Zwolak, Justyna; Brewe, Eric; Inspire Team
Society is constantly in flux, which demands the continuous development of our educational system to meet new challenges and impart the appropriate knowledge/skills to students. In particular, in order to improve student learning (among other things), the way we are teaching has significantly changed over the past few decades. We are moving away from traditional, lecture-based teaching towards a more interactive approach using, e.g., clicker questions, modeling instruction (MI), and other engagement strategies. A current, major challenge for universities is to increase student retention. I am examining the use of network analysis to investigate academic and social experiences of students in and beyond the classroom. There is a compelling case that transformed physics classes, such as ones that use MI, promote persistence by the creation of learning communities that support the integration of students into the university. I will discuss recent results connecting the MI approach to network structures in the students' interactions and how students' position impacts persistence in taking a subsequent MI vs. traditional lecture-based course.
Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.
Zwolak, Justyna P.; Dou, Remy; Williams, Eric A.; Brewe, Eric
Increasing student retention (successfully finishing a particular course) and persistence (continuing through a sequence of courses or the major area of study) is currently a major challenge for universities. While students' academic and social integration into an institution seems to be vital for student retention, research into the effect of interpersonal interactions is rare. We use network analysis as an approach to investigate academic and social experiences of students in the classroom. In particular, centrality measures identify patterns of interaction that contribute to integration into the university. Using these measures, we analyze how position within a social network in a Modeling Instruction (MI) course—an introductory physics course that strongly emphasizes interactive learning—predicts their persistence in taking a subsequent physics course. Students with higher centrality at the end of the first semester of MI are more likely to enroll in a second semester of MI. Moreover, we found that chances of successfully predicting individual student's persistence based on centrality measures are fairly high—up to 75%, making the centrality a good predictor of persistence. These findings suggest that increasing student social integration may help in improving persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.
Koontz, Richard D.
Academic performance and persistence are critically important issues for both universities and their students. Colleges and universities have invested significant resources trying to improve student outcomes. Unfortunately, in spite of this investment, improvement of student outcomes remains elusive. One key issue is that academic outcomes are…
Zwolak, Justyna; Brewe, Eric
Society is constantly in flux, which demands the continuous development of our educational system to meet new challenges and impart the appropriate knowledge/skills to students. In order to improve student learning, among other things, the way we are teaching has significantly changed over the past few decades. We are moving away from traditional, lecture-based teaching towards more interactive, engagement-based strategies. A current, major challenge for universities is to increase student retention. While students' academic and social integration into an institution seems to be vital for student retention, research on the effect of interpersonal interactions is rare. I use of network analysis to investigate academic and social experiences of students in and beyond the classroom. In particular, there is a compelling case that transformed physics classes, such as Modeling Instruction (MI), promote persistence by the creation of learning communities that support the integration of students into the university. I will discuss recent results on pattern development in networks of MI students' interactions throughout the semester, as well as the effect of students' position within the network on their persistence in physics.
, that community college curriculum workers in biology consider student's science identity in terms of improving engagement and final grade, but not persistence. Additionally, as results were mixed, it is recommended that this study be repeated to examine these relationships further.
Ayers, LoAnn Debra Gienger
Riverside University (a pseudonym), like many universities, has not significantly increased the number of women who graduate with bachelor's degrees in engineering. The purpose of the study is to understand how the university experiences of women students influence the decision to persist in an undergraduate engineering degree and to understand the role of self-perception in how the students perceive experiences as supporting or hindering their persistence in the major. Archival data, documents and artifacts, observations, individual interviews, and a focus group with women engineering students provide insights into students' perceived barriers and supports of student success. Analysis of the data results in two major themes. First, students' self-confidence and self-efficacy influence how women assimilate university experiences as either supportive or diminishing of academic success. Second, university policies and practices shape the campus environment within which student experiences are formed and influence a student's level of institutional, academic, and social integration. The results of the study indicate opportunities for university leadership to enhance strategies that positively shape students' institutional, academic and social integration as precursors toward increasing the number of women students who successfully complete undergraduate engineering degrees at Riverside University. Future research is indicated to better understand how gender and gender identity intersects with other demographic factors, such as socio-economic status, immigration status, and life stage (e.g., traditional versus non-traditional students), to support or deter the persistence of engineering students to degree completion.
Chatman, Lawrence M., Jr.
If the United States is to remain technologically competitive, persistence in engineering programs must improve. This study on student persistence employed a mixed-method design to identify the cognitive and noncognitive factors which contribute to students remaining in an engineering science curriculum or switching from an engineering curriculum at a community college in the northeast United States. Records from 372 students were evaluated to determine the characteristics of two groups: those students that persisted with the engineering curriculum and those that switched from engineering; also, the dropout phenomenon was evaluated. The quantitative portion of the study used a logistic regression analyses on 22 independent variables, while the qualitative portion of the study used group interviews to investigate the noncognitive factors that influenced persisting or switching. The qualitative portion of the study added depth and credibility to the results from the quantitative portion. The study revealed that (1) high grades in first year calculus, physics and chemistry courses, (2) fewer number of semesters enrolled, (3) attendance with full time status, and (4) not participating in an English as a Second Language (ESL) program were significant variables used to predict student persistence. The group interviews confirmed several of these contributing factors. Students that dropped out of college began with (1) the lowest levels of remediation, (2) the lowest grade point averages, and (3) the fewest credits earned.
Beil, Cheryl; Shope, Janet H.
A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the factors influencing college student persistence in remaining in school. Persistence was examined at two points: after the first year and 4 years after enrollment. The study was conducted at an urban university using the American College Testing's Entering Student Survey and Student Opinion…
Alexandr I Krupnov
Full Text Available The article discusses the results of empirical study of the association between variables of persistence and academic achievement in foreign languages. The sample includes students of the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Natural Science at the RUDN University ( n = 115, divided into 5 subsamples, two of which are featured in the present study (the most and the least successful students subsamples. Persistence as a personality trait is studied within A.I. Krupnov’s system-functional approach. A.I. Krupnov’s paper-and-pencil test was used to measure persistence variables. Academic achievement was measured according to the four parameters: Phonetics, Grammar, Speaking and Political vocabulary based on the grades students received during the academic year. The analysis revealed that persistence displays different associations with academic achievement variables in more and less successful students subsamples, the general prominence of this trait is more important for unsuccessful students. Phonetics is the academic achievement variable most associated with persistence due to its nature, a skill one can acquire through hard work and practice which is the definition of persistence. Grammar as an academic achievement variable is not associated with persistence and probably relates to other factors. Unsuccessful students may have difficulties in separating various aspects of language acquisition from each other which should be taken into consideration by the teachers.
Maroney, Barbara R.
This study explores persistence and non-persistence among adult undergraduate students with particular focus on these students' lives, their stressors, their coping resources including academic supports, and their styles of coping. The study approaches the issue of non-persistence not as a personal failure but rather as a consequence of multiple…
White, Jeffry L.
While there has been an increase in enrollment, interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been declining on college campuses since 1967. Higher enrollment does not transfer to an increase in the number of minorities in the STEM fields. The majority-minority enrollment ratio is nearly 2:1 but the gap widens to 4:1 when it comes to graduation. In fact, underrepresented minorities (URM) earned only 12% of the STEM degrees awarded in 1998. When the higher attrition and lower graduation rates of URM are scrutinized, upwards of 60% changed majors or dropped out of STEM. Further investigation reveals the most frequently cited reasons for departure were loss of initial interest, developed a greater interest in another field, or were turned off by the STEM disciplines. A primarily exploratory study was conducted into the conditions necessary for academic interest in the STEM fields to persist. A model based on student engagement (Astin, 1977) and interest operations (Prenzel, 1988a) theories was used with a random sample of URM at universities participating in the Ohio Science and Engineering Alliance. Survey research was employed to investigate interest development and the effect of student retention programs and activities on such interest. The latter part of the study could not be fully examined when 95% reported not utilizing retention services. For the section on interest, an online survey using a 5-point Likert scale was validated using principal components analysis. A binominal logistic regression was used to predict membership in one of two possible groups: persisters and students at-risk for not persisting. The major conclusions are: (1) While 3 variables (feelings, learning and difficulty) were statistically significant only one, feelings was substantively significant. (2) Persistence increased 80.9% for each 1-unit increase in feelings and 9.9% for learning. (3) Persistence decreased 19.8% for each one-unit increase in difficulty
Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H; Hasson, Tama
The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine the academic achievement and persistence of students enrolled in the Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS), an academic support program at the University of California, Los Angeles, for first- and second-year science majors from underrepresented backgrounds. Results indicate that PEERS students, on average, earned higher grades in most "gatekeeper" chemistry and math courses, had a higher cumulative grade point average, completed more science courses, and persisted in a science major at significantly higher rates than the comparison group. With its holistic approach focused on academics, counseling, creating a supportive community, and exposure to research, the PEERS program serves as an excellent model for universities interested in and committed to improving persistence of underrepresented science majors and closing the achievement gap. © 2015 B. Toven-Lindsey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
The United States needs to increase the number of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates to remain competitive in the global market and maintain national security. Minority students, specifically African-American and Hispanic, are underrepresented in STEM fields. As the minority population continues to grow it is essential that higher education institutions improve minority students' persistence in STEM education. This study examined the problem of minority students' lack of persistence in STEM programs. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences that minority students perceived as contributing to their persistence in STEM. The central research question was: What are the lived experiences of minority STEM students that have contributed to their persistence in a STEM program? The sub-questions were: a) What led participants to majors in STEM?; b) What contributed to students' success and persistence in STEM?; and c) What advice do students have to offer? The researcher interviewed 12 minority STEM students and uncovered 10 themes that described the lived experiences of minority students' persistence in STEM programs. The themes were 1) Childhood experiences and interests; 2) Positive educational experiences in secondary school; 3) Self- motivation; 4) Positive experiences with professors; 5) Family encouragement and values; 6) Lack of minorities; 7) Lack of educational preparation; 8) The need for financial assistance; 9) Clubs and organizations; and 10) Friends within the major. The significance of these findings is the potential to produce changes in curricula, programs, and retention methods that may improve the persistence of minority students in STEM programs.
Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C
Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Tambe, Joseph T.
A study of persistence/dropout among open admissions college students found: (1) accurate predictions cannot be made for individual students at the time of matriculation; and (2) it is possible to predict that about 80 percent of future groups will fall in the persist category after two semesters, 51 percent after four semesters. (CMG)
Wyer, Mary Beth
Contemporary research on persistence in undergraduate education in science and engineering has focused primarily on identifying the structural, social, and psychological barriers to participation by students in underrepresented groups. As a result, there is a wealth of data to document why students leave their majors, but there is little direct empirical data to support prevailing presumptions about why students stay. Moreover, researchers have used widely differing definitions and measures of persistence, and they have seldom explored field differences. This study compared three ways of measuring persistence. These constituted three criterion variables: commitment to major, degree aspirations, and commitment to a science/engineering career. The study emphasized social factors that encourage students to persist, including four predictor variables---(1) positive images of scientists/engineers, (2) positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality, (3) positive classroom experiences, and (4) high levels of social integration. In addition, because researchers have repeatedly documented the degree to which women are more likely than men to drop out of science and engineering majors, the study examined the potential impact of gender in relation to these predictor variables. A survey was administered in the classroom to a total of 285 students enrolled in a required course for either a biological sciences and or an engineering major. Predictor variables were developed from standard scales, including the Images of Science/Scientists Scale, the Attitudes toward Women Scale, the Women in Science Scale, and the Perceptions of Prejudice Scale. Based on logistic regression models, results indicate that positive images of scientists and engineers was significantly related to improving the odds of students having a high commitment to major, high degree aspirations, and high commitment to career. There was also evidence that positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality
This study explores how student employment affects college persistence and how these effects differ by individual likelihood of participating in student employment. I analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 using propensity score matching and stratification-multilevel analysis. This study finds that engaging in intense…
Mena, Jasmine A.
Home-based parental involvement practices (i.e., educational encouragement, monitoring, and support) and their impact on students' academic persistence were investigated with a sample of 137, ninth-grade Latino students in a northeast high school. Structural Equation Modeling results indicate that the relationship between home-based parental…
Hayden, Marina Calvet
This research study aimed to expand our understanding of the factors that influence student persistence in engineering. The unique experiences of engineering students were examined as they transitioned into and navigated their first year of college at a public research university in California. Most students provided similar responses with respect to the way they experienced the transition to college and social life. There was, however, wide student response variation regarding their experien...
Females and underrepresented ethnic minorities earn a small percentage of engineering and computer science bachelor's degrees awarded in the United States, earn an even smaller proportion of master's and doctoral degrees, and are underrepresented in the engineering workforce (Engineering Workforce Commission, , as cited in National Science Foundation, 2012; United States Department of Education, , as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009a; United States Department of Education, , as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009b). Considerable research has examined the perceptions, culture, curriculum, and pedagogy in engineering that inhibits the achievement of women and underrepresented ethnic minorities. This action research study used a qualitative approach to examine the characteristics and experiences of Latina students who pursued a bachelor's degree in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering at Arizona State University (ASU) as part of the 2008 first-time full-time freshman cohort. The researcher conducted two semi-structured individual interviews with seven undergraduate Latina students who successfully persisted to their fourth (senior) year in engineering. The researcher aimed to understand what characteristics made these students successful and how their experiences affected their persistence in an engineering major. The data collected showed that the Latina participants were motivated to persist in their engineering degree program due to their parents' expectations for success and high academic achievement; their desire to overcome the discrimination, stereotyping, and naysayers that they encountered; and their aspiration to become a role model for their family and other students interested in pursuing engineering. From the data collected, the researcher provided suggestions to implement and adapt educational activities and support systems within the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering to improve the retention and graduation rates
... of factors related to prior schooling on student persistence in higher education. ... Once reliable profiles of these students have been established and related to ... school counsellors, teachers in both schooling and higher education, and for ...
Priatna, N.; Martadiputra, B. A. P.; Wibisono, Y.
The development of science and technology requires reform in the utilization of various resources for mathematics teaching and learning process. One of the efforts that can be made is the implementation of GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy in mathematics instruction as an effective strategy in improving students’ cognitive, affective, and psychomotor abilities. This research is intended to implement GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy in improving abstraction ability, lateral thinking, and mathematical persistence of junior high school students. It employed quasi-experimental method with non-random pre-test and post-test control design. More specifically, it used the 2x3 factorial design, namely the learning factors that included GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching and conventional teaching learning, and levels of early mathematical ability (high, middle, and low). The subjects in this research were the eighth grade students of junior high school, taken with purposive sampling. The results of this research show: Abstraction and lateral abilities of students who were taught with GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy were significantly higher than those of students who received conventional learning. Mathematical persistence of students taught with GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy was also significantly higher than of those taught with conventional learning.
Kiser, Tracey Nicole
Abstract of the DissertationMindset Matters: Supporting Student Persistence Through The Developmental Mathematics PipelinebyTracey Nicole KiserDoctor of Education in Teaching and LearningUniversity of California, San Diego, 2016Christopher P. Halter, ChairDevelopmental mathematics is one of the most challenging leaks in the mathematics K-20 pipeline. Few students enter two-year colleges prepared to successfully engage in college-level mathematics classes. Many of students who place into devel...
Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Harskamp, Evert
Many theories on college retention recognize the significance of student satisfaction as a positive factor in students' persistence. Yet, there are few theories that address the relationship of degree program satisfaction to study behaviour and dropout. This paper explores the impact of degree
Marchut, Amber E.
Diversifying the student population and workforce under science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a necessity if innovations and creativity are to expand. There has not been a lot of literature regarding Deaf students in STEM especially regarding understanding how they persist in STEM undergraduate programs to successfully become STEM Bachelor of Science degree recipients. This study addresses the literature gap by investigating six students' experiences as they navigate their STEM undergraduate programs. The investigation uses narrative inquiry methodology and grounded theory method through the lens of Critical Race Theory and Critical Deaf Theory. Using videotaped interviews and observations, their experiences are highlighted using narratives portraying them as individuals surviving in a society that tends to perceive being deaf as a deficit that needs to be treated or cured. The data analysis also resulted in a conceptual model providing a description of how they persist. The crucial aspect of the conceptual model is the participants learned how to manage being deaf in a hearing-dominated society so they can reach their aspirations. The essential blocks for the persistence and managing their identities as deaf undergraduate STEMs include working harder, relying on familial support, and affirming themselves. Through the narratives and conceptual model of the six Deaf STEM undergraduates, the goal is to contribute to literature to promote a better understanding of the persistence of Deaf students, members of a marginalized group, as they pursue their dreams.
Zwolak, Justyna P.; Dou, Remy; Williams, Eric A.; Brewe, Eric
Increasing student retention (successfully finishing a particular course) and persistence (continuing through a sequence of courses or the major area of study) is currently a major challenge for universities. While students' academic and social integration into an institution seems to be vital for student retention, research into the effect of…
Persistence as it pertained to traditional college students had been widely researched, but little was known about persistence and the role of resilience and engagement for veteran students experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder while enrolled in online degree programs. The focus of the study was to understand the lived experiences of veteran…
Mentzer, Bruce; Black, Ellen Lowrie; Spohn, R. Terry
This study sought to describe the correlation of academic, financial, and social supports to the persistence of a military student population: veterans, active duty and their families. The study also contrasted these relationships with those of nonmilitary students and looked at the results of both groups together to determine how supports…
Lint, Anna H.
This quantitative study evaluated and investigated the theoretical underpinnings of the Kember's (1995) student progress model that examines the direct or indirect effects of student persistence in online education by identifying the relationships between variables. The primary method of data collection in this study was a survey by exploring the…
I A Novikova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the results of comparative empirical study of persistence, initiative and Career Anchors categories of the students on the basis of the systemic-functional approach.
Weir, Michael J.
In the United States, undergraduate underrepresented minority (URM) students tend to change out of declared majors in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines at a rate of nearly sixty percent prior to earning a post secondary degree. This phenomenon contributes to a general concern that the United States is not producing enough STEM trained skilled workers to meet future employment needs of industry and government. Although there has been research developed to examine how to increase the numbers of URM students enrolling in STEM programs at higher education institutions, retention of these students remains critical. One area of increasing focus for researchers is to understand how multiple factors impact the college experience of URM students and how those factors may contribute to the student decision to persist in earning a STEM disciple degree. This research study is a phenomenological mixed method study that examines how students experience the phenomenon of advising and the influence of the advising experience of undergraduate URM students on their likelihood of persisting in STEM at a northeast US technology oriented post secondary institution. Persistence, from the perspective of the student, is driven by cognitive psychological attributes such as confidence, motivation and self-efficacy. Utilizing a Social Cognitive theoretical framework, this study examines how three distinct undergraduate URM student populations enrolled in; an Academic Services Program, Honors College, and the general undergraduate population at this institution experience advising and how their experiences may influence their propensity to persist in earning a STEM oriented degree.
Thomas, Scott L.
This study used a social network paradigm to examine college student integration of 329 college freshmen at a private liberal arts college. Analysis of the structural aspects of students' on-campus associations found differential effects of various social network characteristics on student commitment and persistence. (DB)
This longitudinal quantitative study investigates how participation in the Comprehensive College Readiness Access and Success Program (CCRASP) affects underrepresented urban students' college persistence. Results revealed that CCRASP participation was associated with higher percentages of students enrolling in both 2- and 4-year colleges as…
Karp, Melinda Mechur; Hughes, Katherine L.
This article uses data from a qualitative exploratory study at two urban community colleges to examine experiences of beginning students, paying close attention to the influence that institutional information networks have on students' perceptions and persistence. The authors find that students' reported integration, or sense of belonging in the…
Full Text Available The present study explores whether students' learning strategies and academic motivation predict persistence and academic success in the first year of higher education. Freshmen students in a professional bachelor program in teacher education were questioned on their learning strategy use and motivation at the start and at the end of the academic year. Students' learning strategies were assessed using the inventory of learning styles-SV. Motivation was measured using scales from the self-regulation questionnaire and the academic motivation scale. Gender and students' prior education were incorporated as control variables. Logistic regression analyses and general linear modelling were applied to predict persistence and academic success, respectively. In each case a stepwise approach in data analysis was used. Results on persistence indicate that lack of regulation and amotivation at the start of the year are significant predictors. For academic success, results showed that relating and structuring, lack of regulation, and lack of motivation at the end of the year are meaningful predictors. Overall, our study demonstrates that learning strategies and motivation have a moderate explanatory value regarding academic success and persistence, and that these effects remain even after controlling for the influence of background variables.
Cangelosi, Richard; Madrid, Silvia; Cooper, Sandra; Olson, Jo; Hartter, Beverly
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not certain errors made when simplifying exponential expressions persist as students progress through their mathematical studies. College students enrolled in college algebra, pre-calculus, and first- and second-semester calculus mathematics courses were asked to simplify exponential…
Full Text Available This study examines the ways that part-time Ph.D. students develop community within the academic department and how a sense of community is related to persistence. This study included 12 participants (ten students and two program chairs in two academic departments at one urban research institution. This qualitative study followed a descriptive case study design and provided three levels of data: the institution is the bounded system; the academic departments are the cases; and the participants are embedded cases. Positive relationships with peers and faculty served as a source of encouragement and supported persistence, particularly during challenging semesters and later phases of the doctoral program. However, it was often difficult for the participants to develop and/or maintain relationships, due to limited proximity, limited access to faculty, and changing cohorts. Participants did not consider full-time doctoral students to be part of their community, due to perceived differences between part-time and full-time students. The participants also perceived that faculty catered to full-time students and preferred to conduct research with them rather than part-time students.
Sandlin, Deborah L.
This research project is a study comparing for-profit schools and traditional universities related to student persistence, graduation rate, and job placement. The results based on a sample size of 92 students indicate that there is no significant difference between persistence, graduation rates and successful job placement at either school. There…
Watts-Martinez, Evanda Shentelle
Self-determined Motivation, Emotional Intelligence, Persistence Attitudes, and Persistence Behaviors are non-cognitive factors that influence students' academic progression. This study examined the associations between Self-determined Motivation, EI, Persistence Attitudes, and Persistence Behaviors and the degree to which EI, as a mediating…
Burnett, Lorie Lasseter
Persistence and retention of college students is a great concern in American higher education. The dropout rate is even more apparent among first-generation college students, as well as those majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). More students earning STEM degrees are needed to fill the many jobs that require the skills obtained while in college. More importantly, those students who are associated with a low-socioeconomic background may use a degree to overcome poverty. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics associated with student attrition among first-generation students or STEM majors, very little information exists in terms of persistence and retention among the combined groups. The current qualitative study identified some of the characteristics associated with persistence and retention among first-generation college students who are also STEM majors. Participants were juniors or seniors enrolled at a regional 4-year institution. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to allow participants to share their personal experiences as first-generation STEM majors who continue to persist and be retained by their institution. Tinto's Theory of Individual Departure (1987) was used as a framework for the investigation. This theory emphasizes personal and academic background, personal goals, disconnecting from one's own culture, and institutional integration as predictors of persistence. The findings of the investigation revealed that persisting first-generation STEM majors are often connected to family, but have been able to separate that connection with that of the institution. They also are goal-driven and highly motivated and have had varied pre-college academic experiences. These students are academically integrated and socially integrated in some ways, but less than their non-first-generation counterparts. They are overcoming obstacles that students from other backgrounds may not experience. They receive
Cosme Jesús Gómez-Carrasco
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the persistence of gender stereotypes in History Education. This study is conducted through an iconographic analysis of textbooks and the perception of students in Secondary Education in Spain. The educational reforms carried out in Spain over the last twenty five years have improved some aspects of gender equality, especially the introduction of some cross-cutting themes related to this subject. However, investigations related to sexism in school materials have revealed the persistence of some gender clichés. To do this research, we have analysed 128 pictures on three History textbooks for fourth grade students of Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain. In the analysis, various categories were combined and they allowed a multifactorial study. Furthermore, these data have been contrasted with the answers given to a questionnaire on gender stereotypes by 152 students of two grades. The results show that, despite the improvement of textbooks, an imbalance still survives in the representation of male and female genders and in the images associated with them. In the answers to the questionnaire, disparate findings are also perceived. Although some sexist prejudices seem to be overcome, especially those related to the role of men and women at home, images and negative stereotypes about gender relations and women’s role still persist.
Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.
In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…
Nontraditional characteristics of community college students contribute to a sense of belonging and a sense of common struggle, uniting students in their uniqueness to persist. These diverse students, combined with faculty and peer encouragement, provide a learning environment conducive to completion. As community college educators, we have the…
Murphy, Ralph Frederick, II
The abysmal persistence to completion rate for at-risk student populations is a concern for higher education leaders; especially, emancipated foster care community college students. Multiple data sources indicate foster care youth are more likely to enroll at community colleges than four-year universities. For this reason, the first-year…
Zivin, Kara; Eisenberg, Daniel; Gollust, Sarah E; Golberstein, Ezra
Cross-sectional studies indicate a high prevalence of mental health problems among college students, but there are fewer longitudinal data on these problems and related help-seeking behavior. We conducted a baseline web-based survey of students attending a large public university in fall 2005 and a two-year follow-up survey in fall 2007. We used brief screening instruments to measure symptoms of mental disorders (anxiety, depression, eating disorders), as well as self-injury and suicidal ideation. We estimated the persistence of these mental health problems between the two time points, and determined to what extent students with mental health problems perceived a need for or used mental health services (medication or therapy). We conducted logistic regression analyses examining how baseline predictors were associated with mental health and help-seeking two years later. Over half of students suffered from at least one mental health problem at baseline or follow-up. Among students with at least one mental health problem at baseline, 60% had at least one mental health problem two years later. Among students with a mental health problem at both time points, fewer than half received treatment between those time points. Mental health problems are based on self-report to brief screens, and the sample is from a single university. These findings indicate that mental disorders are prevalent and persistent in a student population. While the majority of students with probable disorders are aware of the need for treatment, most of these students do not receive treatment, even over a two-year period.
Emigh, Paul Jeffrey
This dissertation describes research on student understanding of quantum mechanics across multiple levels of instruction. The primary focus has been to identify patterns in student reasoning related to key concepts in quantum mechanics. The specific topics include quantum measurements, time dependence, vector spaces, and angular momentum. The research has spanned a variety of different quantum courses intended for introductory physics students, upper-division physics majors, and graduate students in physics. The results of this research have been used to develop a set of curriculum, Tutorials in Physics: Quantum Mechanics, for addressing the most persistent student difficulties. We document both the development of this curriculum and how it has impacted and improved student understanding of quantum mechanics.
Stagg, Danielle R.
Purpose: The purpose of this journal-ready dissertation was to examine the 1-year persistence rates of Hispanic community college students in Texas for the 2007-2008 through the 2013-2014 academic years. Specifically, the relationship of the 1-year persistence rates for Hispanic students as a function of their institutional status (i.e., stayed or…
Purpose: The purpose of this journal-ready dissertation was to examine the 1-year and 2-year persistence rates of Black students in Texas community colleges for the 2007-2008 through the 2014-2015 academic years. Specifically, the relationship of the 1-year and 2-year persistence rates for Black students as a function of their institutional status…
Wilson, Judy C.
College student persistence has been a concern of researchers and practitioners since the early 1960s. Traditional models have addressed the need for students to be integrated into the academic and social domains of the college campus. Recently, critical theorists and researchers have been questioning the relevance of the traditional models for…
Edwards, Carol T.
The increase in enrollments in online courses in higher education have led to a corresponding decrease in student persistence. Educators in an effort to increase student persistence have included interactive technologies in some of their courses. However, there was no empirical evidence on whether the use of interactive technology in on online…
Herrmann, Dorris; Boller, Beat; Studer, Bruno
, persistence is difficult to improve. The objectives of this study were to optimize the phenotypic evaluation of persistence, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for this important trait, and to investigate the association of persistence with other important traits. A weighted average of vigor scores...... assessed during two winters and three growing seasons was identified as the optimal method to phenotype persistence. For this index, one QTL explaining 12.2% of the total phenotypic variation was identified. While there was no negative correlation between persistence and seed yield, persistence...
