized by implicit leadership theory and leader-member exchange theory as well as macro theories of leader succession and organizational culture change. (c) 2007 APA

  7. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  8. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  9. Peer Selection in Peer-to-Peer Networks with Semantic Topologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; van Harmelen, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial.\

  10. A Peer-Support and Mindfulness Program to Improve the Mental Health of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Fiona; Henning, Marcus; Hassed, Craig; Moyes, Simon A; Elley, C Raina

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that peer-support programs can improve mental health indices and help-seeking behavior among students in some secondary school and university settings and that mindfulness can improve mental health in medical students. Peer-led programs have not been formally assessed in a medical student population, where psychological issues exist and where it has been shown that students approach peers for help in preference to staff members or professional services. Medical students elected peer leaders who underwent training and then provided the intervention. The peer leaders provided support to students in the intervention group, as well as offering teaching in mindfulness meditation. An exploratory study was conducted with 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students at 1 medical school in New Zealand randomized into 2 groups. In addition to existing mental health resources, intervention participants received a program including peer support and peer-taught mindfulness practice. Study participants not offered the intervention participants could use existing mental health resources. Primary measures included depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) scores. Secondary measures were quality of life, resilience (15-item resilience scale), academic self-concept, and motivation to learn, assessed at baseline and 6 months. Of the 402 students eligible, 275 (68%) participated and 232 (58%) completed the study. At baseline, 53% were female and mean age was 21 years (SD = 3)-PHQ-9 score (M = 5.2, SD = 3.7) and GAD-7 score (M = 4.5, SD = 3.4). Twelve peer leaders were elected. There was good participation in the intervention. One fourth of intervention students used the face-to-face peer support and more than 50% attended a peer social event and/or participated in the mindfulness program. Although improvements in mental health were seen in the intervention group, the difference between the intervention and nonintervention groups did not reach statistical significance. Although

  11. Development and implementation of a peer mentoring program for early career gerontological faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ashley Leak; Aizer Brody, Abraham; Perez, Adriana; Shillam, Casey; Edelman, Linda S; Bond, Stewart M; Foster, Victoria; Siegel, Elena O

    2015-05-01

    The Hartford Gerontological Nursing Leaders (HGNL) formerly known as the Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Initiative (BAGNC), in conjunction with the National Hartford Centers of Gerontological Nursing Excellence (NHCGNE), developed and executed a peer mentoring program beginning in 2011 to enhance both (a) the experience of newly selected scholars and fellows to the NHCGNE and (b) the ongoing professional development of HGNL members. The purpose of this article is to describe key strategies used to develop and execute the peer mentoring program and to present formative program evaluation. The program was launched in January 2011 with seven peer mentor and mentee matches. In June 2012, the peer mentoring committee solicited feedback on the development of the peer mentoring program and changes were made for the subsequent cohorts. An additional 12 matches were made in the following 2 years (2012 and 2013), for a total of 31 matches to date. We have learned several key lessons from our three cohorts regarding how to structure, implement, and carefully evaluate a peer mentoring program. Informal evaluation of our peer mentoring program noted several challenges for both peer mentors and mentees. Having knowledge of and addressing those challenges may increase the overall quality and effectiveness of peer mentoring programs and, in turn, benefit academic nursing by strengthening the faculty workforce. Findings from development and implementation of a peer mentoring program for gerontological faculty could lead to new and adaptable programs in a variety of clinical and education settings. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Adult-Directed and Peer-Directed Respect for Authority: Relationships with Aggressive and Manipulative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.; Bettencourt, Amie F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6…

  13. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  14. Establishing the Next Generation at Work : Leader Generativity as a Moderator of the Relationships Between Leader Age, Leader-Member Exchange, and Leadership Success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Henning, Thomas; Frese, Michael

    In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came

  15. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  16. Self- and Peer-Identified Victims in Late Childhood: Differences in Perceptions of the School Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Molly; Chen, Chin-Chih; Farmer, Thomas W; Hamm, Jill V

    2017-11-01

    Patterns of adjustment for youth victimized by peers vary depending on whether youth are identified as victims through self-reports, peer-reports, or both. In order to provide more targeted strategies that may help mitigate negative consequences associated with specific victimization groups, more information is needed about how these youth perceive their school ecology (bullying and academic ecology), their feelings of school belonging, and their valuing of school. Based on the convergence of self- and peer-reports of victimization, we identified four victim groups from a sample of students in 5th grade classrooms (N = 1360; 52.8% girls, 53.1% White, 34.6% Black or Hispanic, 12.2% Native American, Asian, or other) using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA): convergent victims (high self- and peer-reports), self-identified victims (high self-, low peer-reports), peer-identified victims (low self-, high peer-reports), and nonvictims (low self- and peer-reports). Convergent victims' perceptions were similar to nonvictims with key differences being convergent victims' greater willingness to protect peers being bullied but lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Peer-identified and self-identified victims perceived differences in the bullying and academic ecology including peer-identified victims' greater willingness to protect peers and expectations for more peers to encourage bulling against them compared to self-identified victims. However, both peer- and self-identified victims perceived greater emotional risk of participating in class and had lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Implications for supporting youth with divergent self- and peer-reported victimization status as they transition to middle school are discussed.

  17. Cursus Honorum: Personal Background, Careers and Experience of Political Leaders in Democracy and Dictatorship—New Data and Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Baturo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Politics in democracy and dictatorship is markedly different; democracy and dictatorship are also associated with distinct policy outcomes. Do political regimes also select different leaders, i.e., do democratic leaders have distinct personal backgrounds to those of their peers in dictatorships, do they tend to hold different prior careers and posts while climbing the “greasy pole” of politics? The aim of this paper is to introduce the new data on leaders’ careers in democracy and dictatorship and compare their personal background, experience in politics, careers and significant posts prior to their tenure, and details about their time in office, inter alia. In general, democratic leaders differ from nondemocratic ones in terms of their educational, social and career background. The paper also finds significant differences among leaders in different nondemocratic regimes, and suggests possible venues for further research.

  18. Feasibility of a peer-led, school-based asthma education programme for adolescents in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheyab, N A; Gallagher, R; Roydhouse, J K; Crisp, J; Shah, S

    2012-05-01

    The Adolescent Asthma Action programme (Triple A) has been used successfully to promote asthma knowledge, awareness and quality of life in adolescents with asthma in Australia. We describe the feasibility and acceptability of an adaptation of this English-language, peer-led, asthma education programme in a girls' high school in Northern Jordan. The pilot was conducted by bilingual health workers. Feasibility, acceptability and adaptability were measured through participation rates, open-ended questionnaires completed by peer leaders, a focus group for junior students and reflective journal notes. The programme was well-received by staff and students, with high levels of participation. The peer-led approach was viewed positively. Students reported that they enjoyed the interactive learning activities and the opportunity to practise English. The students reported increased asthma knowledge and awareness, with students with asthma reporting receiving more support from peers. A peer-led asthma education programme is feasible and acceptable in the Jordanian school context.

  19. Coaching the Debriefer: Peer Coaching to Improve Debriefing Quality in Simulation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Grant, Vincent; Huffman, James; Burgess, Gavin; Szyld, Demian; Robinson, Traci; Eppich, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Formal faculty development programs for simulation educators are costly and time-consuming. Peer coaching integrated into the teaching flow can enhance an educator's debriefing skills. We provide a practical guide for the who, what, when, where, why, and how of peer coaching for debriefing in simulation-based education. Peer coaching offers advantages such as psychological safety and team building, and it can benefit both the educator who is receiving feedback and the coach who is providing it. A feedback form for effective peer coaching includes the following: (1) psychological safety, (2) framework, (3) method/strategy, (4) content, (5) learner centeredness, (6) co-facilitation, (7) time management, (8) difficult situations, (9) debriefing adjuncts, and (10) individual style and experience. Institutional backing of peer coaching programs can facilitate implementation and sustainability. Program leaders should communicate the need and benefits, establish program goals, and provide assessment tools, training, structure, and evaluation to optimize chances of success.

  20. Passion in today's health care leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2005-01-01

    Passion in today's health care leaders is essential as health care organizations face increasing demands for survival. Leaders in health care have been educated, selected, promoted, and retained based on their analytical and creativity skills. Today's health care leaders must also have emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is primal for passion. Emotional intelligence, which leads to passion, is crucial to the survivability of today's health care organizations. In order for health care organizations to go from good to great, the leader must inspire followers through passion. This article encourages health care leaders to gain awareness of emotional intelligence and to use emotional intelligence as part of their leadership to inspire passion. Through passion, leaders and followers become more motivated to accomplish the health care mission of serving others.

  1. Selecting and training opinion leaders and best practice collaborators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussières, André E.; Maiers, Michele; Grondin, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the process for selecting and training chiropractic opinion leaders (OLs) and best practice collaborators (BPCs) to increase the uptake of best practice. Methods: In Phase 1, OLs were identified using a cross-sectional survey among Canadian chiropractic stakeholders. A 10......-member committee ranked nominees. Top-ranked nominees were invited to a training workshop. In Phase 2, a national e-survey was administered to 7200 Canadian chiropractors to identify additional OLs and BPCs. Recommended names were screened by OLs and final selection made by consensus. Webinars were...... utilized to train BPCs to engage peers in best practices, and facilitate guideline dissemination. Results: In Phase 1, 21 OLs were selected from 80 nominees. Sixteen attended a training workshop. In Phase 2, 486 chiropractors recommended 1126 potential BPCs, of which 133 were invited to participate and 112...

  2. Distributed Data Mining in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are gaining popularity in many applications such as file sharing, e-commerce, and social networking, many of which deal with rich,...

  3. Peer-to-Peer Data Mining, Privacy Issues, and Games

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are gaining increasing popularity in many distributed applications such as file-sharing, network storage, web caching, sear- ching and...

  4. Why the world needs moral leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    The educational system plays a huge role in developing the moral leaders of tomorrow. The Quarterly takes a closer look at diversity in South Africa's schools, at the young generation in China, and at the making of moral leaders with both a global and local mindset.......The educational system plays a huge role in developing the moral leaders of tomorrow. The Quarterly takes a closer look at diversity in South Africa's schools, at the young generation in China, and at the making of moral leaders with both a global and local mindset....

  5. Developing Socially Responsible Leaders in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauthen, T. W., III

    2016-01-01

    This chapter begins the exploration of what leadership education is through examining the relationship between educational involvement and academic autonomy in the development of socially responsible leaders.

  6. Competitive Pricing by a Price Leader

    OpenAIRE

    Abhik Roy; Dominique M. Hanssens; Jagmohan S. Raju

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of pricing in a market where one brand acts as a price leader. We develop a procedure to estimate a leader's price rule, which is optimal given a sales target objective, and allows for the inclusion of demand forecasts. We illustrate our estimation procedure by calibrating this optimal price rule for both the leader and the follower using data on past sales and prices from the mid-size sedan segment of the U.S. automobile market. Our results suggest that a leader-follow...

  7. Addressing Deficiencies in Army Civilian Leader Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keller, Jonathan S

    2008-01-01

    .... A well managed, comparable, and integrated Army leader training, education, and development framework, designed to create shared and combined developmental experiences, is essential for growing...

  8. Peer-to-Peer Networks: A Mechanism Design Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang; Haibin Lu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we use mechanism design approach to find the optimal file-sharing mechanism in a peer-to-peer network. This mechanism improves upon existing incentive schemes. In particular, we show that peer-approved scheme is never optimal and service-quality scheme is optimal only under certain circumstances. Moreover, we find that the optimal mechanism can be implemented by a mixture of peer-approved and service-quality schemes.

  9. Open Hypermedia in a Peer-to-Peer Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2002-01-01

    This paper revisits the general hypermedia architecture based on a perspective of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking and pervasive computing, and argues that P2P has much to offer open hypermedia.......This paper revisits the general hypermedia architecture based on a perspective of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking and pervasive computing, and argues that P2P has much to offer open hypermedia....

  10. Analysis of peer-to-peer locking of magnetrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengvanich, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Cruz, E.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B.; Luginsland, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The condition for mutual, or peer-to-peer, locking of two magnetrons is derived. This condition reduces to Adler's classical phase-locking condition in the limit where one magnetron becomes the ''master'' and the other becomes the ''slave.'' The formulation is extended to the peer-to-peer locking of N magnetrons, under the assumption that the electromagnetic coupling among the N magnetrons is modeled by an N-port network.

  11. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  12. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  13. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  14. Investigating Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynard, Jo; Almarzouqi, Iman

    2006-01-01

    This article gives an overview of a piece of qualitative research conducted at a women's university in the United Arab Emirates. The aim of the study was to evaluate the English language peer tutoring programme in order to highlight benefits and challenges, and to make informed improvements. The study drew particularly on participant perceptions…

  15. On Being a Peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertel, Lykke Brogaard; Rasmussen, Dorte Malig

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and discusses the persuasive principles of social actors in relation to other theories of technologies as social agents, particularly within the field of Social Robotics and Persuasive Educational and Entertainment Robotics (PEERs). Based on related research and results from...

  16. Fruitmot in peer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, H.H.M.; Polfliet, M.; Trapman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Op appel ontstaat de meeste fruitmotaantasting in de loop van juni of juli. In jaren met een tweede generatie kan er in augustus nog schade bijkomen. Op peer (Conference) treedt in de meeste jaren nauwelijks vroege aantasting op, terwijl vanaf augustus de schade soms sterk toeneemt. Proeven bij PPO

  17. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  18. Privacy and Cooperation in Peer-to-Peer Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilemaker, N.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    P2P networks employ the resources available at peers to reduce the load at, or eliminate the need for a server. In order to achieve these goals, protocols are implemented which aim to allow peers to collaborate efficiently. However, these same protocols can make peers an easy target, as their

  19. Stability analysis of peer-to-peer networks against churn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Users of the peer-to-peer system join and leave the network randomly, which makes the overlay network dynamic and unstable in nature. In this paper, we propose an analytical framework to assess the robustness of p2p networks in the face of user churn. We model the peer churn through degree-independent as well as ...

  20. Peer-to-Peer Networking -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Whenever confronted with a new word, probably the first object we refer to is the dictionary .The dictionary says, "Peer (pir) n. Is a person who has equal standing with another or others, as in rank, class, or age". The keyword to be watched out for is 'equal'. If 'equality' is what is being stressed in P2P (Peer-to-Peer.

  1. Effects of Gifted Peers Tutoring Struggling Reading Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a peer tutoring program that used a Direct Instruction (DI) reading curriculum. Students identified as gifted and talented delivered instruction, using the DI reading program, to their struggling reading peers. The students used a cross-skill peer tutoring instructional format. The results indicated that all of…

  2. Peer Gynti tagasitulek / Hilve Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Hilve, 1938-2012

    1999-01-01

    Arvustus: Ibsen, Henrik. Peer Gynt / tõlkinud Marie Under. 2. tr. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1998. Ka "Peer Gynti" mõjutusi eesti kirjanduses: August Gailiti, Marie Underi, A. H. Tammsaare ja eriti Karl Ristikivi loomingus

  3. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  4. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-04-07

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.

  5. How Can the Skills of Early Years Leaders Support Other Leaders in a Primary School Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes.…

  6. Leader trust and employee voice : The moderating role of empowering leader behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, L.; Janssen, O.; Shi, K.

    This paper explored how employees' trust in their leader interacted with empowering leader behaviors in promoting employee voice. Using data collected from 314 employees in the telecommunication industry in China, we found that the relationship between leader trust and employee voice became more

  7. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study. Final Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study examines the perceptions of 22 national Hispanic American leaders about poverty among Hispanics. Eleven of the leaders were Mexican American; five were Puerto Rican; four were Cuban American; one was Central American; and one was South American. Twelve of the leaders were heads of public interest organizations; six were members of…

  8. Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader prototypicality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    Self-sacrificing behavior of the leader and the extent to which the leader is representative of the group (i.e., group prototypical) are proposed to interact to influence leadership effectiveness. The authors expected self-sacrificing leaders to be considered more effective and to be able to push

  9. Family Menu-planning Workshop: A Pilot Study on the Feasibility of Adult- and Peer-led Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, Cassandra J; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of a menu-planning workshop led by adults or by adolescents (ie, peers), delivered to parents and their adolescent children. We randomly assigned a convenience sample of 15 parents and their 17 adolescent children to menu-planning workshops taught by either an adult or peer leader. We conducted process evaluation using workshop observations and participant perceptions. Parents and their adolescents completed questionnaires before and immediately after attending and 3- and 6-months after the workshop. Questionnaires measured menu-planning-related knowledge, self-efficacy and program strategy use. We observed adult and peer leaders completing the majority (≥ 80%) of program tasks well. Participants had positive perceptions of the workshop. Menu-planning-related self-efficacy significantly increased for parents and their adolescents from baseline to all follow-up assessment intervals. Adult and peer leaders may feasibly teach a menu-planning workshop to parents and adolescent children. Additional outcomes provide limited but promising indications that menu-planning-related self-efficacy increases after workshop participation and remains elevated when assessed 6-months later, regardless of adult or peer leader mode.

  10. The physician leader as logotherapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, E R

    1998-01-01

    Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.

  11. IS and Business Leaders' Strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette

    IS strategy has become an important focus in both research and practice over the past decades. In research, IS strategy has traditionally been viewed as the use of IT to support a business strategy or the master plan of the IS function. However, more recent IS strategy research has increasingly...... in and utilization of IT within the organization. This dissertation is positioned in relation to this recent IS strategy research. In practice, IS and business leaders’ constant development and repositioning of IS strategic objectives has become increasingly important over time as organizations face turbulent...... business environments characterized by changes in market demands, technology options, and government regulations. Under such dynamic conditions, IS and business leaders must constantly strategize and set new IS strategic objectives so that they can retain and improve innovation, competitiveness...

  12. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  13. Inspiring Students with Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandy

    2007-01-01

    Peer tutoring is essentially peers teaching each other. Many teachers already incorporate this idea into their classrooms in other curricular areas and appreciate the benefits that come from this type of teaching. Teachers can implement peer tutoring by teaching a small group of students a subject, or using a group that already understands the…

  14. Theoretical Considerations of Peer Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jiska

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the need for a theoretical analysis of the peer tutoring process by discussing: definitions of the process, the psychological and educational processes in peer tutoring as a learning and teaching experience, and the conceptualization of peer tutoring as a cooperative social system and a group reward structure. (Author/ABB)

  15. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  16. Model checking the HAVi leader election protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.T. Romijn (Judi)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the

  17. Political leader survival : does competence matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Shu; Jong-A-Pin, Richard

    We examine whether economic and military competence of political leaders affect their duration in office. We introduce leader heterogeneity in the selectorate theory of Bueno de Mesquita et al. (2003) and derive the hypothesis that in the presence of a revolutionary threat, economic competence is

  18. Developing Adaptive Leaders, A Cultural Imperative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulbury, Douglas S

    2007-01-01

    .... The paper then analyzes current research into the nature of adaptive performance and how to develop it in others. It concludes by examining organizational and cultural factors that affect adaptive performance. Throughout recommendations are offered for how the Army should alter its leader development program to better prepare adaptive leaders.

  19. Practical Leader Development Program Using Emotional Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Jakob Rømer; Bakkegaard, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Army has more than ten years of experience working with developing emotional intelligence in the Royal Danish Army Officers’ Academy (RDAOA), and the Academy has developed military leaders who have benefitted from emotional intelligence training. Today many of the military leaders...

  20. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  1. The Called, Chosen, and Faithful Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hartwell T. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Leaders are made, not born. Like so many other of life's complex issues, the question of nature vs. nurture in leadership is one that is analyzed, researched, and debated by educators, philosophers, social scientist, and even leaders themselves. Leadership has been dissected as to personality, character, and behavior. Researchers have developed…

  2. Environmental leaders and pioneers: agents of change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.; Wurzel, R.K.W.