G. P. Fourie
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the perceptions held by distance education students of the barriers to persistence. A review of the literature on attrition in traditional and distance education and motivation to learn in adults - with specific reference to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as barriers to persistence - is presented. The "Barriers to Persistence Questionnaire" (BPQ, consisting of 97 items, was developed. It was administered, in combination with Maritz's (1980 86 item "Motivation to Learn Questionnaire" (MLQ to 212 adults enrolled for management development programmes via distance education. Statistically significant differences were found between predominantly intrinsically motivated students and those students who were predominantly extrinsically motivated. The implications of the findings/ as well as the implications for distance education institutions and organisations involved in distance education, are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die invloed van intrinsieke en ekstrinsieke motivering op die persepsies van afstandsonderrigstudente van die hindemisse tot volharding te ondersoek. 'n Literatuuroorsig ten opsigte van slytasie in tradisionele onderrig en afstandsonderrig, asook die rol van motivering in volwasse onderrig - met spesifieke verwysing na intrinsieke en ekstrinsieke motivering, asook die hindemisse tot volharding - is gedoen. Die "Barriers to Persistence Questionnaire" (BPQ is ontwikkel, bestaande uit 97 items. Dit is saam met Maritz (1980 se 86- item "Motivation to Learn Questionnaire" toegepas op 212 volwassenes wat geregistreer is vir bestuursontwikkelingsprogramme via afstandsonderrig. Statisries beduidende verskille is gevind in die persepsies van oorwegend intrinsieke en oorwegend ekstrinsieke studente. Die implikasies van die bevindinge word bespreek, asook implikasies vir afstandsonderrigmstellings en organisasies
Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P
This study examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and college persistence in African American 1st-year students from 2 universities. Of the 569 participants, 423 (74%) reported lifetime exposure to traumatic events; 20.6% of these students met the criteria for PTSD. For trauma-exposed females, after controlling for academic and nonacademic factors, higher levels of PTSD symptomatology in the 1st semester of college were associated with increased likelihood of leaving college prior to the end of the 2nd year of college; the relationship between the 2 variables was partially mediated by 1st-year grade point average (GPA). PTSD symptomatology was not significantly associated with academic achievement or persistence for males. For trauma-exposed females, in addition to PTSD symptomatology, being a student at a predominantly White institution and entering college with low high school GPA were identified as risk factors for low academic achievement and college dropout; on the other hand, involvement in on-campus activities and higher levels of perceived academic integration in the 1st semester were associated with higher 1st-year GPA, which, in turn, was related to increased likelihood of remaining in college. Clinical implications and strategies to support students with trauma exposure and PTSD are discussed.
Hayden, Marina Calvet
This research study aimed to expand our understanding of the factors that influence student persistence in engineering. The unique experiences of engineering students were examined as they transitioned into and navigated their first year of college at a public research university in California. Most students provided similar responses with respect to the way they experienced the transition to college and social life. There was, however, wide student response variation regarding their experience of academic life and academic policies, as well as in their level of pre-college academic preparation and financial circumstances. One key finding was that students' experiences during the first year of college varied widely based on the extent to which they had acquired organizational and learning skills prior to college. The study used a mixed methods approach. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through an online survey and one-on-one interviews conducted with freshman students near the end of their first year of college. The theoretical foundations of this study included Astin's Theory of Student Involvement and Tinto's Theory of Student Departure. The design of the study was guided by these theories which emphasize the critical importance of student involvement with the academic and social aspects of college during the first year of college.
Hansen, Michele J.; Meshulam, Susan; Parker, Brooke
National attention is focused on the persistent high failure rates for students enrolled in math courses, and the search for strategies to change these outcomes is on. This study used a mixed-method research design to assess the effectiveness of a learning community course designed to improve the math performance levels of firstyear students.…
Thomas, Scott L.
This study examined the social networks of college students and how such networks affect student commitment and persistence. The study's theoretical framework was based on application of the social network paradigm to Tinto's Student Integration Model, in which a student's initial commitment is modified over time as a result of the student's…
Nelson, Kesha Marie
African-American baccalaureate nursing students have a limited persistence to graduation. This constructivist grounded theory study was designed to generate a substantive theory, emerged from these data, that explained and provided insight the African-American academic nurse leader's role in the persistence to graduation of African-American…
Background Although neck pain is common in young adulthood, studies on predictive factors for its onset and persistence are scarce. It is therefore important to identify possible risk factors among young adults so as to prevent the development of neck pain later in life. Methods A prospective study was carried out in healthy undergraduate students. At baseline, a self-administered questionnaire and standardized physical examination were used to collect data on biopsychosocial factors. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months thereafter, follow-up data were collected on the incidence of neck pain. Those who reported neck pain on ≥ 2 consecutive follow-ups were categorized as having persistent neck pain. Two regression models were built to analyze risk factors for the onset and persistence of neck pain. Results Among the recruited sample of 684 students, 46% reported the onset of neck pain between baseline and 1-year follow-up, of whom 33% reported persistent neck pain. The onset of neck pain was associated with computer screen position not being level with the eyes and mouse position being self-rated as suitable. Factors that predicted persistence of neck pain were position of the keyboard being too high, use of computer for entertainment Neck pain is quite common among undergraduate students. This study found very few proposed risk factors that predicted onset and persistence of neck pain. The future health of undergraduate students deserves consideration. However, there is still much uncertainty about factors leading to neck pain and more research is needed on this topic. PMID:21756362
Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.
Provides insight into first-year undergraduate persistence by using behavioral measures--based on Alexander Astin's theory of involvement--to further understanding of Tinto's theory of student departure. Findings support the use of an integrated model in which student behaviors and perceptions interact to influence the development of academic and…
Downey, D M; Snyder, L E; Hill, B
The first of these two studies compared college students with dyslexia enrolled in modified Latin and Spanish classes and non-dyslexic students enrolled in regular foreign language classes on measures of foreign language aptitude, word decoding, spelling, phonological awareness and word repetition. The groups did not differ on age or grade point average. Analyses indicated that students with dyslexia performed significantly poorer on the foreign language aptitude measures as well as on both phonological tasks, reading and spelling. In the second study, students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in a modified Latin class were not significantly different from their peers in a regular Latin class on grade point average or on performance on a proficiency examination at the end of the second semester. The data suggest that while phonological processing deficits persist into adulthood, students with dyslexia are able to acquire appropriate skills and information to successfully complete the University's foreign language requirement in classes modified to meet their needs.
The examination of student (entry characteristics, academic performance, career goals, and interaction with peers and faculty), program (programmatic interventions, academic major, and learning communities), and institutional support characteristics (financial aid and residence) that relate to cohort intent to persist are studied among 490 PGA…
Hartley, Michael T.
In this study, the relationships between measures of inter- and intrapersonal resilience and mental health were examined with respect to academic persistence in college students with mental health issues. A sample of 121 undergraduate students with mental health issues was recruited from campus mental health offices offering college counseling,…
Gao, Zan; Podlog, Leslie W.; Harrison, Louis
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among college students' 2 x 2 goal orientations (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], performance-avoidance [PAv]), situational motivation (intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation and amotivation) and effort/persistence in…
Jordan, Kari L.
The percentage of bachelor's degrees in STEM awarded to women and underrepresented minority students needs to increase dramatically to reach parity with their majority counterparts. While three key underrepresented minority (URM) groups, African Americans, Hispanic/Latinos, and Native Americans constitute some 30 percent of the overall undergraduate student population in the United States, the share of engineering degrees earned by members of these groups declines as degree level increases. Underrepresented minority students accounted for about 12% of engineering bachelor's degrees awarded in 2009, 7% of master's degrees and 3% of doctorates (NSF Science Resource Statistics, 2009). The percent in engineering has been steadily decreasing, while overall participation in higher education among these groups has increased considerably. Keeping those thoughts in mind it is important to examine the historical theories and frameworks that will help us not only understand why underrepresented minority students pursue and persist in STEM majors in low numbers, but to also develop interventions to improve the alarming statistics that hamper engineering diversity. As indicated by our past two U.S. Presidents, there has been an increased discussion on the national and state level regarding the number of students entering engineering disciplines in general and underrepresented minority students in particular. Something happens between a student's freshman year and the point they decide to either switch their major or drop out of school altogether. Some researchers attribute the high dropout rate of underrepresented minority students in engineering programs to low engineering self-efficacy (e.g. Jordan et al., 2011). A student's engineering self-efficacy is his/her belief that he/she can successfully navigate the engineering curriculum and eventually become a practicing engineer. A student's engineering self-efficacy is formed by mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, his
Vanthournout, Gert; Gijbels, David; Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter
The present study explores whether students' learning strategies and academic motivation predict persistence and academic success in the first year of higher education. Freshmen students in a professional bachelor program in teacher education were questioned on their learning strategy use and motivation at the start and at the end of the academic year. Students' learning strategies were assessed using the inventory of learning styles-SV. Motivation was measured using scales from the self-regu...
Andersen, Lori; Ward, Thomas J.
Group differences in the effects of the expectancies and values that high-ability students have for science and mathematics on plans to persist in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) were investigated. A nationally representative sample of ninth-grade students, the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS: 2009; n =…
Setodji, Claude M; Martino, Steven C; Scharf, Deborah M; Shadel, William G
To quantify the persistence of pro-smoking media exposure effects on college students' intentions to smoke and smoking refusal self-efficacy. A total of 134 college students (ages 18-24 years) were enrolled in an ecological momentary assessment study in which they carried handheld data collection devices for 3 weeks and reported their exposures to pro-smoking media as they occurred in the real world. Smoking intentions and smoking refusal self-efficacy were assessed after each exposure to pro-smoking media and at random prompts during each day of the 3-week assessment period. A generalized additive model was used to determine how long the effect of an exposure to pro-smoking media persisted. The effect of pro-smoking media exposures persisted for 7 days. After exposure, smoking intentions immediately increased (.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [.26, .87]) and then steadily decreased (-.12; 95% CI: [-.19, -.05]) each day for 7 days, while smoking refusal self-efficacy immediately decreased (-.42; 95% CI: [-.75, -.10]) and then steadily increased (.09; 95% CI: [.02, .16]) each day for 7 days. Daily changes occurring after 7 days were not statistically significant, suggesting that smoking intentions and refusal self-efficacy had stabilized and were no longer affected by pro-smoking media exposure. Exposures to pro-smoking media may have strong implications for emerging young adults smoking risk as the impact of an individual exposure appears to persist for at least a week. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Rabia, Hazza Abu
This qualitative study explored the factors that enhance Arab international students' persistence and facilitate their academic and cultural adjustment at postsecondary institutions in the United States. The sample for this study consisted of Arab international students from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Syria, UAE, Iraq, and Jordan. In-depth…
Spangler, J. Mark; Slate, John R.
In this investigation, the graduation and persistence rates of Texas community college students by ethnic membership (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian) for the 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 academic years were examined. Statistically significant differences were present between the 2000 and the 2010 graduation and…
Ronald A. Styron Jr.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the impact on student learning of those enrolled in courses where instructors participated in collegial coaching and peer mentoring. A nonequivalent group design methodology was employed along with an analysis of variance to analyze data. Findings indicated higher mastery levels of student learning outcomes, higher levels of perceived critical thinking and collaboration by students, statistical significance in critical thinking constructs, higher levels of persistence, and more A's and B's and fewer D's and F's in courses where faculty members were mentored as compared to courses where faculty members were not.
Munro, Janet Lynn
This qualitative study focused on the knowledge and perceptions of Latino high school students, as well those of their parents and school personnel, at a southwestern, suburban high school regarding persistence in the math/science pipeline. In the context of the unique school and community setting these students experience, the decision-making process was examined with particular focus on characterizing the relationships that influence the process. While the theoretical framework that informs this study was that of social capital, its primary purpose was to inform the school's processes and policy in support of increased Latino participation in the math and science pipeline. Since course selection may be the most powerful factor affecting school achievement and college-preparedness, and since course selection is influenced by school policy, school personnel, students, parents, and teachers alike, it is important to understand the beliefs and perceptions that characterize the relationships among them. The qualitative research design involved a phenomenological study of nine Latino students, their parents, their teachers and counselors, and certain support personnel from the high school. The school's and community's environment in support of academic intensity served as context for the portrait that developed. Given rapidly changing demographics that bring more and more Latino students to suburban high schools, the persistent achievement gap experienced by Latino students, and the growing dependence of the world economy on a citizenry versed in the math- and science-related fields, a deeper understanding of the decision-making processes Latino 12 students experience can inform school policy as educators struggle to influence those decisions. This study revealed a striking lack of knowledge concerning the college-entrance ramifications of continued course work in math and science beyond that required for graduation, relationships among peers, parents, and school
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data--structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data-structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…
This qualitative,descriptive single case study describes the problem of student persistence in college through the theoretical lens of Alexander Astin's Theory of Student Involvement, and Vincent Tinto's Theory of Student Departure. The decline in the college retention rate in the United States over the last twenty years and the high…
Fredrick, L. Denise
The focus of this study was to investigate college students' perception of high school and college introductory science learning experiences related to persistence in science as a major area of study in college. The study included students' perceptions of the following areas of science education: (1) teacher interpersonal relationship with students, (2) teacher personality styles, (3) teacher knowledge of the content, (4) instructional methods, and (5) science course content. A survey research design was employed in the investigative study to collect and analyze data. One hundred ninety two students participated in the research study. A survey instrument entitled Science Education Perception Survey was used to collect data. The researcher sought to reject or support three null hypotheses as related to participants' perceptions of high school and college introductory science education experiences. Using binomial regression analysis, this study analyzed differences between students persisting in science and students not persisting in science as a major. The quantitative research indicated that significant differences exist between persistence in science as a major and high school science teacher traits and college introductory science instructional methods. Although these variables were found to be significant predictors, the percent variance was low and should be considered closely before concluded these as strong predictors of persistence. Major findings of the qualitative component indicated that students perceived that: (a) interest in high school science course content and high school science teacher personality and interpersonal relationships had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (b) interest in college introductory science course content had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (c) students recalled laboratory activities and overall good teaching as most meaningful to their high school science
Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.
Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…
Edwards, Ann R.; Beattie, Rachel L.
This paper focuses on two research-based frameworks that inform the design of instruction and promote student success in accelerated, developmental mathematics pathways. These are Learning Opportunities--productive struggle on challenging and relevant tasks, deliberate practice, and explicit connections, and Productive Persistence--promoting…
Gross, Liz; Meriwether, Jason L.
This chapter suggests strategies and tools for student affairs professionals to leverage digital data to measure student engagement and learning outcomes, and refine programs that enhance institutional reputation and improve student persistence. The construct of student engagement is traced from its theoretical origins to recent research…
Krumm, Andrew E.; Beattie, Rachel; Takahashi, Sola; D'Angelo, Cynthia; Feng, Mingyu; Cheng, Britte
This paper outlines the development of practical measures of productive persistence using digital learning system data. Practical measurement refers to data collection and analysis approaches originating from improvement science; productive persistence refers to the combination of academic and social mindsets as well as learning behaviours that…
Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeffrey F.
This study refined and applied an integrated model of undergraduate persistence (accounting for both behavioral and perceptual components) to examine first-year retention at a private, highly selective research university. Results suggest that including behaviorally based measures of involvement improves the model's explanatory power concerning…
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Izadpanah, Nilufar; Chung, Paul J; Slusser, Wendelin
Up to 20 % of school-age children have a vision problem identifiable by screening, over 80 % of which can be corrected with glasses. While vision problems are associated with poor school performance, few studies describe whether and how corrective lenses affect academic achievement and health. Further, there are virtually no studies exploring how children with correctable visual deficits, their parents, and teachers perceive the connection between vision care and school function. We conducted a qualitative evaluation of Vision to Learn (VTL), a school-based program providing free corrective lenses to low-income students in Los Angeles. Nine focus groups with students, parents, and teachers from three schools served by VTL explored the relationships between poor vision, receipt of corrective lenses, and school performance and health. Twenty parents, 25 teachers, and 21 students from three elementary schools participated. Participants described how uncorrected visual deficits reduced students' focus, perseverance, and class participation, affecting academic functioning and psychosocial stress; how receiving corrective lenses improved classroom attention, task persistence, and willingness to practice academic skills; and how serving students in school rather than in clinics increased both access to and use of corrective lenses. for Practice Corrective lenses may positively impact families, teachers, and students coping with visual deficits by improving school function and psychosocial wellbeing. Practices that increase ownership and use of glasses, such as serving students in school, may significantly improve both child health and academic performance.
Faghihi, Foroozandeh; Ethington, Corinna A.
This study examined the extent to which an individual doctoral student's characteristics and involvement in the academic and social life of the department influences the student's perception of growth and development during graduate school, and thus the student's persistence in pursuing a graduate degree. The study surveyed doctoral students…
Green, Pamela; Gilbert, Janice T.
This report describes a program for improving the behavior of seventh and eighth grade students with learning disabilities in a self-contained classroom setting. Analysis of probable causes revealed that students demonstrated a lack of problem-solving skills, showed a low frustration tolerance, and exhibited poor self-concepts. Two major…
Sembiring, Maximus Gorky
Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual) dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was…
Maximus Gorky Sembiring
Full Text Available Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was collected proportionally and purposively followed by congregating them through unified interviews. Population was 1,814 Universitas Terbuka students domiciled overseas; 350 questionnaires were dispersed, 169 completed. Satisfaction was assessed by examining Servqual dimensions. Importance-performance analysis (IPA and customer-satisfaction index (CSI were applied to measure satisfaction and the level of its importance. Structural equation model (SEM was then employed to examine influencing variables. Nine hypotheses developed were all validated by the analysis. Responsiveness, assurance, tangible, reliability, and empathy were in harmony to satisfaction. Career advancement, retention, academic performance, and persistence were influenced by satisfaction. Qualitative inquiry implemented afterwards was basically coherent with the quantitative findings.
Fenske, Robert H.; Porter, John D.; DuBrock, Caryl P.
This study examined the persistence of and financial aid to needy students, underrepresented minority students, and women students, especially those majoring in science, engineering, and mathematics at a large public research university. An institutional student tracking and student financial aid database was used to follow four freshmen cohorts…
In the past two decades, although access to higher education for American students has improved, student persistence in 4-year institutions is far from assured. There have been a number of research studies on student persistence/dropout in higher education, but most have focused on the characteristics and behavior of students as illustrated by the…
A. Imbellone; G. Marinensi; C.M. Medaglia
The paper presents the empirical results obtained from a study conducted on a game-based online course that took place in 2014 with 47 participants. The study evidenced the benefits of the learning games mechanics on learners’ willingness to continue the course. Assuming the interest for the subject of the course as a fundamental condition for student persistence within the course, it is shown how it can be significantly enhanced by the presence of both ludic and narrative game-based elements.
Kummer, Tyler A.
Evolution is the unifying theory of biology. The importance of understanding evolution by those who study the origins, diversification and diversity life cannot be overstated. Because of its importance, in addition to a scientific study of evolution, many researchers have spent time studying the acceptance and the teaching of evolution. Phylogenetic Systematics is the field of study developed to understand the evolutionary history of organisms, traits, and genes. Tree-thinking is the term by which we identify concepts related to the evolutionary history of organisms. It is vital that those who undertake a study of biology be able to understand and interpret what information these phylogenies are meant to convey. In this project, we evaluated the current impact a traditional study of biology has on the misconceptions students hold by assessing tree-thinking in freshman biology students to those nearing the end of their studies. We found that the impact of studying biology was varied with some misconceptions changing significantly while others persisted. Despite the importance of tree-thinking no appropriately developed concept inventory exists to measure student understanding of these important concepts. We developed a concept inventory capable of filling this important need and provide evidence to support its use among undergraduate students. Finally, we developed and modified activities as well as courses based on best practices to improve teaching and learning of tree-thinking and organismal diversity. We accomplished this by focusing on two key questions. First, how do we best introduce students to tree-thinking and second does tree-thinking as a course theme enhance student understanding of not only tree-thinking but also organismal diversity. We found important evidence suggesting that introducing students to tree-thinking via building evolutionary trees was less successful than introducing the concept via tree interpretation and may have in fact introduced or
Yeh, Theresa Ling
This article offers an exploration of the Asian Pacific American (APA) ethnic groups that show high rates of departure, and presents strategies and approaches to improving their persistence and graduation rates. A detailed examination of the APA population is presented to identify the subgroups that are underrepresented in higher education and who…
Johnson, Dawn R.; Wasserman, Timothy H.; Yildirim, Nilay; Yonai, Barbara A.
The current study examined the effects of stress and campus climate perceptions on the persistence decisions of students of color and White students using Bean and Eaton's (2000) Psychological Model of College Student Retention. A sample of first-year students (N = 1,491) at a predominantly White research university were survey enduring their…
Pedone, Maggie Helene
The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a complex problem that continues to persist at the postsecondary level, particularly in computer science and engineering fields. This dissertation explored the pre-college and college level factors that influenced undergraduate women's persistence in STEM. This study also examined and compared the characteristics of undergraduate women who entered STEM fields and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. The nationally representative Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09) data set was used for analysis. BPS:04/09 study respondents were surveyed three times (NPSAS:04, BPS:04/06, BPS:04/09) over a six-year period, which enabled me to explore factors related to long-term persistence. Astin's Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) model was used as the framework to examine student inputs and college environmental factors that predict female student persistence (output) in STEM. Chi-square tests revealed significant differences between undergraduate women who entered STEM and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. Differences in student demographics, prior academic achievement, high school course-taking patterns, and student involvement in college such as participation in study groups and school clubs were found. Notably, inferential statistics showed that a significantly higher proportion of female minority students entered STEM fields than non-STEM fields. These findings challenge the myth that underrepresented female minorities are less inclined to enter STEM fields. Logistic regression analyses revealed thirteen significant predictors of persistence for undergraduate women in STEM. Findings showed that undergraduate women who were younger, more academically prepared, and academically and socially involved in college (e.g., lived on campus, interacted with faculty, participated in study groups, fine arts activities, and school sports) were more likely to persist in STEM
Full Text Available The paper presents the empirical results obtained from a study conducted on a game-based online course that took place in 2014 with 47 participants. The study evidenced the benefits of the learning games mechanics on learners’ willingness to continue the course. Assuming the interest for the subject of the course as a fundamental condition for student persistence within the course, it is shown how it can be significantly enhanced by the presence of both ludic and narrative game-based elements.
Rosbottom, Steven R.
The purpose and focus of this narrative inquiry case study were to explore the personal stories of four undergraduate Latina students who persist in their engineering programs. This study was guided by two overarching research questions: a) What are the lived experiences of undergraduate Latina engineering students? b) What are the contributing factors that influence undergraduate Latina students to persist in an undergraduate engineering program? Yosso's (2005) community cultural wealth was used to the analyze data. Findings suggest through Yosso's (2005) aspirational capital, familial capital, social capital, navigational capital, and resistant capital the Latina student persisted in their engineering programs. These contributing factors brought to light five themes that emerged, the discovery of academic passions, guidance and support of family and teachers, preparation for and commitment to persistence, the power of community and collective engagement, and commitment to helping others. The themes supported their persistence in their engineering programs. Thus, this study informs policies, practices, and programs that support undergraduate Latina engineering student's persistence in engineering programs.
Francis, Perry C.; Abbassi, Amir
Students with severe and persistent mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; moderate to severe mood, anxiety, dissociative, eating, or personality disorders) are attending community colleges in increasing numbers. Their need for counseling services presents counseling centers with unique ethical issues to consider. This…
Many researchers have called for implementation of active learning practices in undergraduate science classrooms as one method to increase retention and persistence in STEM, yet there has been little research on the potential increases in student anxiety that may accompany these practices. This is of concern because excessive anxiety can decrease student performance. Levels and sources of student anxiety in three introductory biology lecture classes were investigated via an online survey and student interviews. The survey (n = 327) data revealed that 16% of students had moderately high classroom anxiety, which differed among the three classes. All five active learning classroom practices that were investigated caused student anxiety, with students voluntarily answering a question or being called on to answer a question causing higher anxiety than working in groups, completing worksheets, or answering clicker questions. Interviews revealed that student anxiety seemed to align with communication apprehension, social anxiety, and test anxiety. Additionally, students with higher general anxiety were more likely to self-report lower course grade and the intention to leave the major. These data suggest that a subset of students in introductory biology experience anxiety in response to active learning, and its potential impacts should be investigated. PMID:28771564
Full Text Available This study proposed and tested a model of the adaptation of postgraduate students to a “sibling culture”, namely, Mainland Chinese students at the University of Hong Kong. The model was based on higher education literature combined with acculturation elements for the construct of social integration. Students’ satisfaction with their experience in this cultural setting and the likelihood of their persistence were used as the indicators of their adaptation in a model linking various background variables such as academic and social integration to adaptation. The participants were 103 current research students. Analysis showed that academic integration was more strongly related than social integration to their satisfaction and likely persistence in post-graduate study at this university. Among the background variables measured, motivation and Cantonese but not English language skills showed a significant relationship with postgraduate students’ academic and social integration. Implications for research on and assistance to mainland postgraduate students in Hong Kong are discussed.
Manning, Kim Elise
This Delphi study explored the instructional practices of community college faculty who were teaching blended or Web-assisted courses and how these practices influenced student persistence. The Delphi method provided qualitative data in the form of expert advice through consensus building on the instructional practices most likely to influence…
Berger, Joseph B.
Builds on the assumption that colleges and universities are organizations and subsequently that the organizational perspective provides important insights for improving retention on campuses. A review of existing organizational studies of undergraduate persistence serves as the basis for ten empirically-based recommendations for practice that are…
Ryan, Cormac G; Schofield, Patricia; Martin, Denis J
Negative views of older adults can lead to suboptimal care. For older adults with persistent low back pain (LBP), promotion of physical activity by health care professionals is important. Health care professionals' views of older adults are influenced by their training. This study aimed to compare recommendations for physical activity for managing persistent LBP offered by students in physiotherapy and occupational therapy to an older person vs. a younger person. In a cross-sectional online survey, participants (N = 77) randomly received a vignette of either a 40-yr-old or 70-yr-old patient with persistent LBP. Other than age, the vignettes were identical. There was no difference between the younger and older vignettes in the likelihood of participants making overall appropriate physical activity recommendations--63% vs. 59%, OR (95% CI) = 1.19 (0.48-2.99), p = .71--although there was a trend toward age bias on recommendations specific to daily activity. Postqualification education may be where ageist views need to be addressed.
Pollack, I. B.; Adams, A. S.; Barnes, R.; Bloodhart, B.; Bowker, C.; Burt, M. A.; Clinton, S. M.; Godfrey, E.; Henderson, H.; Hernandez, P. R.; Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Sayers, J.; Fischer, E. V.
In fall 2015, an interdisciplinary team with expertise in the geosciences, psychology, education, and STEM persistence began a five-year longitudinal project focused on understanding whether a multi-part mentoring program can increase the persistence of undergraduate women in the geosciences. The program focuses on mentoring 1st and 2nd year female undergraduate students from five universities in Colorado and Wyoming and four universities in North and South Carolina, and includes a weekend workshop, mentoring by professional women across geoscience fields, and both in-person and virtual peer networks. In fall 2015, we recruited 85 students from both regions into cohort 1 as well as a propensity score matched group of 255 female students that did not participate in the program. An equal or greater number of students are anticipated for cohort 2 from recruitment in fall 2016. Both cohorts will have attended weekend-long workshops (cohort 1 in October 2015, and cohort 2 in October 2016), which aimed to introduce students to various careers and lifestyles of those working in the geosciences, guide students through their strengths and interests, and address gender biases that students may face. Early analyses indicate that students who are interested in participating in the program are more likely to reject stereotypes and beliefs that the sciences are masculine, and to see science as being compatible with benefitting society. The web-platform (http://geosciencewomen.org/), designed to enable peer-mentoring and provide resources, was launched in fall 2015 and is used by both cohorts. We will present an overview of the major components of the program, early findings from focus group and survey-based feedback from participants, and discuss lessons learned during 2015 that were applied to 2016.
Smith, Michelle K; Knight, Jennifer K
To help genetics instructors become aware of fundamental concepts that are persistently difficult for students, we have analyzed the evolution of student responses to multiple-choice questions from the Genetics Concept Assessment. In total, we examined pretest (before instruction) and posttest (after instruction) responses from 751 students enrolled in six genetics courses for either majors or nonmajors. Students improved on all 25 questions after instruction, but to varying degrees. Notably, there was a subgroup of nine questions for which a single incorrect answer, called the most common incorrect answer, was chosen by >20% of students on the posttest. To explore response patterns to these nine questions, we tracked individual student answers before and after instruction and found that particular conceptual difficulties about genetics are both more likely to persist and more likely to distract students than other incorrect ideas. Here we present an analysis of the evolution of these incorrect ideas to encourage instructor awareness of these genetics concepts and provide advice on how to address common conceptual difficulties in the classroom.
Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,2 Keiko Yamamura,3 Yusuke Suzuki,4 Hiroyuki Umegaki,4 Katsuro Shigeno,5 Ryo Matsushita,1 Yoshimichi Sai,1 Ken-ichi Miyamoto,1 Kiyofumi Yamada61Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan; 2Department of Pharmacy, Hashima Municipal Hospital, Hashima, Gifu, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 4Department of Community Healthcare and Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 5Department of Pharmacy Practice and Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 6Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, JapanAim: Donepezil is widely used to delay the progression of cognitive dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, but the efficacy of pharmacotherapy is often reduced by poor adherence to medication. In order to improve adherence by providing information about AD and the significance of pharmacotherapy, the Donepezil Outpatient Consultation Service (DOCS was set up. The influence of this service on medication persistence was assessed in the present study.Methods: Among outpatients starting donepezil therapy, we enrolled 59 patients between April 2008 and September 2010 before establishment of the DOCS (non-DOCS group and 52 patients between October 2010 and March 2012 who attended the DOCS (DOCS group. Each patient's and their caregiver's understanding about the clinical features of AD and pharmacotherapy with donepezil were also assessed. Their understanding was compared before and after the DOCS, and the 1-year medication persistence rate and the reasons for discontinuation were also investigated.Results: The 1-year medication persistence rate was significantly higher in the DOCS group than in the non-DOCS group (73
Roland, Nathalie; Mierop, Adrien; Frenay, Mariane; Corneille, Olivier
Ajzen and Dasgupta (2015) recently invited complementing Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) measures with measures borrowed from implicit cognition research. In this study, we examined for the first time such combination, and we did so to predict academic persistence. Specifically, 169 first-year college students answered a TPB questionnaire and…
Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Sheldon, Kennon M; Deci, Edward L
Three field experiments with high school and college students tested the self-determination theory hypotheses that intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) goals and autonomy-supportive (vs. controlling) learning climates would improve students' learning, performance, and persistence. The learning of text material or physical exercises was framed in terms of intrinsic (community, personal growth, health) versus extrinsic (money, image) goals, which were presented in an autonomy-supportive versus controlling manner. Analyses of variance confirmed that both experimentally manipulated variables yielded main effects on depth of processing, test performance, and persistence (all ps intrinsic goals and autonomy support were present. Effects were significantly mediated by autonomous motivation.
Scott, Nancy L.; Fisher, Deanne L.; Fritz, Ronald D.
This abstract focuses on a project report addressing persistence toward graduation. The product will provide a comprehensive resource for school district leaders to use in the identification of at-risk students and research based dropout prevention programs. With the passage of "No Child Left Behind in 2002" legislation has put a greater…
Fisher, Deanne L.; Fritz, Ronald D.; Scott, Nancy L.
This abstract focuses on a project report addressing persistence toward graduation. The product will provide a comprehensive resource for school district leaders to use in the identification of at-risk students and research based dropout prevention programs. With the passage of "No Child Left Behind" in 2002 legislation has put a greater…
Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin
We examined whether perception of university environment mediated the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes after controlling for perceived general stress. Participants were 160 Asian American, African American, and Latino students who attended a predominantly White university. Results of a path model analysis showed that university environment was a significant mediator for the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes. Additionally, minority status stress was distinct from perceived general stress. Finally, the results from a multiple-group comparison indicated that the magnitude of the mediation effect was invariant across Asian American, African American, and Latino college students, thus supporting the generalizability of the mediation model.
Sergey I. Kudinov
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of an empirical research obtained with the help of a sample of students. The research of persistence was carried out within the framework of the dispositional concept of personality traits and individuality by A. I. Krupnov. The techniques developed by A. I. Krupnov as well as the author’s test of persistence were used in the study. After allocating the levels of persistence, the features of self-realization were analyzed in each group of the respondents. The specificity of self-realization was revealed in the context of the author’s polysystemic concept, the author’s multidimensional questionnaire on personality’s self-realization (MQPSR was used as a diagnostic tool. The empirical study revealed statistically significant differences in the specifics of self-realization of the students with different levels of persistence manifestation. The respondents with a high level of persistence realize themselves more successfully in different spheres of life due to the obvious active behaviour, optimistic attitude, high motivation, creative methods and techniques of self-expression, internal self-regulation and constructive behavior. The students with low persistence lack successful self-realization because of passivity, pessimism, external locus of self-control, a high level of barriers and standard simple schemes of self-expression.
Guenther, Elisabeth Anna; Koeszegi, Sabine Theresia
This paper explores the intersectional interference of gender and migration status on students' persistence at an Austrian University of Technology. While controlling for the pre-university education and performance indicators, we estimate the odds for the persistence of male and female students, as well as of students with diverse migration statuses. We use the enrolment data of students from 1998 to 2010. The analysis reveals remarkable and significant effects of gender and migration status, as well as intersectional interference effects from both social categories on persistence. Female and students with immigration status are less likely to persist, even if performance and previous relevant experiences are controlled. A segregated analysis of the student population sheds further light on the interlocked and entangled effects of the social ascriptions underlying gender and migration status. The analysis supports the proposition of the accumulation of (dis-)advantages along students' careers. The profound quantification of gender and migration status effects can be utilised as basis for further research and purposeful policy measures to increase persistence in Science, Engineering and Technology for students with diverse backgrounds.
Oh, Yunjin; Lee, Soon Min
This study explored whether learning-related anxiety would negatively affect intention to persist with e-learning among students with visual impairment, and examined the roles of three online interactions in the relationship between learning-related anxiety and intention to persist with e-learning. For this study, a convenience sample of…
Miller, Nathan Brad; Bell, Bryan
Increased federal attention to student completion metrics and uncertain financial forecasts have heightened the tenor of student retention conversations. Improved institutional retention rates will lead to higher completion rates and relieve some funding concerns. To accomplish these improvements, institutions have invested in analytics to better…
Chittum, Jessica R.; Jones, Brett D.
One purpose of this study was to determine whether patterns existed in pre-high school students' motivation-related perceptions of their science classes. Another purpose was to examine the extent to which these patterns were related to their science identification, gender, grade level, class effort, and intentions to persist in science. We…
Essien-Wood, Idara R.
Given the lack of literature on Undergraduate African American females in the sciences (UAAFS), this study sought to explicate their experiences at one large, predominantly White, Research I institution in the southwestern United States. In particular, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the academic success and persistence of Black females in the natural and physical sciences. Data was collected via in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 15 Black female science majors. Findings from this study identified several supportive mechanisms for academic success: family, religion, teaching assistants and friends. Also identified were seven barriers to academic success: employment, lack of diversity, cultural dissonance, unwelcoming Research I environment, faculty, advisors, classmates, and lab groups. Further, an analysis of students' responses revealed numerous instances of racial and gender micro-aggressions. Recommendations are provided to address factors identified as affecting student academic success and persistence as well as a culture of micro-aggressive behavior.
Linda, Kristina; Regina; Sutapa,, Y. Gatot
The aims of this study were improving EFL students' reading comprehension by using Metacognitive Reading Strategies and finding out the students' perceptions on Metacognitive Reading Strategies. The method of the research was a classroom action research. The research subjects were 29 students majoring in Accounting Program class 3 of Year-10. This research was conducted in three cycles to maximize the students' improvement in comprehending the text. The findings of data collecting revealed th...
Preszler, Ralph W
Peer-facilitated workshops enhanced interactivity in our introductory biology course, which led to increased student engagement and learning. A majority of students preferred attending two lectures and a workshop each week over attending three weekly lectures. In the workshops, students worked in small cooperative groups as they solved challenging problems, evaluated case studies, and participated in activities designed to improve their general learning skills. Students in the workshop version of the course scored higher on exam questions recycled from preworkshop semesters. Grades were higher over three workshop semesters in comparison with the seven preworkshop semesters. Although males and females benefited from workshops, there was a larger improvement of grades and increased retention by female students; although underrepresented minority (URM) and non-URM students benefited from workshops, there was a larger improvement of grades by URM students. As well as improving student performance and retention, the addition of interactive workshops also improved the quality of student learning: Student scores on exam questions that required higher-level thinking increased from preworkshop to workshop semesters.
Montgomery, W. W.
Longitudinal data collection initiated a decade ago as part of a successful NSF-CCLI grant proposal has resulted in a large - and growing - sample (200+) of students who report on their perceptions of self-improvement in Technology, Critical Thinking, and Quantitative Reasoning proficiencies upon completion of an introductory (200-level) GIS course at New Jersey City University, a Hispanic-Serving and Minority Institution in Jersey City, NJ. Results from student satisfaction surveys indicate that, not surprisingly, 80% of respondents report improved confidence in Technology Literacy. Critical Thinking proficiency is judged to be significantly improved by 60% of respondents. On the other hand, Quantitative Reasoning proficiency confidence is improved in only 30% of students. This latter finding has prompted the instructor to search for more easily recognizable (to the student) ways of embedding quantitative reasoning into the course, as it is obvious to any GIS professional that there is an enormous amount of quantitative reasoning associated with this technology. A second post-course questionnaire asks students to rate themselves in these STEM proficiency areas using rubrics. Results mirror those from the self-satisfaction surveys. On a 5-point Likkert scale, students tend to see themselves improving about one letter grade on average in each proficiency area. The self-evaluation rubrics are reviewed by the instructor and are judged to be accurate for about 75% of the respondents.
Tulip, David F.; Lucas, Keith B.
At a time when recruitment into preservice teacher education courses in mathematics and science is difficult, one strategy to increase the number of graduates is to minimise the number of students who fail to complete their university courses. This study sought to determine factors which distinguish withdrawers from persisters in the first semester of a B.Ed course. Discriminant analysis was employed; a discriminant function employing seven factors resulted in correct classification in 81% of cases. Further analysis distinguishing between dropouts and transferees resulted in two discriminant functions with some common variables.
Bolton Jennifer E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs associated with the management of musculoskeletal pain in primary care, predicting the course of these conditions remains a research priority. Much of the research into prognostic indicators however considers musculoskeletal conditions in terms of single pain sites whereas in reality, many patients present with pain in more than one site. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors for early improvement in primary care consulters with acute and persistent musculoskeletal conditions across a range of pain sites. Methods Consecutive patients with a new episode of musculoskeletal pain completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, and then again at the 4/5th treatment visit, and if they were still consulting, at the 10th visit. The outcome was defined as patient self-report improvement sufficient to make a meaningful difference. Independent predictors of outcome were identified using multivariate regression analyses. Results Acute (th visit. Several variables at baseline were associated with improvement at the 4/5th visit, but the predictive models were weak and unable to discriminate between patients who were improved and those who were not. In contrast, it was possible to elicit a predictive model for improvement later on at the 10th visit, but only in patients with persistent pain. Being employed, reporting a decline in work fear-avoidance behaviour at the 4/5th visit, and being better by the 4/5th visit, were all independently associated with improvement. This model accounted for 34.3% (p Conclusions We were unable to identify baseline characteristics that predicted early outcome in musculoskeletal pain patients. However, early self-reported improvement and decline in work fear-avoidance behaviour as predictors of later improvement highlighted the importance of speedy recovery in persistent musculoskeletal pain consulters. Our findings reinforce the elusive nature of baseline predictors, and
Slavin, Stuart J; Schindler, Debra L; Chibnall, John T
Medical education can have significant negative effects on the well-being of medical students. To date, efforts to improve student mental health have focused largely on improving access to mental health providers, reducing the stigma and other barriers to mental health treatment, and implementing ancillary wellness programs. Still, new and innovative models that build on these efforts by directly addressing the root causes of stress that lie within the curriculum itself are needed to properly promote student wellness. In this article, the authors present a new paradigm for improving medical student mental health, by describing an integrated, multifaceted, preclinical curricular change program implemented through the Office of Curricular Affairs at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine starting in the 2009-2010 academic year. The authors found that significant but efficient changes to course content, contact hours, scheduling, grading, electives, learning communities, and required resilience/mindfulness experiences were associated with significantly lower levels of depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and stress, and significantly higher levels of community cohesion, in medical students who participated in the expanded wellness program compared with those who preceded its implementation. The authors discuss the utility and relevance of such curricular changes as an overlooked component of change models for improving medical student mental health.
Skinner, Ellen A; Pitzer, Jennifer R; Steele, Joel S
How children and youth deal with academic challenges and setbacks can make a material difference to their learning and school success. Hence, it is important to investigate the factors that allow students to cope constructively. A process model focused on students' motivational resources was used to frame a study examining whether engagement in the classroom shapes students' academic coping, and whether coping in turn contributes to subsequent persistence on challenging tasks and learning, which then feed back into ongoing engagement. In fall and spring of the same school year, 880 children in 4th through 6th grades and their teachers completed measures of students' engagement and disaffection in the classroom, and of their re-engagement in the face of obstacles and difficulties; students also reported on 5 adaptive and 6 maladaptive ways of academic coping; and information on a subset of students' classroom grades was collected. Structural analyses, incorporating student-reports, teacher-reports, and their combination, indicated that the model of motivational processes was a good fit for time-ordered data from fall to spring. Multiple regressions examining each step in the process model also indicated that it was the profile of coping responses, rather than any specific individual way of coping, that was most centrally connected to changes in engagement and persistence. Taken together, findings suggest that these internal dynamics may form self-perpetuating cycles that could cement or augment the development of children's motivational resilience and vulnerability across time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wysham, Nicholas G; Mularski, Richard A; Schmidt, David M; Nord, Shirley C; Louis, Deborah L; Shuster, Elizabeth; Curtis, J Randall; Mosen, David M
Communication in the intensive care unit (ICU) is an important component of quality ICU care. In this report, we evaluate the long-term effects of a quality improvement (QI) initiative, based on the VALUE communication strategy, designed to improve communication with family members of critically ill patients. We implemented a multifaceted intervention to improve communication in the ICU and measured processes of care. Quality improvement components included posted VALUE placards, templated progress note inclusive of communication documentation, and a daily rounding checklist prompt. We evaluated care for all patients cared for by the intensivists during three separate 3 week periods, pre, post, and 3 years following the initial intervention. Care delivery was assessed in 38 patients and their families in the pre-intervention sample, 27 in the post-intervention period, and 41 in follow-up. Process measures of communication showed improvement across the evaluation periods, for example, daily updates increased from pre 62% to post 76% to current 84% of opportunities. Our evaluation of this quality improvement project suggests persistence and continued improvements in the delivery of measured aspects of ICU family communication. Maintenance with point-of-care-tools may account for some of the persistence and continued improvements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Helldén, Gustav F.; Solomon, Joan
In this paper we will examine the persistence of misconceptions. We used data from a longitudinal study of personal ideas in 24 students' thinking about ecological processes. The results show students often speaking about personal experiences dating from an early age, to which they had also referred in similar interviews conducted years before. These data are compared with results from a different study of middle school physics students' thinking about energy and steam engines. After the new learning had been successfull completed and assessed, old ideas returned. These findings are used to set up a theoretical basis for understanding the longitudinal results. Findings from memory studies are shown to explicate the long-term effects of the passage of time and prompts for the recall of scientific concepts.
Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Jackson, Elizabeth
Improving Student Engagement in Veterinary Business StudiesIn a densely packed veterinary curriculum, students may find it particularly challenging to engage in the less overtly clinical subjects, yet pressure from industry and an increasingly competitive employment market necessitate improved veterinary student education in business and management skills. We describe a curriculum intervention (formative reflective assignment) that optimizes workplace learning opportunities and aims to provide better student scaffolding for their in-context business learning. Students were asked to analyze a business practice they experienced during a period of extra-mural studies (external work placement). Following return to the college, they were then instructed to discuss their findings in their study group, and produce a group reflection on their learning. To better understand student engagement in this area, we analyzed individual and group components of the assignment. Thematic analysis revealed evidence of various depths of student engagement, and provided indications of the behaviors they used when engaging at different levels. Interactive and social practices (discussing business strategies with veterinary employees and student peers) appeared to facilitate student engagement, assist the perception of relevance of these skills, and encourage integration with other curriculum elements such as communication skills and clinical problem solving.
Everly, Marcee C
To report the transformation from lecture to more active learning methods in a maternity nursing course and to evaluate whether student perception of improved learning through active-learning methods is supported by improved test scores. The process of transforming a course into an active-learning model of teaching is described. A voluntary mid-semester survey for student acceptance of the new teaching method was conducted. Course examination results, from both a standardized exam and a cumulative final exam, among students who received lecture in the classroom and students who had active learning activities in the classroom were compared. Active learning activities were very acceptable to students. The majority of students reported learning more from having active-learning activities in the classroom rather than lecture-only and this belief was supported by improved test scores. Students who had active learning activities in the classroom scored significantly higher on a standardized assessment test than students who received lecture only. The findings support the use of student reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of active-learning methods and help validate the use of student reflection of improved learning in other research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metcalf, Amy; Layton, Margaret V.; Goslin, Trina L.
Twenty-first-century students are adept at using technology, which means that incorporating appropriate technology into the classroom can excite and engage students and improve oral production and fluency, which Rossiter, Derwing, Manimtim, and Thomson (2010) have identified as missing from many language classrooms. Therefore, academic…
Menon, Ashwin; Gaglani, Shiv; Haynes, M Ryan; Tackett, Sean
Adaptive learning platforms (ALPs) can revolutionize medical education by making learning more efficient, but their potential has not been realized because students do not use them persistently. We applied educational data mining methods to study United States medical students who used an ALP called Osmosis ( www.osmosis.org ) from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2015. Multivariate logistic regressions modeled persistence on Osmosis as the dependent variable and Osmosis-collected variables as predictors. The 6787 students included in our analysis responded to a total of 887,193 items, with 2138 (31.5%) using Osmosis persistently. Number of items per student, mobile device use, subscription payment, and group membership were independently associated with persisting (p data medical education research and provides guidance for improving implementation of ALPs and further investigation.
Seritan, Andreea L; Rai, Gurmeet; Servis, Mark; Pomeroy, Claire
Despite increasing mental health needs among medical students, few models for effective preventive student wellness programs exist. This paper describes a novel approach developed at the University of California (UC) Davis School of Medicine: the Office of Student Wellness (OSW). Improved access and mental health service utilization have been documented, with over half of all students receiving support and clinical care. UC Davis student satisfaction mean scores on the Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaire wellness questions have reached or exceeded national average over the last 4 years, since the OSW was founded. This program may serve as a blueprint for other medical schools in developing effective student wellness programs.
Asian International Students at an Australian University: Mapping the Paths between Integrative Motivation, Competence in L2 Communication, Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Persistence with Structural Equation Modelling
This study examined the interrelationships of integrative motivation, competence in second language (L2) communication, sociocultural adaptation, academic adaptation and persistence of international students at an Australian university. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that the integrative motivation of international students has a…
Kimberly M. Tartaglia
Full Text Available Introduction: As health systems find ways to improve quality of care, medical training programs are finding opportunities to prepare learners on principles of quality improvement (QI. The impact of QI curricula for medical students as measured by student learning is not well delineated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a QI curriculum for senior medical students as measured by student knowledge and skills. Methods: This study was an observational study that involved a self-assessment and post-test Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool (QIKAT for intervention and control students. A QI curriculum consisting of online modules, live discussions, independent readings and reflective writing, and participation in a mentored QI project was offered to fourth-year medical students completing an honor's elective (intervention group. Senior medical students who received the standard QI curriculum only were recruited as controls. Results: A total of 22 intervention students and 12 control students completed the self-assessment and QIKAT. At baseline, there was no difference between groups in self-reported prior exposure to QI principles. Students in the intervention group reported more comfort with their skills in QI overall and in 9 of the 12 domains (p<0.05. Additionally, intervention students performed better in each of the three case scenarios (p<0.01. Discussion: A brief QI curriculum for senior medical students results in improved comfort and knowledge with QI principles. The strengths of our curriculum include effective use of classroom time and faculty mentorship with reliance on pre-existing online modules and written resources. Additionally, the curriculum is easily expandable to larger groups of students and transferable to other institutions.
Lang, Sarah Adrienne
Using a sequential, explanatory mixed methods design, this dissertation study compared students who persist in the biology major (persisters) with students who leave the biology major (switchers) in terms of how their pre-college experiences, college biology experiences, and biology performance figured into their choice of biology and their persistence in or departure from the biology major. This study combined (1) quantitative comparisons of biology persisters and switchers via a questionnaire developed for the study and survival analysis of a larger population of biology freshmen with (2) qualitative comparison of biology switchers and persisters via semi-structured life story interviews and homogenous focus groups. 319 students (207 persisters and 112 switchers) participated in the questionnaire and 36 students (20 persisters and 16 switchers) participated in life story and focus group interviews. All participants were undergraduates who entered The University of Texas at Austin as biology freshmen in the fall semesters of 2000 through 2004. Findings of this study suggest: (1) Regardless of eventual major, biology students enter college with generally the same suite of experiences, sources of personal encouragement, and reasons for choosing the biology major; (2) Despite the fact that they have also had poor experiences in the major, biology persisters do not actively decide to stay in the biology major; they simply do not leave; (3) Based upon survival analysis, biology students are most at-risk of leaving the biology major during the first two years of college and if they are African-American or Latino, women, or seeking a Bachelor of Arts degree (rather than a Bachelor of Science); (4) Biology switchers do not leave biology due to preference for other disciplines; they leave due to difficulties or dissatisfaction with aspects of the biology major, including their courses, faculty, and peers; (5) Biology performance has a differential effect on persistence in
Jastania, Raid A.; Balata, Gehan F.; Abd El-Hady, Mohamed I. S.; Gouda, Ahmad; Abd El-Wahab, Mohamad; Mohamad, Abeer S.; Ibrahim, Nashwa M.; Beshr, Eman; Mahdi, Abeer Y.; Mousa, Rabab; Tag, Batool F.; Hisham, Hadeel; El-Sofiani, Ibtehal
Purpose: For any educational institution, student satisfaction is an important goal. Thus, the purpose of the study is to use a structured improvement process, define--measure--analyse--improve--control (DMAIC) methodology, to improve students' satisfaction regarding their learning experience at the College of Pharmacy/Umm Al-Qura University.…
Zhu Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha
We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement. To reduce these difficulties, we have developed research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) and peer instruction tools. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement.
Handayani, Umami -
This research is designed to improve the students' reading comprehension in English through Think Pair Share strategy. the objective of the research is to develop Think Pair Share to improve the students' reading comprehension. The research was conducted by using classroom action research. The finding showed that Think Pair Share strategy was successful in improving students' reading comprehension. The improvement couls be seen from the increase of students' reading scores. Besides, the fin...
Gillette, Chris; Rudolph, Michael; Rockich-Winston, Nicole; Stanton, Robert; Anderson, H Glenn
Objective. To examine whether standardized patient encounters led to an improvement in a student pharmacist-patient communication assessment compared to traditional active-learning activities within a classroom setting. Methods. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with second-year pharmacy students in a drug information and communication skills course. Student patient communication skills were assessed using high-stakes communication assessment. Results. Two hundred and twenty students' data were included. Students were significantly more likely to have higher scores on the communication assessment when they had higher undergraduate GPAs, were female, and taught using standardized patients. Similarly, students were significantly more likely to pass the assessment on the first attempt when they were female and when they were taught using standardized patients. Conclusion. Incorporating standardized patients within a communication course resulted in improved scores as well as first-time pass rates on a communication assessment than when using different methods of active learning.
Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay
Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Martin, Anne L.
Discusses the attitudes of students concerning the benefit of Year 12 foreign language courses to the development of their oral and aural proficiency in the target language, i.e., French. While most students felt that their ability to speak and understand spoken French had improved as a result of the course, some expressed dissatisfaction with…
Amato, Solange Amorim
The research results presented in this paper were part of an action research performed with the aims of improving primary school student teachers (STs)' understanding of, and attitudes to, mathematics. The teaching strategies used to help STs' improve their understanding and attitudes were similar to the ones suggested for their future use in…
Full Text Available Shizhen Zhang,* Peng Li,* Zhujun Zhang, Wei WangDepartment of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Stuttering is characterized by disrupted fluency of verbal expression, and occurs mostly in children. Persistent developmental stuttering (PDS may occur in adults. Reports of the surgical management of PDS are limited. Here we present the case of a 28-year-old man who had had PDS since the age of 7 years, was diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorder at the age of 24 years, and had physical concomitants. He underwent a bilateral anterior capsulotomy 4 years after the diagnosis. Over one year of follow-up, his physical concomitants resolved, and significant improvements in his psychiatric disorders and PDS were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous improvement in a patient's PDS and psychiatric disorder after a bilateral anterior capsulotomy.Keywords: persistent developmental stuttering, psychiatric disorders, anterior capsulotomy
Bernard, Aaron W; Ceccolini, Gabbriel; Feinn, Richard; Rockfeld, Jennifer; Rosenberg, Ilene; Thomas, Listy; Cassese, Todd
Performance feedback is considered essential to clinical skills development. Formative objective structured clinical exams (F-OSCEs) often include immediate feedback by standardized patients. Students can also be provided access to performance metrics including scores, checklists, and video recordings after the F-OSCE to supplement this feedback. How often students choose to review this data and how review impacts future performance has not been documented. We suspect student review of F-OSCE performance data is variable. We hypothesize that students who review this data have better performance on subsequent F-OSCEs compared to those who do not. We also suspect that frequency of data review can be improved with faculty involvement in the form of student-faculty debriefing meetings. Simulation recording software tracks and time stamps student review of performance data. We investigated a cohort of first- and second-year medical students from the 2015-16 academic year. Basic descriptive statistics were used to characterize frequency of data review and a linear mixed-model analysis was used to determine relationships between data review and future F-OSCE performance. Students reviewed scores (64%), checklists (42%), and videos (28%) in decreasing frequency. Frequency of review of all metric and modalities improved when student-faculty debriefing meetings were conducted (p<.001). Among 92 first-year students, checklist review was associated with an improved performance on subsequent F-OSCEs (p = 0.038) by 1.07 percentage points on a scale of 0-100. Among 86 second year students, no review modality was associated with improved performance on subsequent F-OSCEs. Medical students review F-OSCE checklists and video recordings less than 50% of the time when not prompted. Student-faculty debriefing meetings increased student data reviews. First-year student's review of checklists on F-OSCEs was associated with increases in performance on subsequent F-OSCEs, however this
Nasution, Maya Puspita
This study concerrns with improving students' reading comprehension in descriptive text through anticipation guide.The objective was to investigate improvement of students' reading comprehension by applying anticipation guide. This research was conducted by using action research method. The subject of the study was grade VII students of SMP SWASTA TAMAN HARAPAN MEDAN totalling to 30 students. They were taught reading comprehension by anticipation guide. The instruments for collecting data wer...
Polikoff, Morgan; Le, Q. Tien; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Marsh, Julie A.
Given the dearth of high-quality curriculum materials aligned with the new standards (NGSS and CCSS) and low student persistence in STEM fields, we sought to develop and test a STEM curriculum that would improve student knowledge, interest, and emotions. A cluster randomized control trial was conducted to assess the impact of Speedometry, a…
Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Yousefi, Mahmood
This study aimed to assess the efficiency of delivering a 4-month course of "effective literature search" among medical postgraduate students for improving information literacy skills. This was a cross-sectional study in which 90 postgraduate students were randomly selected and participated in 12 training sessions. Effective search strategies were presented and the students' attitude and competency concerning online search were measured by a pre- and post-questionnaires and skill tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using t-test. There was a significant improvement (p=0.00), in student's attitude. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) was 2.9 (0.8) before intervention versus the mean (SD) 3.9 (0.7) after intervention. Students' familiarity with medical resources and databases improved significantly. The data showed a significant increase (p=0.03), in students' competency score concerning search strategy design and conducting a search. The mean (SD) was 2.04 (0.7) before intervention versus the mean (SD) 3.07 (0.8) after intervention. Also, students' ability in applying search and meta search engine improved significantly. This study clearly acknowledges that the training intervention provides considerable opportunity to improve medical student's information literacy skills.
Srulovici, Einav; Garg, Vishvas; Ghilai, Adi; Feldman, Becca; Hoshen, Moshe; Balicer, Ran D; Skup, Martha; Leventer-Roberts, Maya
Adalimumab (ADA) is a medication used in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. Despite the beneficial effects of ADA, its adherence and persistence rates are low. Patients treated with ADA from Clalit Health Services (CHS) can enroll in AbbVie's patient support program (PSP), which aims to improve ADA adherence and persistence. Therefore, we examine whether PSP participation is associated with a longer persistence and/or an improved adherence to ADA. A real-world retrospective cohort study of all new ADA users from CHS, comparing those enrolled in the offered PSP to those not enrolled. The data regarding PSP users can be tracked using CHS's data warehouse. The index date was defined as the date of the patients' first purchase of ADA occurring between August 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014. The follow-up data were collected at 12, 24, and 36 months. Persistence was assessed using survival analyses of time until discontinuation, and adherence was assessed using medication possession ratio (MPR). There were 1520 patients in the study, 755 (49.7%) of whom were PSP users. PSP users were 54.3% female vs. 51.9% among non-PSP users (p = 0.355) and they were significantly younger than non-PSP users (mean age 42.3 vs. 45.0 years, p = 0.002) The PSP and non-PSP users' persistence was 673 and 574 days, respectively (p users were more likely than the non-PSP users to be persistently taking medication at the 12-month follow-up (57.5% vs. 45.6%, p users compared to the non-PSP users (94.1% vs. 92.9%, p = 0.026). The AbbVie PSP provided to CHS patients was associated with a longer persistence among new users of ADA. It was also associated with significantly higher adherence rate within the first 12 months. AbbVie Inc.
This research aimed to find out how group investigation improves the student's speaking skill of the second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, how group investigation improves the student's participation in speaking of second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, and what the obstacles are in the implementation of Group Investigation. The classroom…
Heyman, Jeremy Benjamin
experiences. The results provide novel insights and recommendations for improving access and persistence in STEM among students in areas of concentrated poverty who are also struggling with mastering a new language and a host of other challenges.