    2017-01-01

    This article distinguishes between states acting as environmental leaders or pioneers. While leaders usually actively seek to attract followers, this is not normally the case for pioneers. Dependent on their internal and external ambitions, states may take on the position of a laggard, pioneer,

  3. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  4. Educators as Serving Leaders in the Classroom and on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…

  5. The mediatization of peer-to-peer health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla; Ahlmark, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    This case study analyses the media as an arena in which media logics engage with health logics from other institutional arenas; municipal peer-to-peer health care and politics of risk. The article will draw on empirical data, comprising journalistic and PR content as well as participant...... observations and qualitative interviews from a peer-to-peer programme for men in Copenhagen. The article analyses the tensions that occurred in the media coverage of the programme as well as in the municipal facilitation and management of the peer-to-peer health care programme defined partly...... by a democratization of health expertise and by a broader culture characterized by individualized, risk aware health promotion. We will argue that tensions between media logics and logics of care and of risk created a mediatized conception of health and of the peer programme that highlighted health care...

  6. Active Learning Outside the Classroom: Implementation and Outcomes of Peer-Led Team-Learning Workshops in Introductory Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kudish, Philip; Shores, Robin; McClung, Alex; Smulyan, Lisa; Vallen, Elizabeth A.; Siwicki, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Study group meetings (SGMs) are voluntary-attendance peer-led team-learning workshops that supplement introductory biology lectures at a selective liberal arts college. While supporting all students? engagement with lecture material, specific aims are to improve the success of underrepresented minority (URM) students and those with weaker backgrounds in biology. Peer leaders with experience in biology courses and training in science pedagogy facilitate work on faculty-generated challenge prob...

  7. Review the 'peer review'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockeel, Christophe; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Tournaye, Herman; García-Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Peer review has been the main form of appraisal of scientific knowledge for over a century. In essence, this process involves the evaluation of a scientific finding by independent experts prior to its dissemination to the scientific community, in an attempt to ensure that both the research and conclusions meet the necessary standards regarding quality, accuracy, relevance and novelty. However, although 'peer review' is considered the current gold standard, it is far from perfect. A focus on the methodology of an article and reviewers' training are key messages for the scientific community. Guidelines on how to review an article are needed and may help reviewers deal with this difficult process. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MELCOR Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Dhir, V.K.; Gieseke, J.A.; Haste, T.J.; Kenton, M.A.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Leonard, M.T.; Viskanta, R.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation

  9. MELCOR Peer Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dhir, V.K. [Santa Monica, CA. (United States); Gieseke, J.A. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Haste, T.J. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Kenton, M.A. [Gabor, Kenton and Associates, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Leonard, M.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Wolfheze (Netherlands); Viskanta, R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Heat Transfer Lab.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation.

  10. What about the leader? Crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Nina; Rigotti, Thomas; Otto, Kathleen; Loeb, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Although a growing body of research links leadership behavior to follower health, comparatively little is known about the health effects of being in the lead. This longitudinal study of 315 team members and 67 leaders examined the crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders. Leader emotional self-efficacy was tested as a moderator in the crossover process. Multiple regression analyses revealed that followers' work engagement was positively related to leaders' work engagement eight months later, controlling for followers' tenure with the leader, leader gender, autonomy, workload, and work engagement at Time 1. Leaders' emotional self-efficacy did not moderate the crossover of work engagement. Followers' emotional exhaustion was not directly related to leaders' emotional exhaustion over time. We did find a significant interaction effect for follower emotional exhaustion and leader emotional self-efficacy. This study is the first to show that crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement can unfold over time from team members to leaders. Main theoretical implications lie in the finding that-in line with job demands-resources theory-followers' psychological states can pose a demand or resource for leaders, and influence their well-being. For practitioners, our results offer valuable insights regarding the design of organizational health interventions as well as leadership development measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Show and tell: how supervisors facilitate leader development among transitioning leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa; Park, Haeseen; Soltis, Jim; Forte-Trammell, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    We argue that studying leaders experiencing a job transition offers a unique opportunity to explore initial changes in leaders' development in their cognition and action. Here, we examine 2 early indicators of leaders' development-their acquisition of knowledge regarding their new role (a cognitive outcome) and the time they allocate toward leading others (a behavioral outcome)-and how supervisors can facilitate these forms of development among transitioning leaders. With a sample of 110 first-line leaders who we tracked over approximately 10 months at 4 different points in time, we tested the efficacy of supervisors' support in the form of modeling effective leadership behavior (i.e., "show") and the provision of job information (i.e., "tell"). Results from random coefficient modeling revealed that the interactive effect of supervisors' "show" and "tell" accelerates the rate of transitioning leaders' self-perceived role knowledge acquisition over time. This upward trajectory is even more pronounced for transitioning leaders who have not been exposed to an exceptional leader during their careers. Further, with a lagged design, we found that leaders who report greater role knowledge allocate more time toward leading others, thus indicating initial changes in these leaders' behavior. We discuss these findings in light of their theoretical and practical importance to the field of leader development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Leader power and leader self-serving behavior : The role of effective leadership beliefs and performance information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this research we investigated the role played by leader power in determining leader self-serving behavior. Based on an integration of insights from research on the determinants of leader behavior and the power-approach theory, we hypothesized that with higher leader power leader self-serving

  13. 2015 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    In the spring and summer of 2015, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO or the Office) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an external peer review of the projects in its research, development and demonstration (RD&D) portfolio. The Office manages a diverse portfolio of technologies across the spectrum of applied RD&D within the dynamic context of changing budgets and Administration priorities. The Office portfolio is organized according to the biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain—from the feedstock source to the end user (see Figure 1)—with major focus on feedstock supply and biomass conversion. The 2015 Project Peer Review took place March 23-27, 2015, outside of Washington, D.C., in Alexandria, Virginia, and evaluated most of the publicly funded projects in BETO’s portfolio. The subsequent Program Management Review took place on June 25, 2015, in Washington, D.C., and provided an Office- level assessment of strategic planning and programmatic initiatives. The peer review process enables external stakeholders to provide feedback on the responsible use of taxpayer funding and develop recommendations for the most efficient and effective ways to accelerate the development of an advanced bioenergy industry. The planning and execution of these reviews was completed over the course of 10 months, and this report includes the results of both events.

  14. Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muellerweiss, Alice

    2008-01-01

    The quality of federal leaders is vital to the effectiveness of our government. No longer can we depend on leaders simply and conveniently emerging, rather we must invest in a deliberate systematic process to develop leaders at all levels...

  15. Affective match: Leader emotions, follower positive affect, and follower performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, F.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    Leader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the affective match between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders' emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of

  16. Stuck between a rock and a hard place: the work situation for nurses as leaders in municipal health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen ER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Etty R Nilsen,1 Anja H Olafsen,1 Anne Grethe Steinsvåg,2 Hallgeir Halvari,1 Ellen K Grov31Department of Strategy and Finance, School of Business, University College of Southeast-Norway, 2Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University College of Southeast-Norway, Kongsberg, 3Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo, NorwayBackground: The paper aims to present how nursing leaders in the municipal health care perceive the interaction with and support from their superiors and peers. The paper further aims to identify the leaders’ vulnerability and strength at work in the current situation of shortage of manpower and other resources in the health care sector. This is seen through the lens of self-determination theory.Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with nine nursing leaders in nursing homes and home-care services, which, in part, capture the municipal health care service in a time of reform.Results: The nursing leaders are highly independent regarding their role as leaders. They act with strength and power in their position as superiors for their own staff, but they lack support and feel left alone by their leader, the municipal health director. The relation between the nursing leaders and their superiors is characterized by controlling structures and lack of autonomy support. As a consequence, the nursing leaders’ relations with subordinates and particularly peers, contribute to satisfy their needs for competence and relatedness, and, to some extent, autonomy. However, this cannot substitute for the lack of support from the superior level.Conclusion: The paper maintains a need to increase the consciousness of the value of horizontal support and interaction with peers and subordinates for the municipal nursing leader. Also, the need for increased focus on “the missing link” upward between the municipal health director and the

  17. Understanding health policy leaders' training needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Roth Bayer

    Full Text Available We assessed the training needs of health policy leaders and practitioners across career stages; identified areas of core content for health policy training programs; and, identified training modalities for health policy leaders.We convened a focus group of health policy leaders at varying career stages to inform the development of the Health Policy Leaders' Training Needs Assessment tool. We piloted and distributed the tool electronically. We used descriptive statistics and thematic coding for analysis.Seventy participants varying in age and stage of career completed the tool. "Cost implications of health policies" ranked highest for personal knowledge development and "intersection of policy and politics" ranked highest for health policy leaders in general. "Effective communication skills" ranked as the highest skill element and "integrity" as the highest attribute element. Format for training varied based on age and career stage.This study highlighted the training needs of health policy leaders personally as well as their perceptions of the needs for training health policy leaders in general. The findings are applicable for current health policy leadership training programs as well as those in development.

  18. Factors supporting dentist leaders' retention in leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuononen, T; Lammintakanen, J; Suominen, A L

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to study factors associated with staying in a dentist leadership position. We used an electronic questionnaire to gather data from 156 current or former Finnish dentist leaders in 2014. Principal component analysis categorized statements regarding time usage and opportunities in managerial work into five main components. Associations between these main component scores and the tendency to stay as a leader were analyzed with logistic regression. Out of the five main components, two were significantly associated with staying as a leader: 'career intentions', which represented intent to continue or to leave the leadership position; and 'work time control opportunities', which represented how leaders could control their own work time. Other factors that supported staying were leadership education, more work time available for leadership work, and lower age. The main component 'work pressure' decreased, although not significantly, the odds of continuing; it included lack of leadership work time, and pressure from superiors or subordinates. Leaders have important roles in health care, ensuring everyday operations as well as developing their organizations to meet future challenges. Knowledge of these supporting factors will enable dentist leaders and their organizations to improve working conditions in order to recruit and retain motivated and competent persons. In addition, well-designed education is important to inspire and encourage future leaders. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  19. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tyson Chatagnier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizations. After reviewing the results and insights derived from this analysis, we conclude with implications for policies to counter terrorism.

  20. Saddam Hussein: Portrait of an Arab Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    AD-A240 117 SADDAM HUSSEIN . PORTRAIT OF AN ARAB LEADER A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in...Hussein: Protrait of an Arab Leader 6. AUTHOR(S) Maj Ray T. Bradley, USAF 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...89) j.] SADDAM HUSSEIN PORTRAIT OF AN ARAB LEADER A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and GenprIl qtaff College in parti.i

  1. Internationalization in schools - perspectives of school leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how internationalization ideas in primary and lower secondary schools can be developed through the acquisition of international experience abroad by leaders. The study was inspired by existing literature on internationalization and leadership, and theories of experiential...... learning and reflection. Empirically, qualitative material was derived from a study of nineteen Danish school leaders participating in an eight-day delegation visit to China. This study shows that international experience for leaders can be used to develop ideas for internationalization at the school level...

  2. Assessing the Role of Peer Relationships in the Small Group Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.; Shimotsu, Stephanie; Byrnes, Kerry; Frisby, Brandi N.; Durbin, James; Loy, Brianna N.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the typology posited by Kram and Isabella (1985) that identifies three peer relationships present in organizations (i.e., information, collegial, and special), this assessment examined the association between students' perceptions of their in-class group members and six group outcomes (i.e., grouphate, cohesion, relational satisfaction,…

  3. The Leader Ship Is Sinking: A Temporal Investigation of Narcissistic Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chin Wei; Roberts, Ross; Arthur, Calum A; Woodman, Tim; Akehurst, Sally

    2016-04-01

    Individuals higher in narcissism have leader emergent tendencies. The characteristics of their personality suggest, however, that their leadership qualities will decrease over time as a function of group acquaintance. We present data from two studies that provide the first empirical support for this theoretical position within a transformational leadership framework. In Study 1 (N = 112), we tested narcissistic leadership qualities in groups of unacquainted individuals over a 12-week period. In Study 2 (N = 152), we adopted the same protocol with groups of acquainted individuals. In Study 1, narcissism was positively associated with peer-rated leadership during initial group formation but not later. In Study 2, narcissism was not significantly associated with peer-rated leadership during initial group formation and was negatively associated with peer-rated leadership later. In Study 1, transformational leadership mediated the relationship between narcissism and leadership initially but not later on. In Study 2, transformational leadership failed to mediate the relationship between narcissism and leadership throughout the study. Despite enjoying a honeymoon period of leadership, the appeal and attractiveness of the narcissistic leader rapidly wane. This decline is explained in part by their changing transformational leadership qualities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Establishing the next generation at work: leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and leadership success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Henning, Thomas; Frese, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came from 128 university professors paired with one research assistant each. Results showed positive relationships between leader age and leader generativity, and negative relationships between leader age and follower perceptions of leader effectiveness and follower extra effort. Consistent with expectations based on leadership categorization theory, leader generativity moderated the relationships between leader age and all three criteria of leadership success, such that leaders high in generativity were better able to maintain high levels of leadership success at higher ages than leaders low in generativity. Finally, results of mediated moderation analyses showed that leader-member exchange quality mediated these moderating effects. The findings suggest that, in combination, leader age and the age-related construct of generativity importantly influence leadership processes and outcomes. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Is there something like a peer to peer science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bauwens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available How will peer to peer infrastructures, and the underlying intersubjective and ethical relational model that is implied by it, affect scientific practice? Are peer-to-peer forms of cooperation, based on open and free input of voluntary contributors, participatory processes of governance, and universal availability of the output, more productive than centralized alternatives? In this short introduction, Michel Bauwens reviews a number of open and free, participatory and commons oriented practices that are emerging in scientific research and practice, but which ultimately point to a more profound epistemological revolution linked to increased participatory consciousness between the scientist and his human, organic and inorganic research material.

  6. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  7. Leader identity as an antecedent of the frequency and consistency of transformational, consideration, and abusive leadership behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Venus, Merlijn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Mao, Changguo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang

    2012-11-01

    Drawing from identity-based theories of leadership, we examined relations of leader identity with leader behavior and perceived effectiveness. To do so, we employed multiwave methodology to examine the differential impact of leaders' chronic collective, relational, and individual identities on the frequency and consistency of their subsequent transformational, consideration, and abusive behaviors over a 3-week period. We also examined the relative importance of these leadership behaviors for predicting perceived leader effectiveness as rated by subordinates and peers. Results indicated that leaders' collective and individual identities were uniquely related to transformational and abusive behaviors, respectively. We also observed a significant collective by individual identity interaction, such that abusive behaviors were most frequent when a strong individual identity was paired with a weak collective identity. Frequency of transformational behaviors accounted for the largest proportion of variance in perceived leader effectiveness, followed by frequency of abusive behaviors and consistency of transformational behaviors. We discuss the implications of these findings for leadership theory and development. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Brugbar peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Helle; Heger, Stine

    Studerende kan være medskabere af undervisning i akademisk skrivning, når de modtager og giver feedback til hinandens ufærdige akademiske tekster. Det ser vi i et udviklingsprojekt, hvor vi afprøver kollektive vejledningsformater. Vi har dog erfaret: 1. at studerende mangler træning i at give og ...... modtage feedback 2. at den manglende træning kan stå i vejen for realiseringen af læringspotentialet ved peer feedback....

  9. Four mistakes leaders keep making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert H

    2010-09-01

    Again and again, senior managers fall into four behavioral traps that thwart organizational change. The behaviors are difficult to recognize and reverse because they serve to protect egos and prevent anxiety--but executives can overcome them. First, managers fail to set proper expectations. When they announce major directional changes or new goals, they don't spell out credible plans or specify who's accountable. Second, they excuse subordinates from the pursuit of overall goals, allowing people to remain preoccupied with their own units. Third, executives essentially collude with staff experts and consultants by going along with a deeply flawed contract: The experts agree to deliver and implement a "product" (a new system, for instance) but don't include measurable gains as part of the deal. Fourth, managers wait while associates overprepare. After challenging their employees to make needed improvements, they accept the response "Yes, but first we have to..." Finish the sentence: Train our people. Set up focus groups. Bring in Six Sigma. And so on. The best way to confront the traps is to conduct small personal experiments that rapidly produce tangible results, incur little risk of failure, and are confined enough to demonstrate a clear link between trial and outcome. For example, one iron plant addressed quality problems by targeting five areas for improvement, setting clear and measurable goals for each, and holding team Leaders accountable for outcomes. AlL five experiments succeeded and were extended to the rest of the plant. Quality problems eased up within 100 days and virtually disappeared a few months later.

  10. In search of global leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen; Hassan, Fred; Immelt, Jeffrey; Marks, Michael; Meiland, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    For all the talk about global organizations and executives, there's no definitive answer to the question of what we really mean by "global." A presence in multiple countries? Cultural adaptability? A multilingual top team? We asked four CEOs and the head of an international recruiting agency--HSBC's Stephen Green, Schering-Plough's Fred Hassan, GE's Jeffrey-lmmelt, Flextronics's Michael Marks, and Egon Zehnder's Daniel Meiland--to tell us what they think. They share some common ground. They all agree, for example, that the shift from a local to a global marketplace is irreversible and gaining momentum. "We're losing sight of the reality of globalization. But we should pay attention, because national barriers are quickly coming down", Daniel Meiland says. "If you look ahead five or ten years, the people with the top jobs in large corporations ... will be those who have lived in several cultures and who can converse in at least two languages." But the CEOs also disagree on many issues--on the importance of overseas assignments, for instance, and on the degree to which you need to adhere to local cultural norms. Some believe strongly that the global leader should, as a prerequisite to the job, live and work in other countries. As Stephen Green put it, "If you look at the executives currently running [HSBC's] largest businesses, all of them have worked in more than one, and nearly all in more than two, major country markets." Others downplay the importance of overseas assignments. "Putting people in foreign settings doesn't automatically imbue new attitudes, and it is attitudes rather than experiences that make a culture global," says Fred Hassan. The executives' essays capture views that are as diverse and multidimensional as the companies they lead.

  11. Barriers to Achieving Mentally Agile Junior Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blocker, Marlon D

    2009-01-01

    ... that concept into clear, simple language to subordinates. How is it possible that the Army is still seeking the agile leaders it requires after our most senior leadership identified their need over eight years ago...

  12. Developing educational leaders: A partnership between two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing educational leaders: A partnership between two universities to bring about system-wide change. ... towards improved learner performance. Keywords: educational leadership; intervention; leadership development; partnership; principal; school district; systemic change; systems theory; system-wide change ...

  13. An Undergraduate Foundation for Strategic Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bedey, David

    2001-01-01

    .... Development of strategic leaders is a long-term process that also includes education and training in branch schools, command and staff colleges, and senior service colleges, as well as experience...

  14. Gender differences in Assessments of Party Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between party leader gender and voters' assessments? Yes, according to theses on gender identity and stereotyping. A voter survey during the 2011 Danish general election allows for a comprehensive analysis of a less likely case with four male and four female party leaders...... of gender does not increase with age, actually, the opposite is the case among men since younger male voters have smaller sympathy for female party leaders. Furthermore, there is no support for the expectation that voters with more education or with higher levels of political interest and knowledge are more...... positive towards party leaders of their own gender than voters with less education. Also, the relationship between gender and voters’ assessments is not stronger prior to the election campaign than immediately after the election. Hence, in sum, gender identity does not seem to require a higher level...

  15. Yelavarthy Nayudamma: Scientist, Leader, and Mentor Extraordinary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Yelavarthy Nayudamma: Scientist, Leader, and Mentor Extraordinary. J Raghava Rao T Ramasami. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 887-899 ...

  16. LEADER jõudis Eestisse / Harda Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosna, Harda, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    EL-i maaelu toetusprogrammi LEADER+ rakendamist on katsetatud Põlva-, Valga-, Pärnu- ja Võrumaal. Hiiumaal arutletakse programmi rakendamiseks vajaliku tegevusgrupi moodustamise üle märtsis. Lisad: Ajalugu; Näited

  17. Interprofessional Care and Role of Team Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaini, B K

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional care is an essential part of the health service delivery system. It helps to achieve improved care and to deliver the optimal and desired health outcomes by working together, sharing and learning skills. Health care organisation is a collective sum of many leaders and followers. Successful delivery of interprofessional care relies on the contribution of interprofessional care team leaders and health care professionals from all groups. The role of the interprofessional care team leader is vital to ensuring continuity and consistency of care and to mobilise and motivate health care professionals for the effective delivery of health services. Medical professionals usually lead interprofessional care teams. Interprofessional care leaders require various skills and competencies for the successful delivery of interprofessional care.