Drosdeck, Joseph; Carraro, Ellen; Arnold, Mark; Perry, Kyle; Harzman, Alan; Nagel, Rollin; Sinclair, Lynnsay; Muscarella, Peter
Medical students desire to become proficient in surgical techniques and believe their acquisition is important. However, the operating room is a challenging learning environment. Small group procedural workshops can improve confidence, participation, and performance. The use of fresh animal tissues has been rated highly among students and improves their surgical technique. Greater exposure to surgical procedures and staff could positively influence students' interest in surgical careers. We hypothesized that a porcine "wet lab" course for third year medical students would improve their surgical skills. Two skills labs were conducted for third year medical students during surgery clerkships in the fall of 2011. The students' surgical skills were first evaluated in the operating room across nine dimensions. Next, the students performed the following procedures during the skills lab: (1) laparotomy; (2) small bowel resection; (3) splenectomy; (4) partial hepatectomy; (5) cholecystectomy; (6) interrupted abdominal wall closure; (7) running abdominal wall closure; and (8) skin closure. After the skills lab, the students were re-evaluated in the operating room across the same nine dimensions. Student feedback was also recorded. Fifty-one participants provided pre- and post-lab data for use in the final analysis. The mean scores for all nine surgical skills improved significantly after participation in the skills lab (P ≤ 0.002). Cumulative post-test scores also showed significant improvement (P = 0.002). Finally, the student feedback was largely positive. The surgical skills of third year medical students improved significantly after participation in a porcine wet lab, and the students rated the experience as highly educational. Integration into the surgery clerkship curriculum would promote surgical skill proficiency and could elicit interest in surgical careers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez, Roger Geertz; Morrison, Jeaná
The recent literature on Latino persistence does not take into account these students' distinct cultural backgrounds. Most researchers of Latino persistence use the self-designation "Latino" as a proxy variable representing Latino culture. A Latino Critical Theory (LatCrit) lens is applied to the persistence literature to demonstrate the…
Pollack, I. B.; Adams, A. S.; Barnes, R. T.; Burt, M. A.; Clinton, S. M.; Godfrey, E.; Hernandez, P.; Bloodhart, B.; Donaldson, L.; Henderson, H.; Sayers, J.; Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Bowker, C.; Fischer, E. V.
In the United States, men outnumber women in many science and engineering fields by nearly 3 to 1. In fields like physics or the geosciences, the gender gap can be even wider. Previous studies have identified the early college years as a critical point where many women exit STEM disciplines. An interdisciplinary team including experts in the geosciences, psychology, education, and STEM persistence have recently begun a 5-year project focused on understanding whether mentoring can increase the interest, persistence, and achievement of undergraduate women in the geosciences. The program focuses on mentoring first and second year female undergraduate students from three universities in Colorado and Wyoming and four universities in North and South Carolina. The mentoring program includes a weekend workshop, access to professional women across geoscience fields and both in-person and virtual peer networks. The first weekend workshops will be held in October 2015. We will present an overview of the major components and lessons learned from these workshops and showcase the web center, including the online peer-networking forum.
Tasker, Tammy Q.; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert
This article examines a 7th grade teacher's pedagogical practices to support her students to provide peer feedback to one another using technology during scientific inquiry. This research is part of a larger study in which teachers in California and Washington and their classes engaged in inquiry projects using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry. Videotapes of classroom lessons and artifacts such as student work were collected as part of the corpus of data. In the case examined, Ms. E supports her students to collectively define "meaningful feedback," thereby improving the quality of feedback that was provided in the future. This is especially timely, given the attention in Next Generation Science Standards to cross-cutting concepts and practices that require students discuss and debate ideas with each other in order to improve their understanding and their written inquiry reports (NGSS, 2013).
el combate a las adicciones.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the independent effect of poor school performance and tobacco persistence using a prospective population study of students who remained on school grounds during the follow-up period. Two measurements were taken over a period of three years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort study conducted within school confines was developed over the period 1998 to 1999 and 2000 to 2001, with 2 568 students, including both tobacco persistent students and non-consumers. Multiple logistic regression models were designed and structured according to educational performance using two standards: students who maintained and/or improved performance and those with poor performance, based on the first and second measurements. RESULTS: In the reference cohort, 5.2% of the students reported to have persisted with tobacco consumption during the study period, while 64.2% remained unexposed. Poor school performance was associated with tobacco persistence for the total population (OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.4-3.6, as well as for females (OR 3.0 95%CI 1.4-6.7 and males (OR 2.2 95%CI 1.1-4.1. Poor school performance has an excess risk of tobacco persistence, independently of other co-variables. The greatest difference in prevalence, using poor school performance as a reference, was observed in those subjects having depressive symptomolgy, with an excessive tobacco persistence of 21.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that foster healthy lifestyles within school environments should be adopted in a comprehensive manner. In addition, students who perform poorly should be considered vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyles. It will therefore be necessary to identify them as high risk subjects and implement interventions among this population, particularly with regard to combatting addictions.
Wibbecke, Gerald; Kahmann, Janine; Pignotti, Tanja; Altenberger, Leander; Kadmon, Martina
Due to the development of medical education in the past decade the role of teachers has changed and requires higher didactic competence. Student evaluation of teaching alone does not lead to considerable improvement of teaching quality. We present the concept of "Integrative Teaching Consultation", which comprises both the teacher's reflection and own objectives to improve their teaching as well as data from students ratings. Teachers in collaboration with a teaching consultant reflect on their teaching ability and set themselves improvement goals. Then the consultant himself observes a teaching session and subsequently analyses the respective student evaluation in order to give meaningful feedback to the teacher. The combination of student feedback with professional consultation elements can initiate and maintain improvements in teaching. Teaching consultation complements existing faculty development programs and increases the benefit of student evaluations.
Cech, Erin; Rubineau, Brian; Seron, Caroll; Silbey, Susan S.
Social psychological research on gendered persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions is dominated by two explanations: women leave because they perceive their family plans to be at odds with demands of STEM careers, and women leave due to low self-assessment of their skills in STEM’s intellectual tasks, net of their performance. This study uses original panel data to examine behavioral and intentional persistence among students who enter an engineering...
Full Text Available The need to educate a competitive workforce is a global problem. In the US, for example, despite billions of dollars spent to improve the educational system, approximately 35% of students never finish high school. The drop rate among some demographic groups is as high as 50–60%. At the college level in the US only 30% of students graduate from 2-year colleges in 3 years or less and approximately 50% graduate from 4-year colleges in 5 years or less. A basic challenge in delivering global education, therefore, is improving student success. By student success we mean improving retention, completion and graduation rates. In this paper we describe a Student Success System (S3 that provides a holistic, analytical view of student academic progress.1 The core of S3 is a flexible predictive modelling engine that uses machine intelligence and statistical techniques to identify at-risk students pre-emptively. S3 also provides a set of advanced data visualisations for reaching diagnostic insights and a case management tool for managing interventions. S3's open modular architecture will also allow integration and plug-ins with both open and proprietary software. Powered by learning analytics, S3 is intended as an end-to-end solution for identifying at-risk students, understanding why they are at risk, designing interventions to mitigate that risk and finally closing the feedback look by tracking the efficacy of the applied intervention.
Blair, Erik; Valdez Noel, Keisha
Many higher education institutions use student evaluation systems as a way of highlighting course and lecturer strengths and areas for improvement. Globally, the student voice has been increasing in volume, and capitalising on student feedback has been proposed as a means to benefit teacher professional development. This paper examines the student…
Lehmann, Geniece M; Verner, Marc-André; Luukinen, Bryan; Henning, Cara; Assimon, Sue Anne; LaKind, Judy S; McLanahan, Eva D; Phillips, Linda J; Davis, Matthew H; Powers, Christina M; Hines, Erin P; Haddad, Sami; Longnecker, Matthew P; Poulsen, Michael T; Farrer, David G; Marchitti, Satori A; Tan, Yu-Mei; Swartout, Jeffrey C; Sagiv, Sharon K; Welsh, Clement; Campbell, Jerry L; Foster, Warren G; Yang, Raymond S H; Fenton, Suzanne E; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Francis, Bettina M; Barnett, John B; El-Masri, Hisham A; Simmons, Jane Ellen
Lipophilic persistent environmental chemicals (LPECs) have the potential to accumulate within a woman's body lipids over the course of many years prior to pregnancy, to partition into human milk, and to transfer to infants upon breastfeeding. As a result of this accumulation and partitioning, a breastfeeding infant's intake of these LPECs may be much greater than his/her mother's average daily exposure. Because the developmental period sets the stage for lifelong health, it is important to be able to accurately assess chemical exposures in early life. In many cases, current human health risk assessment methods do not account for differences between maternal and infant exposures to LPECs or for lifestage-specific effects of exposure to these chemicals. Because of their persistence and accumulation in body lipids and partitioning into breast milk, LPECs present unique challenges for each component of the human health risk assessment process, including hazard identification, dose-response assessment, and exposure assessment. Specific biological modeling approaches are available to support both dose-response and exposure assessment for lactational exposures to LPECs. Yet, lack of data limits the application of these approaches. The goal of this review is to outline the available approaches and to identify key issues that, if addressed, could improve efforts to apply these approaches to risk assessment of lactational exposure to these chemicals.
Nissen, Jayson M.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.
Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM)  to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficiency, activation, intrinsic motivation, and affect. Data are presented that show contrasts in students' experiences (e.g., in physics vs. non-physics courses).
Ziswiler, Korrin M.
The number of students with disabilities accessing higher education continues to increase, yet persistence and graduation rates for this population of students are considerably lower than those of students without disabilities. Previous research suggests that a key factor in improving post-secondary outcomes is increasing the level with which…
Perlini, Stefano; Salinaro, Francesco; Santalucia, Paola; Musca, Francesco
Clinical evaluation is the cornerstone of any cardiac diagnosis, although excessive over-specialisation often leads students to disregard the value of clinical skills, and to overemphasize the approach to instrumental cardiac diagnosis. Time restraints, low availability of "typical" cardiac patients on whom to perform effective bedside teaching, patients' respect and the underscoring of the value of clinical skills all lead to a progressive decay in teaching. Simulation-guided cardiac auscultation may improve clinical training in medical students and residents. Harvey(©) is a mannequin encompassing more than 50 cardiac diagnoses that was designed and developed at the University of Miami (Florida, USA). One of the advantages of Harvey(©) simulation resides in the possibility of listening, comparing and discussing "real" murmurs. To objectively assess its teaching performance, the capability to identify five different cardiac diagnoses (atrial septal defect, normal young subject, mitral stenosis with tricuspid regurgitation, chronic mitral regurgitation, and pericarditis) out of more than 50 diagnostic possibilities was assessed in 523 III-year medical students (i.e. at the very beginning of their clinical experience), in 92 VI-year students, and in 42 residents before and after a formal 10-h teaching session with Harvey(©). None of them had previously experienced simulation-based cardiac auscultation in addition to formal lecturing (all three groups) and bedside teaching (VI-year students and residents). In order to assess the "persistence" of the acquired knowledge over time, the test was repeated after 3 years in 85 students, who did not repeat the formal 10-h teaching session with Harvey(©) after the III year. As expected, the overall response was poor in the "beginners" who correctly identified 11.0 % of the administered cardiac murmurs. After simulation-guided training, the ability to recognise the correct cardiac diagnoses was much better (72.0 %; p
Mineart, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Matthew E.
This study describes the use of guided self-reflection and peer feedback activities to improve student oral communication in a large ChE class (n ~ 100) setting. Student performance tracked throughout an experimental semester indicated both reflection activities accelerated improvement in oral communication over control; student perception of the…
Full Text Available Objective: Due to the development of medical education in the past decade the role of teachers has changed and requires higher didactic competence. Student evaluation of teaching alone does not lead to considerable improvement of teaching quality. We present the concept of "Integrative Teaching Consultation", which comprises both the teacher’s reflection and own objectives to improve their teaching as well as data from students ratings.Methods: Teachers in collaboration with a teaching consultant reflect on their teaching ability and set themselves improvement goals. Then the consultant himself observes a teaching session and subsequently analyses the respective student evaluation in order to give meaningful feedback to the teacher.Results: The combination of student feedback with professional consultation elements can initiate and maintain improvements in teaching. Conclusion: Teaching consultation complements existing faculty development programs and increases the benefit of student evaluations.
Zammuto, Raymond F.; And Others
A study investigated the quality of services in four student enrollment services administrative sub-units (recruiting, admissions, records and registration, financial aid) at a public comprehensive university, using student and staff evaluations and program evaluations. Specific changes needed to improve service delivery are identified and…
Electricity and magnetism are important topics in physics. Research shows that students have many common difficulties in understanding concepts related to electricity and magnetism. However, research to improve students' understanding of electricity and magnetism is limited compared to introductory mechanics. This thesis explores issues…
Student Engagement (SASSE) have highlighted the significance of learning communities as noted in Tinto's work. He conceived learning communities as interdisciplinary peer groups that span the social and academic life contexts of students – from the curricular into the co-curriculum and thus, for example, into residences ...
Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang
The present study examined the psychosocial factors associated with the initiation and persistence of Internet addiction among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade, in Taipei, Taiwan. Self-administered questionnaires were collected in each year to assess the pattern of changes in Internet addiction and psychosocial factors. Of the 1602 students without an Internet addiction in the 10th grade, 253 (15.8%) had initiated Internet addiction by grade 11. Multivariate analysis results indicated that greater engagement in online activities (i.e., social network website use, online gaming), depression, and lower school bonding in grade 10 coupled with an increase in online activities, depression, and smoking from grades 10 to 11 predicted the initiation of Internet addiction. Of the 605 students with Internet addiction in the 10th grade, the addiction had persisted for 383 students (63.3%) in grade 11. An increase in the existence of depression and alcohol use from grades 10 to 11 predicted the persistence of Internet addiction. Online activities, depression, and substance use were important predictors of youth initiation and of the persistence of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atkins, Leslie J.
Introductory physics courses often require students to develop precise models of phenomena and represent these with diagrams, including free-body diagrams, light-ray diagrams, and maps of field lines. Instructors expect that students will adopt a certain rigor and precision when constructing these diagrams, but we want that rigor and precision to be an aid to sense-making rather than meeting seemingly arbitrary requirements set by the instructor. By giving students the authority to develop their own models and establish requirements for their diagrams, the sense that these are arbitrary requirements diminishes and students are more likely to see modeling as a sense-making activity. The practice of peer assessment can help students take ownership; however, it can be difficult for instructors to manage. Furthermore, it is not without risk: students can be reluctant to critique their peers, they may view this as the job of the instructor, and there is no guarantee that students will employ greater rigor and precision as a result of peer assessment. In this article, we describe one approach for peer assessment that can establish norms for diagrams in a way that is student driven, where students retain agency and authority in assessing and improving their work. We show that such an approach does indeed improve students' diagrams and abilities to assess their own work, without sacrificing students' authority and agency.
Contemporary research on gender and persistence in undergraduate education in science and engineering has routinely focused on why students leave their majors rather than asking why students stay. This study compared three common ways of measuring persistence-commitment to major, degree aspirations, and commitment to a science or engineering career-and emphasized factors that would encourage students to persist, including positive images of scientists and engineers, positive attitudes toward gender equity in science and engineering, and positive classroom experiences. A survey was administered in classrooms to a total of 285 female and male students enrolled in two required courses for majors. The results indicate that the different measures of persistence were sensitive to different influences but that students' gender did not interact with their images, attitudes, and experiences in predicted ways. The study concludes that an individual student's gender may be a more important factor in explaining why some female students leave their science and engineering majors than in explaining why others stay.
Mahanal, Susriyati; Zubaidah, Siti; Bahri, Arsad; Syahadatud Dinnurriya, Maratusy
Previous studies in Malang, Indonesia, showed that there were the failure biology learning caused by not only the low students' prior knowledge, but also biology learning model has not improved the students' critical thinking skills yet, which affected the low of cognitive learning outcomes. The learning model is required to improve students'…
Kaburlasos, Vassilis G.; Marinagi, Catherine C.; Tsoukalas, Vassilis Th.
This work presents innovative cybernetics (feedback) techniques based on Bayesian statistics for drawing questions from an Item Bank towards personalized multi-student improvement. A novel software tool, namely "Module for Adaptive Assessment of Students" (or, "MAAS" for short), implements the proposed (feedback) techniques. In conclusion, a pilot…
Castleman, Benjamin; Goodman, Joshua
Though counseling is one commonly pursued intervention to improve college enrollment and completion for disadvantaged students, there is relatively little causal evidence on its efficacy. We use a regression discontinuity design to study the impact of intensive college counseling provided by a Massachusetts program to college-seeking, low-income…
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…
Stronge, James H.; Grant, Leslie W.
The first book in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice series focuses on improving student achievement through academic goal setting. It offers the tools and plan of action to use performance data to improve instructional practice and increase student achievement. The book is divided into three parts: (1) How Student Achievement Data Can Be…
Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Takayoshi; Itoh, Kazuaki
The students' communication skills in English have improved after introducing Extensive Reading courses into the curriculum of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department. The students' average TOEIC scores, which used to be far lower than the ones of students in other educational institutions, have increased in recent two years. The students who used to avoid learning English have welcomed extensive reading of graded readers for foreign learners and books for native children of English. This is because the extensive reading causes less stress and it is enjoyable. The students who have read more than 0.2 million words of English texts have faster reading speed and more confidence in reading. They seem to change their reading style from English-to-Japanese translation (and comprehension in Japanese) to direct comprehension in English. Their listening comprehension is also improved. Extensive reading is an effective educational method to improve English communication skills of engineering students, and it also becomes a useful method of continuous education for engineers in need of improving their skills.
Robbins-Lavicka, Michelle M.
There is a lack of qualified mathematics and science teachers at all levels of education in Arkansas. Lasting teaching initiative programs are needed to address retention so qualified teachers remain in the classroom. The dearth of studies regarding why mathematics and science teachers persist in the classroom beyond the traditional 5-year attrition period led this Q-methodological study to evaluate the subjective perceptions of persistent mathematics and science teachers to determine what makes them stay. This study sought to understand what factors persisting mathematics and science teachers used to explain their persistence in the classroom beyond 5 years and what educational factors contributed to persisting mathematics and science teachers. Q-methodology combines qualitative and quantitative techniques and provided a systematic means to investigate personal beliefs by collecting a concourse, developing a Q-sample and a person-sample, conducting a Q-sorting process, and analyzing the data. The results indicated that to encourage longevity within mathematics and science classrooms (a) teachers should remain cognizant of their ability to influence student attitudes toward teaching; (b) administrators should provide support for teachers and emphasize the role and importance of professional development; and (c) policy makers should focus their efforts and resources on developing recruitment plans, including mentorship programs, while providing and improving financial compensation. Significantly, the findings indicate that providing mentorship and role models at every level of mathematics and science education will likely encourage qualified teachers to remain in the mathematics and science classrooms, thus increasing the chance of positive social change.
Preszler, Ralph W.
Peer-facilitated workshops enhanced interactivity in our introductory biology course, which led to increased student engagement and learning. A majority of students preferred attending two lectures and a workshop each week over attending three weekly lectures. In the workshops, students worked in small cooperative groups as they solved challenging problems, evaluated case studies, and participated in activities designed to improve their general learning skills. Students in the workshop versio...
Shepherd, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Arko, R. A.; Fils, D.; Jones, M. B.; Krisnadhi, A.; Mecum, B.
The adoption of linked open data principles within the geosciences has increased the amount of accessible information available on the Web. However, this data is difficult to consume for those who are unfamiliar with Semantic Web technologies such as Web Ontology Language (OWL), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL - the RDF query language. Consumers would need to understand the structure of the data and how to efficiently query it. Furthermore, understanding how to query doesn't solve problems of poor precision and recall in search results. For consumers unfamiliar with the data, full-text searches are most accessible, but not ideal as they arrest the advantages of data disambiguation and co-reference resolution efforts. Conversely, URI searches across linked data can deliver improved search results, but knowledge of these exact URIs may remain difficult to obtain. The increased adoption of Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) can lead to improved linked data querying by a wide variety of consumers. Because PIDs resolve to a single entity, they are an excellent data point for disambiguating content. At the same time, PIDs are more accessible and prominent than a single data provider's linked data URI. When present in linked open datasets, PIDs provide balance between the technical and social hurdles of linked data querying as evidenced by the NSF EarthCube GeoLink project. The GeoLink project, funded by NSF's EarthCube initiative, have brought together data repositories include content from field expeditions, laboratory analyses, journal publications, conference presentations, theses/reports, and funding awards that span scientific studies from marine geology to marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry to paleoclimatology.
Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.; Wingate, Julius J.; Kraska, Marie F.; Beckert, Troy E.
This study examines the use of polling students to improve conditions of learning in their school. Students from three schools (N = 2,006) in Grades 5, 6, 7, and 8 completed an online poll about how cyberbullying affects their personal lives. Principals' impressions about the benefits of student polling are explained along with the Cyberbullying…
Full Text Available Purpose - to improve the organizational and methodological foundations of physical education for the improvement of high school students in training. The study involved 152 students of the second year of the International Economics and Humanities University named after Stepan Demyanchuk. Students were divided into control (n = 76 and primary (n = 76 groups, which were similar in age and physical development. At the end of the study, through the application of the proposed technique improvement in students the core group, was able to restore the function of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems to the possibilities of healthy untrained people. A similar increase in the functionality of the core group of students registered with the definition of the index Skibinski - held a combined evaluation of functions of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of students and determine its growth with satisfactory to good level.
Feldon, David F; Peugh, James; Timmerman, Briana E; Maher, Michelle A; Hurst, Melissa; Strickland, Denise; Gilmore, Joanna A; Stiegelmeyer, Cindy
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduate students are often encouraged to maximize their engagement with supervised research and minimize teaching obligations. However, the process of teaching students engaged in inquiry provides practice in the application of important research skills. Using a performance rubric, we compared the quality of methodological skills demonstrated in written research proposals for two groups of early career graduate students (those with both teaching and research responsibilities and those with only research responsibilities) at the beginning and end of an academic year. After statistically controlling for preexisting differences between groups, students who both taught and conducted research demonstrate significantly greater improvement in their abilities to generate testable hypotheses and design valid experiments. These results indicate that teaching experience can contribute substantially to the improvement of essential research skills.
LeBeau, J. E.; Pressley, S. N.
A number of techniques are employed each year to evaluate the effectiveness of and to identify opportunities for improvement in the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (LAR) REU program at Washington State University. For example, information gathered from pre-/post-surveys and pre-/post-interviews provides information regarding students' perceptions and levels of experience with the scientific process, career and academic goals, and motivation for joining the REU program. Poster session rubrics assess students' abilities to summarize their experiences in a professional setting. Alumni surveys gauge former participants' perceptions of the REU experience. One seemingly simple and highly useful, but often less documented, component of the evaluation process for program improvement is the use of workshop feedback forms. Weekly workshops are designed to provide students with enhanced knowledge and skills in the area of atmospheric chemistry as well as research design skills, academic and career guidance, and presentation skills. According to previous years' evaluation reports, workshops are largely beneficial to students for learning new skills. Yet, students suggest a number of recommendations that may benefit any REU program, such as: providing slides beforehand to provide a framework for the upcoming workshop, having instructors speak in more student-friendly language, covering higher-level topics, and including more hands-on, instructor-guided practice during the workshops. Thus, workshop feedback forms provide meaningful feedback to increase learning outcomes and enhance the REU student experience. This presentation will offer ideas gathered from over five years of workshop feedback forms that, while somewhat specific to workshops offered for the LAR REU, can offer faculty and PIs insight into the student experience, enhancing their ability to improve programming and achieve greater learning outcomes.
Cheng, Zijia; Southcott, Jane
Many students learn to play the piano but some lack the motivation to continue learning. Many students learn for extrinsic reasons. This research will explore understandings about student motivation held by expert piano teachers who have developed strategies to improve their students' intrinsic motivation to begin and continue learning. This small…
Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen
Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Diggele C
Full Text Available Christie van Diggele,1 Annette Burgess,2 Craig Mellis21The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Sydney Medical School – Central, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaIntroduction: Skills in peer teaching, assessment, and feedback are increasingly documented internationally as required graduate attributes in medicine. Yet these skills are rarely taught in medical schools. We sought to design and deliver a short but effective teacher training (TT program for medical students that could be easily integrated into the professional development curriculum. This study sought to evaluate such a pilot program, based on student perception.Methods: The study took place at a major metropolitan teaching hospital, where 38 medical students were invited to attend a voluntary, newly designed four-module TT program. In total, 23/38 (61% of invited students attended. Mixed methods were used for evaluation. Questionnaires were completed by 21/23 (91% of students, and 6/23 (26% of students participated in a focus group.Results: Students reported that as a result of the program they felt more confident to facilitate small group teaching activities and to provide feedback to peers using the suggested frameworks. Students would like the program to contain more in-depth educational theory and to allow a more time for small group learning activities. They would also like to see opportunities for participation across all clinical schools.Conclusion: The TT program was successful in increasing student awareness of educational theory and practice, thereby improving their confidence in teaching and assessing their peers and making them feel better prepared for their careers as medical practitioners. Key improvements to the program are needed in terms of more in-depth theory and more time spent on small group learning. This might be achieved by complementing the course with e-learning.Keywords: teacher training, medical students, peer teaching, peer
This study aims to describe how Total Physical Response improves students' vocabulary learning outcomes at the third-grade elementary school Guntur 03 South Jakarta, Indonesia. This research was conducted in the first semester of the academic year 2015-2016 with the number of students as many as 40 students. The method used in this research is a…
Agus D. Susanto
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate effect of proton pump inhibitor (esomeprazole on asthma symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilator and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR in moderate persistent asthma with gastroesofageal refluks disease (GERD. This randomized single blind, controlled clinical trial study was conducted at Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta from July 2004 until October 2005. Samples were moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. GERD is diagnosed GERD symptoms and proof of oesophagitis from endoscopy and or histapatologic examination from oesophagus biopsy. Phase 1:2 week run-in period patient received inhaled budesonide 2x200 ug/day. Phase 2: patient randomised to receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 400 ug/day with esomeprazole 40 mg/day or without esomeprazole (control group for 8 weeks. Phase 3: 4 week wash out period, patient receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 200 ug/day. Diary cards were assessed at run-in periode, after treatment 4 weeks, 8 weeks and wash out. There were 32 patients (23 female and 9 male completed the study. Mean total asthma symptoms score daily were significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-2.29 vs -0.90; p < 0.05. Mean use of inhaled bronchodilator was significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-1.09 vs -0.42; p < 0.05. Morning and evening PEFR improved higher on esomeprazole than without esomeprazol but were not significantly difference. In conclusion, administration esomeprazole 40 mg daily improved asthma symptoms and lower the use of inhaled bronchodilator in moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 169-74Keywords: Asthma symptoms, inhaled bronchodilator, moderate persistent asthma, GERD, esomeprazole
Lancellotti, Matthew; Thomas, Sunil; Kohli, Chiranjeev
The objective of this teaching innovation was to incorporate a comprehensive set of short online video modules covering key topics from the undergraduate principles of marketing class, and to evaluate its effectiveness in improving student learning. A quasiexperimental design was used to compare students who had access to video modules with a…
Tschannen, Dana; Aebersold, Michelle; Kocan, Mary Jo; Lundy, Francene; Potempa, Kathleen
In partnership with a major medical center, senior-level nursing students completed a root cause analysis and implementation plan to address a unit-specific quality issue. To evaluate the project, unit leaders were asked their perceptions of the value of the projects and impact on patient care, as well as to provide exemplars depicting how the student root cause analysis work resulted in improved patient outcome and/or unit processes. Liaisons noted benefits of having an RCA team, with positive impact on patient outcomes and care processes.
Hunter, Neil; Shah, Alexander; Bollina, Prasad; Bollina, Harsha
This exploratory piece details the development of the programme Medic Insight, which was established in 2007 in Lothian. This is an aptly-named unique organisation that provides an insight into life as a doctor for school students. We believe that the provision of work experience needs to be improved for both students and doctors. Securing work experience in medicine has historically been biased: individuals that have family or friends who work as doctors are able to organise shadowing placements with greater ease. Shadowing experiences are of questionable value, and frequently offer exposure to only one field, and administrators struggle to match doctors' working schedules with those of students. Medic Insight has been developed to address these key problems. It provides a free, application-based shadowing experience for 15-16-year olds, in addition to interactive seminars for younger students. Over the course of the 5-day shadowing experience (Medic Insight Week), students rotate through a variety of specialties, meeting doctors of all grades. Doctors agree to act as mentors prior to the shadowing weeks and post their availability online. Data from our pilot in 2008 has been encouraging. All students who answered our questionnaire found the experience to be either useful or very useful, and ongoing data collection is proving this to be an enjoyable and effective programme. We are confident that Medic Insight will help all suitably enthusiastic and able school students make informed decisions to apply to study medicine. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.
Alicia C. Dowd
Full Text Available This study examined the distribution of financial aid among financially dependent four-year college students and the effectiveness of different types of financial aid in promoting student persistence and timely bachelor’s degree attainment. The findings of descriptive statistical and logistic regression analyses using the NCES Beginning Postsecondary Students (1990-94 data show that subsidized loans taken in the first year of college have a positive effect on persistence. The first-year distribution of aid does not close the income gap in bachelor’s degree attainment. Living on campus and first-year grade point average are the most important predictors of timely degree completion.