  18. LTG Timothy J. Maude: Leader of Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semeraro, Karen

    2005-01-01

    .... He was a leader of extraordinary vision, keen technical competency, and superb interpersonal skills all of which were directly shaped by a military career that included almost every key developmental...

  19. Leaders as Corporate Responsibility Spokesperson: How Leaders Explain Liabilites Via Corporate Web Sites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Öksüz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal the corporate social responsibility (CSR understandings of corporations from the leaders’ perspective and discuss how leaders define and explain CSR practices their organizations executed as spokesperson via social media channels of their organizations.  In this context, a content analysis aiming to display the ideas of Turkey’s top 250 corporations’ leaders (CEO, chairman of the board, general manager designated by Istanbul Chamber of Industry in 2013. The leader messages about different dimensions of CSR and CSR practices that are partaking in corporate web sites were examined. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that the leaders act as responsible leaders, and also the spokesperson of their corporations. In addition it is found out that responsible leaders included multiplexed information on different dimensions and various practices of CSR in their social media messages.

  20. Precious "MeTL": Reflections on the Use of Tablet PCs and Collaborative Interactive Software in Peer- Assisted Study Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devey, Adrian; Hicks, Marianne; Gunaratnam, Shaminka; Pan, Yijun; Plecan, Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) is an academic mentoring program, where high achieving senior students assist small groups of first years in study sessions throughout semester. One of the challenges PASS Leaders face at Monash in conducting their classes is the limited time they have with their students. The current paper explores, through…

  1. The Effects of Peer-Interaction Styles in Team Blogs on Students' Cognitive Thinking and Blog Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Ke, Fengfeng; Sharma, Priya

    2010-01-01

    Deep cognitive thinking refers to a learner's purposeful and conscious manipulation of ideas toward meaningful learning. Strategies such as journaling/blogging and peer feedback have been found to promote deep thinking. This article reports a research study about the effects of two different blog leader styles on students' deep thinking as…

  2. Racism Here, Racism There, Racism Everywhere: The Racial Realities of Minoritized Peer Socialization Agents at a Historically White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Jodi L.

    2018-01-01

    I critically examined the ways racially minoritized college students who served as peer socialization agents (i.e., orientation leaders, tour guides) experienced their campus climate in relation to their racial identities and student ambassador positions. Framed by critical race theory, the counternarratives of 11 racially minoritized peer…

  3. Developing Senior Leaders for the Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    For more information on the Forces and Resources Policy Center, see http://www.rand.org/nsrd/ndri/centers/frp.html or contact the director (contact information is provided on the web page ). ...some combination of experiences, education, and personal development. Each has an extensive concept of develop- ment—how they define it, what ...policy. First, in what ways can the develop- ment of RC senior leaders be improved? Second, in what ways can reserve component leader development

  4. Implicit leadership theories : think leader, think effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Schyns, B.; Schilling, J.

    2011-01-01

    In general, although research into leadership acknowledges negative aspects of leadership, research into implicit leadership theories lags behind in this respect. Most implicit leadership theories research implies that the image of a leader in general reflects an effective leader. However, recent results in leadership research as well as headlines and reports in the popular press cast doubt on this assumption. This article reports a qualitative study, focusing on general implicit leadership t...

  5. Understanding leader representations: Beyond implicit leadership theory

    OpenAIRE

    Knee, Robert Everett

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish evidence for the suggested integration of the theories of connectionism and leadership. Recent theoretical writings in the field of leadership have suggested that the dynamic representations generated by the connectionist perspective is an appropriate approach to understanding how we perceive leaders. Similarly, implicit leadership theory (ILT) explains that our cognitive understandings of leaders are based on a cognitive structure that we u...

  6. Interprofessional Care and Role of Team Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Bachchu Kailash Kaini

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional care is an essential part of the health service delivery system. It helps to achieve improved care and to deliver the optimal and desired health outcomes by working together, sharing and learning skills. Health care organisation is a collective sum of many leaders and followers. Successful delivery of interprofessional care relies on the contribution of interprofessional care team leaders and health care professionals from all groups. The role of the interprofessional care t...

  7. Dealing With Deans and Academic Medical Center Leadership: Advice From Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Fred; Powell, Deborah; Folberg, Robert; Tykocinski, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The 2017 Association of Pathology Chairs Annual Meeting included a session for department chairs and other department leaders on "how to deal with deans and academic medical center leadership." The session was focused on discussing ways to foster positive relationships with university, medical school, and health system leaders, and productively address issues and opportunities with them. Presentations and a panel discussion were provided by 4 former pathology chairs who subsequently have served as medical deans and in other leadership positions including university provost, medical center CEO, and health system board chair. There was a strong consensus among the participants on how best to deal with superiors about problems, conflicts, and requests for additional resources and authority. The importance of teamwork and accountability in developing a constructive and collaborative relationship with leaders and peers was discussed in detail. Effectiveness in communication, negotiation, and departmental advocacy were highlighted as important skills. As limited resources and increased regulations have become growing problems for universities and health systems, internal stress and competition have increased. In this rapidly changing environment, advice on how chairs can interact most productively with institutional leaders is becoming increasingly important.

  8. CONTAIN independent peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Corradini, M.L.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Loyalka, S.K.; Smith, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  9. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  10. Social Competence in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Mediated Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Katie A.; Bukowski, William M.; Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Smith, Tristram H.; Lown, E. Anne; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Korones, David N.; Noll, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes of a peer-mediated intervention to improve social competence of brain tumor survivors and classmates. Methods Twelve childhood brain tumor survivors and 217 classroom peers in intervention (n = 8) or comparison (n = 4) classrooms completed measures of social acceptance and reputation at two time points in the year. The intervention (5–8 sessions over 4–6 weeks) taught peer leaders skills for engaging classmates. Individual and classroom outcomes were analyzed with ANCOVA. Results Recruitment rates of families of brain tumor survivors (81%) and schools (100%) were adequate. Peer leaders reported satisfaction with the intervention. Preliminary outcome data trended toward some benefit in increasing the number of friend nominations for survivors of brain tumors but no changes in other peer-reported metrics. Preliminary results also suggested some positive effects on classroom levels of victimization and rejection. Conclusions A peer-mediated intervention was acceptable to families of brain tumor survivors and feasible to implement in schools. Findings warrant a larger trial to evaluate improvements for children with brain tumors and their peers. PMID:27355881

  11. Leader narcissism and follower outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Bradley P; Wallace, Angela S; Walker, Angela S; Waldman, David A

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-29666-001). The last name of the second author was misspelled in the Online First version of the article. All versions of this article have been corrected.] In response to recent calls to theorize and examine how multiple leader characteristics may work together in their effects, the current research examines how leader narcissism and humility interact to predict perceived leader effectiveness and follower (i.e., direct-report) job engagement and performance. Although an examination of leaders who are narcissistic yet humble may seem oxymoronic and even paradoxical, researchers have suggested that seemingly contradictory personal attributes may exist simultaneously and may actually work together to produce positive outcomes. Results from survey data from followers and leaders working for a large health insurance organization showed that the interaction of leader narcissism and leader humility is associated with perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower job engagement, and subjective and objective follower job performance. Together, these results suggest that narcissistic leaders can have positive effects on followers when their narcissism is tempered by humility. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  13. Mathematical Framework For Analyzing Incentives In Peer-To-Peer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BitTorrent (Cohen, 2003) as games, in an attempt to understand different sharing characteristics of peers in a BitTorrent ... Hua et al., (2012) used game theory to model the interaction among peers in an unstructured P2P networks. ..... High Performance Computing & Simulation. (HPCS)”, 2014 International Conference on.

  14. Characteristics of file sharing and peer to peer networking | Opara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A peer-to-peer (p2p) network allows computer hardware and software to function without the need for special server devices. While file sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information, such as computer programs, multi-media (audio, video) resources, documents, or electronic books.

  15. Peer production & peer support at the Free Technology Academy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Hanneke; Berlanga, Adriana; Bijlsma, Lex

    2012-01-01

    Potters, H., Berlanga, A. J., & Lex, B. (2011). Peer Production & Peer Support at the Free Technology Academy. In G. van de Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Proceedings Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 49-58). April, 7-8, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands: ACM.

  16. Peer Education from the Perspective of Peer Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Aysel; Akkus, Dilek; Sener, Dilek Konuk

    2018-01-01

    Peer educators (PEs) have a significant role in providing education on various health issues like smoking, alcohol, and other substance use. This study aimed to determine the experiences and opinions of PEs regarding a peer education program. Using the qualitative research method, data were collected from the study sample, which consisted of 23…

  17. Key agreement in peer-to-peer wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagalj, Mario; Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a set of simple techniques for key establishment over a radio link in peer-to-peer networks. Our approach is based on the Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol, which is known to be vulnerable to the “man-in-the-middle” attack if the two users involved in the protocol do not share any ...

  18. Network-aware SuperPeers-Peers Geometric Overlay Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lua, E.K.; Zhou, X.

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay networks can be utilized to deploy massive Internet overlay services such as multicast, content distribution, file sharing, etc. efficiently without any underlying network support. The crucial step to meet this objective is to design network-aware overlay network

  19. Stability analysis of peer-to-peer networks against churn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like Internet. In [14], researchers have addressed a more realistic scenario in which a network is subjected to simultaneous targeted and random attacks. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In §2 we extend the analytical framework [5] to analyse the stability of peer-to-peer networks. Section 3 defines and models ...

  20. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders’ energy balance-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Foley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA program on SALSA peer leaders’ EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. Methods We used a pre–post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15–16 year olds who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13–14 year olds. This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders’ fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. Results There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415 who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P < 0.01; eating ≥5 serves vegetables/day from 8 to 12% (P < 0.01; and drinking <1 cup/day of SSBs from 56 to 62% (P < 0.01. Change in ≥60 min MVPA participation/day depended on gender (P < 0.01: Boys increased 14% while girls decreased −2%. Changes in eating breakfast daily also depended on gender (P < 0.004: Boys increased 13% while girls decreased −0.4%. The change in peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P < 0.05: above average

  1. Peer til peer i arbejdet med udsatte mennesker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Norrhäll, Oskar; Jensen, Pernille Hartvig

    Statens Institut for Folkesundhed, Syddansk Universitet har fået til opdrag at lave en formativ procesevaluering af Københavns Kommunes projekt Mænd i København. Projektet omhandler udvikling og implementering af en peer til peer indsats med henblik på at forbedre sundhed og trivsel blandt udsatte...... mænd i risiko for at udvikle type 2 diabetes. En del af evalueringsopdraget har været at tilvejebringe viden om relevant litteratur om peer-metoder. I denne forbindelse er dette notat udarbejdet til Københavns Kommunes Forebyggelsescenter Nørrebro af evaluerings-teamet, som består af forsker, Nanna...... Ahlmark, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Camilla Dindler, praktikant og specialestuderende Oskar Norrhäll og specialestuderende Pernille Hartvig Jensen. Notatet er en sammenfatning af udvalgt forskningslitteratur og rapporter om peer til peer-relaterede projekter målrettet udsatte grupper i forbindelse...

  2. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew leaders and labor contractors. 780.331 Section 780.331... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.331 Crew leaders and labor contractors. (a) Whether a crew leader... contractor. A crew leader who merely assembles a crew and brings them to the farm to be supervised and paid...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm crew leader as employer. 404.1010....1010 Farm crew leader as employer. A farm crew leader furnishes workers to do agricultural labor for another person, usually a farm operator. If the crew leader pays the workers (the money can be the crew...

  4. Leader Communication Style: Effects on Members of Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Sally; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined effects of different leader verbal styles on group members. Results indicated leader verbal style is a factor influencing communication style of members and that it affects members' perceptions of leader orientation; however, it does not affect members' satisfaction with leaders, nor the self-concept of group members. (Author/RC)

  5. Security leader insights for information protection lessons and strategies from leading security professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, Bob

    2014-01-01

    How do you, as a busy security executive or manager, stay current with evolving issues, familiarize yourself with the successful practices of your peers, and transfer this information to build a knowledgeable, skilled workforce the times now demand? With Security Leader Insights for Information Protection, a collection of timeless leadership best practices featuring insights from some of the nation's most successful security practitioners, you can. This book can be used as a quick and effective resource to bring your security staff up to speed on security's role in information protection. I

  6. Thanking our peer reviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Alan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Contributing reviewers As 2013 commences I would like to take a moment to reflect and recognize the peer reviewers that made the previous year possible. Listed below are those people who reviewed for Molecular Cancer last year. All are generous individuals who donated their time to assessing and improving our authors’ submissions. Your combined efforts have been invaluable to the editorial staff in maintaining the continued success of the journal in the Open Access forum. The editors of Molecular Cancer would like to thank all the reviewers who contributed to the journal in Volume 11 (2012 by participating in the review process - taking time out of your busy schedules and even to volunteer - without your critical insights, hard work and support for the journal we wouldn’t be able to do what we do.

  7. Peer Review: The CHAMPUS Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, George

    This paper examines the use of the peer review system in evaluating out-patient clinical services for a third-party payer seeking justification for payment of services. Peer review is defined as a process by which one professional, in an official capacity, makes a judgment about a co-professional in a matter involving professional functioning. The…

  8. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  9. Peer Matcher : Decentralized Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozdog, Nicolae Vladimir; Voulgaris, Spyros; Bal, Henri; van Halteren, Aart

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents Peer Matcher, a fully decentralized algorithm solving the k-clique matching problem. The aim of k-clique matching is to cluster a set of nodes having pair wise weights into k-size groups of maximal total weight. Since solving the problem requires exponential time, Peer Matcher

  10. A Fully Decentralized Approach to Coordinating Transactional Processes in Peer-to-Peer Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Klaus; Schuldt, Heiko; Türker, Can

    2004-01-01

    With the proliferation of e-business, peer-to-peer style business collaboration becomes increasingly popular. In peer-to-peer environments each peer provides a set of services. These services can be composed to processes running over several peers. Although peer-to-peer environments inherently lack global control, some business processes nevertheless require global transactional guarantees, i.e., atomicity and isolation applied at the level of processes. This paper introduces a novel distribu...

  11. Quality assurance in radiology: peer review and peer feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Peer review in radiology means an assessment of the accuracy of a report issued by another radiologist. Inevitably, this involves a judgement opinion from the reviewing radiologist. Peer feedback is the means by which any form of peer review is communicated back to the original author of the report. This article defines terms, discusses the current status, identifies problems, and provides some recommendations as to the way forward, concentrating upon the software requirements for efficient peer review and peer feedback of reported imaging studies. Radiologists undertake routine peer review in their everyday clinical practice, particularly when reporting and preparing for multidisciplinary team meetings. More formal peer review of reported imaging studies has been advocated as a quality assurance measure to promote good clinical practice. It is also a way of assessing the competency of reporting radiologists referred for investigation to bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC). The literature shows, firstly, that there is a very wide reported range of discrepancy rates in many studies, which have used a variety of non-comparable methodologies; and secondly, that applying scoring systems in formal peer review is often meaningless, unhelpful, and can even be detrimental. There is currently a lack of electronic peer feedback system software on the market to inform radiologists of any review of their work that has occurred or to provide them with clinical outcome information on cases they have previously reported. Learning opportunities are therefore missed. Radiologists should actively engage with the medical informatics industry to design optimal peer review and feedback software with features to meet their needs. Such a system should be easy to use, be fully integrated with the radiological information and picture archiving systems used clinically, and contain a free-text comment box, without a numerical scoring system. It should form a temporary record

  12. Resilient Women Educational Leaders in Turbulent Times: Applying the Leader Resilience Profile® to Assess Women's Leadership Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Diane E.; Blaine, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Women leaders across the world confront a common challenge: extremely turbulent times that challenge even the most skillful leaders. The paper begins with a brief overview of the meaning of leader resilience and describes the resilience cycle that all leaders experience when adversity strikes. Five phases of the resilience cycle discussed are:…

  13. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...... show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume...

  14. A Critical Analysis of Attribute Development Programs for Army Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    intellectual curiosity, and creativity . Experience is where all the training and education are put into practice.66 Leader development is the...Train leaders in the art and science of mission command. 5. Train to develop adaptive leaders. 6. Train leaders to think critically and creatively ...demonstrate depth of content, knowledge, and teaching ability. Overall, CSF2 successfully utilizes all delivery domains and leader development

  15. Leadership and Leader Developmental Self-Efficacy: Their Role in Enhancing Leader Development Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan Elaine; Johnson, Stefanie K

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the role of two types of self-efficacy-leader self-efficacy and leader developmental efficacy-for enhancing leadership development. Practical implications for designing and developing leadership programs that take into account these two types of self-efficacy are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  16. On ethically solvent leaders : The role of pride and moral identity in predicting ethical leader behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Stacey; Wisse, Barbara; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Rus, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The popular media has repeatedly pointed to pride as one of the key factors motivating leaders to behave unethically. However, given the devastating consequences that leader unethical behavior may have, a more scientific account of the role of pride is warranted. The present study differentiates

  17. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  18. The Impact of Educational Change on School Leaders: Experiences of Pakistani School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Jamila; Forde, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The Pakistani education system, like many other countries across the world, is going through a phase of concerted change in the first decade of the 21st century and school leaders are expected to play a crucial role in the management of this change programme. This article considers the impact of educational change on a group of school leaders who…

  19. Leaders' Personal Wisdom and Leader-Member Exchange Quality : The Role of Individualized Consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Pearce, Liane K.; Rooney, David; McKenna, Bernard

    Business scholars have recently proposed that the virtue of personal wisdom may predict leadership behaviors and the quality of leader-follower relationships. This study investigated relationships among leaders' personal wisdom-defined as the integration of advanced cognitive, reflective, and

  20. Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of peer-to-peer systems is based on the quality and quantity of resource contributions from participating peers. In most systems, users are assumed to be cooperative, but in reality, sharing in peer-to-peer systems is faced with the problem of free riding. In this paper, we model the interactions between peers ...

  1. A Metadata Model for Semantics-Based Peer-to-Peer Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrig, Marc; Tempich, Ch.; Broekstra, Jeen; van Harmelen, Frank; Sabou, Marta; Siebes, Ronny; Staab, Steffen; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner

    2003-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems are a new paradigm for information sharing and some systems have successfully been deployed. It has been argued that current Peer-to-Peer systems suffer from the lack of semantics. The SWAP project (Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer) aims at overcoming this problem by combining the

  2. Teacher Leaders' Work with Peers in a Quasi-Formal Teacher Leadership Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Building on evolving conceptions of teacher leadership in the literature, this article argues that an integration of both positional and empowering elements of teacher leadership are the seeds of an evolved approach to teacher leadership for instructional improvement. Using data from a study of quasi-formal teacher leadership, the research…

  3. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G; Johansen, Guro G; Jørgensen, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In higher music education (HME), the notion of "private teaching, private learning" has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy ( N = 96), where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation.

  4. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siw G. Nielsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In higher music education (HME, the notion of “private teaching, private learning” has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy (N = 96, where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation.

  5. Peer Learning in Instrumental Practicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Siw G.; Johansen, Guro G.; Jørgensen, Harald

    2018-01-01

    In higher music education (HME), the notion of “private teaching, private learning” has a long tradition, where the learning part rests on the student's individual practicing between instrumental lessons. However, recent research suggests that collaborative learning among peers is beneficial in several aspects, such as sense of belonging, motivation and self-efficacy. This is consistent with the concept of vicarious learning. In this study, we conducted a survey among bachelor music students in church music, performance or music education programs enrolled in a music academy (N = 96), where parts of the questionnaire addressed peer learning and peer's influence on the students's instrumental practicing, and the degree of satisfaction with their practicing. These issues were seen in relation to gender, musical genre and study program. Overall, the students reported engaging in peer learning related to their instrumental practicing, to various degrees. This involved discussing practicing matters with peers, and practicing together with peers. However, student's reports of their views on peer learning, show that they perceive it more beneficial than the amount of time reported doing it would indicate. No significant gender differences were found, but students within improvised music/jazz engaged the most in peer learning, and church music students the least. Neither the degree of engaging in peer learning nor reported influence from peers correlated significantly with the degree of satisfaction. We discuss whether a general dissatisfaction is caused by being in a competitive learning environment combined with a privatized culture for learning. Finally, we suggest that collaborative forums for instrumental practicing within HME institutions can function as constructive and supportive arenas to enhance students learning and inner motivation. PMID:29599738

  6. Leaders in social networks, the Delicious case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhou, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Finding pertinent information is not limited to search engines. Online communities can amplify the influence of a small number of power users for the benefit of all other users. Users' information foraging in depth and breadth can be greatly enhanced by choosing suitable leaders. For instance in delicious.com, users subscribe to leaders' collection which lead to a deeper and wider reach not achievable with search engines. To consolidate such collective search, it is essential to utilize the leadership topology and identify influential users. Google's PageRank, as a successful search algorithm in the World Wide Web, turns out to be less effective in networks of people. We thus devise an adaptive and parameter-free algorithm, the LeaderRank, to quantify user influence. We show that LeaderRank outperforms PageRank in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against manipulations and noisy data. These results suggest that leaders who are aware of their clout may reinforce the development of social networks, and thus the power of collective search.