Ellingsen, Pål Gunnar; Støvneng, Jon Andreas
We present an ongoing effort in improving the quality of laboratory reports written by first and second year physics students. The effort involves a new approach where students are given the opportunity to submit reports at intermediate deadlines, receive feedback, and then resubmit for the final deadline. In combination with a differential grading system, instead of pass/fail, the improved feedback results in higher quality reports. Improvement in the quality of the reports is visible through the grade statistics.
Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.
The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve
Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the process of student evaluation from “Spiru Haret” University. The process under consideration occurs according to a specific Procedure – Process of student evaluation from the Manual of Quality Assurance Procedures, “Spiru Haret” University, Edition 1, 2012. The goal of this procedure, mentioned in the Manual, is to present the student evaluation procedure by using the Blackboard educational platform and other evaluation techniques of quality learning, based on materials developed by teachers of “Spiru Haret” University, as well as corresponding responsibilities, in order to increase the learning process quality and the exigency degree in the examination process, as well as students’ satisfaction measured by accumulated competences. We appreciate that the purpose of this procedure is first and foremost to ensure transparency and objectivity in exam passing decision. After identifying the weaknesses with the “cause - effect” chart, we have sought to improve student evaluation process using PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act method, resulting in the design of a new assessment flowchart.
Ramón S. Barthelemy
Full Text Available Understanding course climate is important for improving students’ experiences and increasing the likelihood of their persistence in STEM fields. This study presents climate survey results from 523 students taking introductory biology at the University of Michigan. Principal component analysis revealed that a student’s climate experience is comprised of five main elements: comfort, school avoidance, relationship to course, academic stress, and discomfort. Of these climate factors, comfort, school avoidance, and relationship to course were significant predictors of course satisfaction, and academic stress was a significant predictor of persistence. The results indicated the importance of a positive climate that is facilitated by the instructor in order to promote a positive student experience. Climate may be an important metric for institutions to track across time and course.
Marsono, Sugandi, Machmud; Tuwoso, Purnomo
An effort to improve human resources quality in higher education can be done through an internship program. This program is important for the graduate student to enhance their self-development and entrepreneurship ability. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of internship course on the student's achievement, particularly of their professional competencies. Furthermore, this research was conducted to identify the type of industries that are suitable for internship program of the engineering students. The results showed that the investigation information related to data collection and assignment, lodging, suitability of expertise and some matters correlated to the process students' internship in industry. This study also found the method to improve the services of industries and university.
Full Text Available Student attrition has been a primary focus among higher education institutions for nearly 50 years, yet overall retention and graduation rates continue to be of significant concern. Despite increased attention, ongoing struggles of colleges and universities to effectively address potential barriers to student progress are well-documented. Part of the challenge lies in garnering widespread organizational commitment that establishes student progress as an institutional priority. Along with leadership commitment, broad institutional involvement and adherence to a systematic approach to testing new, innovative solutions are necessary to better position the institution to make clear, evidence-based decisions that improve the student experience. The purpose of this manuscript is to detail one university’s cultural shift towards establishing a clear student progress strategy (with particular focus on the first year, and the methodological approach that laid the foundation for a multi-year study of initiatives that resulted in improved student satisfaction, performance, and retention.
Pierozinski, Russell Ivan
The purpose of this research project was to improve student retention in the Computer Engineering Technology program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology by reducing the number of dropouts and increasing the graduation rate. This action research project utilized a mixed methods approach of a survey and face-to-face interviews. The participants were male and female, with a large majority ranging from 18 to 21 years of age. The research found that participants recognized their skills and capability, but their capacity to remain in the program was dependent on understanding and meeting the demanding pace and rigour of the program. The participants recognized that curriculum delivery along with instructor-student interaction had an impact on student retention. To be successful in the program, students required support in four domains: academic, learning management, career, and social.
Powers, Kristin; Shin, Seon-Hi; Hagans, Kristi S.; Cordova, Monica
Student engagement is associated with many positive outcomes, including academic achievement, school persistence, and social-emotional well-being. The present study examined whether the Freedom Writers Institute, a professional development program designed to improve teachers' skills in creating personalized learning environments, can increase…
National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments, 2017
Improving school climate takes time and commitment from a variety of people in a variety of roles. This document outlines key action steps to engage students in the school climate improvement process. Key action steps are provided for the following strategies: (1) Participate in planning for school climate improvements; (2) Engage stakeholders in…
Simon, Rebecca A.; Aulls, Mark W.; Dedic, Helena; Hubbard, Kyle; Hall, Nathan C.
To address continually decreasing enrollment and rising attrition in post-secondary STEM degree (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs, particularly for women, the present study examines the utility of motivation and emotion variables to account for persistence and achievement in science in male and female students…
Young, Allison; Klossner, Joanne; Docherty, Carrie L; Dodge, Thomas M; Mensch, James M
A better understanding of why students leave an undergraduate athletic training education program (ATEP), as well as why they persist, is critical in determining the future membership of our profession. To better understand how clinical experiences affect student retention in undergraduate ATEPs. Survey-based research using a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Three-year undergraduate ATEPs across District 4 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Seventy-one persistent students and 23 students who left the ATEP prematurely. Data were collected using a modified version of the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the quantitative data, followed by a univariate analysis of variance on any significant findings. The qualitative data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. A difference was identified between the persister and dropout groups (Pillai trace = 0.42, F(1,92) = 12.95, P = .01). The follow-up analysis of variance revealed that the persister and dropout groups differed on the anticipatory factors (F(1,92) = 4.29, P = .04), clinical integration (F(1,92) = 6.99, P = .01), and motivation (F(1,92) = 43.12, P = .01) scales. Several themes emerged in the qualitative data, including networks of support, authentic experiential learning, role identity, time commitment, and major or career change. A perceived difference exists in how athletic training students are integrated into their clinical experiences between those students who leave an ATEP and those who stay. Educators may improve retention by emphasizing authentic experiential learning opportunities rather than hours worked, by allowing students to take on more responsibility, and by facilitating networks of support within clinical education experiences.
Suraishkumar, G. K.
The statistical distribution of the student learning abilities in a typical undergraduate engineering class poses a significant challenge to simultaneously improve the learning of all the students in the class. With traditional instruction styles, the students with significantly high learning abilities are not satisfied due to a feeling of…
My Ph.D. research is about examining the persistence of 215 common misconceptions in astronomy. Each misconception is based on an often commonly-held incorrect belief by college students taking introductory astronomy. At the University of Maine, the course is taught in alternating semesters by Prof. Neil F. Comins and Prof. David J. Batuski. In this dissertation, I examine the persistence of common astronomy misconceptions by the administration of a retrospective survey. The survey is a new instrument in that it permits the student to indicate either endorsement or rejection of each misconception at various stages in the student's life. I analyze data from a total of 639 students over six semesters. I compare the survey data to the results of exams taken by the students and additional instruments that assess students' misconceptions prior to instruction. I show that the consistency of the students' recollection of their own misconceptions is on par with the consistency of responses between prelims and the final exam. I also find that students who report higher increased childhood interest in astronomy are more likely to have accurate recalls of their own past recollections. I then discuss the use of principal components analysis as a technique for describing the extent to which misconceptions are correlated with each other. The analysis yields logical groupings of subtopics from which to teach. I then present a brief overview of item response theory, the methodology of which calculates relative difficulties of the items. My analysis reveals orders to teach the associated topics in ways that are most effective at dispelling misconceptions during instruction. I also find that the best order to teach the associated concepts is often different for high school and college level courses.
Satuna Indah Wardani
Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find out whether the word mapping strategywas able to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. The process of masteringis mainly affected by the worst thought of the vocational students who said that English as the most difficult subject to learn and was often tracked into boringcondition since theywere not involved in the process of learning. Thisstudy was conducted by using classroom action research in two cycles and each cycleconsisted of four meetings. The subject of the research was the third grade of Accounting Department at State Vocational School 1 Pamekasan whichconsisted of 34 students. The research was carried out for one month.Theinstruments used to obtained primary data and the secondary data were vocabulary test, the students’ observation sheets, and questionnaire of the respondent.The result of test in preliminary until the test in cycle two showed that there was the improvement of the number of students who passed the test. Hopefully, this outcome will certainly be useful for both teachers and students in which its harmony will give the progress for learning English,especially vocabulary mastery.
Full Text Available The purposes of this study was to know how (1 Controlled composition teaching techniques implemented by the English teacher at SDN 027 Samarinda to improve vocabulary mastery, and (2 Controlled composition teaching techniques improves vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of SDN 027 Samarinda. This research used a Classroom Action Research (CAR as the research design. The subject of the research is the sixth grade students in the 2013/2014 academic year that consists of 43 students. The instruments employed in this study were observation checklist, field note, and vocabulary test. The result of the research showed that in cycle 1 the students’ achievement did not fulfill the minimal criteria of success. However the result of the cycle 1 was better than the preliminary study. The criteria of success did not fulfill in cycle one, some enhancement of the implementation of Controlled Composition were made in cycle two in the form of: Instruct the students bring dictionary, give more examples English sentences, guide the students find the mining of words in the dictionary and write a paragraph, more motivate the students and preparing a media/ picture .Meanwhile the students ’achievement in cycle two showed that fulfilled the criteria of success. Based on the findings and discussion, the conclusions : Firstly, Controlled composition was implemented well by the teacher of SDN 027 Samarinda. Controlled composition was implemented and gave impacts in: (a increasing the students’ vocabulary mastery significantly, (b making the students able to spell the vocabularies, (c making the students understand the meaning English words, and (d making the students able to pronounce English words quite good. Secondly, Controlled composition improved the students’ vocabulary mastery; it was only 20.9% of the students who achieved the English passing grade in the preliminary study, but then 81.39% of the students achieved the English passing grade in
Stodden, Robert A.
This program improvement guide is designed to assist district and school level interdisciplinary planning teams to improve career/vocational programs for students with disabilities. Its focus is on the integration of best practices within the educational program continuum to achieve positive student outcomes. The guide includes three sections.…
Saleha, Ayu -; -, Sumarsih -
This study concerns on Improving Students' Achievement in Writing Descriptive Text by Using Movie Posters. The underlying objective of this study is to investigate whether teaching descriptive by using movie posters potentially improves students' skill. The research was conducted by using Classroom Action Research (CAR). The subject of the research was class X of SMA SWASTA UTAMA MEDAN. The number of the students was 28. The procedure of the research was administrated into two cycles which ea...
Full Text Available Increasing the opportunity for students to be involved in inquiry-based activities can improve engagement with content and assist in the development of analysis and critical thinking skills. The science laboratory has traditionally been used as a platform to apply the content gained through the lecture series. These activities have exposed students to experiments which test the concepts taught but which often result in a predicted outcome. To improve the engagement and learning outcomes of our large first year biology cohort, the laboratories were redeveloped. Superlabs were run with 100 students attending weekly sessions increasing the amount of contact time from previous years. Laboratories were redeveloped into guided-inquiry and educators facilitated teams of students to design and carry out an experiment. To analyse the impact of the redevelopment on student satisfaction and learning outcomes, students were surveyed and multiple choice exam data was compared before and after the redevelopment. Results suggest high levels of student satisfaction and a significant improvement in student learning outcomes. All disciplines should consider including inquiry-based activities as a methodology to improve student engagement and learning outcome as it fosters the development of independent learners.
Full Text Available The directions of physical improvement in personal and individual approach and its impact on the health of students. The definitions of the concept of physical perfection and its main components: strength, speed, endurance, agility, flexibility. Special attention is paid to the importance of physical perfection as part of positive self-identity. Outlines the theory of the acquisition of physical improvement in the availability of a clear human motivation. It is noted that physical perfection is in need of motivation on the part of the student, the proper selection of a complex exercise and may be based only on a personal and individual approach based on the physical abilities of each student. Show the direction of their own physical fitness improvement during the self-study. It is shown that promoting the harmonious development of all-round, avoiding harmful habits, improve mental and physical performance and confidence in their own ability to significantly change the person's self esteem.
Simon, Rebecca A.
There is currently a shortage of science teachers in North America and continually decreasing rates of enrollment in science programs. Science continues to be the academic domain that sees the highest attrition rates, particularly for women. The purpose of the present study was to examine male and female students' experiences in mathematics and science courses during a crucial time in their academic development in an attempt to explain the high attrition rates in science between the last year of high school and the first year of CEGEP (junior college). In line with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), as well as achievement-goal theory (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996) and research on academic emotions, the study examined the relation between a set of motivational variables (i.e., perceptions of autonomy-support, self-efficacy, achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation), affect, achievement, and persistence. A secondary objective was to test a motivational model of student persistence in science using structural equation modeling (SEM). The sample consisted of 603 male and 706 female students from four English-language CEGEPs in the greater Montreal area. Just prior to beginning CEGEP, participants completed a questionnaire that asked about the learning environment in high school mathematics and science classes as well as student characteristics including sources of motivation, personal achievement goals, and feelings of competence. All students expressed an initial interest in pursuing a career in science by enrolling in optional advanced mathematics and science courses during high school. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences among male and female students across the variables measured. Structural equation modeling was used to test the validity of a questionnaire designed specifically to gather information about CEGEP students' experiences with mathematics and science, and to evaluate the fit of a model designed to reflect the
Joanggi Wiriatarina Harianto
Full Text Available Introduction: Patient safety is an important component of health services quality,and basic principles of patient care. Nursing students also have a great potential to make an action that could endanger the patient, because hospital is one of student practice area. The purpose of this study was to improve the nursing students competency in patient safety by using knowledge management SECI approached. Method: The study used exploratory survey, and quasy experiment. The samples were some of nursing students of STIKes Muhammadiyah Samarinda who were on internship programme that selected using simple random sampling technique, in total of 54 students. This research’s variables were the knowledge management SECI based-patient safety and nursing student’s competency. The data were collected by using questionnaires and observation. The data were analyze by using Partial Least Square (PLS. Result: The result showed that there were significant influence the implementation of a model patient safety based knowledge management seci on increased competence nursing students. Discussion: Improved student competency in patient safety using SECI knowledge management was carried out in four phases, that is Socialization, Externalization, Combination, and Internalization. The result was a new knowledge related to patient safety that able to improve the student’s competency.. Keywords: Patient safety, Knowledge management, SECI, competency
Full Text Available Students often got confused and felt hesitant when they speak English. This situation had caused poor speaking ability, which then lead to serious problem in the teaching-learning process. The application of scaffolding technique in the EFL learning might be the ideal solution; it had some principles that could improve the students’ speaking ability. This research is aimed at finding out the effect of the implementing Scaffolding Technique towards the students’ speaking ability. Participants were 50 (27 males and 23 females third-semester students, enrolled in a three-year diploma program in Travel and Tourism Business, State Polytechnic of Bali in 2017/2018 academic year. The students in the experimental group were given communicative activities such as brainstorming, business games, simulation, WebQuest, problem-solving, which were carefully designed to necessitate the implementation of the scaffolding technique. The students in the control group were taught by the deductive method of the lesson book. The students’ performance in the post-test was compared for both groups in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups in relation to the treatment. Significant differences occurring in the experimental group’s post-test speaking performance when compared to the pre-test indicate that the implementation of scaffolding technique can improve students’ speaking ability. The result of this study indicates scaffolding technique has the potential for use in promoting students’ speaking ability
Golding, Clinton; Adam, Lee
Many teachers in higher education use feedback from students to evaluate their teaching, but only some use these evaluations to improve their teaching. One important factor that makes the difference is the teacher's approach to their evaluations. In this article, we identify some useful approaches for improving teaching. We conducted focus groups…
Lawson, Timothy J.; Blackhart, Ginette C.; Gialopsos, Brooke M.
We describe an exercise involving the power balance wristband (PBW) designed to enhance students' ability to design scientific tests. An instructor demonstrated that the PBW improved a student's balance, strength, and flexibility and invited students to design and conduct a brief scientific test of the PBW. Research methods students who…
Being able to perform drug calculations accurately is an essential skill for nurses. Many studies, however, have demonstrated that nurses need to improve this area of their practice and in particular their mathematical skills. Several strategies have been implemented to develop the drug calculation skills of nurses, with mixed success. This article reports on a study that was carried out to investigate whether strategies implemented within a second-year pre-registration course were perceived by students to be helpful in improving their mathematical skills for drug calculations. The results demonstrated that students felt their mathematics and confidence improved as a result of these strategies. The students' evaluation of the learning strategy that they found most helpful in learning drug calculation gave a mixed result, indicating that students have differing learning styles and needs. The study also indicates that student nurses were able to integrate the mathematical skills into their nursing practice by having different strategies that allowed them to develop conceptual, mathematical and practical skills concurrently. The study recommends the implementation of integrated strategies to address drug calculation skills in student nurses, although further research is still required.
Dawn, Stefani; Dominguez, Karen D; Troutman, William G; Bond, Rucha; Cone, Catherine
To implement and assess the effectiveness of an activity to teach pharmacy students to critically evaluate clinical literature using instructional scaffolding and a Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric. The literature evaluation activity centered on a single clinical research article and involved individual, small group, and large group instruction, with carefully structured, evidence-based scaffolds and support materials centered around 3 educational themes: (1) the reader's awareness of text organization, (2) contextual/background information and vocabulary, and (3) questioning, prompting, and self-monitoring (metacognition). Students initially read the article, scored it using the rubric, and wrote an evaluation. Students then worked individually using a worksheet to identify and define 4 to 5 vocabulary/concept knowledge gaps. They then worked in small groups and as a class to further improve their skills. Finally, they assessed the same article using the rubric and writing a second evaluation. Students' rubric scores for the article decreased significantly from a mean pre-activity score of 76.7% to a post-activity score of 61.7%, indicating that their skills in identifying weaknesses in the article's study design had improved. Use of instructional scaffolding in the form of vocabulary supports and the Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric improved students' ability to critically evaluate a clinical study compared to lecture-based coursework alone.
Peralta, Claudia; Caspary, Melissa; Boothe, Diane
This study investigates how Latina/Latino youth resist, conform to, and persist in schooling, and explores their preparation for an education in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. Using Latino Critical Race Theory as a framework, evidence of the "sticky mess" of racial inequalities (Espinoza and Harris in Calif Law Rev 10:499-559, 1997) and the concept of community cultural wealth (Yosso in Race Ethn Educ 8:69-91, 2005) will be used to understand how Latina/o students successfully persist in college. Quantitative and qualitative findings collected at two public universities in 2007-2012 show that Latina/o parents play a significant role in influencing their children's decision to attend college; family, friend and community support and hard work have also been instrumental in college success. This is evident through parents' encouragement to persist, expectations to do well and students serving as role models for siblings and peers. As policy makers in the educational arena emphasize STEM fields, there is a significant opportunity for Latino students to make valuable contributions.
Using Appropriate Strategies to Improve Students' Comprehension of Chemistry Texts: A Guide for Chemistry Teachers. ... African Research Review ... Unfortunately, contemporary research insight into science reading is lacking and science educators tend to focus on methods of teaching specific subject matter and ...
Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Kim, Hyun Soo
Clinical experiment is a set of experience to help student acquire technic, attitude and knowledge by participating in the clinical work. The radiotechnologists who are employed in departments of radiology serve as clinical instructors. Their responsibilities include teaching students them to become competent radiotechnologist. Clinical instructors often have no formal preparation in teaching student. The purpose of this study is to review some principals that will help clinical instructors support and foster the professional development of student radiotechnologists. The clinical instructor should be able to identify the qualities of instructor, the characteristics of feedback and use facilitation skills when is evaluated student performance. And the survey was performed to evaluate the satisfaction of student participated in clinical experiment, the purpose of this research is to fine the problems and improvements in clinical experiment of student radiotechnologist in Korea
Vedartham, Padmaja B.
Community colleges train 60% of healthcare workers nationwide. Human anatomy and physiology (A&P) courses are considered prerequisite courses for all students who aspire to enter health-related programs. The attrition rates for A&P students at community colleges nationally are close to 50%. Community colleges with open-door policies admit nontraditional students who have historically been educationally and economically disadvantaged and are labeled at risk. At-risk students offer a challenge to the colleges and in particular to allied health programs with their mathematical and science oriented requirements. This case study was designed to determine the strategies used to increase the success rates and retention rates among A&P students at Austin Community College District (ACC) in Texas. Data show that ACC has almost 100% retention and higher success rates among A&P students as compared to other colleges. Qualitative data were collected from eight full-time faculty, three administrators, three administrative staff, one director, and two advisors. The findings linked both academic and nonacademic variables to high retention and success rates. The key strategies that helped the A&P students to overcome the challenges to persist and succeed were an assessment test, two preparatory biology courses, technology, and teaching strategies. Taking an assessment test before being permitted to access the class helped students prepare themselves for the rigors of A&P. These strategies provided the students with the foundation of knowledge in the basic biological principles and processes, study skills, and time management skills that would prepare them for the material presented in A&P courses and later in the allied health programs. The principle themes identified in this research--namely requiring students to take the assessment test, providing materials (BIOL.1308, CE4000, and online modules) to prepare students for taking the test, a $2 million grant awarded by the
Sethi, Jaspal Kaur; Nagendra, H R; Sham Ganpat, Tikhe
A student under optimal stress does bring out his or her best; however, extreme stress can result in mental health problems and deteriorates their academic performance. Students who esteem themselves low are most likely to engage in destructive and self-destructive behaviors. Moreover, excessive stress is harmful to academic performance and may lead to dropping out in student. Can Yoga be of benefit in students for improving their attention and self-esteem (SE)? To assess attention and SE in girls undergoing Integrated Yoga Module (IYM). Sixty low-income high school girls with 15.17 + 0.64 years of mean age participated in this single group pre-post study. The data was collected before and after 5 days of IYM. Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS 16. The data analysis showed 9.04% increase (P = 0.001) in SE scores, whereas d2 test for attention revealed 10.12% increase (P P < 0.001) in total number of errors. The present study suggests that of IYM can result in improvement of attention and SE among students and thereby enhancing their mental health and can help them in improving their academic achievement. Efforts aimed at reducing mental health problems among students may focus more on implementing effective and culturally acceptable interventions, such as Yoga, counseling, and social support. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.
Young, Allison; Klossner, Joanne; Docherty, Carrie L; Dodge, Thomas M; Mensch, James M
Context A better understanding of why students leave an undergraduate athletic training education program (ATEP), as well as why they persist, is critical in determining the future membership of our profession. Objective To better understand how clinical experiences affect student retention in undergraduate ATEPs. Design Survey-based research using a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach. Setting Three-year undergraduate ATEPs across District 4 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Patients or Other Participants Seventy-one persistent students and 23 students who left the ATEP prematurely. Data Collection and Analysis Data were collected using a modified version of the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed on the quantitative data, followed by a univariate analysis of variance on any significant findings. The qualitative data were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results A difference was identified between the persister and dropout groups (Pillai trace = 0.42, F1,92 = 12.95, P = .01). The follow-up analysis of variance revealed that the persister and dropout groups differed on the anticipatory factors (F1,92 = 4.29, P = .04), clinical integration (F1,92 = 6.99, P = .01), and motivation (F1,92 = 43.12, P = .01) scales. Several themes emerged in the qualitative data, including networks of support, authentic experiential learning, role identity, time commitment, and major or career change. Conclusions A perceived difference exists in how athletic training students are integrated into their clinical experiences between those students who leave an ATEP and those who stay. Educators may improve retention by emphasizing authentic experiential learning opportunities rather than hours worked, by allowing students to take on more responsibility, and by facilitating networks of support within clinical education experiences. PMID:23672327
Gislason, Gunnar H; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Abildstrom, Steen Z
BACKGROUND: Undertreatment with recommended pharmacotherapy is a common problem in heart failure and may influence prognosis. We studied initiation and persistence of evidence-based pharmacotherapy in 107,092 patients discharged after first hospitalization for heart failure in Denmark from 1995 t...... persistence, but nonpersistence identified a high-risk population of patients who required special attention. A focused effort on early treatment initiation, appropriate dosages, and persistence with the regimen is likely to provide long-term benefit. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug-14...
Young, C. Y.; Georgiopoulos, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Geiger, C. L.; Dagley-Falls, M. A.; Islas, A. L.; Ramsey, P. J.; Lancey, P. M.; Straney, R. A.; Forde, D. S.; Bradbury, E. E.
Nationally only 40% of the incoming freshmen Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors are successful in earning a STEM degree. The University of Central Florida (UCF) EXCEL programme is a National Science Foundation funded STEM Talent Expansion Programme whose goal is to increase the number of UCF STEM graduates. One of the key requirements for STEM majors is a strong foundation in Calculus. To improve student learning in calculus, the EXCEL programme developed two special courses at the freshman level called Applications of Calculus I (Apps I) and Applications of Calculus II (Apps II). Apps I and II are one-credit classes that are co-requisites for Calculus I and II. These classes are teams taught by science and engineering professors whose goal is to demonstrate to students where the calculus topics they are learning appear in upper level science and engineering classes as well as how faculty use calculus in their STEM research programmes. This article outlines the process used in producing the educational materials for the Apps I and II courses, and it also discusses the assessment results pertaining to this specific EXCEL activity. Pre- and post-tests conducted with experimental and control groups indicate significant improvement in student learning in Calculus II as a direct result of the application courses.
Winkelman, Colin Kim
This qualitative case study examined women students' perceptions of major influences on their successful completion of a Bachelor of Science degree in nine different disciplines of engineering. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 female engineering students at an Institute of Technology over the period of a school year. The conceptual framework of analysis linked theoretical principles to categories of analysis that were correlated to three outcomes: preparation, persistence, and response. Emergent properties generated from in-depth interviews were then linked to the categories of preparation, interest-congruence, gender identity, social acceptance, campus culture, learning styles, classroom and faculty relations, sense of accomplishment, tokenism, career expectations, and family planning. Data collection was triangulated through individual interviews and a focus group with the 13 respondents and comparisons to quantitative research outcomes concerning self-confidence, persistence, satisfaction, and career expectations. The findings generally support the theories and propositions outlined in the conceptual framework constructed for this study. The most important of these findings include the impact of social conditioning on gender and academic preparation, the correlation of peer group relations to persistence, and the future expectations female students derive from their experiences over their 4 years of study. The data strongly suggest that traditional gender roles are a social conditioning process that can be overcome, permitting women to succeed in nontraditional academic career fields. Further research could build on these findings to explore social changes in attitudes about women engineers in the workplace, comparisons between men and women's persistence styles, and the importance of science and mathematics intervention programs for girls.
Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Weiss, Cora; Fischer, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang
Although it is taken for granted that history-taking and communication skills are learnable, this learning process should be confirmed by rigorous studies, such as randomized pre- and post-comparisons. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a communication course measurably improves the communicative competence of third-year medical students at a German medical school and whether technical or emotional aspects of communication changed differently. A sample of 32 randomly selected students performed an interview with a simulated patient before the communication course (pre-intervention) and a second interview after the course (post-intervention), using the Calgary-Cambridge Observation Guide (CCOG) to assess history taking ability. On average, the students improved in all of the 28 items of the CCOG. The 6 more technically-orientated communication items improved on average from 3.4 for the first interview to 2.6 in the second interview (p < 0.0001), the 6 emotional items from 2.7 to 2.3 (p = 0.023). The overall score for women improved from 3.2 to 2.5 (p = 0.0019); male students improved from 3.0 to 2.7 (n.s.). The mean interview time significantly increased from the first to the second interview, but the increase in the interview duration and the change of the overall score for the students' communication skills were not correlated (Pearson's r = 0.03; n.s.). Our communication course measurably improved communication skills, especially for female students. These improvements did not depend predominantly on an extension of the interview time. Obviously, "technical" aspects of communication can be taught better than "emotional" communication skills.
Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shen, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi
To observe the combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of women of advanced years. 120 elderly women lacking daily exercise were chosen as the study subjects. By using the table of random numbers, they were then divided into the control group and the experiment group, consisting of 60 each. The control group practiced Taiji boxing for 45 minutes twice a day. The experiment group did the same, and, in addition, took astragalus soup after each boxing. Indexes related to physical immunity of the two groups were observed and compared when they were first chosen, when the alternative treatment was applied three, six and twelve months later, respectively. The two groups demonstrated no significant differences in general data and research indexes when chosen (P > 0.05). Three months after the two groups were chosen and treated differently, the control group demonstrated no significant improvement while most indexes of the experiment group improved considerably (P > 0.05). After six months, the related indexes of both groups improved substantially (P soup.
Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena
Many classroom teachers are still using the traditional teaching methods. The traditional teaching methods are one-way learning process, where teachers would introduce subject contents such as language arts, English, mathematics, science, and reading separately. However, the school improvement model takes into account that all students have…
Full Text Available The questions of organization and conducting studies were considered by using system of hydro aerobics exercises for improving physical training of female students. Sixty female students took part in the experiment. All the tested girls were divided into two groups, 30 persons each. The tested group of female students made aerobic exercises on the dry land according to a plan. The female students of experimental group made hydro aerobics exercises according to the programme. Several methods were used: anthropometry, control methods of the functional parameters of the body, testing of the physical training indicators, methods of mathematical statistics. The reliable positive improvements of cardiovascular and respiratory systems were in the experimental group of the girls. The effect of the reliable decrease of fat mass of the tested female students was exposed among anthropometrical characteristics.
Stephenson, Robert L.
The majority of Grade 5 students demonstrate limited science knowledge on state assessments. This trend has been documented since 2010 with no evidence of improvement. Because state accountability formulas include proficiency scores and carry sanctions against districts that fail to meet proficiency thresholds, improved student performance in science is an important issue to school districts. The purpose of this study was to explore elementary teachers' perceptions about their students' science knowledge, the strategies used to teach science, the barriers affecting science teaching, and the self-efficacy beliefs teachers maintain for teaching science. This study, guided by Vygotsky's social constructivist theory and Bandura's concept of self-efficacy, was a bounded instrumental case study in which 15 participants, required to be teaching K-5 elementary science in the county, were interviewed. An analytic technique was used to review the qualitative interview data through open coding, clustering, and analytical coding resulting in identified categorical themes that addressed the research questions. Key findings reflect students' limited content knowledge in earth and physical science. Teachers identified barriers including limited science instructional time, poor curricular resources, few professional learning opportunities, concern about new state standards, and a lack of teaching confidence. To improve student content knowledge, teachers identified the need for professional development. The project is a professional development series provided by a regional education service agency for K-5 teachers to experience science and engineering 3-dimensional learning. Area students will demonstrate deeper science content knowledge and benefit from improved science instructional practice and learning opportunities to become science problem solvers and innovative contributors to society.
Galán, Jorge E.; Pollitt, Michael G.
The electricity reform in Colombia has exhibited gains in terms of reliability but its effects on firm efficiency and service quality have not been clear. Previous studies evaluating the performance of distribution companies after the reform have not found evidence of improvements, although large differences in efficiency have been found among firms. This suggests high inefficiency persistence and heterogeneity in the Colombian distribution sector. In this paper, we propose an extension of dynamic stochastic frontier models that accounts for unobserved heterogeneity in the inefficiency persistence and in the technology. The model incorporates total expenses, service quality and energy losses in an efficiency analysis of Colombian distributors over fifteen years after the reform. We identify the presence of high inefficiency persistence in the sector, and important differences between firms. In particular, rural companies and firms with small customers present low persistence and evidence the largest gains in efficiency during the period. However, increases in efficiency are only manifested during thelast five years when the main improvements in service quality and energy losses are presented. Overall, inefficiency persistence, customer density and consumption density are found to be important criteria to be considered for regulatory purposes. - Highlights: • We evaluate efficiency of Colombian electricity distributors after the reform. • We use a stochastic frontier model with dynamic effects and heterogeneity. • We find high inefficiency persistence but important differences among firms. • High persistent and low efficient firms should draw the attention of the regulator. • Recent regulation in quality has increased not only efficiency but also tariffs
Essa, Alfred; Ayad, Hanan
The need to educate a competitive workforce is a global problem. In the US, for example, despite billions of dollars spent to improve the educational system, approximately 35% of students never finish high school. The drop rate among some demographic groups is as high as 50-60%. At the college level in the US only 30% of students graduate from…
Lami, Mariam; Nair, Pooja; Gadhvi, Karishma
Questions have been raised about basic life support (BLS) training in medical education. This article addresses the research evidence behind why BLS training is inadequate and suggests recommendations for improving BLS training for medical students.
Hershkovitz, Arnon; Nachmias, Rafi
This research consists of an empirical study of online persistence in Web-supported courses in higher education, using Data Mining techniques. Log files of 58 Moodle websites accompanying Tel Aviv University courses were drawn, recording the activity of 1189 students in 1897 course enrollments during the academic year 2008/9, and were analyzed…
Nair, Pooja; Barai, Ishani; Prasad, Sunila; Gadhvi, Karishma
Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit
Batz, Zachary; Olsen, Brian J.; Dumont, Jonathan; Dastoor, Farahad; Smith, Michelle K.
The high attrition rate among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors has long been an area of concern for institutions and educational researchers. The transition from introductory to advanced courses has been identified as a particularly “leaky” point along the STEM pipeline, and students who struggle early in an introductory STEM course are predominantly at risk. Peer-tutoring programs offered to all students in a course have been widely found to help STEM students during this critical transition, but hiring a sufficient number of tutors may not be an option for some institutions. As an alternative, this study examines the viability of an optional peer-tutoring program offered to students who are struggling in a large-enrollment, introductory biology course. Struggling students who regularly attended peer tutoring increased exam performance, expert-like perceptions of biology, and course persistence relative to their struggling peers who were not attending the peer-tutoring sessions. The results of this study provide information to instructors who want to design targeted academic assistance for students who are struggling in introductory courses. PMID:25976652
Bitran, Marcela; Zúñiga, Denisse; Flotts, Paulina; Padilla, Oslando; Moreno, Rodrigo
Despite being among the best academically prepared of the country, many medical students have difficulties to communicate in writing. In 2005, the School of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile introduced a writing workshop in the undergraduate curriculum, to enhance the students' writing skills. To describe the workshop and its impact on the writing skills of 3 cohorts of students. This 30-h workshop used a participative methodology with emphasis on deliberate practice and feedback. Students worked in small groups with a faculty member specially trained in writing. The qualities of the essays written before and after the workshop were compared. Essays were rated by a professional team that used an analytic rubric to measure formal aspects of text writing as well as more complex thinking processes. There was a significant improvement in the quality of the texts written after the workshop; the main changes occurred in argumentation, and in paragraph and text structure. This improvement was inversely proportional to the initial level of performance, and independent of gender. A writing workshop based on deliberate practice and personalized feedback is effective to enhance the writing proficiency of medical students. Due to its design, this workshop could be useful for students of other careers and universities.
Martinez, Edward F.; Bilges, Dolores C.; Shabazz, Sherrille T.; Miller, Rhoda; Morote, Elsa-Sofia
This exploratory study examines the difference between two college persistence factors--resiliency and institutional engagement--for low-income, working, first-generation college students. Participants in the study consisted of 52 respondents to the Family History Knowledge and College Persistence Survey. Among respondents, 50 students reported…
Apino, E.; Retnawati, H.
This study aimed to describe the instructional design to improve the Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) of students in learning mathematics. This research is design research involving teachers and students of class X MIPA 1 MAN Yigyakarta III, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data collected through focus group discussions and tests. Data analyzed by quantitative descriptive. The results showed that the instructional design developed is effective to improving students’ HOTS in learning mathematics. Instructional design developed generally include three main components: (1) involve students in the activities non-routine problem solving; (2) facilitating students to develop the ability to analyze and evaluate (critical thinking) and the ability to create (creative thinking); and (3) encourage students to construct their own knowledge.
Whillans, Ashley V.; Hope, Sally E.; Wylie, Lauren J.; Zhao, Bob; Souza, Michael J.
Promoting undergraduate engagement is an important and challenging obstacle at large research-focused universities. Thus, the current study evaluated whether a peer-led program of student-geared events could improve engagement among a diverse group of psychology students early on in their degrees. We randomly assigned interested second-year…
Wachob, David A.
Literacy skills are an essential part of academic performance. When physical educators collaborate with classroom teachers to address these skills, student engagement in the learning process can greatly improve. This article begins by reviewing the growing issues surrounding student literacy and its impact on academic performance. The discussion…
Lewis, Ariane; Howard, Jonathan; Watsula-Morley, Amanda; Gillespie, Colleen
Medical student knowledge about brain death determination is limited. We describe an educational initiative to improve medical student awareness about brain death and assess the impact of this initiative. Beginning in July 2016, students at our medical school were required to attend a 90-min brain death didactic and simulation session during their neurology clerkship. Students completed a test immediately before and after participating in the initiative. Of the 145 students who participated in this educational initiative between July 2016 and June 2017, 124 (86%) consented to have their data used for research purposes as part of a medical education registry. Students correctly answered a median of 53% of questions (IQR 47-58%) on the pretest and 86% of questions (IQR 78-89%) on the posttest (p initiative (18% of students were comfortable performing a brain death evaluation before the initiative and 86% were comfortable doing so after the initiative, p initiative and 76% were comfortable doing so after the initiative, p initiative, but awareness and comfort dealing with brain death improved significantly after this initiative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of inter-teaching; a student engagement pedagogy associated with behavioural and engagement theories and designed to engage students in their own learning. This methodology was introduced as a response to create a more positive outcome for students studying an auditing course who have historically experienced difficulties with successfully completing the subject. Inter-teaching was implemented and its effectiveness measured by comparing the final exam grade distributions from inter-teaching and the lecture tutorial teaching methods. Using a quantitative research methodology, students fail grade distributions were significantly lower in the inter-teaching semesters compared to previous semesters where the instructional method of teaching was the lecture model. The results suggested that inter-teaching may be a more effective method of teaching, resulting in an improved academic performance in the auditing course. It is expected that this study will contribute towards the effectiveness of student learning, an improvement in pass rates, and overall greater student satisfaction in advanced accounting courses.
Moon, H.; Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.
The persistence of drought events largely determines the severity of socioeconomic and ecological impacts, but the capability of current global climate models (GCMs) to simulate such events is subject to large uncertainties. In this study, the representation of drought persistence in GCMs is assessed by comparing state-of-the-art GCM model simulations to observation-based data sets. For doing so, we consider dry-to-dry transition probabilities at monthly and annual scales as estimates for drought persistence, where a dry status is defined as negative precipitation anomaly. Though there is a substantial spread in the drought persistence bias, most of the simulations show systematic underestimation of drought persistence at global scale. Subsequently, we analyzed to which degree (i) inaccurate observations, (ii) differences among models, (iii) internal climate variability, and (iv) uncertainty of the employed statistical methods contribute to the spread in drought persistence errors using an analysis of variance approach. The results show that at monthly scale, model uncertainty and observational uncertainty dominate, while the contribution from internal variability is small in most cases. At annual scale, the spread of the drought persistence error is dominated by the statistical estimation error of drought persistence, indicating that the partitioning of the error is impaired by the limited number of considered time steps. These findings reveal systematic errors in the representation of drought persistence in current GCMs and suggest directions for further model improvement.
Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Limberger, Matthias F; Schmahl, Christian; Steil, Regina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W; Bohus, Martin
Three months of inpatient dialectical behavior therapy proved to be highly effective in patients with borderline personality disorder. This study investigates whether the effects of DBT persist after the patients returned to their usual lives. Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (DSM-IV) were prospectively followed-up for an observation period of 21 months after discharge from the DBT program, under naturalistic conditions.Improvements as observed after discharge persisted over the full follow-up period. This is reflected in a steady rate of remitted patients and in a broad range of psychopathology showing statistically and clinically significant effect-sizes ranging from 0.70 to 1.71. Analyses of courses over time revealed a high intraindividual concordance, indicating that short term treatment response predicted remission after 2 years follow-up. The effects of inpatient dialectical behavior therapy seem to persist after patients returned to their usual lives.
Harris, Donna M.; Kiyama, Judy Marquez
This study documents the important role school and community-based programs have for sustaining the persistence of Latina/o high school students in an urban, low achieving school district. Consensus among student participants revealed these programs provided a safe space where students were able to develop "confianza" (mutual trust) with…
Barros-Becker, Francisco; Romero, Jaime; Pulgar, Alvaro; Feijóo, Carmen G.
Background The excessive use of antibiotics in aquaculture can adversely affect not only the environment, but also fish themselves. In this regard, there is evidence that some antibiotics can activate the immune system and reduce their effectiveness. None of those studies consider in detail the adverse inflammatory effect that the antibiotic remaining in the water may cause to the fish. In this work, we use the zebrafish to analyze quantitatively the effects of persistent exposure to oxytetracycline, the most common antibiotic used in fish farming. Methodology We developed a quantitative assay in which we exposed zebrafish larvae to oxytetracycline for a period of 24 to 96 hrs. In order to determinate if the exposure causes any inflammation reaction, we evaluated neutrophils infiltration and quantified their total number analyzing the Tg(mpx:GFP)i114 transgenic line by fluorescence stereoscope, microscope and flow cytometry respectively. On the other hand, we characterized the process at a molecular level by analyzing several immune markers (il-1β, il-10, lysC, mpx, cyp1a) at different time points by qPCR. Finally, we evaluated the influence of the inflammation triggered by oxytetracycline on the regeneration capacity in the lateral line. Conclusions Our results suggest that after 48 hours of exposure, the oxytetracycline triggered a widespread inflammation process that persisted until 96 hours of exposure. Interestingly, larvae that developed an inflammation process showed an improved regeneration capacity in the mechanosensory system lateral line. PMID:22590621
When students receive consistent and fair feedback about their behavior, program liability decreases. To help students to have a clearer understanding of minimum program standards and the consequences of substandard performance, the author developed attendance and participation monitoring and performance improvement instruments. The author discusses the tools that address absenteeism, tardiness, unprofessional, and unsafe clinical behaviors among students.
Wright, Newell D.; Larsen, Val
Employers of marketing graduates view good writing as a core marketing skill, but many marketing students are weak writers. The improvement of student writing should therefore be an important objective in a well-designed marketing curriculum. One-page papers combine the effective teaching of marketing concepts with writing instruction while…
Full Text Available Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit
JUNIOR OFFICER DEVELOPMENT IN A PERIOD OF PERSISTENT CONFLICT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...have less time 38Respondent 10 Email, March 30, 2012. 39Major General Edward C. Cardon , “Thoughts for SAMS Students,”(lecture, Marshall Auditorium...www.amazon.com/John-C.-Maxwell (accessed 18 April 2013). Lectures: Cardon , Edward. “Thoughts for SAMS Students.” Address to School of Advanced Military
Nawanto Agung Prastowo
Dark chocolate as a single dose is capable of improving verbal working memory in students, 3 hours after its consumption. Since cocoa contains multiple bioactive compounds, one approach might be to examine the neurocognitive effects of combinations of potential functional ingredients.
Oliver, Jason; Kowalczyk, Christine
Student presentations can often seem like a formality rather than a lesson in representing oneself or group in a professional manner. To improve the quality of group presentations, the authors modified the popular presentation style of Pecha Kucha (20 slides, 20 seconds per slide) for marketing courses to help students prepare and deliver…
Chow, Alan F.; Woodford, Kelly C.; Maes, Jeanne
Student understanding and retention can be enhanced and improved by providing alternative learning activities and environments. Education theory recognizes the value of incorporating alternative activities (games, exercises and simulations) to stimulate student interest in the educational environment, enhance transfer of knowledge and improve learned retention with meaningful repetition. In this case study, we investigate using an online version of the television game show, 'Deal or No Deal', to enhance student understanding and retention by playing the game to learn expected value in an introductory statistics course, and to foster development of critical thinking skills necessary to succeed in the modern business environment. Enhancing the thinking process of problem solving using repetitive games should also improve a student's ability to follow non-mathematical problem-solving processes, which should improve the overall ability to process information and make logical decisions. Learning and retention are measured to evaluate the success of the students' performance.
Zink, Brian J; Hammoud, Maya M; Middleton, Eric; Moroney, Donney; Schigelone, Amy
In 1999, the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) initiated a new career development program (CDP). The CDP incorporates the 4-phase career development model described by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Careers in Medicine (CiM). The CDP offers self-assessment exercises with guidance from trained counselors for 1st- and 2nd-year medical students. Career exploration experiences include Career Seminar Series luncheons, shadow experiences with faculty, and a shadow program with second-year (M2) and fourth-year (M4) medical students. During the decision-making phase, students work with trained faculty career advisors (FCA). Mandatory sessions are held on career selection, preparing the residency application, interviewing, and program evaluation. During the implementation phase, students meet with deans or counselors to discuss residency application and matching. An "at-risk plan" assists students who may have difficulty matching. The CiM Web site is extensively used during the 4 stages. Data from the AAMC and UMMS Graduation Questionnaires (GQ) show significant improvements for UMMS students in overall satisfaction with career planning services and with faculty mentoring, career assessment activities, career information, and personnel availability. By 2003, UMMS students had significantly higher satisfaction in all measured areas of career planning services when compared with all other U.S. medical students.
Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35) received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47) received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept
Kubacki Angela M
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35 received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47 received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being
Brookman, David M.
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…
Paul R Hernandez
Full Text Available Women are underrepresented in a number of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM disciplines. Limited diversity in the development of the STEM workforce has negative implications for scientific innovation, creativity, and social relevance. The current study reports the first-year results of the PROmoting Geoscience Research, Education, and SuccesS (PROGRESS program, a novel theory-driven informal mentoring program aimed at supporting first- and second-year female STEM majors. Using a prospective, longitudinal, multi-site (i.e., 7 universities in Colorado/Wyoming Front Range & Carolinas, propensity score matched design, we compare mentoring and persistence outcomes for women in and out of PROGRESS (N = 116. Women in PROGRESS attended an off-site weekend workshop and gained access to a network of volunteer female scientific mentors from on- and off-campus (i.e., university faculty, graduate students, and outside scientific professionals. The results indicate that women in PROGRESS had larger networks of developmental mentoring relationships and were more likely to be mentored by faculty members and peers than matched controls. Mentoring support from a faculty member benefited early-undergraduate women by strengthening their scientific identity and their interest in earth and environmental science career pathways. Further, support from a faculty mentor had a positive indirect impact on women's scientific persistence intentions, through strengthened scientific identity development. These results imply that first- and second- year undergraduate women's mentoring support networks can be enhanced through provision of protégé training and access to more senior women in the sciences willing to provide mentoring support.
Hernandez, Paul R; Bloodhart, Brittany; Barnes, Rebecca T; Adams, Amanda S; Clinton, Sandra M; Pollack, Ilana; Godfrey, Elaine; Burt, Melissa; Fischer, Emily V
Women are underrepresented in a number of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Limited diversity in the development of the STEM workforce has negative implications for scientific innovation, creativity, and social relevance. The current study reports the first-year results of the PROmoting Geoscience Research, Education, and SuccesS (PROGRESS) program, a novel theory-driven informal mentoring program aimed at supporting first- and second-year female STEM majors. Using a prospective, longitudinal, multi-site (i.e., 7 universities in Colorado/Wyoming Front Range & Carolinas), propensity score matched design, we compare mentoring and persistence outcomes for women in and out of PROGRESS (N = 116). Women in PROGRESS attended an off-site weekend workshop and gained access to a network of volunteer female scientific mentors from on- and off-campus (i.e., university faculty, graduate students, and outside scientific professionals). The results indicate that women in PROGRESS had larger networks of developmental mentoring relationships and were more likely to be mentored by faculty members and peers than matched controls. Mentoring support from a faculty member benefited early-undergraduate women by strengthening their scientific identity and their interest in earth and environmental science career pathways. Further, support from a faculty mentor had a positive indirect impact on women's scientific persistence intentions, through strengthened scientific identity development. These results imply that first- and second- year undergraduate women's mentoring support networks can be enhanced through provision of protégé training and access to more senior women in the sciences willing to provide mentoring support.
Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.
Løje, Hanne; Grex, Sara
In the future, there will be increasing demands for skilled and well-educated engineers who are capable of developing new solutions through innovation and can work in multidisciplinary teams. Therefore the universities are developing innovation and entrepreneurship programs to improve...... the innovation competences of the engineering students to meet this demand. In this paper, we will discuss how to improve innovation competences of engineering students and describe how it is done in a newly developed course at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The aim of the course is to strengthened...... innovation skills in addition to personal and interpersonal skills. This is done in close collaboration with companies. The outline for the course is that the students work in multidisciplinary teams with specific challenges offered by the companies. The main findings so far show the importance of the use...
Kadek Dodi Permana
Full Text Available This study aims to improve the Information and Communications Technology (ICT learning outcomes of the students in SMA N 2 Singaraja through the learning model of Job sheet-based Student Team Achievement Division (STAD. This is a classroom action research. The data analysis reveals that learning outcomes in cycle I gain a mean score of 80. 51 and a classical provisions of 15%. There are three students who pass with a minimum score of 85 in cycle I. From these categories, the students’ learning outcomes in the first cycle have not met the criterion of 85%. The mean score of cycle II is 88. 57 and the classical provisions is 90%. In the second cycle, there are 18 students who gain a minimum score of 85. Based on the success criterion, a research study is successful if the minimum completeness criterion reaches 85 and the minimum classical completeness criterion reaches 85%. From the categories, the students’ learning outcomes have been successfully improved since the percentage of classical completeness in the second cycle has reached its expected results.
Barnes, Lisa J; Parish, Robin
Academic advising is a key role for faculty in the educational process of health professionals; however, the best practice of effective academic advising for occupational and physical therapy students has not been identified in the current literature. The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to assess and improve the faculty/student advisor/advisee process within occupational and physical therapy programs within a school of allied health professions in the United States in 2015. A quality improvement initiative utilizing quantitative and qualitative information was gathered via survey focused on the assessment and improvement of an advisor/advisee process. The overall initiative utilized an adaptive iterative design incorporating the plan-do-study-act model which included a three-step process over a one year time frame utilizing 2 cohorts, the first with 80 students and the second with 88 students. Baseline data were gathered prior to initiating the new process. A pilot was conducted and assessed during the first semester of the occupational and physical therapy programs. Final information was gathered after one full academic year with final comparisons made to baseline. Defining an effective advisory program with an established framework led to improved awareness and participation by students and faculty. Early initiation of the process combined with increased frequency of interaction led to improved student satisfaction. Based on student perceptions, programmatic policies were initiated to promote advisory meetings early and often to establish a positive relationship. The policies focus on academic advising as one of proactivity in which the advisor serves as a portal which the student may access leading to a more successful academic experience.
Lisa J. Barnes
Full Text Available Academic advising is a key role for faculty in the educational process of health professionals; however, the best practice of effective academic advising for occupational and physical therapy students has not been identified in the current literature. The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to assess and improve the faculty/student advisor/advisee process within occupational and physical therapy programs within a school of allied health professions in the United States in 2015. A quality improvement initiative utilizing quantitative and qualitative information was gathered via survey focused on the assessment and improvement of an advisor/advisee process. The overall initiative utilized an adaptive iterative design incorporating the plan-do-study-act model which included a three-step process over a one year time frame utilizing 2 cohorts, the first with 80 students and the second with 88 students. Baseline data were gathered prior to initiating the new process. A pilot was conducted and assessed during the first semester of the occupational and physical therapy programs. Final information was gathered after one full academic year with final comparisons made to baseline. Defining an effective advisory program with an established framework led to improved awareness and participation by students and faculty. Early initiation of the process combined with increased frequency of interaction led to improved student satisfaction. Based on student perceptions, programmatic policies were initiated to promote advisory meetings early and often to establish a positive relationship. The policies focus on academic advising as one of proactivity in which the advisor serves as a portal which the student may access leading to a more successful academic experience.
Nthabiseng Audrey Ogude
Full Text Available A concerted institutional approach to improving student outcomes resulted in a faculty-based, student-focussed model for student success at the University of Pretoria (UP. The student academic development and excellence model (SADEM, developed by a Steering Committee for student success, employs developmental research and systems theory and targets all years of undergraduate study while prioritising the first year. Underpinned by a systemic metric framework and continuous improvement, interventions comprise institutional and faculty-based projects that target high impact modules and diverse students to improve retention, pass, and throughput rates. Though context specific, it offers solutions to international concerns - lack of a systemic approach; initiatives located in peripheral units; initiatives located outside academic disciplines and lack of participation by academic staff and a focus on retention of limited student subgroups instead of retention, pass, graduation and throughput rates of all students. The circumstances that led to its development, its key features and application at the UP, ways it can be adapted to other contexts, as well as its limitations and possible future directions are presented.
Full Text Available Integration of informatics competency into a nursing curriculum is important to ensure success throughout the education and career of contemporary nursing students. As enrollment in nursing programs increases, the diverse population of students from many different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds presents a challenge for faculty in addressing unique learning needs. Competency in informatics will allow the beginning nursing student to navigate the on-line teaching software used by colleges. With rigorous expectations in nursing programs, students may feel overwhelmed with assignments, organization, and time management. Frustration may build when students struggle with basic informatics competency, often leaving them unable to navigate instructional websites or work with necessary on-line learning content. The purpose of this project, Passport Project for Nursing Success, was to assess the skills, knowledge, and informatics comfort level of students, while providing computer training and teaching for beginning nursing students in an undergraduate nursing program in Central Illinois. The community college encompassed students from a ten county area, with 20 percent of the student population enrolled in the Applied Science curriculum. Initial implementation occurred prior to the students' first nursing course and emphasized basic skills necessary to navigate on-line learning software, library search engines, and electronic communication. The greatest barrier to successful implementation was faculty resistance and academic support during completion of the initial implementation of the Passport Project. Post- project surveys indicated overwhelming student support for the education received and improved retention rates of first semester nursing students.
Baker, Kimberly M.
Peer review is an established strategy for improving the quality of students' writing. This study moves beyond the focus on outcomes to assess the peer-review process. In particular, this study focuses on the timing of the peer review, a highly structured feedback form, and student writers' revisions after engaging in peer review. This study draws…
Brown, Jayna Nicole
Although traditional college students are more prepared for college-level math based on college admissions tests, little data have been collected on nontraditional adult learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between math placement tests and community college students' success in math courses and persistence to degree or certificate completion. Guided by Tinto's theory of departure and student retention, the research questions addressed relationships and predictability of math Computer-adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System (COMPASS) test scores and students' performance in math courses, persistence in college, and degree completion. After conducting correlation and regression analyses, no significant relationships were identified between COMPASS Math test scores and students' performance (n = 234) in math courses, persistence in college, or degree completion. However, independent t test and chi-squared analyses of the achievements of college students who tested into Basic Math (n = 138) vs. Introduction to Algebra (n = 96) yielded statistically significant differences in persistence (p = .039), degree completion (p college students' math competencies and degree achievement.
Full Text Available Acquiring writing skill needs a lot of practices, and to produce a piece of writing needs a long process; hence, the appropriate method of the teaching and learning is very important to help students master writing skill. This article aims at reporting a research on the implementation of Student Teams-Achievement Division (STAD as an alternative teaching method to improve students’ writing skill. Through Classroom Action Research design, the researcher did the research at fourth semester students of English Education study program of STAIN Kediri in academic year 2012-1013. The research procedures are planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The findings show that the implementation of STAD can improve the students’ writing skill which were indicated by the high percentage of the students’ active involvement and positive response on the implementation, and the students’ product of writing in which all of writing components can achieve good level in marking scheme as the minimum level.
Banks, Tachelle; Eaton, India
Preparing at-risk youth and students with mild disabilities for state and district tests is important for improving their test performance, and basic instruction in test preparation can significantly improve student test performance. The article defines noncognitive variables that adversely affect test-taker performance. The article also describes…
Jensen, Lars Peter
learnt. The setup of the traditional and the new version of the course is explained and the effects of the change analyzed by comparing two cohorts of first semester Software Engineering and Computer Science students. The course is aimed at improving the potential of freshmen students project work...... helping them to develop their skills in cooperation, learning and project management. After the semester each student group write a process analysis where they reflect on these issues and come up with ideas to improve their performance in the next project. The effect of the changes in the course...
Suraishkumar, G. K.
The statistical distribution of the student learning abilities in a typical undergraduate engineering class poses a significant challenge to simultaneously improve the learning of all the students in the class. With traditional instruction styles, the students with significantly high learning abilities are not satisfied due to a feeling of unfulfilled potential, and the students with significantly low learning abilities feel lost. To address the challenge in an undergraduate core/required course on 'transport phenomena in biological systems', a combination of learning strategies such as active learning including co-operative group learning, challenge exercises, and others were employed in a pro-advising context. The short-term and long-term impacts were evaluated through student course performances and input, respectively. The results show that it is possible to effectively address the challenge posed by the distribution of student learning abilities in a class.
Various concepts have been introduced to improve students' analytical thinking skills based on problem based learning (PBL). This paper introduces a new concept to increase student's analytical thinking skills based on a visual learning strategy. Such a strategy has three fundamental components: a teacher, a student, and a learning process. The…
Full Text Available This report focuses on research results from a project completed at Trier University in December 2015 that provides insight into whether a monolingual group of learners can improve their grammatical accuracy and reduce interference mistakes in their English via contrastive analysis and translation instruction and activities. Contrastive analysis and translation (CAT instruction in this setting focusses on comparing grammatical differences between students’ dominant language (German and English, and practice activities where sentences or short texts are translated from German into English. The results of a pre- and post-test administered in the first and final week of a translation class were compared to two other class types: a grammar class which consisted of form-focused instruction but not translation, and a process-approach essay writing class where students received feedback on their written work throughout the semester. The results of our study indicate that with C1 level EAP students, more improvement in grammatical accuracy is seen through teaching with CAT than in explicit grammar instruction or through language feedback on written work alone. These results indicate that CAT does indeed have a place in modern language classes.