  7. Leaders in social networks, the Delicious case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan Lü

    Full Text Available Finding pertinent information is not limited to search engines. Online communities can amplify the influence of a small number of power users for the benefit of all other users. Users' information foraging in depth and breadth can be greatly enhanced by choosing suitable leaders. For instance in delicious.com, users subscribe to leaders' collection which lead to a deeper and wider reach not achievable with search engines. To consolidate such collective search, it is essential to utilize the leadership topology and identify influential users. Google's PageRank, as a successful search algorithm in the World Wide Web, turns out to be less effective in networks of people. We thus devise an adaptive and parameter-free algorithm, the LeaderRank, to quantify user influence. We show that LeaderRank outperforms PageRank in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against manipulations and noisy data. These results suggest that leaders who are aware of their clout may reinforce the development of social networks, and thus the power of collective search.

  8. Leader affective presence and innovation in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Hector P; Totterdell, Peter; Niven, Karen; Barros, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Affective presence is a novel personality construct that describes the tendency of individuals to make their interaction partners feel similarly positive or negative. We adopt this construct, together with the input-process-output model of teamwork, to understand how team leaders influence team interaction and innovation performance. In 2 multisource studies, based on 350 individuals working in 87 teams of 2 public organizations and 734 individuals working in 69 teams of a private organization, we tested and supported hypotheses that team leader positive affective presence was positively related to team information sharing, whereas team leader negative affective presence was negatively related to the same team process. In turn, team information sharing was positively related to team innovation, mediating the effects of leader affective presence on this team output. The results indicate the value of adopting an interpersonal individual differences approach to understanding how affect-related characteristics of leaders influence interaction processes and complex performance in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Leaders who create change and those who manage it. How leaders limit success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, John G

    2004-01-01

    There is no formula for either leading or managing change. Every organization and leader is unique. Leading change, however, is more art than science. Managing change is more science than art. Leading change is not simply a matter of a leader's style or personality; it is a leader's philosophy of how to generate and mobilize the total resources of an organization to enable it to be its best. Managing change, on the other hand, is focused on maintaining stability in an organization and containing the effects of unwanted and unexpected change. Leaders set the limits of success in their organizations by how they manage change. The different approaches of 2 leaders who have created change to correct problems in our health care delivery system are discussed.

  10. Predicting Availability of Mobile Peers in Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Ekler, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) applications for mobile devices are becoming more and more popular because of increasing bandwidth, computational performance and storage capabilities. Such a mobile based distributed architecture offers significant advantages in several scenarios from the perspective of both...

  11. How Peer Pressure Shapes Consensus, Leadership, and Innovations in Social Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio

    2013-10-01

    What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.

  12. How peer pressure shapes consensus, leadership, and innovations in social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio

    2013-10-09

    What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.

  13. Leader power and leader self-serving behavior: The role of effective leadership beliefs and performance information

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Diana; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this research we investigated the role played by leader power in determining leader self-serving behavior. Based on an integration of insights from research on the determinants of leader behavior and the power-approach theory, we hypothesized that with higher leader power leader self-serving behavior is determined more by internal states like effective leadership beliefs and less by external cues like performance information. We found support for this prediction acr...

  14. When is a leader considered as a good leader? Perceived impact on teammates’ confidence and social acceptance as key ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2018-01-01

    Effective leadership is perceived as a key factor for optimal team functioning. The present study aimed to identify the characteristics of athlete leaders with respect to four different leadership roles (i.e., task leader, motivational leader, social leader, and external leader), while recognizing the surrounding team context. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the most decisive characteristics for a player’s perceived leadership quality on each of these leadership roles. An on-line survey was...

  15. Students as Technology Leaders: The New Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasek, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a student mentoring project that helped integrate technology into middle school classrooms. Discusses students mentoring teachers and peers; online mentoring training; scheduling; media specialist/teacher collaboration; student entrepreneurship; and guidelines. Lists related Web sites for further information. (LRW)

  16. Leader empowering behavior : how do trust and leader-subordinate congruence in personal need for structure influence a leader's motivation to empower?

    OpenAIRE

    Hauger, Camilla; Randen, Siri

    2014-01-01

    An important part of understanding leader empowering behavior is to establish its determinants. By understanding its determinants, leaders can become aware of what may influence their behavior, both unconsciously and consciously. This study therefore explores leader empowering behavior in relation to such assumed determinants in order to test if they have an impact on exercising leader empowering behavior. Our chosen determinants for this study are related to empowerment in ...

  17. Exit, cohesion, and consensus: social psychological moderators of consensus among adolescent peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Virtually all social diffusion work relies on a common formal basis, which predicts that consensus will develop among a connected population as the result of diffusion. In spite of the popularity of social diffusion models that predict consensus, few empirical studies examine consensus, or a clustering of attitudes, directly. Those that do either focus on the coordinating role of strict hierarchies, or on the results of online experiments, and do not consider how consensus occurs among groups in situ . This study uses longitudinal data on adolescent social networks to show how meso-level social structures, such as informal peer groups, moderate the process of consensus formation. Using a novel method for controlling for selection into a group, I find that centralized peer groups, meaning groups with clear leaders, have very low levels of consensus, while cohesive peer groups, meaning groups where more ties hold the members of the group together, have very high levels of consensus. This finding is robust to two different measures of cohesion and consensus. This suggests that consensus occurs either through central leaders' enforcement or through diffusion of attitudes, but that central leaders have limited ability to enforce when people can leave the group easily.

  18. How to be a good academic leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsky, Allan S

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who take on leadership positions in academic health science centers help facilitate the mission of those institutions. However, they are often chosen on the basis of success in the core activities in research, education and patient care rather than on the basis of demonstrated leadership and management skills. Indeed, most academic leaders in the past have "learned on the job." This commentary provides practical advice on how to be an effective leader on the basis of the author's experiences as a Division Head and Chief of Medicine. It covers six themes (vision, managerial style, knowledge, people skills, organizational orientation and personal development) and offers 21 specific suggestions, one for each year of the author's leadership. It is hoped that this experience-derived advice will help future leaders in academic medicine.

  19. The Quality Of Leader/Employee Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Carstens

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate what role the quality of the relationship between business leaders and their employees played in the performance of their business. The study compared the business performance of forty-five area managers in one of the major listed banks in South Africa with their specific leader/employee relationship profiles. The research approach was quantitative and of a correlational nature. The results indicate that although certain elements within the relationship between business leaders and employees indeed have an influence on business performance this alone was not a sufficient condition. The study suggested that the dimensions relating to vision, trust, accountability and decision- making have the strongest influence on business performance. Further research in this area is suggested.

  20. Characterizing leader sequences of CRISPR loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhnbashi, Omer; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system in many archaea and bacteria, which provides resistance against invading genetic elements. The first phase of CRISPR-Cas immunity is called adaptation, in which small DNA fragments are excised from genetic elements and are inserted into a CRISPR...... array generally adjacent to its so called leader sequence at one end of the array. It has been shown that transcription initiation and adaptation signals of the CRISPR array are located within the leader. However, apart from promoters, there is very little knowledge of sequence or structural motifs...... sequences by focusing on the consensus repeat of the adjacent CRISPR array and weak upstream conservation signals. We applied our tool to the analysis of a comprehensive genomic database and identified several characteristic properties of leader sequences specific to archaea and bacteria, ranging from...

  1. The five messages leaders must manage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, John

    2006-05-01

    If you want to know why so many organizations sink into chaos, look no further than their leaders' mouths. Over and over, leaders present grand, overarching-yet fuzzy-notions of where they think the company is going. They assume everyone shares their definitions of"vision;" "accountability," and "results". The result is often sloppy behavior and misalignment that can cost a company dearly. Effective communication is a leader's most critical tool for doing the essential job of leadership: inspiring the organization to take responsibility for creating a better future. Five topics wield extraordinary influence within a company: organizational structure and hierarchy, financial results, the leader's sense of his or her job, time management, and corporate culture. Properly defined, disseminated, and controlled, these topics give the leader opportunities for increased accountability and substantially better performance. For example, one CEO always keeps communications about hierarchy admirably brief and to the point. When he realized he needed to realign internal resources, he told the staff: "I'm changing the structure of resources so that we can execute more effectively." After unveiling a new organization chart, he said, "It's 10:45. You have until noon to be annoyed, should that be your reaction. At noon, pizza will be served. At one o'clock, we go to work in our new positions." The most effective leaders ask themselves, "What needs to happen today to get where we want to go? What vague belief or notion can I clarify or debunk?" A CEO who communicates precisely to ten direct reports, each of whom communicates with equal precision to 40 other employees, aligns the organization's commitment and energy with a well-understood vision of the firm's real goals and opportunities.

  2. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  3. A peer-to-peer platform for decentralized logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Gallay, Olivier; Korpela, Kari; Tapio, Niemi; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Kersten, Wolfgang; Blecker, Thorsten; Ringle, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel platform for decentralized logistics, the aim of which is to magnify and accelerate the impact offered by the integration of the most recent advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to multi-modal freight operations. The essence of our peer-to-peer (P2P) framework distributes the management of the logistics operations to the multiple actors according to their available computational resources. As a result, this new approach prevents the dominant playe...

  4. Surfing Peer-to-Peer IPTV: Distributed Channel Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, A.-M.; Le Merrer, E.; Liu, Y.; Simon, G.

    It is now common for IPTV systems attracting millions of users to be based on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. In such systems, each channel is typically associated with one P2P overlay network connecting the users. This significantly enhances the user experience by relieving the source from dealing with all connections. Yet, the joining process resulting in a peer to be integrated in channel overlay usually requires a significant amount of time. As a consequence, switching from one channel to another is far to be as fast as in IPTV solutions provided by telco operators. In this paper, we tackle the issue of efficient channel switching in P2P IPTV system. This is to the best of our knowledge the first study on this topic. First, we conducted and analyzed a set of measurements of one of the most popular P2P systems (PPlive). These measurements reveal that the set of contacts that a joining peer receives from the central server are of the utmost importance in the start-up process. On those neigbors, depends the speed to acquire the first video frames to play. We then formulate the switching problem, and propose a simple distributed algorithm, as an illustration of the concept, which aims at leveraging the presence of peers in the network to fasten the switch process. The principle is that each peer maintains as neighbors peers involved in other channels, providing peers with good contacts upon channel switching. Finally, simulations show that our approach leads to substantial improvements on the channel switching time. As our algorithmic solution does not have any prerequisite on the overlays, it appears to be an appealing add-on for existing P2P IPTV systems.

  5. Gossip in a Smartphone Peer-to-Peer Network

    OpenAIRE

    Newport, Calvin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the fundamental problem of gossip in the mobile telephone model: a recently introduced variation of the classical telephone model modified to better describe the local peer-to-peer communication services implemented in many popular smartphone operating systems. In more detail, the mobile telephone model differs from the classical telephone model in three ways: (1) each device can participate in at most one connection per round; (2) the network topology can undergo a pa...

  6. Application of wireless networks-peer-to-peer information sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ellappan, Vijayan; chaki, suchismita; kumar, avn

    2017-11-01

    Peer to Peer communications and its applications have gotten to be ordinary construction modelling in the wired network environment. But then, they have not been successfully adjusted with the wireless environment. Unlike the traditional client-server framework, in a P2P framework, each node can play the role of client as well as server simultaneously and exchange data or information with others. We aim to design an application which can adapt to the wireless ad-hoc networks. Peer to Peer communication can help people to share their files (information, image, audio, video and so on) and communicate with each other without relying on a particular network infrastructure or limited data usage. Here there is a central server with the help of which, the peers will have the capability to get the information about the other peers in the network. Indeed, even without the Internet, devices have the potential to allow users to connect and communicate in a special way through short range remote protocols such Wi-Fi.

  7. Leaders' mental health at work: Empirical, methodological, and policy directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Cloutier, Anika

    2017-07-01

    While employees' mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders' mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders' mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders' mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders' mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders' mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. An Analysis of Peer-Submitted and Peer-Reviewed Answer Rationales, in an Asynchronous Peer Instruction Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sameer; Lasry, Nathaniel; Desmarais, Michel; Dugdale, Michael; Whittaker, Chris; Charles, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an analyis of data from a novel "Peer Instruction" application, named DALITE. The Peer Instruction paradigm is well suited to take advantage of peer-input in web-based learning environments. DALITE implements an asynchronous instantiation of peer instruction: after submitting their answer to a multiple-choice…

  9. Characteristics of influential peers in the eyes of secondary school students: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Y; Mak, Yim-Wah; Wu, Cynthia S T

    2017-09-01

    Aim It is the aim of this study to explore the characteristics of influential peers identified by schoolmates, and the mechanism by which they exert their influence on their peers. Adolescent crowds are a salient influence on the health-risk behaviors of peers, contributing to adolescent substance use such as drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and taking drugs. A mixed method study. Three schools granted us access to students and those who had been nominated as influential by their peers. The students were asked to nominate and indicated the characteristics of peers whom they considered influential in a quantitative study. Those peers whom they considered influential were invited to take part in focus group interviews. A total of six focus group interviews were conducted, comprised of two groups from each school, with an average of seven participants in each group. Findings Students considered caring and friendliness (91.0%), being a buddy (88.5%), and entertaining/humor (86.8%) as the top three characteristics of influential peers. The interviews revealed that the students believed that they are influential because of their cheerfulness and humor, considerateness, ability to communicate, popularity and sociability, sincerity and trustworthiness, and because they possess the characteristics of a leader. They also believed that their power to influence came about through their helpfulness, accommodation, and the closeness of their relationships. Their influence was manifested in both positive and negative ways on the academic pursuits and health-risk behaviors of their peers. In order to engage at-risk students in health promotion programs, it is important to identify their influential peers, and to understand how adolescent friends may help one another to resist behaviors that pose a risk to their health.

  10. High-speed video observations of a natural negative stepped leader and subsequent dart-stepped leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Danyal A.; Beasley, William H.

    2013-11-01

    present new high-speed video observations of a natural negative stepped leader and a subsequent negative dart-stepped leader. Observations were made at a distance of 770 m using a high-speed video camera at 10,000 frames per second, a microwave-frequency radio receiver, a broadband electric field antenna, and an avalanche photodiode array. Lightning leader breakdown was observed in detail for both the negative stepped leader and the subsequent dart-stepped leader. During the negative stepped leader breakdown, detailed images were captured of the discharge structures near the leader tips. These structures bear a remarkable resemblance to the corona streamer zone and space leader discharges that have been observed in laboratory-generated negative stepped leaders. During the dart-stepped leader breakdown, no corona streamer zone was observed outside of the decaying return stroke channel, but small luminous structures that are suggestive of space leaders were observed just ahead of the main dart leader tip. Two distinct low-luminosity zones were observed just ahead of the dart leader tip, suggestive of two distinct breakdown regimes. A multipath junction was observed in the main channel to ground following the first return stroke but was not observed following the second return stroke. Finally, microwave-frequency radio emissions for both leader types and their return strokes were recorded, and their time domain behavior is compared and discussed.

  11. University Data Partnership Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    In March 2012, the Connecticut (CTDOT) and New Mexico (NMDOT) Departments of Transportation met in Baton Rouge, Louisiana for a two-day peer session dedicated to exploring the intricate 12-year safety data partnership between the Louisiana Department...

  12. 2017 Project Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2018-02-06

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2017 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  13. Educating Preservice Media Specialists: Developing School Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickle, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how preservice media specialists perceive leadership responsibilities and certain tasks associated with the school library media profession. Results indicate that many viewed themselves as support personnel rather than school leaders, thus establishing the need to include leadership development courses in…

  14. Choosing a public-spirited leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-robert

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, voters select a leader who can either act in the public interest, i.e. make efficient and equitable policy choices, or act in a corrupt way, i.e. use public funds for private gain. Voters can observe candidates⿿ pro-social behavior and their score in a cognitive ability test...

  15. Strategies for Teacher and School Leader Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Everett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Supervision and Evaluation for Learning and Growth: Strategies for Teacher and School Leader Improvement. By Daniel R. Tomal, Robert K. Wilhite, Barbara J. Phillips, Paul A. Sims, and Nancy P. Gibson. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2015.

  16. Identity talk of aspirational ethical leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.B.M.; Waistell, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how business leaders dynamically narrate their aspirational ethical leadership identities. In doing so, it furthers understanding of ethical leadership as a process situated in time and place. The analysis focuses on the discursive strategies used to narrate identity and

  17. The Emergent Power of Teacher Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safir, Shane

    2018-01-01

    "Coming from complexity science, the term emergence describes the dynamic and unpredictable ways through which change unfolds in organizations," writes Shane Safir in this article about how teacher leaders can transform a school's climate and culture. Using Berkeley High School in California as an example, Safir explains how successful…

  18. Industry Leader Perceptions of Workplace Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Erik Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of workplace safety held by industry leaders who were near completion of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree. This was a qualitative study that utilized interpretivism as the theoretical framework. The study sought to answer four research questions. (1) How do participants conceptualize…

  19. Lived Experience of University Continuing Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Janice

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a study that explored the professional lives of eight leaders of continuing education in Canadian universities, with a focus on their administrative role, to provide a deeper understanding of how they live within their practice (lived experience). A practical listing of 56 horizons of experience was identified, useful as…

  20. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  1. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  2. Outreach to Future Hispanic Educational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This paper discusses issues related to the recruitment of Hispanic-American educational leaders, focusing on the El Centro de Recursos Educativos outreach center at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, which began operation in Fall 1997. It examines the characteristics of successful programs for Hispanic recruitment and retention and the…

  3. David Ben-Gurion: A Creative Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemarin, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), the first Prime Minister of Israel, is included in Pasternak's (2001) list of the nine most memorable leaders of the twentieth century. All of them are remembered for the reforms they initiated. Roosevelt (USA), Stalin (Russia), Castro (Cuba), and Thatcher (England) focused on social-economical changes, whereas Gandhi…

  4. Strategic Thinking: The Untapped Resource for Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Strategic thinking is an organized, analytical process by which college leaders can assess: (1) existing and potential competitors; (2) sources of competitive advantage; and (3) college capabilities and competitive position. Three outcomes of strategic thinking are: (1) clear institutional strategy and direction; (2) improved institutional…

  5. Lebanese Cherishing a Transformational Educational Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Dorine Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out if the characteristics, traits and leadership style of an effective university leader in Lebanon match those of a transformational one. Moreover, it is intended to shed light on the possible transferability of the transformational leadership's success to the Middle-Eastern society where norms and…

  6. The School Leader's Guide to Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald; Johnston, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    Social media has exploded onto American culture--including our schools--giving educators a unique opportunity to shape this phenomenon into a powerful tool for improving educational leadership practices. With real-world examples and practical tips, this essential guide shows school leaders how to address both the potential benefits and common…

  7. Role Perceptions and Satisfaction with Leader Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Philip J.; Enns, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a study of the levels of personal and job satisfaction experienced by employees in the central office of a large urban school system as they responded to the leader behavior of their immediate superiors. The study tests aspects of propositions put forward in Path-Goal Theory. (Author/IRT)

  8. Constructive consequences of leaders' forcing influence styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, B.J.M.; Munduate, L; Klaver, E; Van de Vliert, E.

    In contrast to non-forcing influence styles used by leaders, their forcing influence styles are commonly found to be ineffective, evoking sheer resistance, rather than compliance. As a corollary of conglomerate conflict behavior theory, we state that forcing, if combined with non-forcing, may

  9. Developing the Girl as a Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembrow-Beach, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…

  10. Job Satisfaction of Secondary Content Area Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined both observed and perceived influences of the job satisfaction levels of secondary teachers and post-secondary department chairs. However, researchers have largely ignored a third group of educators: secondary Content Area Leaders (CALs). The overall satisfaction levels and the potentially influencing factors…

  11. Global Issues Confronting Student Affairs Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Allen R.

    1999-01-01

    An Australian student affairs leader summarizes issues discussed at recent international conferences. A significant number of commonalities appear in the information. These issues provide a global perspective on some of the problems and challenges facing student affairs. This international perspective has rarely been described in the literature…

  12. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  13. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  14. Promoting leaders in labour research | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-07-30

    Promoting leaders in labour research. July 30, 2015. Image. Education is essential to future opportunities. In several Asian countries with large youth bulges, investments in training will be needed to equip the next generation for work in more skill intensive sectors. IDRC. INSIGHT | INCLUSIVE GROWTH. Despite the ...

  15. Is the Army Developing Strategic Leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    earn an MMAS. Completing the MMAS process required many late nights, weekends, and holidays spent in front of a computer or in the library, so I am...5,000,000 people in 5,000 talks and seminars throughout the US, Canada , and 55 other countries worldwide. As a keynote speaker and seminar leader, he

  16. Resilient Women Leaders: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julia; Maldonado, Nancy L.; Lacey, Candace H.; Efinger, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated perceptions of resilient, transformational, successful women leaders regarding their own resiliency and leadership. The ten participants provided information during semi-structured, open-ended, audio taped interviews which were transcribed, hand coded, and then analyzed with QSR N6 software. Findings indicated…

  17. Active gamblers as peer counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, J

    1988-07-01

    Problem gambling is becoming a major social concern. The efficacy of current treatment programs that use a compulsion model which requires abstinence and attendance at Gamblers Anonymous meetings is open to question. The researcher advocates a controlled-gambling approach as a viable alternative to conventional methods. The centerpiece of his program is the use of active gamblers as peer counselors. A suggested format for incorporating peer counselors into an actual treatment program is presented.

  18. Peer review in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Opinion leaders and changes over time: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Gaby; Wright, Frances C; Graham, Ian D; Smith, Andrew; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2011-10-11

    Opinion leaders represent one way to disseminate new knowledge and influence the practice behaviors of physicians. This study explored the stability of opinion leaders over time, whether opinion leaders were polymorphic (i.e., influencing multiple practice areas) or monomorphic (i.e., influencing one practice area), and reach of opinion leaders in their local network. We surveyed surgeons and pathologists in Ontario to identify opinion leaders for colorectal cancer in 2003 and 2005 and to identify opinion leaders for breast cancer in 2005. We explored whether opinion leaders for colorectal cancer identified in 2003 were re-identified in 2005. We examined whether opinion leaders were considered polymorphic (nominated in 2005 as opinion leaders for both colorectal and breast cancer) or monomorphic (nominated in 2005 for only one condition). Social-network mapping was used to identify the number of local colleagues identifying opinion leaders. Response rates for surgeons were 41% (2003) and 40% (2005); response rates for pathologists were 42% (2003) and 37% (2005). Four (25%) of the surgical opinion leaders identified in 2003 for colorectal cancer were re-identified in 2005. No pathology opinion leaders for colorectal cancer were identified in both 2003 and 2005. Only 29% of surgical opinion leaders and 17% of pathology opinion leaders identified in the 2005 survey were considered influential for both colorectal cancer and breast cancer. Social-network mapping revealed that only a limited number of general surgeons (12%) or pathologists (7%) were connected to the social networks of identified opinion leaders. Opinion leaders identified in this study were not stable over a two-year time period and generally appear to be monomorphic, with clearly demarcated areas of expertise and limited spheres of influence. These findings may limit the practicability of routinely using opinion leaders to influence practice.

  20. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  1. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.

  2. Leader-to-leader splicing is required for efficient production and accumulation of polyomavirus late mRNAs.

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, G R; Marlor, C W; Barrett, N L; Carmichael, G G

    1989-01-01

    Polyomavirus late mRNA molecules contain multiple, tandem copies of a noncoding 57-base "late leader" exon at their 5' ends. This exon is encoded only once in the genome. Leader multiplicity arises from leader-leader splicing in giant primary transcripts, which are the result of multiple circuits of the viral genome by RNA polymerase II. We have been interested in learning more about the role of the leader exon in late viral gene expression. We recently showed that an abbreviated-leader mutan...

  3. LEADER 7 : Cardiovascular risk profiles of US and European participants in the LEADER diabetes trial differ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Guy E H M; Tack, Cees J.; Pieber, Thomas R.; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Baeres, Florian M M; Marso, Steven P.; Buse, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether US and European participants in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial differ regarding risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Methods: Baseline data, stratified for prior cardiovascular

  4. Take me to my leader: the importance of ethical leadership among formal nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Janet; Schick Makaroff, Kara; Pauly, Bernie; Newton, Lorelei

    2013-03-01

    Although ethical leadership by formal nurse leaders is critical to enhancing ethical health-care practice, research has shown that many nurses feel unsupported by their leaders. In this article, we consider the limited attention directed toward ethical leadership of formal nurse leaders and how our own research on ethical nurse leadership compares to other research in this field. In searching Nursing Ethics since its inception 20 years ago, we found only a dozen articles that directly addressed this topic. We then reviewed nurses' professional codes of ethics in Canada and found significant retractions of ethical guidelines for formal nurse leaders' ethical responsibilities over the past decade. We began to seek explanations of why this is so and offer some recommendations for the study and enhancement of ethics for formal nurse leadership.

  5. The role of vertical conflict in the relationship between leader self-enhancement and leader performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, Niels A.; Janssen, Onne; van der Vegt, Geert; Stoker, Janka I.

    Although studies have shown that inflated self-perceptions of transformational leadership behavior negatively affect leader performance, insight into the underlying processes explaining this relationship is lacking. The current study addresses this gap by identifying vertical conflict between

  6. Effectiveness of peer-led dissonance-based eating disorder prevention groups: results from two randomized pilot trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Durant, Shelley; Shaw, Heather; Wade, Emily

    2013-05-01

    The present preliminary trials tested whether undergraduate peer leaders can effectively deliver a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, which could facilitate broad dissemination of this efficacious intervention. In Study 1, female undergraduates (N=171) were randomized to peer-led groups, clinician-led groups, or an educational brochure control condition. In Study 2, which improved a design limitation of Study 1 by using completely parallel outcome measures across conditions, female undergraduates (N=148) were randomized to either immediate peer-led groups or a waitlist control condition. In Study 1, participants in peer- and clinician-led groups showed significantly greater pre-post reductions in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms than controls (M d=.64 and .98 respectively), though clinician- versus peer-led groups had higher attendance and competence ratings, and produced stronger effects at posttest (M d=.32) and at 1-year follow-up (M d=.26). In Study 2, participants in peer-led groups showed greater pre-post reductions in all outcomes than waitlist controls (M d=.75). Results provide novel evidence that dissonance-based eating disorder prevention groups led by undergraduate peers are feasible and produce greater reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms than minimal-intervention control conditions, but indicate that effects are smaller for peer- versus clinician-led groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Note-Taking during Discussion: Using a Weekly Reflection Assignment to Motivate Students to Learn from Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Emily O.

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of in-class discussion, a form of active learning, are well-documented; in particular, discussions allow students the opportunity to learn from their peers. Yet students often treat discussions as 'down' or 'free' time. If students are not taking notes during discussion and reviewing those notes later on, they may not be learning much…

  8. Self-Development: An Important Aspect of Leader Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snow, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    ... and leadership doctrine, Army leaders do not emphasize its value, and the Army provides neither the tools nor the support to enable its leaders to make self-development an effective component of lifelong learning...

  9. Beyond Words: Leader Self-Awareness and Interpersonal Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery III, William H

    2007-01-01

    Being self aware and using interpersonal skills will be significant to leader success given the 2006 release of the Army's new mandate to create, develop, and nurture a different kind of Army leader...

  10. LEADER-programm toob Jõgevamaale miljoneid kroone / Ardi Kivimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimets, Ardi, 1947-

    2007-01-01

    Jõgevamaa Koostöökoja juhatus ja liikmed ning külade esindajad arutasid LEADER-meetme rakendamist maakonnas ning tegevuspiirkonna arengustrateegia koostamist. Oma kogemusi jagasid Soome Turu piirkonna Varsinais-Suomen LEADER-tegevusgrupi esindajad

  11. One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. A mathematical framework for analyzing incentives in peer-to-peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence and performance of peer-to-peer systems depend on the contribution of resources from interacting peers. One of the challenges of resource sharing in peer-to-peer systems is free riding. A situation users attempt to exploit the system by utilizing the resources of others without contributing. We view this from ...

  13. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the International Technical Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Yulin WU Tsinghua University China François AVELLAN EPFL-LMH Switzerland (principal) Xingqi LUO Xi'an University of Sci & Tech China Martin BÖHLE Kaiserslautern University Germany Gerard BOIS Arts et Métiers ParisTech France Luca D'AGOSTINO University of Pisa Italy Eduard EGUSQUIZA Polytechnical University Catalonia Spain Richard FISHER Voith Hydro Inc USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLA Institute Polytechnique de Grenoble France Aleksandar GAJIC University of Belgrade Serbia Wei YANG China Agriculture University China YinLu YOUNG University of Michigan USA Adrian LUNGU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Romania Arpad FAY University of Miskolcz Hungary José GONZÁLEZ Universidad de Oviedo Spain Baoshan ZHU Tsinghua University China Hongxun CHEN Shanghai University China Chisachi KATO University of Tokyo Japan Zhenyue MA Dalian University of Sci & Tech China Honggang FAN Tsinghua University China François GUIBAULT Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Canada Pengcheng GUO Xian University of Technology China Leqing WANG Zhejiang University China Toshiaki IKOHAGI Tohoku University Japan Jiandong YANG Wuhan University China Jianzhong ZHOU Huazhong University of Sci & Tech China Jinwei LI NULL China Rennian LI Lanzhou University of Sci & Tech China Houlin LIU NULL China Juan LIU Tsinghua University China Shuhong LIU Tsinghua University China Xianwu LUO Tsinghua University China Michihiro NISHI Tsinghua

  14. Current and Evolving Models of Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fresco Santalla, Ana; Hernández Pérez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    New models of scientific publishing and new ways of practicing peer review have injected a recent dynamism into the scholarly communication system. In this article, we delineate the context of the traditional peer review model, reflect upon some of the first experiences with open peer review and forecast some of the challenges that new models for peer review will have to meet. Our findings suggest that the peer review function has the potential to be divorced from the journal system, so that ...

  15. A DESIRABLE LEADER: REFLECTION OF THE POPULIST CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Pramono and Dessy Harahap

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no country that is successful in its management without intervention of a leader. The leader is the spearhead of the success of a country. The thought, effort, even the habit of the leader are capable of making people follow and treat them like an idol figure/a celebrity. A successful leader will always be honored while those who fail will usually be scorned and even removed.

  16. Improving Junior Infantry Officer Leader Development and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Publication AER Academic Evaluation Report ALDM Army’s Leader Development Model ALDP Army Leader Development Process ALDS Army Leader Development Strategy...leaders use the Officer Evaluation Report (OER) and other administrative records to evaluate an officer’s performance and potential for future...to evaluate junior infantry officer performance , ultimately selectively retaining only the best infantry officers. As previously indicated in this

  17. Not even the past: The joint influence of former leader and new leader during leader succession in the midst of organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Helen H; Seibert, Scott E; Taylor, M Susan; Lee, Cynthia; Lam, Wing

    2016-12-01

    Leader succession often occurs during organizational change processes, but the implications of leader succession, in terms of reactions to the change, rarely have been investigated. Employee attitudes and behaviors during organizational change may be influenced jointly by a former leader who recently has transitioned out of the team and the new leader who recently has transitioned into it. We predict an interaction between former and new leaders' transformational leadership on employees' behavioral resistance to and support for change. On the basis of contrast effect theory, a highly transformational former leader constrains the potential effectiveness of the new leader, but a former leader low in transformational leadership enhances this potential effectiveness. We also propose conditional indirect effects transmitted through commitment to the changing organization. Our research was conducted in a large Chinese hospitality organization that was implementing radical organizational change, during which virtually all aspects of processes and products are changed. We collected a 2-wave multisource data from employees who had recently experienced a leader succession and their newly assigned leaders. On the basis of a final sample of 203 employees from 22 teams, we found empirical support for the proposed interaction effects. The conditional indirect effects were also consistent with our expectations, but the effect on behavioral resistance to change was stronger than the effect on behavioral support for change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Christian School Leaders and Spirituality: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…

  19. Expertise of Team Leaders in Analysing Team Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Maria; Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans; Harteis, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Team leaders are expected to adequately analyse team conflicts. Both content and analytical depth of cognitive processes determine team leaders' performance and are assumed to differ with level of expertise. A study is reported in which team leaders at four different levels of expertise (novices, semi-experts, experts, mediators) were compared in…

  20. Identity Crisis: A Leader's Image Is Worth a Thousand Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Craig; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    2009-01-01

    There is a short supply, yet tacit demand, for creative and effective communication training for educational leaders. A field of literature indicates that a leader's identity is a potent communication tool. A leader's image can frame expectations for followers, symbolically evoking a family of concepts and patterns of meaning (receiving). The…

  1. Guidelines for Becoming a Teacher Leader in Rural Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Belva C.; Leahy, Maria Marsella; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2017-01-01

    Special education teachers have a unique set of skills and opportunities to become leaders in the field of education. Some rural special education teachers, however, may not see themselves as potential leaders or believe they have opportunities to be leaders. This article provides guidelines for rural special education teachers to consider in…

  2. The Role of Local Leaders in Community Development Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study ascertained the role of local leaders in community development programmes in Ideato LGA and derived implications for local leadership as an institution for extension policy. A total of 104 respondents comprising leaders and non-leaders and selected through stratified random sampling technique participated in ...

  3. Leader Noticing of Facilitation in Videocases of Mathematics Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesseig, Kristin; Elliott, Rebekah; Kazemi, Elham; Kelley-Petersen, Megan; Campbell, Matthew; Mumme, Judith; Carroll, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we report on "Researching Mathematics Leader Learning" ("RMLL"), a project designed to support leaders in learning how to facilitate robust opportunities for teachers' mathematical learning. Our two-phase research design allowed us to construct a set of videocase seminars, enact the seminar design with leaders,…

  4. The Preparation of Inclusive Social Justice Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celoria, Davide

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to spark dialogue and debate related to the preparation of inclusive social justice education leaders in a time of colorblindness. Drawing attention to the reductionist construction of the professional standards for educational leaders when it comes to preparing educational leaders who are ready to address and eliminate…

  5. 75 FR 74703 - Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. CP11-33-000; PF10-15-000] Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Application November 23, 2010 Take notice that on November 15, 2010, Leader One Energy, LLC (Leader One), 4643 South Ulster Street, Suite 1100, Denver, Colorado 80237, filed in Docket No. CP11-33...

  6. Learn to Lead: Mapping Workplace Learning of School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsbos, Frank Arnoud; Evers, Arnoud Theodoor; Kessels, Joseph Willem Marie

    2016-01-01

    In recent years policy makers' interest in the professional development of school leaders has grown considerably. Although we know some aspect of formal educational programs for school leaders, little is known about school leaders' incidental and non-formal learning in the workplace. This study aims to grasp what workplace learning activities…

  7. 76 FR 14678 - Communications Unit Leader Prerequisite and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2010-0004] Communications Unit Leader Prerequisite... Information Collection Request, Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and Evaluation. DHS previously... Hazards Type III Communications Unit Leader (COML) training course for state, regional, local, and tribal...

  8. Unraveling the Competence Development of Corporate Social Responsibility Leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osagie, E.R.; Wesselink, R.; Runhaar, P.; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) objectives within companies is often managed by a CSR leader or a small team of CSR leaders. The effectiveness of these CSR leaders depends to a large extent on their competencies. Previous studies have identified the competencies these

  9. From practice to education: perspectives from three nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Denise; Schaubhut, Rose M; Jones, John R

    2010-02-01

    Three nurse leaders recount their experiences transitioning from a practice career to an academic career. These nurse leaders discuss their experiences with role transition and gaining new competencies, comparing and contrasting the competencies of nurse educators and nurse leaders. Specific examples are presented addressing collaborative efforts between practice and education. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Dyadic, Triadic, and Group Models of Peer Supervision/Consultation: What Are Their Components, and Is There Evidence of Their Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, L. DiAnne

    2012-01-01

    Models that meet the Psychology Board of Australia's definition of peer consultation include dyadic, triadic, and group formats. Components of these models (e.g., goals, theoretical basis, role of leader, members' roles, structure, and steps in procedure, stages in group development) are presented, and evidence of their effectiveness is reviewed.…

  11. Intellectual Property Rights Protection in Peer to Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylios, Georgios; Tsolis, Dimitrios

    Peer to Peer Networks are oftenly used by internet users to share and distribute digital content (images, audio and video) which is in most of cases protected by the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) legislation. This fact threatens e-inclusion and Internet democracy as a whole as it forces organizations to block access to valuable content. This paper claims that IPR protection and P2P can be complementary. Specifically, a P2P infrastructure is presented which allows broad digital content exchange while on the same time supports data and copyright protection through watermarking technologies.

  12. The executive leader in the postcrisis era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazarov, Tahir Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes psychological challenges that executive leaders of companies face nowadays. The study of the social context is based on changes that took place with the development of information technologies. The analysis touches upon such phenomena as virtualization, involvement in the external sociocommunicative environment, and the emergence of multiple identity. It is suggested that in order to adapt to changing conditions one should follow the path of self-development—in particular, to develop attention, imagination, and willpower. In connection with the traits generally attributed to executive leaders, the article emphasizes self-adjustment; common sense as an integral part of intuition, emotions, and imagination; and the readiness to make choices in fifty-fifty situations.

  13. Joint multifractal analysis based on wavelet leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Gang-Jin; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2017-12-01

    Mutually interacting components form complex systems and these components usually have long-range cross-correlated outputs. Using wavelet leaders, we propose a method for characterizing the joint multifractal nature of these long-range cross correlations; we call this method joint multifractal analysis based on wavelet leaders (MF-X-WL). We test the validity of the MF-X-WL method by performing extensive numerical experiments on dual binomial measures with multifractal cross correlations and bivariate fractional Brownian motions (bFBMs) with monofractal cross correlations. Both experiments indicate that MF-X-WL is capable of detecting cross correlations in synthetic data with acceptable estimating errors. We also apply the MF-X-WL method to pairs of series from financial markets (returns and volatilities) and online worlds (online numbers of different genders and different societies) and determine intriguing joint multifractal behavior.

  14. The EN Department has a new leader

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Roberto Saban takes over as new Engineering Department leader on 1 July 2010, at a time when the LHC is entering a stable operation phase. Roberto Saban presents his plans and vision.   Roberto Saban, new leader of the EN Department. The CERN Engineering (EN) Department's main areas of activity are technical coordination, the design and operation with beam of accelerator components and experimental facilities, the associated infrastructure systems, such as electrical distribution, cooling, ventilation and transport, and finally the design and construction of mechanical elements for the facilities. “I do not plan to change the internal structure of the Department because it works well but, with the LHC entering a phase of stable functioning, the Department will shift its focus to operation and maintenance. In this new situation, our role is not limited to supporting LHC operation but, on the contrary, we fully take part in it thanks to the synergy with the BE and TE Departments inside th...