Leisnert, L; Karlsson, M; Franklin, I; Lindh, L; Wretlind, K
In Sweden, the National Board of Health and Welfare forecasts a decrease in dentists with 26% and an increase in dental hygienists with 47% until the year of 2023. This, together with changes in both epidemiology, especially of dental caries, and political priorities, calls for an effective and well-developed cooperation between dentists and dental hygienists in future dentistry. Hence, the aim of this project was to investigate whether highlighting teamwork during the undergraduate studies of dental students and dental hygiene students could improve the students' holistic view on patients as well as their knowledge of and insight into each other's future professions. Thirty-four dental students and 24 dental hygiene students participated in the study. At the beginning of their final year in undergraduate education, a questionnaire testing the level of knowledge of the dental hygienists' clinical competences was completed by both groups of students. In addition, activities intending to improve teamwork quality included the following: (i) a seminar with a dentist representing the Public Dental Health Services in Sweden, (ii) dental students as supervisors for dental hygiene students, (iii) planning and treatment for shared patients and (iv) students' presentations of the treatments and their outcomes at a final seminar. The project was ended by the students answering the above-mentioned questionnaire for the second time, followed by an evaluation of the different activities included in the study. The knowledge of dental hygienists' competences showed higher scores in almost all questions. Both groups of students considered the following aspects important: seminars with external participants, dental students acting as supervisors and planning and treating shared patients. By initiating and encouraging teamwork between dental students and dental hygiene students, it is possible to increase knowledge on dental hygienists' competence and also to develop and strengthen a
Full Text Available Despite the identification of many genes and pathways involved in the persistence phenomenon of bacteria, the relative importance of these genes in a single organism remains unclear. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model, we generated mutants of 21 known candidate persister genes and compared the relative importance of these mutants in persistence to various antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim at different times. We found that oxyR, dnaK, sucB, relA, rpoS, clpB, mqsR, and recA were prominent persister genes involved in persistence to multiple antibiotics. These genes map to the following pathways: antioxidative defense pathway (oxyR, global regulators (dnaK, clpB, and rpoS, energy production (sucB, stringent response (relA, toxin–antitoxin (TA module (mqsR, and SOS response (recA. Among the TA modules, the ranking order was mqsR, lon, relE, tisAB, hipA, and dinJ. Intriguingly, rpoS deletion caused a defect in persistence to gentamicin but increased persistence to ampicillin and norfloxacin. Mutants demonstrated dramatic differences in persistence to different antibiotics at different time points: some mutants (oxyR, dnaK, phoU, lon, recA, mqsR, and tisAB displayed defect in persistence from early time points, while other mutants (relE, smpB, glpD, umuD, and tnaA showed defect only at later time points. These results indicate that varying hierarchy and importance of persister genes exist and that persister genes can be divided into those involved in shallow persistence and those involved in deep persistence. Our findings suggest that the persistence phenomenon is a dynamic process with different persister genes playing roles of variable significance at different times. These findings have implications for improved understanding of persistence phenomenon and developing new drugs targeting persisters for more effective cure of persistent infections.
Fowler, Terri O; Wise, Holly H; Mauldin, Mary P; Ragucci, Kelly R; Scheurer, Danielle B; Su, Zemin; Mauldin, Patrick D; Bailey, Jennifer R; Borckardt, Jeffrey J
Assessment of interprofessional education (IPE) frequently focuses on students' learning outcomes including changes in knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes. While a foundational education in the values and information of their chosen profession is critical, interprofessional learning follows a continuum from formal education to practice. The continuum increases in significance and complexity as learning becomes more relationship based and dependent upon the ability to navigate complex interactions with patients, families, communities, co-workers, and others. Integrating IPE into collaborative practice is critical to enhancing students' experiential learning, developing teamwork competencies, and understanding the complexity of teams. This article describes a project that linked students with a hospital-based quality-improvement effort to focus on the acquisition and practice of teamwork skills and to determine the impact of teamwork on patient and quality outcome measures. A hospital unit was identified with an opportunity for improvement related to quality care, patient satisfaction, employee engagement, and team behaviours. One hundred and thirty-seven students from six health profession colleges at the Medical University of South Carolina underwent TeamSTEPPS® training and demonstrated proficiency of their teamwork-rating skills with the TeamSTEPPS® Team Performance Observation Tool (T-TPO). Students observed real-time team behaviours of unit staff before and after staff attended formal TeamSTEPPS® training. The students collected a total of 778 observations using the T-TPO. Teamwork performance on the unit improved significantly across all T-TPO domains (team structure, communication, leadership, situation monitoring, and mutual support). Significant improvement in each domain continued post-intervention and at 15-month follow-up, improvement remained significant compared to baseline. Student engagement in TeamSTEPPS® training and demonstration of their
This article reports on the planning, implementation and evaluation of an intervention to improve school students' experience of using the school toilet in a primary school in Melbourne, Australia. 20 students from grades 2-6 participated in focus groups, to discuss what they valued about the school and raise awareness of issues they were not happy about. A common theme from all of the focus groups was that students reported avoiding use of the school toilets. Using the ideas generated from the focus groups, the student council (with input from staff), developed a self-administered pre- and post-test questionnaire. This was given to 220 students in grades 1-4, aged 6-10 years. Improvements suggested by the students were made to the toilet block, and then a post-test was administered. Independent t tests were conducted. The pre-test indicated that 71% of girls and 65% of boys feared the behaviour of other students in the toilet. Overwhelmingly, the qualitative comments focused on poor student behaviour in the toilets, with lack of privacy due to student misbehaviour mentioned in 90% of the comments. After the toilets were revamped, the greatest gains were made in students' attitudes toward the toilets, with a 37% increase in students who indicated they now liked the toilet facility. Incidents of vandalism also decreased; however, student misconduct in the toilets was still regarded as a problem. Involving students in refurbishing their toilets improved how students viewed the toilets and reduced vandalism; however, a different intervention is required to change inappropriate behaviours in the toilet.
Earthman, Glen, I.; Lemasters, Linda
The most persistent question in the field of school facility planning relates to that of the relationship between the built environment and the performance and behavior of users, particularly students. Ways in which the built environment affects two student variables--student achievement and student behavior--are explored. The first variable is…
Nurses need to be able to calculate accurate drug calculations in order to safely administer drugs to their patients (NMC, 2002). Studies have shown however that nurses do not always have the necessary skills to calculate accurate drug dosages and are potentially administering incorrect dosages of drugs to their patients (Hutton, M. 1998. Nursing Mathematics: the importance of application. Nursing Standard 13(11), 35-38; Kapborg, I. 1994. Calculation and administration of drug dosage by Swedish nurses, Student Nurses and Physicians. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 6(4), 389-395; O'Shea, E. 1999. Factors contributing to medication errors: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 8, 496-504; Wilson, A. 2003. Nurses maths: researching a practical approach. Nursing Standard 17(47), 33-36). The literature indicates that in order to improve drug calculations strategies need to focus on both the mathematical skills and conceptual skills of student nurses so they can interpret clinical data into drug calculations to be solved. A study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of implementing several strategies which focussed on developing the mathematical and conceptual skills of student nurses to improve their drug calculation skills. The study found that implementing a range of strategies which addressed these two developmental areas significantly improved the drug calculation skills of nurses. The study also indicates that a range of strategies has the potential ensuring that the skills taught are retained by the student nurses. Although the strategies significantly improved the drug calculation skills of student nurses, the fact that only 2 students were able to achieve 100% in their drug calculation test indicates a need for further research into this area.
Impelluso, Thomas J.
A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…
Vestal, Sharon Schaffer; Brandenburger, Thomas; Furth, Alfred
This paper describes how one university mathematics department was able to improve student success in Calculus I by requiring a co-requisite lab for certain groups of students. The groups of students required to take the co-requisite lab were identified by analyzing student data, including Math ACT scores, ACT Compass Trigonometry scores, and…
The enormous challenge confronting higher education today in relation to its revenue shortfall, lack of student persistence and low graduation rates are problematic. The literature proposes that if an institution of higher education increases student satisfaction rates, they will increase student persistence. Also, the literature suggests that an…
Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth
This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they…
The purposes of this study was to know how (1) Controlled composition teaching techniques implemented by the English teacher at SDN 027 Samarinda to improve vocabulary mastery, and (2) Controlled composition teaching techniques improves vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of SDN 027 Samarinda. This research used a Classroom Action…
Owca, Sally; Pawlak, Emmie; Pronobis, Melanie
This action research project implemented and evaluated a program for improving listening skills in order to improve academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of sixth- and eighth-grade students of three upper/middle class communities located near a large Midwestern city. The problem of poor listening skills was observed when students…
Pascarella, Ernest T.; Terenzini, Patrick T.
A five-scale instrument developed from a theoretical model of college attrition correctly identified the persistence/voluntary withdrawal decisions of 78.5 percent of 773 freshmen in a large, residential university. Findings showed that student relationships with faculty were particularly important. (Author/PHR)
Bagley, Spencer Franklin
The quality of education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is an issue of particular educational and economic importance, and Calculus I is a linchpin course in STEM major tracks. A national study is currently being conducted examining the characteristics of successful programs in college calculus (CSPCC, 2012). In work related to the CSPCC program, this study examines the effects on student outcomes of four different teaching strategies used at a single institution. The four classes were a traditional lecture, a lecture with discussion, a lecture incorporating both discussion and technology, and an inverted model. This dissertation was guided by three questions: (1) What impact do these four instructional approaches have on students' persistence, beliefs about mathematics, and conceptual and procedural achievement in calculus? (2) How do students at the local institution compare to students in the national database? And (3) How do the similarities and differences in opportunities for learning presented in the four classes contribute to the similarities and differences in student outcomes? Quantitative analysis of surveys and exams revealed few statistically significant differences in outcomes, and students in the inverted classroom often had poorer outcomes than those in other classes. Students in the technology-enhanced class scored higher on conceptual items on the final exam than those in other classes. Comparing to the national database, local students had similar switching rates but less expert-like attitudes and beliefs about mathematics than the national average. Qualitative analysis of focus group interviews, classroom observations, and student course evaluations showed that several implementation issues, some the result of pragmatic constraints, others the result of design choice, weakened affordances provided by innovative features and shrunk the differences between classes. There were substantial differences between the
Ojeda, Lizette; Castillo, Linda G.; Rosales Meza, Rocío; Piña-Watson, Brandy
This study examined how college persistence intentions and life satisfaction influenced by acculturation, enculturation, White marginalization, and Mexican American marginalization among 515 Mexican American college students. The utility of a path analysis model was supported. Enculturation positively predicted persistence and life satisfaction.…
Armbruster, Peter; Patel, Maya; Johnson, Erika; Weiss, Martha
We describe the development and implementation of an instructional design that focused on bringing multiple forms of active learning and student-centered pedagogies to a one-semester, undergraduate introductory biology course for both majors and nonmajors. Our course redesign consisted of three major elements: 1) reordering the presentation of the course content in an attempt to teach specific content within the context of broad conceptual themes, 2) incorporating active and problem-based learning into every lecture, and 3) adopting strategies to create a more student-centered learning environment. Assessment of our instructional design consisted of a student survey and comparison of final exam performance across 3 years-1 year before our course redesign was implemented (2006) and during two successive years of implementation (2007 and 2008). The course restructuring led to significant improvement of self-reported student engagement and satisfaction and increased academic performance. We discuss the successes and ongoing challenges of our course restructuring and consider issues relevant to institutional change.
McGaghie, William C.; Cohen, Elaine R.; Kaye, Marsha; Wayne, Diane B.
Background Cardiac auscultation is a core clinical skill. However, prior studies show that trainee skills are often deficient and that clinical experience is not a proxy for competence. Objective To describe a mastery model of cardiac auscultation education and evaluate its effectiveness in improving bedside cardiac auscultation skills. Design Untreated control group design with pretest and posttest. Participants Third-year students who received a cardiac auscultation curriculum and fourth year students who did not. Intervention A cardiac auscultation curriculum consisting of a computer tutorial and a cardiac patient simulator. All third-year students were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) set by an expert panel at posttest. Measurements Diagnostic accuracy with simulated heart sounds and actual patients. Results Trained third-year students (n = 77) demonstrated significantly higher cardiac auscultation accuracy compared to untrained fourth year students (n = 31) in assessment of simulated heart sounds (93.8% vs. 73.9%, p auscultation curriculum consisting of deliberate practice with a computer-based tutorial and a cardiac patient simulator resulted in improved assessment of simulated heart sounds and more accurate examination of actual patients. PMID:20339952
Kraemer, Kristen M; Luberto, Christina M; O'Bryan, Emily M; Mysinger, Erica; Cotton, Sian
Medical students face rigorous and stressful work environments, resulting in high rates of psychological distress. However, there has been a dearth of empirical work aimed at modifying risk factors for psychopathology among this at-risk group. Distress tolerance, defined as the ability to withstand emotional distress, is one factor that may be important in promoting psychological well-being in medical students. Thus, the aim of the current mixed-methods study was (a) to describe changes in facets of distress tolerance (i.e., emotional tolerance, absorption, appraisal, regulation) for medical students who completed a mind-body skills training group, and a no-intervention control group of students; (b) to examine the relationship between changes in psychological variables and changes in distress tolerance; and (c) to report students' perceptions of the mind-body group, with an emphasis on how the group may have affected personal and professional functioning due to improvements in distress tolerance. The mind-body program was an 11-week, 2-hour skills training group that focused on introducing, practicing, and processing mind-body skills such as biofeedback, guided imagery, relaxation, several forms of meditation (e.g., mindfulness), breathing exercises, and autogenic training. Participants were 52 first- and second-year medical students (62.7% female, Mage = 23.45, SD = 1.51) who participated in a mind-body group or a no-intervention control group and completed self-report measures before and after the 11-week period. Students in the mind-body group showed a modest improvement in all distress tolerance subscales over time (ΔM = .42-.53, p = .01-.03, d = .44-.53), whereas the control group showed less consistent changes across most subscales (ΔM = .11-.42, p = .10-.65, d = .01-.42). Students in the mind-body group qualitatively reported an improved ability to tolerate affective distress. Overall, improvements in psychological symptoms were associated with
Greenberg, Kathleen P.
A detailed rubric initially designed as a scoring instrument for grading APA-style empirical research reports was tested for its ability to help students improve their scientific writing skills. Students who used the rubric while preparing their reports wrote a higher quality report than did students who did not. Students also improved the quality…
Widanski, Bozena; Thompson, Jo Ann; Foran-Mulcahy, Katie; Abafo, Amy
A two-semester-long interdisciplinary support effort to improve student posters in organic chemistry lab is described. In the first semester, students' literature search report is supported by a workshop conducted by an Instruction Librarian. During the subsequent semester, a second workshop is presented by the Instruction Librarian, an English…
Russo-Gleicher, Rosalie J.
This article provides qualitative insights into addressing the issue of student retention in online classes in higher education. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted at random with 16 faculty who teach online courses at a large community college in the Northeast about how to improve online student retention. Qualitative analysis…
Miller, Scott; Redman, S.
Students in online courses continue to lag their peers in comparable face-to-face (F2F) courses (Ury 2004, Slater & Jones 2004). A meta-study of web-based vs. classroom instruction by Sitzmann et al (2006) discovered that the degree of learner control positively influences the effectiveness of instruction: students do better when they are in control of their own learning. In particular, web-based courses are more effective when they incorporate a larger variety of instructional methods. To address this need, we developed a series of online videos to demonstrate various astronomical concepts and provided them to students enrolled in an online introductory astronomy course at Penn State University. We found that the online students performed worse than the F2F students on questions unrelated to the videos (t = -2.84), but that the online students who watched the videos performed better than the F2F students on related examination questions (t = 2.11). We also found that the online students who watched the videos performed significantly better than those who did not (t = 3.43). While the videos in general proved helpful, some videos were more helpful than others. We will discuss our thoughts on why this might be, and future plans to improve upon this study. These videos are freely available on iTunesU, YouTube, and Google Video.
Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Tikoff, B.
Spatial thinking skills are critical to success in many subdisciplines of the geosciences (and beyond). There are many components of spatial thinking, such as mental rotation, penetrative visualization, disembedding, perspective taking, and navigation. Undergraduate students in introductory and upper-level geoscience courses bring a wide variety of spatial skill levels to the classroom, as measured by psychometric tests of many of these components of spatial thinking. Furthermore, it is not unusual for individual students to excel in some of these areas while struggling in others. Although pre- and post-test comparisons show that student skill levels typically improve over the course of an academic term, average gains are quite modest. This suggests that it may be valuable to develop interventions to help undergraduate students develop a range of spatial skills that can be used to solve geoscience problems. Cognitive science research suggests a number of strong strategies for building students' spatial skills. Practice is essential, and time on task is correlated to improvement. Progressive alignment may be used to scaffold students' successes on simpler problems, allowing them to see how more complex problems are related to those they can solve. Gesturing has proven effective in moving younger students from incorrect problem-solving strategies to correct strategies in other disciplines. These principles can be used to design instructional materials to improve undergraduate geoscience students' spatial skills; we will present some examples of such materials.
Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin
College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).
Jessie Siew Yin Chong
Full Text Available This study investigated the use of Lesson Study to improve Year 12 students' performance in conditional probability through Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL lessons. In total, 66 students comprised of three Year 12 classes of similar abilities, and their three respective teachers from a government junior college participated in the study. The instruments used to collect the relevant data in this study were teachers' reflective journals and students' achievement tests. The collected data were then analyzed and interpreted quantitatively using the SPSS. The analysis of the students' pre- and post-tests concluded that as the lesson plans were gradually refined and enhanced, their performance in solving conditional probability questions steadily improved.
Pérez López, Isaac José; Rivera García, Enrique; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel
Health education is one of the primary tools for health promotion, especially for those that will be responsible for educating on healthy habits in the future. To improve healthy lifestyle habits in university students through an educational intervention based on gamification. A cuasiexperimental design of two groups (i.e., experimental groups and control group) with pretest and postest measurements was carried out. A 4-month intervention was implemented in 148 students from the Physical Activity and Sport Sciences university degree. Habits related to diet and physical activity were evaluated using a questionnaire (scaled from -40 a +50) and the teaching-learning process through a qualitative analysis. At the end of the intervention, a very significant improvement was found in the global value of the healthy lifestyle habits of the experimental group (+13,5), highlighting the improvement obtained in its higher level of compliance in the breakfast (53,4%), in the number of diary meals (31,5%), in the reduction of the consumption of soft-drinks (19,2%) and in the increase of physical activity level, with an improvement of 12,3% of participants with respect to the baseline levels. On the other hand, no significant improvements were found in the control group. An educational intervention based on gamification improves healthy lifestyle habits of the students.
Full Text Available In theory grounded and experimentally tested the efficiency of employments on physical education of students on the basis of sporting oriented technologies. In experiment participated 30 students of 3 courses. The improvement of growth of most physical indexes rate is marked: speed qualities (at run on 100 m, power (bending, unbending of hands in support lying, speed-power (broad jump from a place, flexibility (inclination in before from position sitting on the floor. Recommendations are resulted on education of student youth a sense of collectivism; to the persistence, decision, purposefulness; attention and speed of thought; perfections of ability to manage the emotions, to development of physical qualities. It is proved that physical education of students on the basis of sporting oriented technologies positively influences on development of physical qualities, skills and abilities that is necessary for the future specialist.
Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Rohandi, Robertus; Jusoh, Azman
The objective of this study was to improve students' attitudes toward science using instructional congruence. The study was conducted in Malaysia, in three low-performing secondary schools in the state of Penang. Data collected with an Attitudes in Science instrument were analysed using Rasch modeling. Qualitative data based on the reflections of…
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is for helping students to improve their academic writing skills by changing the existing strategies which were considered ineffective at solving this kind of problem. This research was about how to improve student’s academic writing skills through contextual teaching and learning. The clientele of this research was the students of Civil Engineering Department of Bosowa University of Makassar. To gain the final result in this research there are three periods were needed. The result for the first period is only 26.67% or only 8 from 30 students could pass the standard qualifying. The students which passed the standard qualifying becomes 80% from 30 students in next period and in the final period the result was already succeeded, all of the students could pass the standard qualifying. Those experiments prove that this research showed that contextual teaching and learning effects can be used in helping students improve their academic writing skills. This research recommends the lecturer to conduct intensive training in the process of planning to write, the evaluation of sources of references, and the development of writing based on academic writing strategy.
Long, Knox S.; Baggett, Sylvia M.
When the IR detector on WFC3 is exposed to a bright source or sources, the sources not only appear in the original exposure, but can appear as afterimages in later exposures, a phenomenon known as persistence. The magnitude and duration of persistence for a fixed stimulus varies somewhat across the face of the detector. Our previous attempts to characterize this variation were limited to a correction that captures only the variation in the magnitude. Here we describe a simple model which allows for variations both in the magnitude and the duration of the persistence, and then evaluate quantitatively how much improvement this model provides. We conclude that while this was a useful experiment, it does not result in a marked improvement in our ability to predict persistence in the WFC3/IR array. We discuss why this was the case, and possible paths forward.
Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others
Research on attrition of university students has recently examined "dropping out" as the culmination of a complex interactive process. In order to examine differences between successful students (persisters) and students who officially withdrew from a major university, and to examine the accuracy of faculty and staff perceptions of students'…
Deng, Qiansong; Li, Yuanjie; Zheng, Lixin
Nowadays it is difficult to attract undergraduate students' interesting to put sufficient time to learn major courses in China, which are too hard for them to quick grasp and fully understanding. Here we report a digital education reform for improving interactions between students and instructors, in which we transform the abstract, obscure and boring knowledge, such as physical, mathematical, electronic or optical concepts into direct and dynamic 3-D model and flash. Therefore, this method can convert theoretical concepts into easy understanding pictures. Our several years' experience shows that this education mode can make students' willing to think and practice, then it is helpful for attracting their learning interests. Most students benefit from this education mode which can greatly enhance their understanding abilities.
Zakiya, Hanifah; Sinaga, Parlindungan; Hamidah, Ida
The results of field studies showed the ability of science literacy of students was still low. One root of the problem lies in the books used in learning is not oriented toward science literacy component. This study focused on the effectiveness of the use of textbook-oriented provisioning capability science literacy by using multi modal representation. The text books development method used Design Representational Approach Learning to Write (DRALW). Textbook design which was applied to the topic of "Kinetic Theory of Gases" is implemented in XI grade students of high school learning. Effectiveness is determined by consideration of the effect and the normalized percentage gain value, while the hypothesis was tested using Independent T-test. The results showed that the textbooks which were developed using multi-mode representation science can improve the literacy skills of students. Based on the size of the effect size textbooks developed with representation multi modal was found effective in improving students' science literacy skills. The improvement was occurred in all the competence and knowledge of scientific literacy. The hypothesis testing showed that there was a significant difference on the ability of science literacy between class that uses textbooks with multi modal representation and the class that uses the regular textbook used in schools.
Lami, Mariam; Nair, Pooja; Gadhvi, Karishma
Mariam Lami, Pooja Nair, Karishma GadhviFaculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, London, UKAbstract: Questions have been raised about basic life support (BLS) training in medical education. This article addresses the research evidence behind why BLS training is inadequate and suggests recommendations for improving BLS training for medical students.Keywords: medical education, basic life support
Busom, Isabel; Lopez-Mayan, Cristina; Panadés, Judith
Economic views held by the general public tend to differ significantly from those of economic experts. Would these differences fade away if people were exposed to some economic instruction? In this article, the authors identify college students' preconceptions about economic issues at the beginning of the semester, verify their persistence…
Ueda, Masumi; Adachi, Yoshiko; Hayama, Junko; Yamagami, Toshiko
The present study aimed to investigate a simple education program that is effective for sleep improvement among medical students who will be medical doctors in the future. The education program applied in the present study was developed for sleep improvement based on behavioral science and changes in knowledge and sleeping habits were observed. Subjects were 6th-year medical students of 2002 and 2003. Students of 2002 attended a program including a 90-minute lecture and a 2-week practice learning session, and students of 2003 attended only the lecture. In the lecture, behavior therapy for chronic insomnia was explained using a booklet. In the practice learning session, students set a target behavior for improvement and conducted self-monitoring of their sleep and the targeted behavior. Changes in knowledge about sleep, attitude toward the therapy, sleep, and sleep-related habits were observed and compared between the 2 groups of subjects immediately and 2-weeks after the lecture. It was found that after both programs subjects had more knowledge about sleep than before. In the program including practice learning session, subjects' attitude for managing patients changed from before the lecture to after the lecture, and after the practice learning session. It was found that more than half of the students thought that they could provide sleep guidance based on the behavior therapy. Regarding the subjects' sleep, significant improvements were observed for "having nightmares upon falling asleep," "sleepiness during daytime," "sense of getting a sound sleep," and "mood upon waking up." Regarding sleep-related habits, significant improvements were observed for "taking a nap," "dozing off," and "eating breakfast." On the other hand, only the lecture subjects improved irregularity of bedtime and sleeping time. Although an increase in knowledge and improvement of sleep were observed among students who attended only the lecture, a further increase in knowledge and improvement
Caram, Chris A.; Davis, Patsy B.
Teaching is about designing, creating, and inventing intellectually challenging work for students--work that engages students and is so compelling that students persist when they experience difficulty and feel satisfaction, indeed delight, when they successfully accomplish the challenge (Schlechty 1997). Whether thinking skills are taught…
Faced with persisting massive failure rates in the first year of university, the French authorities have decided to implement measures to improve study conditions. Although these measures translate into additional resources for universities, the latter are placed under an obligation to achieve results, because student success rates at the end of…
Kuo, Fon-Chu; Chen, Jun-Ming; Chu, Hui-Chun; Yang, Kai-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Hsuan
Peer-assessment and video comment-sharing are effective learning strategies for students to receive feedback on their learning. Researchers have emphasized the need for well-designed peer involvement in order to improve students' abilities in the cognitive and affective domains. Although student perceptions of peer-assessment have been studied…
Wahyuni, Tutik S.; Analita, Rizki N.
This study aims to improve the experiment implementation quality and analytical thinking skills of undergraduate students through guided-inquiry laboratory experiments. This study was a classroom action research conducted in three cycles. The study has been carried out with 38 undergraduate students of the second semester of Biology Education Department of State Islamic Institute (SII) of Tulungagung, as a part of Chemistry for Biology course. The research instruments were lesson plans, learning observation sheets and undergraduate students' experimental procedure. Research data were analyzed using quantitative-descriptive method. The increasing of analytical thinking skills could be measured using gain score normalized and statistical paired t-test. The results showed that guided-inquiry laboratory experiments model was able to improve both the experiment implementation quality and the analytical thinking skills. N-gain score of the analytical thinking skills was increased, in spite of just 0.03 with low increase category, indicated by experimental reports. Some of undergraduate students have had the difficulties in detecting the relation of one part to another and to an overall structure. The findings suggested that giving feedback the procedural knowledge and experimental reports were important. Revising the experimental procedure that completed by some scaffolding questions were also needed.
Using data from two freshmen cohorts at a public research university (N = 3730), this study examines the relationship between loan aid and second-year enrollment persistence. Applying a counterfactual analytical framework that relies on propensity score (PS) weighting and matching to address selection bias associated with treatment status, the…
Ibrahim, Hamdi H. M.
Students look for evidence of service quality when selecting a university to attend. Student dissatisfaction with the quality of service may reduce student motivation in online higher-education settings, and low levels of motivation may lead to inferior student performance and a persistently high dropout rate. The purpose of this quantitative,…
Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B; Chriqui, Jamie F
The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain insight into implementation recommendations. We conducted 5 focus groups with high school students (N = 15) from high schools across 9 states. We also conducted follow-up interviews to further explore personal experiences. Focus groups and interview transcripts were coded and organized in Atlas.ti v7 by analysts, following principles of constant comparative analysis. Students reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and supported continued efforts to improve the food environment. Recommendations to improve the food environment included engaging students, focusing on the quality and palatability of meal items, moving toward scratch-cooking, and addressing cafeteria infrastructure. Students' recommendations point to opportunities where school districts, as well as local, state, and federal organizations can work to improve the school food environment. Their insights are directly relevant to USDA's recently released Local School Wellness Policy final rule, of which school meal standards are one provision. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Melvin, L; Connolly, K; Pitre, L; Dore, K L; Wasi, P
Written and verbal communication skills are important skills for all physicians. While verbal skills are taught and assessed in medical school, medical students report limited instruction in written communication skills. This study examined the impact of a curriculum delivered during a 6-week clinical rotation in Internal Medicine on the objective assessment of medical students' written communication skills. The curriculum consisted of two educational programmes: a medical student communication tutorial and a resident feedback workshop. The study was conducted from March 2012 to January 2013 at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study featured three arms: (1) control, (2) medical student communication tutorial alone and (3) student tutorial and resident feedback workshop. Data were collected on 126 students during 6-week Internal Medicine clerkship rotations. Students' written consultation notes were collected prior to the educational programmes and at 6 weeks. Blinded faculty assessors used an independently validated Assessment Checklist to evaluate consultation notes. Consultation note scores improved from week 1 to week 6 across all study arms. However, the change was statistically significant only in arm 3, featuring both the medical student tutorial and the resident feedback workshop, with mean scores improving from 4.75 (SD=1.496) to 5.56 (SD=0.984) out of 7. The mean difference between week 1 and week 6 was significantly different (0.806, p=0.002, 95% CI 0.306 to 1.058). The combination of a resident feedback workshop with medical student written communication tutorial improves objective evaluations of consultation note scores over student tutorial alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Poirier, Maria K; Clark, Matthew M; Cerhan, Jane H; Pruthi, Sandhya; Geda, Yonas E; Dale, Lowell C
To examine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing training on improving medical students' knowledge of and confidence in their ability to counsel patients regarding health behavior change. In the spring of 2002, 42 first-year medical students participated in a counseling course on health behavior change. Three small groups focused on learning and practicing motivational interviewing techniques using brief lectures, interactive class activities, student role-plays, and simulated patients. Students completed an identical precourse and postcourse questionnaire that measured their confidence and knowledge regarding counseling skills in health behavior change. The medical students reported improved confidence in their understanding of motivational interviewing after participation in the course (very confident, 77%) compared with before the course (very confident, 2%). Each of the 8 confidence items were compared before and after the course using a signed rank test. All comparisons indicated a significant improvement (P improvement; 31% of students answered all the questions correctly before the course, and 56% answered all the questions correctly after the course (P = .004). These results show that teaching motivational interviewing techniques to first-year medical students can enhance student confidence in and knowledge of providing counseling to patients regarding health behavior change.