  15. Leader communication styles and organizational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joel M

    2011-01-01

    Communication is perhaps one of the greatest challenges facing managers and leaders today. Clearly articulating ideas and expectations to employees is vital to the productivity and the longevity of an organization. Furthermore, the style in which the communication is delivered has an influence on the satisfaction levels of employees. Research has discovered that there are many different styles in which a leader may communicate with employees. Research has provided several methods that aid in determining which style is the most appropriate for any given circumstance. Research has demonstrated how appropriate and effective communication is used to promote organizational health. Furthermore, research has demonstrated how inappropriate communication may decrease employee satisfaction. Finally, research has provided methods to aid in improving communication styles and delivery.

  16. Utilisation of a peer assisted learning scheme in an undergraduate diagnostic radiography module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meertens, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peer to peer support programmes involve students supporting each other in either an educational, social and/or pastoral way. This is now common place in higher education institutes and has been proven to decrease student attrition and improve grades. Aim: To evaluate a peer assisted learning scheme (PALS) within the University of Exeter undergraduate programme, where final year (stage 3) students held extra-curricular teaching sessions in an on-campus X-ray room throughout the academic term to support a first year (stage 1) module introducing basic projectional radiographic examinations, radiation safety, patient care and radiographic equipment. PALS sessions were unstructured and as such could involve roleplaying radiographic examinations, revisiting lecture material and/or discussing hospital placement or pastoral issues. Methods: Brookfield's four lenses of critical reflection were used. 16 of 63 stage 1 students and 9 of 29 stage 3 students were electronically surveyed upon completion of the PALS sessions. Relevant colleagues and educational specialists were also informally interviewed. These were put in context with autobiographical reflections and the existing literature base on PALS. Results: All agreed that the sessions provided a good environment for stage 1 students to improve their practical skills, revise lecture content, and gain confidence for upcoming clinical placements. Stage 3 students gained experience teaching students, an essential role of a graduate radiographer's job. Improvements around recruiting stage 3 peer leaders, sustainability, timetabling and session structure were explored. Conclusion: The PALS proved to be a successful initiative within the undergraduate programme and will be continued into the future. - Highlights: • Peer Assisted Learning Schemes are an established part of higher education. • Peer Assisted Learning Schemes can reduce student attrition and improve grades. • Peer Assisted Learning

  17. What Are the Sources of Leader Charisma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yangfeng; Zhang, Kai; Luo, Wenhao

    This study aims to put forward a new concept in charismatic leadership theory: source of leader charisma (SLC). Using an inductive approach, we identified the various dimensions of SLC in the Chinese context, and found that SLC comprises of charismatic personality and charismatic behaviors...... by which the SLCs are attributed to charisma by follower. Our findings in the present study contribute to new evidence that charismatic leadership theory may transcend cultural boundaries....

  18. Where will we find tomorrow's leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda A

    2008-01-01

    Unless we challenge long-held assumptions about how business leaders are supposed to act and where they're supposed to come from, many people who could become effective global leaders will remain invisible, warns Harvard Business School professor Hill. Instead of assuming that leaders must exhibit take-charge behavior, broaden the definition of leadership to include creating a context in which other people are willing and able to guide the organization. And instead of looking for the next generation of global leaders in huge Western corporations and elite business schools, expand the search to developing countries. In this conversation with HBR senior editor Paul Hemp, Hill describes the changing nature of leadership and what we can learn from parts of the world where people have not, until recently, had opportunities to become globally savvy executives. In South Africa, for instance, the African National Congress has provided rigorous leadership preparation for many black executives. Hill has also observed two approaches--in developed and developing economies alike--that she believes will be necessary in an increasingly complex business environment. The first, leading from behind, involves letting people hand off the reins to one another, depending on their strengths, as situations change. The second, leadership as collective genius, calls for both unleashing and harnessing individuals' collective talents, particularly to spur innovation. Through her descriptions of these approaches in such companies as Sekunjalo Investments, HCL Technologies, and IBM, Hill highlights the challenges of finding and preparing people who can lead by stepping back and letting others come forward to make their own judgments and take risks.

  19. Creativity and the role of the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M; Khaire, Mukti

    2008-10-01

    In today's innovation-driven economy, understanding how to generate great ideas has become an urgent managerial priority. Suddenly, the spotlight has turned on the academics who've studied creativity for decades. How relevant is their research to the practical challenges leaders face? To connect theory and practice, Harvard Business School professors Amabile and Khaire convened a two-day colloquium of leading creativity scholars and executives from companies such as Google, IDEO, Novartis, Intuit, and E Ink. In this article, the authors present highlights of the research presented and the discussion of its implications. At the event, a new leadership agenda began to take shape, one rooted in the awareness that you can't manage creativity--you can only manage for creativity. A number of themes emerged: The leader's job is not to be the source of ideas but to encourage and champion ideas. Leaders must tap the imagination of employees at all ranks and ask inspiring questions. They also need to help their organizations incorporate diverse perspectives, which spur creative insights, and facilitate creative collaboration by, for instance, harnessing new technologies. The participants shared tactics for enabling discoveries, as well as thoughts on how to bring process to bear on creativity without straitjacketing it. They pointed out that process management isn't appropriate in all stages of creative work; leaders should apply it thoughtfully and manage the handoff from idea generators to commercializers deftly. The discussion also examined the need to clear paths through bureaucracy, weed out weak ideas, and maximize the organization's learning from failure. Though points of view varied, the theories and frameworks explored advance the understanding of creativity in business and offer executives a playbook for increasing innovation.

  20. A role of leader in creative schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Павловна Калашник

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A role of leader in the Jena «romantic school»; Mannheim school, which has prepared the emergence a classical form of symphony; Netherlands school with a main feature – composer's professionalism; Second Viennese School is examined in the article. The authority of these schools in the musical circles, comprehensive impact, fundamental meaning for becoming a composer’s art are marked. The creative, professionally-creative and technological aspect of schools are defined

  1. TRANSACTIONAL LEADER IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ciprian CRIȘAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From a managerial point of view, all the media means of professional communication, socialization and interaction emphasize entrepreneurial success stories. One of the modern concerns of all current researchers is to underline the place and role of leaders in the institutional framework. The leadership is perceived as a support pillar in maintaining any business. The analysis of this phenomenon is extremely extensive, starting with the culture of a company, the purpose of its existence and comprises aspects concerning the employees motivation and the degree of identifying themselves with the organizational objective. A constant concern in analyzing this phenomenon is retaining the employees and encouraging them to bring added value to the organization where they perform their daily activities. Nevertheless, the Romanian banking system in Timişoara seems to display a strong resistance towards change. The leadership of this industry is comprised of people with great managerial abilities. The transactional method, manifested by the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, seems to be the main phenomenon at the basis of their daily activity. The manager – leader hypothesis is slowly taking shape. Due to the resistance to change, generated by the educational model, from a managerial point of view, the balance is strongly tilting towards the managerial traits at the expense of the leadership ones. We are still at the stage where the tolerance towards liberty, uncertainty, are some of the traits of the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, which are poorly identified at the management level of this very important segment of activity.

  2. First and foremost, physicians: the clinical versus leadership identities of physician leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Joann Farrell; Perelli, Sheri

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Physicians are commonly promoted into administrative and managerial roles in US hospitals on the basis of clinical expertise and often lack the skills, training or inclination to lead. Several studies have sought to identify factors associated with effective physician leadership, yet we know little about how physician leaders themselves construe their roles. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - Phenomenological interviews were performed with 25 physicians at three organizational levels with physicians affiliated or employed by four hospitals within one health care organization in the USA between August and September 2010. A rigorous comparative methodology of data collection and analysis was employed, including the construction of analytic codes for the data and its categorization based on emergent ideas and themes that are not preconceived and logically deduced hypotheses, which is characteristic of grounded theory. Findings - These interviews reveal differences in how part- vs full-time physician leaders understand and value leadership roles vs clinical roles, claim leadership status, and identify as physician leaders on individual, relational and organizational basis. Research limitations/implications - Although the physicians in the sample were affiliated with four community hospitals, all of them were part of a single not-for-profit health care system in one geographical locale. Practical implications - These findings may be of interest to hospital administrators and boards seeking deeper commitment and higher performance from physician leaders, as well as assist physicians in transitioning into a leadership role. Social implications - This work points to a broader and more fundamental need - a modified mindset about the nature and value of physician leadership. Originality/value - This study is unique in the exploration of the nature of physician leadership from the perspective of the physician on an individual, peer

  3. Developing emotional intelligence in student nurse leaders: a mixed methodology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Szeles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this mixed method, exploratory study was to measure the impact of a peer coaching program on the measured emotional intelligence (EI of a group of student nurse leaders. Methods Participation in the study was offered to nurses in the Student Ambassador program. Students who consented received instruction on EI and its importance in leadership. Participants then took a preintervention EI test (The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI Test, version 2 [MSCEIT] to obtain a baseline EI ability score. Students then participated in a series of peer coaching sessions across a semester. Participants then completed a postintervention MSCEIT test, and also a qualitative survey. Results: The analysis of the paired sample t-test showed that there was not a statistically significant difference in the total group EI scores from pre to posttest, t (8 = 0.036 >0.05; however, 80% of participants reported perceived changes in EI ability due to the intervention and 90% reported that peer coaching was beneficial to their leadership development. Conclusions: This study contributes to the body of EI literature and research on nursing education and leadership development.

  4. Leader-member exchange and follower creativity : the moderating roles of leader and follower expectations for creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Rujie; Janssen, Onne; Shi, Kan

    2017-01-01

    We examined leader and follower expectations for creativity as moderators in the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and follower creativity. The results of a survey among 193 leader-follower dyads from two high-tech companies in mainland China show that LMX positively relates to

  5. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.261 Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory...

  6. Nurse leaders and the innovation competence gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kenneth R; Pillay, Rubin; Huang, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are well-positioned for innovation in health care delivery, although innovation is not generally learned in formal educational programs. The purpose of this study was to assess critical competencies for innovation success among nurse leaders in academia and practice, the perceived gaps on those competencies, and teaching methods that would be helpful in developing competencies related to innovation. A Web-enabled descriptive survey design was used to capture nurse leaders' perceptions of important innovation competencies and how they assess their level of competence in the particular innovation domain. Preferred approaches for innovation pedagogy were also queried. Respondents indicated significant gaps in 18 of 19 innovation competencies. Implications are for inclusion of innovation competencies in formal and continuing nursing education. The most preferred innovation pedagogical approaches are case studies of failures and successes and project- and field-based approaches. Traditional lectures are the least preferred way to address innovation competency gaps. There is a significant gap in innovation competencies among nurse leaders in practice and academia. The way we teach innovation needs to involve closer collaboration between academia and practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Functions of a Servant Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Frederick Coetzer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Servant leadership has been researched internationally and various types of favourable individual, team, and organisational outcomes have been linked to the construct. Different servant leadership measures have been validated to date and a clear distinction has been made between the theory of servant leadership and other leadership theories. However, it seems that research on the implementation of servant leadership within an organisation is still in need. The main functions of a servant leader are not yet conceptualised in the literature to help researchers or practitioners to implement servant leadership successfully within organisations. After conducting a systematic literature review, the main functions of a servant leader were identified. These functions were clustered into strategic servant leadership and operational servant leadership and supported by servant leadership characteristics and competencies as defined by current literature. The results of this study might help practitioners to develop servant leaders more effectively and assist organisations to cultivate a servant leadership culture within companies. Limitations and future research needs are discussed.

  8. Denial and immunity to change: it starts with the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2009-01-01

    It is common for leaders to be confronted with resistance that makes forward progress impossible. The easiest action for the leader is to label the resistance as denial. Labeling behaviors that do not agree with expectations is one way leaders keep their immune system intact and fight off valuable feedback. The enlightened, well-developed leader is aware of her/his own immune system and can monitor the filtering system effectively. We have many opportunities to help organizations and leaders think through the roadmap that makes our immune systems switch off when new, helpful information is trying to enter.

  9. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...... variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote....

  10. Optimization of routing strategies for data transfer in peer-to-peer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Atsushi; Igarashi, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Since peer-to-peer file-sharing systems have become familiar recently, the information traffic in the networks is increasing. Therefore it causes various traffic problems in peer-to-peer networks. In this paper, we model some features of the peer-to-peer networks, and investigate the traffic problems. Peer-to-peer networks have two notable characters. One is that each peer frequently searches for a file and download it from a peer who has the requested file. To decide whether a peer has the requested file or not in modelling of the search and download process, we introduce file-parameter P j , which expresses the amount of files stored in peer j. It is assumed that if P j is large, peer j has many files and can meet other peers' requests with high probability. The other character is that peers leave and join into the network repeatedly. Many researchers address traffic problems of data transfer in computer communication networks. To our knowledge, however, no reports focus on those in peer-to-peer networks whose topology changes with time. For routing paths of data transfer, generally, the shortest paths are used in usual computer networks. In this paper, we introduce a new optimal routing strategy which uses weights of peers to avoid traffic congestion. We find that the new routing strategy is superior to the shortest path strategy in terms of congestion frequency in data transfer

  11. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  12. Stability analysis of peer-to-peer networks against churn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    peer system join and leave the network randomly, which makes the overlay network dynamic and unstable in nature. In this paper, we propose an analytical framework to assess the robustness of p2p networks in the face of user churn.

  13. Peers for Promotion: Achieving Academic Advancement through Facilitated Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockene, Judith K.; Milner, Robert J.; Thorndyke, Luanne E.; Congdon, John; Cain, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    The promotion process is challenging, particularly for non-tenure track faculty in academic medicine. To address this challenge, we implemented a facilitated peer mentoring program that included a structured curriculum with regular meetings, guided by two senior faculty mentors. Participants expressed satisfaction with the program, showed…

  14. Peer-to-Peer Learning and the Army Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    actively to the team process-the principal requirements for high peer ratings-thus do better on tests than students who do not” (Kaufman, Felder , Fuller......learning styles are the five learning style dimensions. The five dimensions as developed by Richard Felder are Sensing and Intuitive Learners, Visual and

  15. A comparison of peer-to-peer query response modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hoschek, W

    2002-01-01

    In a large distributed system spanning many administrative domains such as a Grid (Foster et al., 2001), it is desirable to maintain and query dynamic and timely information about active participants such as services, resources and user communities. However, in such a database system, the set of information tuples in the universe is partitioned over one or more distributed nodes, for reasons including autonomy, scalability, availability, performance and security. This suggests the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) query technology. A variety of query response modes can be used to return matching query results from P2P nodes to an originator. Although from the functional perspective all response modes are equivalent, no mode is optimal under all circumstances. Which query response modes allow to express suitable trade-offs for a wide range ofP2P application? We answer this question by systematically describing and characterizing four query response modes for the unified peer-to-peer database framework (UPDF) proposed ...

  16. Using Peer Feedback to Improve Learning via Online Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of various forms of peer observation and feedback on student learning. We recruited twelve graduate students enrolled in a course entitled, Statistics in Education and Psychology, at a university in northern Taiwan. Researchers adopted the case study method, and the course lasted for ten weeks. Students were…

  17. Identifying network public opinion leaders based on Markov Logic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhe; Li, Xiaoqiang; He, Hui; Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Public opinion emergencies have important effect on social activities. Recognition of special communities like opinion leaders can contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the development trend of public opinion. In this paper, a network opinion leader recognition method based on relational data was put forward, and an opinion leader recognition system integrating public opinion data acquisition module, data characteristic selection, and fusion module as well as opinion leader discovery module based on Markov Logic Networks was designed. The designed opinion leader recognition system not only can overcome the incomplete data acquisition and isolated task of traditional methods, but also can recognize opinion leaders comprehensively with considerations to multiple problems by using the relational model. Experimental results demonstrated that, compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method can provide a more accurate opinion leader recognition and has good noise immunity.

  18. Psychological competence: the key to leader empowering behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Farinaz; Dahinten, V Susan; MacPhee, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of specific cognitions or aspects of psychological empowerment on 5 major aspects of leader empowering behaviors. Leader empowering behaviors are linked to important employee outcomes such as work effectiveness. Psychologically empowered leaders are known to use more empowering behaviors in their practice. There is limited research examining what aspects of psychological empowerment are most associated with different aspects of leader empowering behaviors. Data from a sample of 103 frontline and midlevel nurse leaders were analyzed after they participated in a leadership development program. Psychological competence was the strongest predictor of the total score for leader empowering behaviors and 4 of 5 subscale scores, and meaning was the 2nd strongest predictor. Autonomy was not a significant predictor. Psychological empowerment, particularly in the form of psychological competence, is an important leader characteristic and should be a focus of leadership development strategies.

  19. Peer review and the publication process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Parveen Azam; Watson, Roger

    2016-10-01

    To provide an overview of the peer review process, its various types, selection of peer reviewers, the purpose and significance of the peer review with regard to the assessment and management of quality of publications in academic journals. Discussion paper. This paper draws on information gained from literature on the peer review process and the authors' knowledge and experience of contributing as peer reviewers and editors in the field of health care, including nursing. There are various types of peer review: single blind; double blind; open; and post-publication review. The role of the reviewers in reviewing manuscripts and their contribution to the scientific and academic community remains important.

  20. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far as ‘cognit......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far...

  1. Evaluating pharmacy leader development through the seven action logics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Achsah; Desai, Avani; Nguyen, Phouc Anne; Birney, Patrick; Colavecchia, Anthony; Karralli, Rusol; Smith, Lindsey; Lorimer, Dirk; Burgess, Gwen; Munch, Kyle; Daniel, Nelvin; Lionetti, Jason; Garey, Kevin W

    2016-01-15

    Pharmacy leader development over time was analyzed using the seven action logics. As part of an ongoing leadership seminar series, students were required to select a visionary pharmacy leader and conduct a structured interview to evaluate pharmacy leaders' action logics. A standardized questionnaire comprising 13 questions was created by the class. Questions addressed leadership qualities during the leaders' early years, education years, and work years. Transcripts were then coded by two separate trained investigators based on the leader's stage of life to provide a score for each action logic individually over time. Kappa coefficient was used to evaluate interrater agreement. A total of 14 leaders were interviewed. All leaders were currently employed and had won national awards for their contributions to pharmacy practice. Overall, there was 82% agreement between the two evaluators' scores for the various characteristics. Action logics changed based on the leaders' life stage. Using aggregate data from all leader interviews, a progression from lower-order action logics (opportunist, diplomat, expert) to higher-order action logics (strategist, alchemist) was found. Ten leaders (71%) were diplomats during their early years. Six leaders (43%) were experts during their education years, and 4 (29%) were strategists or alchemists. During the third life stage analyzed (the work years), 6 leaders (43%) were strategists, and 2 were alchemists. During their work years, all leaders had a percentage of their answers coded as alchemist (range, 5-22%). Throughout their professional careers, pharmacy leaders continually develop skills through formal education and mentorship that follow action logics. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Argumentation Skills: A Peer Assessment Approach to Discussions in the EFL Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Ubaque Casallas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exploratory action research study carried out by two English as a foreign language teachers in a private, non-profit institution in Bogota, Colombia, with a group of 12 learners in a B1 English course. These students faced difficulties elaborating on their ideas when discussing issues in class. The study placed emphasis on the use of argumentation outlines and peer assessment to boost learners’ argumentative abilities. Audio-taped conversations and open-ended interviews were used to understand the impact on the pedagogical intervention. Findings revealed that argumentation outlines and peer assessment can promote learners’ awareness and ability to engage in argumentation processes. Moreover, peer assessment appears to be an essential tool for enhancing personal and collaborative learning, as well as for promoting learner reflection and agency.

  3. The Humble Leader: Association of Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Implementation Leadership With Organizational Climate in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Finn, Natalie K; Beidas, Rinad S

    2017-02-01

    Discrepancies, or perceptual distance, between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader are common but usually go unrecognized. Research on discrepancies is limited, but there is evidence that discrepancies are associated with organizational context. This study examined the association of leader-follower discrepancies in Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) ratings of mental health clinic leaders and the association of those discrepancies with organizational climate for involvement and performance feedback. Both involvement and performance feedback are important for evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in mental health. A total of 593 individuals-supervisors (leaders, N=80) and clinical service providers (followers, N=513)-completed surveys that included ratings of implementation leadership and organizational climate. Polynomial regression and response surface analyses were conducted to examine the associations of discrepancies in leader-follower ILS ratings with organizational involvement climate and performance feedback climate, aspects of climate likely to support EBP implementation. Both involvement climate and performance feedback climate were highest where leaders rated themselves low on the ILS and their followers rated those leaders high on the ILS ("humble leaders"). Teams with "humble leaders" showed more positive organizational climate for involvement and for performance feedback, contextual factors important during EBP implementation and sustainment. Discrepancy in leader and follower ratings of implementation leadership should be a consideration in understanding and improving leadership and organizational climate for mental health services and for EBP implementation and sustainment in mental health and other allied health settings.

  4. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  5. Smoking Initiation: Peers and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-S. Hsieh (Chih-Sheng); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSocial interactions are widely recognized to play an important role in smoking initiation among adolescents. In this paper we hypothesize that individual with `stronger' personalities (i.e. emotionally stable, conscientious individuals) are better able to resist peer pressure in the

  6. Peer Scores for Group Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Linda; Malone, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    Explains how peer scores can be used to constitute one part of students' grades on group projects. Contributions students make to a project are defined in four categories: creativity/ideas contributed, research/data collection, writing/typing/artwork, and organizing/collating. A scoring rubric for these categories is presented. (PR)

  7. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  8. Some limits in peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Domingo Penya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the known as ‘peer assessment’ is one of the pillars of formative assessment in the different levels of the educational system buts, especially, in the University level. Last years, it has been considered in order to enhance students' meaningful learning, considering it as an element of social learning from the lessons learned by other classmates, and the ability to assess their quality, compared with the level of knowledge that each student has about the subject/course evaluated, and using common evaluation criteria. Relating to this, the experience presented in this paper has been developed with two groups of students. It allows to determine how many peer assessments is prudent to ask course students in order to make a serious and reliable activity, and not as a required and mandatory exercise that has to be carried out by students simply to pass the course; in this last case, the activity could become extremely trivial and banal. Statistical analysis of the results indicates that three-peer assessments per student appraised are a good lot. In addition, on the other hand, more than thirty-peer assessments do not provide learning nor serious activities.

  9. Peer Tutoring via Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Norbert

    1997-01-01

    Describes a three-year project devoted to fostering semester-long e-mail exchanges between American and German college students. Based on the tandem approach to language learning, peer tutoring via e-mail helped improve students' writing ability and cross-cultural competence. Presents types of writing activities and suggestions for setting up…

  10. Peer Assistance in Reading Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geimer, Theresa; Krzystofczyk, Susan; Luczak, Carol; Talach, Sharon

    This report describes a program of peer tutoring using specific learning and metacognitive strategies to increase reading comprehension . The targeted population consisted of first through fourth grade students in self-contained regular education classrooms located in two adjacent suburbs of a large metropolitan area. The problem of poor…

  11. Linguistic Politeness and Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Diana Calhoun; Arnold, Holly; Haddock, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research was to use politeness theory to analyze the developing tutorial relationship between students and peer tutors in a university writing center. The study monitored two pairs of tutors and students over a period of six weeks, focusing on weeks one and six. Using partial transcripts of recorded sessions along with observation…

  12. Peer Tutoring and Writing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Wendell

    The transformation of private to public writing not only challenges student writers, but teachers of writing. The most important assessment of writing takes place in the transaction between writer and reader--among peer readers who are actively writing themselves. Faculty should not relinquish responsibility for assessing written products, but a…

  13. Peer Tutoring in Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, G. K.; Langdon, G. S.; James, S.

    2005-01-01

    A peer tutoring scheme has been introduced into the Department of Engineering at the University of Liverpool to help 2nd year undergraduate students tackle conceptual design problems. Conceptual design is an iterative process consisting of a series of generative and evaluative stages, which gradually converge on a preferred conceptual solution.…

  14. The Power of Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingle, Jane

    2006-01-01

    In a religion class of 26 bright creative sixth graders, one student demonstrates the power of peer pressure. Part of the morning ritual is to say prayer petitions. Students seems to be calmed by their expressions of care for their families, friends, pets, their military troops, victims of natural disasters, the homeless, etc. However, one student…

  15. How China's Leaders Think The Inside Story of China's Past, Current and Future Leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Robert Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    How China’s next generation of leaders think and what that means for its future China will soon undergo a complete change of senior leaders and this book covers that new generation’s background and ideas based on personal interviews with member of China’s ruling party. It covers the future of state media, culture, the press, religion, science and technology, healthcare, agricultural, and economic and financial issues. For anyone who wants to understand China’s future, this book offers valuable insight.

  16. Leaders Growing Leaders: Designing a Tier-Based Leadership Program for Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeck, Laura; Rozycki, Grace; Dunnington, Gary

    2018-02-07

    Leadership has emerged as a crucial component of professional development for physicians in academic medicine. Most leadership skills can be learned and therefore best practices of delivering leadership development are in high demand. For practicing surgeons, specific strategies to teach leadership have been lacking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure of a tier-based leadership development program called Leaders Growing Leaders, to identify the major curricular components to each tier including measures and outcomes, and to share lessons learned for those who may want to begin a similar leadership development program. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  18. PEER INTERACTIONS AND POSITIVE STUDENT-LECTURER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PEER INTERACTIONS AND POSITIVE STUDENT-LECTURER RELATIONSHIP AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COLLEGE ALGEBRA: A CASE STUDY AT USIU. ... Key words: Mathematics, Peer interaction, Lecturer-Student relationship, challenges, teaching, learning and performance.

  19. Implementing a centralized institutional peer tutoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughf, Natalie White; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-01-01

    Peer tutoring has been found to be beneficial to both students and peer tutors in health sciences education programs. This article describes the implementation of a centralized, institutional peer tutoring program at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, an academic health science center in the U.S. The Program: This multispecialty peer tutoring program paired students experiencing academic difficulties with peer tutors who showed prior academic success, professionalism and effective communication skills. The program allowed students and peer tutors to coordinate their own tutoring services. Evaluations by both students and peer tutors showed satisfaction with the program. Recommendations for developing and implementing an effective peer tutoring program are presented, including utilization of an online system, consistent program policy with high professionalism expectations, funding, program evaluation and data tracking.

  20. Winning with Peer Tutoring: A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Linda J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A systematic process for planning, implementing, and maintaining peer-tutoring interventions is presented. Academic and social benefits of peer tutoring are briefly documented. The process includes four components: planning, training, monitoring/evaluation, and problem solving. (DB)

  1. Health Professions Education Scholarship Unit Leaders as Institutional Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpio, Lara; O'Brien, Bridget; J Durning, Steven; van der Vleuten, Cees; Gruppen, Larry; Ten Cate, Olle; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Irby, David M; Hamstra, Stanley J; Hu, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    Health professions education scholarship units (HPESUs) are organizational structures within which a group is substantively engaged in health professions education scholarship. Little research investigates the strategies employed by HPESU administrative leaders to secure and maintain HPESU success. Using institutional entrepreneurship as a theoretical lens, this study asks: Do HPESU administrative leaders act as institutional entrepreneurs (IEs)? This study recontextualizes two preexisting qualitative datasets that comprised interviews with leaders in health professions education in Canada (2011-2012) and Australia and New Zealand (2013-1014). Two researchers iteratively analyzed the data using the institutional entrepreneurship construct until consensus was achieved. A third investigator independently reviewed and contributed to the recontextualized analyses. A summary of the analyses was shared with all authors, and their feedback was incorporated into the final interpretations. HPESU leaders act as IEs in three ways. First, HPESU leaders construct arguments and position statements about how the HPESU resolves an institution's problem(s). This theorization discourse justifies the existence and support of the HPESU. Second, the leaders strategically cultivate relationships with the leader of the institution within which the HPESU sits, the leaders of large academic groups with which the HPESU partners, and the clinician educators who want careers in health professions education. Third, the leaders work to increase the local visibility of the HPESU. Practical insights into how institutional leaders interested in launching an HPESU can harness these findings are discussed.

  2. Incentive Effects of Peer Pressure in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Daido

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of peer pressure on incentives. We assume that, in addition to the material payoff, each agent's utility includes the psychological payoff from peer pressure generated by a comparison of effort costs. We show that the optimal incentive schemes depend mainly on the degree of peer pressure and of the heterogeneity of agents. Furthermore, we examine the optimal organizational forms in terms of the principal''s intention to make use of the effects of peer pressure.

  3. Becoming a trustworthy leader psychology and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Aneil K

    2013-01-01

    It''s time to discover a new way for individuals to lead organizations and societies. Trust in a variety of institutions, including governmental and business, is at an all-time low. In order to strengthen society from its foundations, we need to rebuild trust.  Research shows that leaders are critical to building trust in organizations, and that trust in leadership is significantly related to a number of attitudes, behaviors and performance outcomes. This new book, with its emphasis on the critical role of leadership in trust-building as well as the novel perspective on the trust circle of lea

  4. Leader-Follower Formation Control for Quadrotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Falin; Chen, Jiemin; Liang, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Quadrotors are gaining an increasing interest in public and extensively explored in recent years. In many situations, a team of quadrotors is desired to operate in a certain shape, which is also called formation. In this paper, a linear PID controller is used to control each single quadrotor and a slide mode controller is adopted to solve the formation flying problem which employs the leader-follower structure. The formation simulations are run in the Matlab/Simulink environment to evaluate the performance of control laws.

  5. Perception of risks by opinion leaders 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a survey made just after the Fukushima accident on a panel of opinion leaders (belonging to political, economical or media sector) in order to compare their perception of risks with that of the public. The questions addressed the perception of risks, the role of scientific experts, the usefulness and breaks on the diffusion of expertise results, the perception of pluralist bodies, and the Fukushima accident. The answers are analysed and discussed with respect to fifteen hazardous situations, to their opinion of expertise, and to their opinion on safety audit and information

  6. Men’s parties with women leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi; Siim, Birte; Pingaud, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Based on a theoretical framework outlined by the role of women in politics and gendered constructions of female politicians, this chapter looks at: 1) how female populist leaders represent themselves; and 2) how mainstream media coverage represents them in politics. This dual emphasis creates...... the backdrop for a fruitful comparative analysis of right-wing populist women leaders’ representations and self-representations in Western Europe and allows us to address issues that refer to gendered representations and stereotypes of feminine and masculine nature and relationships to hegemonic masculinities...

  7. Leadership Development: A Senior Leader Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ally taken as gospel .” • “The DT’s feedback should allow mentorship to be more focused. By giving an honest assessment and actionable goals...Amagoh, “Leadership Development and Leader Effectiveness,” Management Decision 47, no. 6 (2009): 989–99. 6. Ryan M. Hinds and John P. Steele, “Army...pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG545.pdf. 17. Valenzuela, analysis briefing. 18. Korb et al., “America 2021,” 10–26. 19. John A. Lynn II, “Breaching the

  8. Preventing DoS attacks in peer-to-peer media streaming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William; Nahrstedt, Klara; Gupta, Indranil

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for preventing both selfishness and denial-of-service attacks in peer-to-peer media streaming systems. Our framework, called Oversight, achieves prevention of these undesirable activities by running a separate peer-to-peer download rate enforcement protocol along with the underlying peer-to-peer media streaming protocol. This separate Oversight protocol enforces download rate limitations on each participating peer. These limitations prevent selfish or malicious nodes from downloading an overwhelming amount of media stream data that could potentially exhaust the entire system. Since Oversight is based on a peer-to-peer architecture, it can accomplish this enforcement functionality in a scalable, efficient, and decentralized way that fits better with peer-to-peer media streaming systems compared to other solutions based on central server architectures. As peer-to-peer media streaming systems continue to grow in popularity, the threat of selfish and malicious peers participating in such large peer-to-peer networks will continue to grow as well. For example, since peer-to-peer media streaming systems allow users to send small request messages that result in the streaming of large media objects, these systems provide an opportunity for malicious users to exhaust resources in the system with little effort expended on their part. However, Oversight addresses these threats associated with selfish or malicious peers who cause such disruptions with excessive download requests. We evaluated our Oversight solution through simulations and our results show that applying Oversight to peer-to-peer media streaming systems can prevent both selfishness and denial-of-service attacks by effectively limiting the download rates of all nodes in the system.

  9. AJOL Recommended Peer-Reviewer Guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peer review is an essential part of formal scholarly communication, and lies at the heart of the scientific method. Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper. Peer Reviewers need to recognize the ...

  10. Peer Education in Campus Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.

    2013-01-01

    Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a…

  11. Peer Tutoring at Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the important roles of peer tutoring and peer tutoring services that utilize student tutors in higher education. First, the roles and potential benefits of peer tutoring are identified and reviewed as they apply to various dimensions of student development. Second, the impacts, benefits, and extended beneficiaries of peer…

  12. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  13. Peer Review of Teaching: Sharing Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Shaya; Chan, Judy; Cassidy, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we share examples of best peer review of teaching practices, drawing on our involvement in the design and implementation of the Peer Review of Teaching program at the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology. We review the history of the Peer Review of Teaching Initiative at the University of British Columbia and explain key…

  14. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  15. Understanding Peer Influence in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…

  16. Peer Tutoring: An Effective Instructional Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Phyllis

    This review examines the literature addressing the concept of peer tutoring. Journal articles and education documents written within the last 10 years that discussed peer tutoring were considered. The evidence reviewed overwhelmingly supported the use of peer tutoring and discussed it as an effective instructional strategy. The key points that…

  17. Providing Academic Support through Peer Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latino, Jennifer A.; Unite, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Peer influence in academic settings can have significant positive effects on student learners. Examples of peer support of academic endeavors, most notably tutoring, date back to the colonial period of U.S. higher education and persist today. However, over the years, peer education has evolved from being a marginal endeavor in which academic…

  18. Peer Pressure: An Issue That Crosses Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittredge, Karen; McCarthy, Alice R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research on peer pressure shows that: parents are important to teens, today's teens face unique challenges, and teaching teens to say no does not mean losing friends. The paper presents parenting tips for countering peer pressure, noting the influence of adult peer pressure on children. A sidebar examines the right age to start talking to…

  19. Give-and-take based peer-to-peer content distribution networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peer-to-peer content distribution network (enabling exchange between peers decreases the load on surrogate ... cost; for example, if peer j has a history of selfishness, a high cost can be assigned — this discourages ... in this paper, we assume that system is changing at a slow rate, effectively making it static. If the system is ...

  20. A Peer Review Training Workshop: Coaching Students to Give and Evaluate Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Trained peer review, as illustrated in a plethora of peer review or peer response scholarship, has a positive effect on students' writing in general and on improved revision quality in particular (Berg, 1999; Hu, 2005; Min, 2006; Paulus, 1999; Stanley, 1992). From these studies, it is evident that trained peer feedback does have a significant role…

  1. Peer Relations and Peer Deviance as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…

  2. Peer Programs: An In-Depth Look at Peer Helping: Planning, Implementation, and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Judith A.

    The goal of this book is to provide a program designed to teach peer helping professionals a method and rationale for training peer helpers. Peer helping programs are a major delivery system of affective education or deliberate psychological education. Peer helping programs can provide prevention, intervention, and support systems for people.…

  3. Understanding peer effects - On the nature, estimation and channels of peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates peer effects in a university context where students are randomly assigned to sections. While students benefit from better peers on average, low-achieving students are harmed by high-achieving peers. Analyzing students’ course evaluations suggests that peer effects are driven by

  4. Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulpolder, M.

    2011-01-01

    On today's Internet, millions of people participate in peer-to-peer communities where they share content such as audio and video files. Contrary to websites such as Youtube, which rely on large and expensive computer servers to store and deliver all of their content, peer-to-peer communities rely on

  5. Research Paper A comparison of peer and non-peer exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study examined peer and non-peer unwanted early sexual experiences (UESE) among 3,689 university students to establish whether peer UESE is as coercive and bothersome as non-peer UESE. Method: A self-report checklist was administered to all consenting students attending an orientation ...

  6. Understanding peer effects : on the nature, estimation and channels of peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates peer effects in a university context where students are randomly assigned to sections. While students benefit from better peers on average, lowachieving students are harmed by high-achieving peers. Analyzing students’ course evaluations suggests that peer effects are driven by

  7. What Positive Impacts Does Peer Tutoring Have upon the Peer Tutors at SQU?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al kharusi, Dhafra

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide an answer to the question: What positive impacts does peer tutoring have upon the peer tutors at SQU? It is conducted in the LC Tutorial Centre at Sultan Qaboos University where senior English language students are hired to tutor their peers who are struggling with the language. It sheds light on the peer tutors'…

  8. Research on Intellectual Property Right Problems of Peer-to-Peer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Mingshu; Chen, Meizhang; Zheng, Shengli

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital intellectual property rights relating to peer-to-peer networks, using Napster as an example. Suggests anti-piracy solutions to prevent litigation and considers how libraries can develop potential service models using peer-to-peer networks, including the development of personal libraries on the Internet, interlibrary loan,…

  9. Analysis of Student Performance in Peer Led Undergraduate Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Linda M.

    Foundations of Chemistry courses at the University of Kansas have traditionally accommodated nearly 1,000 individual students every year with a single course in a large lecture hall. To develop a more student-centered learning atmosphere, Peer Led Undergraduate Supplements (PLUS) were introduced to assist students, starting in the spring of 2010. PLUS was derived from the more well-known Peer-Led Team Learning with modifications to meet the specific needs of the university and the students. The yearlong investigation of PLUS Chemistry began in the fall of 2012 to allow for adequate development of materials and training of peer leaders. We examined the impact of academic achievement for students who attended PLUS sessions while controlling for high school GPA, math ACT scores, credit hours earned in high school, completion of calculus, gender, and those aspiring to be pharmacists (i.e., pre-pharmacy students). In a least linear squares multiple regression, PLUS participants performed on average one percent higher on exam scores for Chemistry 184 and four tenths of a percent on Chemistry 188 for each PLUS session attended. Pre-pharmacy students moderated the effect of PLUS attendance on chemistry achievement, ultimately negating any relative gain associated by attending PLUS sessions. Evidence of gender difference was demonstrated in the Chemistry 188 model, indicating females experience a greater benefit from PLUS sessions. Additionally, an item analysis studied the relationship between PLUS material to individual items on exams. The research discovered that students who attended PLUS session, answered the items correctly 10 to 20 percent more than their comparison group for PLUS interrelated items and no difference to 10 percent for non-PLUS related items. In summary, PLUS has a positive effect on exam performance in introductory chemistry courses at the University of Kansas.

  10. Can editors save peer review from peer reviewers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rafael; O'Dwyer, James P

    2017-01-01

    Peer review is the gold standard for scientific communication, but its ability to guarantee the quality of published research remains difficult to verify. Recent modeling studies suggest that peer review is sensitive to reviewer misbehavior, and it has been claimed that referees who sabotage work they perceive as competition may severely undermine the quality of publications. Here we examine which aspects of suboptimal reviewing practices most strongly impact quality, and test different mitigating strategies that editors may employ to counter them. We find that the biggest hazard to the quality of published literature is not selfish rejection of high-quality manuscripts but indifferent acceptance of low-quality ones. Bypassing or blacklisting bad reviewers and consulting additional reviewers to settle disagreements can reduce but not eliminate the impact. The other editorial strategies we tested do not significantly improve quality, but pairing manuscripts to reviewers unlikely to selfishly reject them and allowing revision of rejected manuscripts minimize rejection of above-average manuscripts. In its current form, peer review offers few incentives for impartial reviewing efforts. Editors can help, but structural changes are more likely to have a stronger impact.

  11. Peer-to-Peer Enclaves for Improving Network Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Archer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.

  12. Can editors save peer review from peer reviewers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D'Andrea

    Full Text Available Peer review is the gold standard for scientific communication, but its ability to guarantee the quality of published research remains difficult to verify. Recent modeling studies suggest that peer review is sensitive to reviewer misbehavior, and it has been claimed that referees who sabotage work they perceive as competition may severely undermine the quality of publications. Here we examine which aspects of suboptimal reviewing practices most strongly impact quality, and test different mitigating strategies that editors may employ to counter them. We find that the biggest hazard to the quality of published literature is not selfish rejection of high-quality manuscripts but indifferent acceptance of low-quality ones. Bypassing or blacklisting bad reviewers and consulting additional reviewers to settle disagreements can reduce but not eliminate the impact. The other editorial strategies we tested do not significantly improve quality, but pairing manuscripts to reviewers unlikely to selfishly reject them and allowing revision of rejected manuscripts minimize rejection of above-average manuscripts. In its current form, peer review offers few incentives for impartial reviewing efforts. Editors can help, but structural changes are more likely to have a stronger impact.

  13. Hierarchical Data Distribution Scheme for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Shashi; Dave, M.; Patel, R. B.

    2010-11-01

    In the past few years, peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have become an extremely popular mechanism for large-scale content sharing. P2P systems have focused on specific application domains (e.g. music files, video files) or on providing file system like capabilities. P2P is a powerful paradigm, which provides a large-scale and cost-effective mechanism for data sharing. P2P system may be used for storing data globally. Can we implement a conventional database on P2P system? But successful implementation of conventional databases on the P2P systems is yet to be reported. In this paper we have presented the mathematical model for the replication of the partitions and presented a hierarchical based data distribution scheme for the P2P networks. We have also analyzed the resource utilization and throughput of the P2P system with respect to the availability, when a conventional database is implemented over the P2P system with variable query rate. Simulation results show that database partitions placed on the peers with higher availability factor perform better. Degradation index, throughput, resource utilization are the parameters evaluated with respect to the availability factor.

  14. Army Leader Development Strategy: Developing Brigade Level Leaders through Balance, Emphasis, and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    complex challenges faced in the contemporary operational environment.49 Major Hertling’s proposal is in line with the findings and recommendations of...understanding of this foundation. Contemporary literature, previous research, and professional journal articles, provide insight, applicability...and analysis. The literature review focused on two primary genres : current doctrine related to leader development; and professional, academic, and

  15. Building Relevant Leaders: Identifying the Development Needs of the Modern Construction Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shands, Mike

    2014-01-01

    "Do senior level construction leaders possess a common set of leadership development needs that can be addressed to better prepare them to lead and retain the Millennial workforce?" As older generations begin to retire in-mass, many organizations are reevaluating their approach to employee recruitment, performance, and retention. This…

  16. Leader Empowering Behaviour: The Leader’s Perspective : Understanding the motivation behind leader empowering behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Hakimi (Natalia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe present dissertation tries to shed light on the phenomenon of empowering leadership. We aim to understand the antecedents of leader empowering behaviour. In doing so, we mean to remedy the stated lack of research on empowering leadership and on the effect of follower’s behaviour on

  17. Contributions of Peer Support to Health, Health Care, and Prevention: Papers from Peers for Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Edwin B; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ibarra, Leticia; Cherrington, Andrea L; Elder, John P; Tang, Tricia S; Heisler, Michele; Safford, Monika M; Simmons, David

    2015-08-01

    SUBSTANTIAL: evidence documents the benefits of peer support provided by community health workers, lay health advisors, promotores de salud, and others. The papers in this supplement, all supported by the Peers for Progress program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, contribute to the growing body of literature addressing the efficacy, effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and adoption of peer support for diabetes self-management. They and additional papers supported by Peers for Progress contribute to understanding how peer support can be implemented in real world settings. Topics include examination of the peers who provide peer support, reaching the hardly reached, success factors in peer support interventions, proactive approaches, attention to emotions, peer support in behavioral health, dissemination models and their application in China, peer support in the patient-centered medical home, research challenges, and policy implications. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  18. Peer support to improve diabetes care: an implementation evaluation of the Australasian Peers for Progress Diabetes Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Zahra; Riddell, Michaela A; Absetz, Pilvikki; Brand, Margaret; Oldenburg, Brian

    2018-02-17

    Several studies have now demonstrated the benefits of peer support in promoting diabetes control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a group-based, peer support program to improve diabetes self-management and thereby, diabetes control in people with Type 2 Diabetes in Victoria, Australia. The intervention program was designed to address four key peer support functions i.e. 1) assistance in daily management, 2) social and emotional support, 3) regular linkage to clinical care, and 4) ongoing and sustained support to assist with the lifelong needs of diabetes self-care management. The intervention participants attended monthly group meetings facilitated by a trained peer leader for 12 months. Data was collected on the intervention's reach, participation, implementation fidelity, groups' effectiveness and participants' perceived support and satisfaction with the intervention. The RE-AIM and PIPE frameworks were used to guide this evaluation. The trial reached a high proportion (79%) of its target population through mailed invitations. Out of a total of 441 eligible individuals, 273 (61.9%) were willing to participate. The intervention fidelity was high (92.7%). The proportion of successful participants who demonstrated a reduction in 5 years cardiovascular disease risk score was 65.1 and 44.8% in the intervention and control arm respectively. Ninety-four percent (94%) of the intervention participants stated that the program helped them manage their diabetes on a day to day basis. Overall, attending monthly group meetings provided 'a lot of support' to 57% and 'moderate' support to 34% of the participants. Peer support programs are feasible, acceptable and can be used to supplement treatment for patients motivated to improve behaviours related to diabetes. However, program planners need to focus on the participation component in designing future programs. The use of two evaluation frameworks allowed a

  19. Pengaturan Formasi Menggunakan Pendekatan Leader - Follower pada Sistem Multi Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Tri Rahmanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sistem multi robot dapat didefinisikan sebagai kumpulan robot yang berkoordinasi melalui sistem komunikasi untuk melakukan tugas kooperatif tertentu. Penggunaan multi robot secara terkoordinasi memungkinkan pencapaian tugas yang lebih kompleks. Efisiensi penyelesaian tugas pada sistem multi robot dapat ditingkatkan dengan menggunakan formasi. Pengaturan formasi pada sistem multi robot dapat diselesaikan dengan menggunakan pendekatan leader-follower. Leader sebagai pusat koordinasi sedangkan follower mengikuti leader dengan jarak dan orientasi relatif yang telah ditentukan. Penerapan formasi pada lingkungan tidak terstruktur terdapat rintangan yang memungkinkan formasi tidak terbentuk sesuai dengan yang diinginkan. Pendekatan leader-follower memiliki kelemahan jika leader menghadapi rintangan maka keseluruhan robot dapat terganggu. Berdasarkan kelemahan tersebut, leader harus dapat menghindari rintangan. Penelitian ini menggunakan kontroler tracking dan kontroler menghindari rintangan dengan algoritma fuzzy. Penerapan kontroler tracking pada sistem multi robot bertujuan membentuk formasi. Sistem dengan kontroler yang diusulkan tersebut mampu membentuk formasi sesuai spesifikasi yang diberikan sekaligus menghindari rintangan.

  20. Nurse leaders' perceptions of an approaching organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Susanne; Eriksson, Katie; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to achieve more profound understanding of nurse leaders' perceptions of an approaching organizational change. We used a three-dimensional hermeneutical method of interpretation to analyze text from 17 interviews. The results suggest that nurse leaders were positive toward and actively engaged in continual change to their units, even though they perceived themselves as mere spectators of the change process. The nurse leaders believed that change might benefit patients and patient care, yet their adaptation lacked deeper engagement. The approaching merger affected the nurse leaders' identities on a deeply personal level. They experienced uneasiness and anxiety with regard to being nurse leaders, the future of nursing care, and their mandate as patient advocates. Nurse leaders are in a critical position to influence the success of organizational change, but the organizations covered in this study were not incorporating their knowledge and experiences into the change.

  1. Dynamics of branching of negative downward lightning leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Zhu, Yujie; Gu, Shanqiang; He, Jinliang

    2017-11-01

    The branching of negative downward lightning leaders is of both theoretical insterest and practical importance. In the lightning protection of ground structures, a clearer understanding of the mechanism and dynamics of leader branching is needed to identify possible lightning strike locations as well as vulnerable parts of the protection systems. In this work, we start with the image analysis of a lightning leader process recorded with a high-speed camera and to show that the anode-directed streamer zone developed from space stems in front of a leader tip needs be smaller in size (electric field at the discharge front, which may result in new bursts of streamers. This model, if further verified, could be the foundation of inferring the structure and dynamics of the streamer zone from the morphology of the leader channel, which would significantly advance the knowledge of the streamer zone in negative lightning leaders.

  2. Leaders' use of moral justifications increases policy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zant, Alex B; Moore, Don A

    2015-06-01

    Leaders must choose how to justify their organization's actions to stakeholders. We differentiate moral frames, or justifications based on moral values, from pragmatic frames, or justifications based on practical costs and benefits. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we found that moral policy frames elicited more support than pragmatic frames across a variety of scenarios. This effect was mediated by the perception that leaders who offer moral justifications possess relatively greater moral character. In Experiment 2, we found that perceptions of a leader's private motives had a stronger influence on policy support than did the leader's public stance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that, irrespective of how a policy was framed, people were most supportive of a policy championed by a leader high in moral character. In Experiment 4, we documented an additional benefit of moral policy frames: They allow leaders to mitigate the moral outrage generated by reneging on a policy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The servant leader: a higher calling for dental professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certosimo, Fred

    2009-09-01

    The dental profession is guided by normative principles that provide guidance to our leaders and practicing dentists in addressing the needs of patients and the profession, yet there is room for incorporating new ideas that help dental professionals meet their professional obligations. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the concept of "servant leadership," especially in contrast with "self-serving leaders," and to suggest that servant leadership is consistent with the high ethical and professional ideals of the dental profession. The servant leader is the antithesis of the self-serving leader, who incessantly seeks more power and acquisition of material possessions. The servant leader's highest priority is the people (patients/students/customers) he or she serves. The concept of the servant-leader can take us away from self-serving, top-down leadership and encourage us to think harder about how to respect, value, and motivate people and ultimately provide better service to our patients.

  4. ROMANIAN BUSINESS WOMEN: MANAGERS OR LEADERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana UNGUREANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is a concept appeared in the second part of the twentieth century which developed later on because of the business necessity as the economic environment has become more and more complex and the classic managerial style was no more efficient. In this complex world of business, women were traditionally involved in business at the administrative level, with small chances to reach top structures in a company. Due to the modern times, they won their rights to prove their management skills and to obtain more important jobs in famous companies. This paper presents the results of a research based on interview method and getting responses from Romanian women involved in business at the middle and top management in multinational companies. The main goal of the study was to identify the main features that define the women as a leader or a manager by finding lateral thinking skills. This research revealed that most of the women interviewed have their features closer to the conventional leader and only few of them have developed strong lateral thinking skills.

  5. Convergence of some leader election algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svante Janson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We start with a set of n players. With some probability P(n,k, we kill n-k players; the other ones stay alive, and we repeat with them. What is the distribution of the number X n of phases (or rounds before getting only one player? We present a probabilistic analysis of this algorithm under some conditions on the probability distributions P(n,k, including stochastic monotonicity and the assumption that roughly a fixed proportion α of the players survive in each round. We prove a kind of convergence in distribution for X n - log 1/α n; as in many other similar problems there are oscillations and no true limit distribution, but suitable subsequences converge, and there is an absolutely continuous random variable Z such that d(X n, ⌈Z+ log 1/α n⌉→0, where d is either the total variation distance or the Wasserstein distance. Applications of the general result include the leader election algorithm where players are eliminated by independent coin tosses and a variation of the leader election algorithm proposed by W.R. Franklin 1982. We study the latter algorithm further, including numerical results.

  6. Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, T. A.; Jacoby, S. H.; Lockwood, J. F.; McCarthy, D. W.

    2001-12-01

    NOAO facilities will be used in support of ``Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education" (TLRBSE), a new Teacher Retention and Renewal program that will be funded through the National Science Foundation's Directorate for Education and Human Resources. The goal of TLRBSE is to provide professional development for secondary teachers of mathematics and science in an effort to support novice teachers beginning their careers as well as to motivate and retain experienced teachers. Within the context of astronomy, TLRBSE will develop master teachers who will mentor a second tier of novice teachers in the exemplary method of research-based science education, a proven effective teaching method which models the process of inquiry and exploration used by scientists. Participants will be trained through a combination of in-residence workshops at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the National Solar Observatory, a distance-learning program during the academic year, interaction at professional meetings and mentor support from teacher leaders and professional astronomers. A total of 360 teachers will participate in the program over five years.

  7. Venture Leaders Prize for innovative technology projects

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    In co-operation with the GEBERT RÜF FOUNDATION and the Ernest & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award, venturelab will be presenting the Venture Leaders Prize. The Venture Leaders Prize, which is the new guise of the NETS (New Entrepreneurs in Technology and Science) Prize, will give twenty research entrepreneurs with projects to develop innovative technologies the opportunity to win the chance of participating in a programme to assist them in starting up their companies. The winners will go to spend 10 days in the Boston area (United States) where they will take part in a development programme for their project, which will include an entrepreneurship course, opportunities to meet start-up companies and financing experts, etc. This prize has already spawned many companies such as id Quantique, Selexis or ABMI which have contributed to the economic development of regions, particularly in French-speaking Switzerland. The competition is open to students and scientists from all fields, who would like to s...

  8. Stable Leader Election in Population Protocols Requires Linear Time

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, David; Soloveichik, David

    2015-01-01

    A population protocol *stably elects a leader* if, for all $n$, starting from an initial configuration with $n$ agents each in an identical state, with probability 1 it reaches a configuration $\\mathbf{y}$ that is correct (exactly one agent is in a special leader state $\\ell$) and stable (every configuration reachable from $\\mathbf{y}$ also has a single agent in state $\\ell$). We show that any population protocol that stably elects a leader requires $\\Omega(n)$ expected "parallel time" --- $\\...

  9. Characteristics of negative lightning leaders to ground observed by TVLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shi; Jiang, Zhidong; Shi, Lihua; Niu, Zhencong; Zhang, Peng

    2015-12-01

    The Thunder and VHF lightning Locating System (termed TVLS) is established and utilized to observe leader behaviors of negative cloud to ground (CG) flashes. This system takes advantages of VHF broadband interferometer and thunder imaging technique, which could provide the temporal and quasi-3D spatial evolution of lightning discharges. In conjunction with synchronized electric field changes (E-changes) and electric field derivatives (dE/dt) records, 10 leaders from two CG flashes are presented and analyzed. Based on the characteristic evolution of leader velocities, E-changes, dE/dt waveforms and VHF intervals, three stepped leaders, five dart leaders and two dart-stepped leaders are identified. The stepped leaders behave impulsive while approaching ground, with average speed (1.3∼3.9)×105 m/s. All normal dart leaders presented here exhibit irregular (or termed "chaotic") fluctuations in E-change and dE/dt waveforms, with the similar speeds ((1.0∼2.9)×107 m/s) and durations ((300∼700) μs) of the "chaotic" leaders observed by other investigators. The irregular fluctuations would be weak if the channels keep conductive until the leader enters the less conductive branches, coinciding with VHF radiations in time sequence. The dart-stepped leader could be divided into the dart stage and the stepped stage by a transition region, which usually lies around the branch junctions of previous active channel. The dart stage resembles the normal dart leader, and the stepped stage usually associates with regular pulse trains in E-change and dE/dt waveforms.

  10. Expert Leaders in a Fast-Moving Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Goodall, Amanda H.; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to understand the effects of leaders on organizational performance. We argue for an ‘expert leader’ model of leadership. We differentiate between four kinds of leaders according to their level of inherent knowledge and industry experience. After controlling for confounding variables, teams led by leaders with extensive knowledge of the core business perform better than others. Our study collects and analyses 60 years of data from one of the world’s most competitive hi...

  11. Arming USAF Senior Leaders With Words To Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    AU/ACSC/CORBIN, R/AY16 2 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ARMING USAF SENIOR LEADERS WITH WORDS TO WIN by...this toolset for leaders (or its viable utility as an option for implementation) this research looks at the current training provided to both senior ...accurately, as well as the current training provided to both senior leaders in the USAF and to the personnel that support them in their communication

  12. Peer Assessment in Engineering Group Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    the administrative burden is one of the common reported challenges of peer assessment, computer assisted peer assessment is also briefly reviewed. Finally, opportunities and challenges in applying peer assessment in a project-based creative engineering program are presented based on the review of the literature.......Peer review has proved to be beneficial in project-based environments by involving students in the process and encouraging them to take ownership of their learning. This article reviews how peer assessment has been employed within group work for different engineering programs. Since...

  13. Peer Influence on Managerial Honesty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Markus; Ostermaier, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    We investigate peer influence on managerial honesty under varying levels of transparency. In a laboratory experiment, managers report their costs to a superior to request budget. We manipulate whether the managers learn each other’s report and cost (full transparency) or the report but not the co...... honesty. Transparency may also hurt firms that push honesty norms (as in ethics codes) but fail to enforce compliance, thus raising and disappointing managers’ expectations....

  14. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  15. Peer Review of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Simpson, P.; Munoz, C.; Dufois, F.; Heslop, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    To ensure the quality of oceanographic data, there is a clear need to employ best practices (BPs) for ocean observation and information management. However, effectively discovering these BPs is a challenge, hindering harmonized quality assurance across projects and programmes. To remedy this, we are prototyping a resource for the stable archiving and efficient discovery of BPs through a granular, semantically indexed, and consistently formatted web resource. While these technical advances have value, they cannot ensure improved oceanographic data quality without effective and inclusive peer review processes. Peer review of digitized best practices can take a number of forms from traditional (blind) peer review as practiced by journal publishers through to the evolving "open" approach where community reviews have both the authors and reviewers identified. This presentation will discuss the options for peer review mechanisms for best practices, including a hybrid approach where both expert panels and open community review are used to improve methodologies and thus downstream data quality. It is not yet clear if the ocean community prefers open versus blind reviews for best practices. It is also unclear the extent to which innovation versus solid technical base should have a higher priority in the reviews. Further, it is not clear whether the reviews should use an internal expert panel of the IODE OceanBestPractices Repository (http://www.oceanbestpractices.net/) or should be done as part of a journal publications process or both, as mentioned above. Thus, we will also describe our future approach to `field test' these review models on a multi-stakeholder compendium of digitized best practice documents.

  16. Peer effects in academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the data of dormitory students in National Institute of Technology, Kagoshima College to demonstrate the existence of peer effects in academic performance. The data have unique advantages to avoid the difficulties of the self-selection problem and reflection problem. The data shows freshmen's academic performance and previous year's junior high school records, and roommate's previous year's academic performance for using an instrumental variable method. The results of my...

  17. Analysis multi-agent with precense of the leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmadi, Sentot; Marjono, Miswanto

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenon of swarm is a natural phenomenon that is often done by a collection of living things in the form of motion from one place to another. By clustering, a group of animals can increase their effectiveness in food search and avoid predators. A group of geese also performs a swarm phenomenon when flying and forms an inverted V-formation with one of the geese acting as a leader. Each flying track of members of the geese group always follows the leader's path at a certain distance. This article discusses the mathematical modeling of the swarm phenomenon, which is the optimal tracking control for multi-agent model with the influence of the leader in the 2-dimensional space. The leader in this model is intended to track the specified path. Firstly, the leader's motion control is to follow the predetermined path using the Tracking Error Dynamic method. Then, the path from the leader is used to design the motion control of each agent to track the leader's path at a certain distance. The result of numerical simulation shows that the leader trajectory can track the specified path. Similarly, the motion of each agent can trace and follow the leader's path.

  18. Educating Transformational Leaders in Mexico at Universidad De Monterrey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Mexico faces numerous social, economic, and political challenges. Higher education institutions provide opportunity for change by educating socially responsible leaders to become civically engaged citizens.

  19. An Intra-Group Perspective on Leader Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels; Laustsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that followers’ preferences for dominant leadership vary according to two types of exploitation risks from other individuals within the group. Previous work demonstrates that contexts of inter-group war and peace make followers prefer dominant- and non-dominant-looking leaders...... of unresponsive, self-interested behavior from leaders themselves (i.e., vertical exploitation) decrease preferences for dominant-looking leaders. Moreover, within this framework of intra-group exploitation risks we show that followers prefer leaders from another vis-à-vis their own ethnic coalition to look less...

  20. Creating a Curriculum for Training Health Profession Faculty Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Pamela H; Robins, Lynne S; Schaad, Dotiglas

    2005-01-01

    ... of physicians, nurses, and other health professional faculty leaders. Methods: Executive and advisory committees became a collaborative team, surveying and cataloguing existing educational tools and materials...