Babcock, Michael Jason
Community colleges are a prominent academic pathway for future scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, and serve as a gateway to higher education for traditionally marginalized student populations. Because of this, community colleges are uniquely positioned to combat the underrepresentation of African American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students in STEM. Research on students of color in STEM, however, has traditionally focused on K-12 schools and four-year colleges and universities, leaving a gap in our understanding about the role of community colleges in shaping student intentions to pursue STEM careers. To address that gap, this study examined students as they pursued a degree in STEM at a community college, for the purposes of contributing to our understandings of students of color in these environments. Utilizing science identity framing and longitudinal multi-case study methods, this study followed thirteen students as they navigated the community college and made decisions regarding their pursuit of a future in STEM fields. Specifically, this study illuminates the racialized nature of STEM at a community college, student thinking around choices to opt into or out of STEM, and the decision-making around choices to persist. Insight into the social and contextual factors underlying students' persistence demonstrates that students of color (especially women of color) do encounter hostile experiences within STEM contexts at community colleges, but how they respond to those hostilities influences persistence. Students who attribute hostilities such as micro-aggressions to the biases of others are more likely to persist. Students who do not attribute those hostilities to others are more likely to assume their experiences are attributable to the fact they do not belong in STEM. The findings establish the importance of recognizing and acknowledging the racialized and gendered nature of STEM, both in academic settings and at home, for those
Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M
The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r = 0.515, P accounting for 37.2% of the variance between groups. The theoretic model accurately classified 95.7% of the seniors and 53.8% of the major changers. A common theme emerging from the qualitative data was the presence of a strong peer-support group that surrounded many of the senior-level students. Understanding student retention in athletic training is
Guo, Rong; Shen, Yide; Li, Lei
The lack of effective faculty-student interaction has been identified as a main contributor to the high dropout rate in online education. For this paper, the authors conducted an empirical study using a social networking tool, specifically Facebook, to improve student-instructor communication and student performance in an online learning…
Stockfleth, Eggert; Peris, Ketty; Guillen, Carlos; Cerio, Rino; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Foley, Peter; Sanches, José; Culshaw, Alex; Erntoft, Sandra; Lebwohl, Mark
Topical therapy is important in the treatment of actinic keratosis, but guidance for improving adherence/persistence during topical therapy is still lacking. To utilize expert consensus to generate a list of recommendations to improve real-world efficacy when prescribing topical therapy for actinic keratosis. An expert panel of eight dermatologists was convened to generate recommendations based on facilitated discussion and consensus generation using a modified Delphi session. The recommendations were ratified with the expert panel. Facilitated discussion generated 31 issues within five themes, which were prioritized using expert voting. Consensus was achieved on the importance of short and simple treatment regimens for maximizing patient compliance, physician awareness of the progression of actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma, provision of appropriate patient information, and the use of effective communication strategies to educate physicians about actinic keratosis. Based on these key findings, eight recommendations were generated. The recommendations will assist physicians when prescribing topical actinic keratosis therapy. Further research should focus on the types of patient outcomes that are influenced by the characteristics of topical field therapy. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Dermatology.
Schwartz, David M
Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts.
Gibbs, Graham; Regan, Peter; Simpson, Ormond
The Open University has been undertaking an extended initiative to improve student retention through enhanced support for at-risk students. This initiative has evolved through a series of stages from ad hoc small scale local interventions relying largely on tutors and student self-referral, to an institution-wide pro-active system implemented by…
Huber, David J.; Conway, James M.
This study evaluated the hypothesis that schools in Connecticut's Alliance Districts (lowest-performing districts) with higher-quality school improvement plans (SIPs) would have higher levels of student achievement. An exploratory research question evaluated whether SIPs predicted achievement of particular subgroups. SIPs were obtained and scored…
Education Trust, 2016
All across the country, leaders in colleges and universities are asking the same question: What can we do to improve student success, especially for the low-income students and students of color whose graduation rates often lag behind? This second practice guide: "Using Data to Improve Student Outcomes: Learning from Leading Colleges"…
van de Mortel, Thea F; Whitehair, Leeann P; Irwin, Pauletta M
Nursing students often perform poorly on numeracy tests. Whilst one-off interventions have been trialled with limited success, a whole-of-curriculum approach may provide a better means of improving applied numeracy skills. The objective of the study is to assess the efficacy of a whole-of-curriculum approach in improving nursing students' applied numeracy skills. Two cycles of assessment, implementation and evaluation of strategies were conducted following a high fail rate in the final applied numeracy examination in a Bachelor of Nursing (BN) programme. Strategies included an early diagnostic assessment followed by referral to remediation, setting the pass mark at 100% for each of six applied numeracy examinations across the programme, and employing a specialist mathematics teacher to provide consistent numeracy teaching. The setting of the study is one Australian university. 1035 second and third year nursing students enrolled in four clinical nursing courses (CNC III, CNC IV, CNC V and CNC VI) were included. Data on the percentage of students who obtained 100% in their applied numeracy examination in up to two attempts were collected from CNCs III, IV, V and VI between 2008 and 2011. A four by two χ(2) contingency table was used to determine if the differences in the proportion of students achieving 100% across two examination attempts in each CNC were significantly different between 2008 and 2011. The percentage of students who obtained 100% correct answers on the applied numeracy examinations was significantly higher in 2011 than in 2008 in CNC III (χ(2)=272, 3; p<0.001), IV (χ(2)=94.7, 3; p<0.001) and VI (χ(2)=76.3, 3; p<0.001). A whole-of-curriculum approach to developing applied numeracy skills in BN students resulted in a substantial improvement in these skills over four years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rabin, Laura A.; Nutter-Upham, Katherine E.
We describe an active learning exercise intended to improve undergraduate students' understanding of statistics by grounding complex concepts within a meaningful, applied context. Students in a journal excerpt activity class read brief excerpts of statistical reporting from published research articles, answered factual and interpretive questions,…
Full Text Available The failure of antibiotic therapies to clear Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the key mortality factor for cystic fibrosis (CF patients, is partly attributed to the high tolerance of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Mannitol has previously been found to restore aminoglycoside sensitivity in Escherichia coli by generating a proton-motive force (PMF, suggesting a potential new strategy to improve antibiotic therapy and reduce disease progression in CF. Here, we used the commonly prescribed aminoglycoside tobramycin to select for P. aeruginosa persister cells during biofilm growth. Incubation with mannitol (10-40 mM increased tobramycin sensitivity of persister cells up to 1,000-fold. Addition of mannitol to pre-grown biofilms was able to revert the persister phenotype and improve the efficacy of tobramycin. This effect was blocked by the addition of a PMF inhibitor or in a P. aeruginosa mutant strain unable to metabolise mannitol. Addition of glucose and NaCl at high osmolarity also improved the efficacy of tobramycin although to a lesser extent compared to mannitol. Therefore, the primary effect of mannitol in reverting biofilm associated persister cells appears to be an active, physiological response, associated with a minor contribution of osmotic stress. Mannitol was tested against clinically relevant strains, showing that biofilms containing a subpopulation of persister cells are better killed in the presence of mannitol, but a clinical strain with a high resistance to tobramycin was not affected by mannitol. Overall, these results suggest that in addition to improvements in lung function by facilitating mucus clearance in CF, mannitol also affects antibiotic sensitivity in biofilms and does so through an active, physiological response.
Ketcham, David; Nigro, Peter; Roberto, Michael
The authors examined the determinants of success on the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test in Business. The authors find that gender, SAT performance, and concentration are significant predictors of performance. Additionally, they derive proxies for student passion and persistence, and find that the greater the student's passion for…
Renaud-Dubé, Andréanne; Guay, Frédéric; Talbot, Denis; Taylor, Geneviève; Koestner, Richard
This study attempts to test a model in which the relation between implicit theories of intelligence and students' school persistence intentions are mediated by intrinsic, identified, introjected, and external regulations. Six hundred and fifty students from a high school were surveyed. Contrary to expectations, results from ESEM analyses indicated…
Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U
INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.
Full Text Available The need for the application of technology in education has been increased. One of the new approaches in technology is using email for learning a second or a foreign language. The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using email in improving writing skills among Iranian EFL students. The participants of the study were 42 pre-intermediate Iranian EFL students in an English language institute in Shiraz, Iran. The participants were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group. Each group consisted of 21 participants. The treatment continued for three weeks and 3 sessions a week. The students in the experimental group used email for sending their assignments. These students were in contact with their teacher via email and asked writing questions. In contrast, the students in the control group taught writing without using the computer in traditional way. To be sure of homogeneity of the participants, a pre-test was administered before the treatment. After three weeks treatment, a post-test was administered to check the students’ improvement in writing. The findings revealed that the students in in the experimental group performed significantly better than the students in the control group.
Herbstreit, Frank; Fassbender, Philipp; Haberl, Helge; Kehren, Clemens; Peters, Jürgen
Teaching endotracheal intubation to medical students is a task provided by many academic anesthesia departments. We tested the hypothesis that teaching with a novel videolaryngoscope improves students' intubation skills. We prospectively assessed in medical students (2nd clinical year) intubation skills acquired by intubation attempts in adult anesthetized patients during a 60-hour clinical course using, in a randomized fashion, either a conventional Macintosh blade laryngoscope or a videolaryngoscope (C-MAC®). The latter permits direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh blade and provides a color image on a video screen. Skills were measured before and after the course in a standardized fashion (METI Emergency Care Simulator) using a conventional laryngoscope. All 1-semester medical students (n = 93) were enrolled. The students' performance did not significantly differ between groups before the course. After the course, students trained with the videolaryngoscope had an intubation success rate on a manikin 19% higher (95% CI 1.1%-35.3%; P incidence of "difficult (manikin) laryngoscopy" was less frequent in the group trained with the videolaryngoscope (8% vs 34%; P = 0.005). Education using a video system mounted into a traditional Macintosh blade improves intubation skills in medical students.
Gavin, Russell B.
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of students (N = 26) in an undergraduate music education degree program in an attempt to identify commonalities among students persisting to degree completion. All participants were in their final year of the music education degree at the time of the study. Multiple data collection methods…
BACKGROUND: A breastfeeding infant’s intake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may be much greater than his/her mother’s average daily POP exposure. In many cases, current human health risk assessment methods do not account for differences between maternal and infant POP exp...
Padilla, René; Domina, Anna
This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of sensory stimulation to improve arousal and alertness of people in a coma or persistent vegetative state after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The search was limited to outcomes studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 2008 and 2013. Included studies provide strong evidence that multimodal sensory stimulation improves arousal and enhances clinical outcomes for people in a coma or persistent vegetative state after TBI. Moderate evidence was also provided for auditory stimulation, limited evidence was provided for complex stimuli, and insufficient evidence was provided for median nerve stimulation. Interventions should be tailored to client tolerance and premorbid preferences. Bimodal or multimodal stimulation should begin early, be frequent, and be sustained until more complex activity is possible. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Oncu, Elif Celebi
The main objective of this study was improving university students' from different faculties creativity thinking through a creativity education process. The education process took twelve weeks' time. As pretest, Torrance test of creative thinking (TTCT) figural form was used. Participants were 24 university students from different faculties who…
Nuttall, Anne-Marie; Stott, Tim; Sparke, Shaun
This project aims to help geoscience undergraduates improve their competence and confidence in numeracy using online quizzes delivered via the Blackboard virtual learning environment. Numeracy materials are being developed based on actual examples used in a range of modules in the geoscience degree programmes taught at Liverpool John Moores University. This is to ensure the subject relevance which is considered vital to maintaining student interest & motivation. These materials are delivered as a collection of Blackboard quizzes on specific numeracy topics which students can access at any point in their studies, either on or off campus. Feedback and guidance is provided immediately so that a student gains a confidence boost if they get it right or else they can learn where they have gone wrong. It is intended that positive feedback and repetition/reinforcement will help build the confidence in numeracy which so many students seem to lack. The anonymous nature of the delivery means that students avoid the common fear of ‘asking a stupid question' in class, which can hamper their progress. The fact that students can access the quizzes anytime and from anywhere means that they can use the materials flexibly to suit their individual learning needs. In preliminary research, 70% of the students asked felt that they were expected to have greater numeracy skills than they possessed and 65% said that they would use numeracy support materials on Blackboard. Once fully developed and evaluated, the Blackboard quizzes can be opened up to other departments who may wish to use them with their own students.
Full Text Available Supervisors at Higher Education Institutions are challenged to shorten throughput of Master’s degree students in nursing as researchers are needed to improve the art and science of the nursing profession. Globally the completion time for a postgraduate degree in the health sciences varies between 4.7 and 5.5 years. The purpose of the study was to describe strategies that were implemented to shorten completion time and attrition rate of postgraduate students. A cyclic technical, scientific collaborative mode within an action research methodology was used to identify factors impeding completion time in this study. Contrary to other studies, supervision was not an inhibiting factor in this study. Physical, technical, academic and financial aspects were identified by postgraduate students through questionnaires and informal discussion groups with supervisors as well as progress reports. Strategies were implemented to address these. Following implementation of all strategies, 42% of the postgraduate students in the School of Nursing completed their Master’s degree within two years. This implies a 34% improvement. Although the completion rate improved it was still unsatisfactory and new challenges were identified during the second cycle, for example, the number of inexperienced supervisors increased and they needed mentoring. Speed mentoring is a possible solution to the problem.
Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Hurn, Janet E.
Learning analytics is receiving increased attention, in part because it offers to assist educational institutions in increasing student retention, improving student success, and easing the burden of accountability. Although these large-scale issues are worthy of consideration, faculty might also be interested in how they can use learning analytics…
Cain, Jeff; Black, Esther P; Rohr, Jürgen
To implement an audience response system (ARS) to improve student motivation and attention during lectures and provide immediate feedback to the instructor concerning student understanding of lecture content in a Physiological Chemistry/Molecular Biology course. Students used ARS devices to respond to strategically placed questions throughout physiological chemistry/molecular biology lectures. The instructor inserted 6 to 7 questions that promoted student/class interactivity into each of several 50-minute lectures to focus students' attention and provide feedback on students' comprehension of material. Ninety-eight percent of first-year pharmacy (P1) students (n = 109) reported that strategically placed ARS questions throughout lectures helped them maintain attention. Reports from an independent focus group indicated that students favored this strategy. Furthermore, ARS feedback helped the instructor gauge student comprehension and adjust lectures accordingly. Focused, strategically placed ARS questions throughout lectures may help students maintain attention and stay motivated to learn. Feedback from these questions also allows instructors to adapt lectures to address areas of deficiency.
Brandi E. JOHNSON
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Brandi E. Johnson
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Gross, David; Pietri, Evava S; Anderson, Gordon; Moyano-Camihort, Karin; Graham, Mark J
Active-learning environments such as those found in a flipped classroom are known to increase student performance, although how these gains are realized over the course of a semester is less well understood. In an upper-level lecture course designed primarily for biochemistry majors, we examine how students attain improved learning outcomes, as measured by exam scores, when the course is converted to a more active flipped format. The context is a physical chemistry course catering to life science majors in which approximately half of the lecture material is placed online and in-class problem-solving activities are increased, while total class time is reduced. We find that exam performance significantly improves by nearly 12% in the flipped-format course, due in part to students interacting with course material in a more timely and accurate manner. We also find that the positive effects of the flipped class are most pronounced for students with lower grade point averages and for female students. © 2015 D. Gross et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Babai, Reuven; Sekal, Rachel; Stavy, Ruth
This study investigated whether intuitive, naive conceptions of "living things" based on objects' mobility (movement = alive) persist into adolescence and affect 10th graders' accuracy of responses and reaction times during object classification. Most of the 58 students classified the test objects correctly as living/nonliving, yet they demonstrated significantly longer reaction times for classifying plants compared to animals and for classifying dynamic objects compared to static inanimate objects. Findings indicated that, despite prior learning in biology, the intuitive conception of living things persists up to age 15-16 years, affecting related reasoning processes. Consideration of these findings may help educators in their decisions about the nature of examples they use in their classrooms.
Trent, Peggy; Dolansky, Mary A; DeBrew, Jacqueline Kayler; Petty, Gayle M
Little evidence demonstrates that RN-to-baccalaureate nursing (BSN) graduates have met The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice-specifically, evidence of the graduates' organizational and systems leadership related to quality care and patient safety. This BSN Essentials reflects the QSEN quality improvement (QI) competency. The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and test an assessment strategy to measure RN-to BSN students' QI competence and their perception of QI knowledge and skills. Students (N = 59) from six RN-to-BSN programs participated in a Qualtrics survey e-mailed during the last semester of their program. The majority of students (60%) reported that they did not experience QI content in their program. Scores on QI knowledge, skills, and systems thinking were low, yet the students self-reported that they were confident in their ability to perform QI. This pilot study provides an assessment strategy to measure students' competence related to QI. Nursing education has an opportunity to integrate and measure QI competence to ensure that nurses have the knowledge and skills to continually improve patient care. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(12):737-740.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Strategies for improving students' motivation in the learning of French as a foreign language. ... learning should be made fun. The paper recommends that French teachers should give themselves to reading, writing and interaction with colleagues in French and in addition use varieties of methods and materials in teaching.
Duijnhouwer, Hendrien; Prins, Frans J.; Stokking, Karel M.
This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students' writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the control feedback condition (n = 41) received…
Boateng, Kwasi; Plopper, Bruce L.; Keith, David M.
Previous research confirms that first-semester grade-point average (GPA) is related to college student persistence, retention, and graduation. Thus, it is important to identify factors related to enhancing first-semester GPA. In this study, researchers asked faculty and students in the disciplines of journalism, strategic communication or public…
Tofil, Nancy M; Morris, Jason L; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; Watts, Penni; Epps, Chad; Harrington, Kathy F; Leon, Kevin; Pierce, Caleb; White, Marjorie Lee
Simulation is effective at improving healthcare students' knowledge and communication. Despite increasingly interprofessional approaches to medicine, most studies demonstrate these effects in isolation. We enhanced an existing internal medicine curriculum with immersive interprofessional simulations. For ten months, third-year medical students and senior nursing students were recruited for four, 1-hour simulations. Scenarios included myocardial infarction, pancreatitis/hyperkalemia, upper gastrointestinal bleed, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. After each scenario, experts in medicine, nursing, simulation, and adult learning facilitated a debriefing. Study measures included pre- and post-tests assessing self-efficacy, communication skills, and understanding of each profession's role. Seventy-two medical students and 30 nursing students participated. Self-efficacy communication scores improved for both (medicine, 18.9 ± 3.3 pretest vs 23.7 ± 3.7 post-test; nursing, 19.6 ± 2.7 pretest vs 24.5 ± 2.5 post-test). Both groups showed improvement in "confidence to correct another healthcare provider in a collaborative manner" (Δ = .97 medicine, Δ = 1.2 nursing). Medical students showed the most improvement in "confidence to close the loop in patient care" (Δ = .93). Nursing students showed the most improvement in "confidence to figure out roles" (Δ = 1.1). This study supports the hypothesis that interdisciplinary simulation improves each discipline's self-efficacy communication skills and understanding of each profession's role. Despite many barriers to interprofessional simulation, this model is being sustained. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Cao, Jiaqing; Ren, Quan; Tan, Cai; Duan, Jinyuan
This study investigated the role of proximal small intestinal bypass (PSIB) and distal small intestinal bypass (DSIB) as well as their long-term effects on weight loss and glucose metabolism in high-sugar and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: PSIB, bypassing 60% of the proximal small intestine length; DSIB, bypassing 60% of the distal small intestine length; sham-operated (Sham) animals; and control animals. All rats were fed a high-sugar and high-fat diet after surgery. The primary outcome measures were body weight, food intake, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the insulin tolerance test (ITT). Global body weight (BW) and food intake in the PSIB and DSIB groups were lower than those in the Sham group at postoperative week 2. BW and food intake in the PSIB group were lower than those in the DSIB group at postoperative week 24. The PSIB and DSIB groups exhibited improvement in glucose tolerance at postoperative weeks 4, 8, and 24. The PSIB and DSIB groups exhibited improvement in FBG at postoperative week 24, and only the DSIB group exhibited improvement in insulin sensitivity. This study provides experimental evidence that PSIB surgery induced a better and more persistent weight loss effect than DSIB surgery and that the two types of intestinal bypass surgeries yielded equivalent and stable long-term improvement in glucose tolerance in an obese rat model.
Baker, Valerie O'Toole; Cuzzola, Ronald; Knox, Carolyn; Liotta, Cynthia; Cornfield, Charles S; Tarkowski, Robert D; Masters, Carolynn; McCarthy, Michael; Sturdivant, Suzanne; Carlson, Jestin N
Effective trauma resuscitation requires efficient and coordinated care from a team of providers; however, providers are rarely instructed on how to be effective members of trauma teams. Team-based learning using Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) has been shown to improve team dynamics among practicing professionals, including physicians and nurses. The impact of TeamSTEPPS on students being trained in trauma management in an undergraduate health professional program is currently unknown. We sought to determine the impact of TeamSTEPPS on team dynamics among undergraduate students being trained in trauma resuscitation. We enrolled teams of undergraduate health professional students from four programs: nursing, physician assistant, radiologic science, and respiratory care. After completing an online training on trauma resuscitation principles, the participants completed a trauma resuscitation scenario. The participants then received teamwork training using TeamSTEPPS and completed a second trauma resuscitation scenario identical to the first. All resuscitations were recorded and scored offline by two blinded research assistants using both the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) and Trauma Team Performance Observation Tool (TPOT) scoring systems. Pre-test and post-test TEAM and TPOT scores were compared. We enrolled a total of 48 students in 12 teams. Team leadership, situational monitoring, and overall communication improved with TeamSTEPPS training (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.03, respectively), as assessed by the TPOT scoring system. TeamSTEPPS also improved the team's ability to prioritize tasks and work together to complete tasks in a rapid manner (P<0.01 and P=0.02, respectively) as measured by TEAM. Incorporating TeamSTEPPS into trauma team education leads to improved TEAM and TPOT scores among undergraduate health professionals.
Valerie O’Toole Baker
Full Text Available Purpose: Effective trauma resuscitation requires efficient and coordinated care from a team of providers; however, providers are rarely instructed on how to be effective members of trauma teams. Team-based learning using Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS has been shown to improve team dynamics among practicing professionals, including physicians and nurses. The impact of TeamSTEPPS on students being trained in trauma management in an undergraduate health professional program is currently unknown. We sought to determine the impact of TeamSTEPPS on team dynamics among undergraduate students being trained in trauma resuscitation. Methods: We enrolled teams of undergraduate health professional students from four programs: nursing, physician assistant, radiologic science, and respiratory care. After completing an online training on trauma resuscitation principles, the participants completed a trauma resuscitation scenario. The participants then received teamwork training using TeamSTEPPS and completed a second trauma resuscitation scenario identical to the first. All resuscitations were recorded and scored offline by two blinded research assistants using both the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM and Trauma Team Performance Observation Tool (TPOT scoring systems. Pre-test and post-test TEAM and TPOT scores were compared. Results: We enrolled a total of 48 students in 12 teams. Team leadership, situational monitoring, and overall communication improved with TeamSTEPPS training (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.03, respectively, as assessed by the TPOT scoring system. TeamSTEPPS also improved the team’s ability to prioritize tasks and work together to complete tasks in a rapid manner (P<0.01 and P=0.02, respectively as measured by TEAM. Conclusions: Incorporating TeamSTEPPS into trauma team education leads to improved TEAM and TPOT scores among undergraduate health professionals.
Lupo, Concetta M.
This study focused on improving students' self-esteem through community building at an elementary school in a low socioeconomic community where over 55% of the students live below the poverty line. Orefield and Yun state in their 1999 article, "Resegregation of America's schools," "school level poverty is related to many…
Full Text Available A key aspect of the effective supervision of PhD research is the supervisor-student relationship. This interaction is affected by the characteristics and needs of students and institutional conditions, as well as the skills, attitudes, and roles of supervisors and their supervisory styles. When supervision is carried out at a distance, it entails an additional challenge, mainly concerning interaction. The purpose of this study is to improve the research process, supervision, and design of virtual environments in order to support this supervision. The study identifies the supervisory relationships that affect doctoral research conducted at a distance from the student’s academic institution. It also describes how students and their supervisors perceived the characteristics of supervision and the skills and attitudes students perceived in and expected from their supervisors. For data collection, semistructured interviews were used. The results indicate important differences between supervisors’ perceptions concerning their own role and students’ needs regarding supervision, and they demonstrate the importance of attending to student needs and, on the part of supervisors, exercising responsibility in the development of research competencies in students, as is the case of independence of criteria and autonomy.
Karimi, Reza; Cawley, Pauline; Arendt, Cassandra S
To implement a Learning Bridge tool to improve educational outcomes for pharmacy students as well as for preceptors and faculty members. Pharmacy faculty members collaborated to write 9 case-based assignments that first-year pharmacy (P1) students worked with preceptors to complete while at experiential sites. Students, faculty members, and preceptors were surveyed about their perceptions of the Learning Bridge process. As in our pilot study,(1) the Learning Bridge process promoted student learning. Additionally, the Learning Bridge assignments familiarized preceptors with the school's P1 curriculum and its content. Faculty teamwork also was increased through collaborating on the assignments. The Learning Bridge assignments provided a compelling learning environment and benefited students, preceptors, and faculty members.
Full Text Available Writing in English is one of the language skills that are taught in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Indonesian senior high schools. According to previous studies, most of the students consider writing is the most difficult of the four skills. This research was aimed at finding out the main difficulties in writing faced by the grade XI students at SMA Negeri 10 Fajar Harapan, Banda Aceh, and the efforts made by their teacher to overcome those problems. The design of this study was a descriptive qualitative study. To obtain the data, the writers used document collection and interviews. The results from the document collection showed that the highest percentages of problems faced by the students were in the aspect of language use and the least problems were in the aspect of content. The results from the interviews showed that the most common correcting efforts made by the teacher were giving written feedback for all aspects of writing i.e. language use, mechanics, vocabulary, organization, and content. Likewise, teachers need to develop systemized forms of feedback and make it clear to students what the feedback means and what they are to do with them to assist students in improving their writing skills.
Suparno, Sudomo, Rahardjo, Boedi
Experts and practitioners agree that the quality of vocational high schools needs to be greatly improved. Many construction services have voiced their dissatisfaction with today's low-quality vocational high school graduates. The low quality of graduates is closely related to the quality of the teaching and learning process, particularly teaching materials. In their efforts to improve the quality of vocational high school education, the government have implemented Curriculum 2013 (K13) and supplied teaching materials. However, the results of monitoring and evaluation done by the Directorate of Vocational High School, Directorate General of Secondary Education (2014), the provision of tasks for students in the teaching materials was totally inadequate. Therefore, to enhance the quality and the result of the instructional process, there should be provided students' worksheets that can stimulate and improve students' problem-solving skills and soft skills. In order to develop worksheets that can meet the academic requirements, the development needs to be in accordance with an innovative learning approach, which is the soft skill-based scientific approach.
McIntosh, Daniel H.
The need to grow and diversify the STEM workforce remains a critical national challenge. Less than 40% of college students interested in STEM achieve a bachelor's degree. These numbers are even more dire for women and URMs, underscoring a serious concern about the country's ability to remain competitive in science and tech. A major factor is persistent performance gaps in rigorous 'gateway' and advanced STEM courses for majors from diverse backgrounds leading to discouragement, a sense of exclusion, and high dropout rates. Education research has clearly demonstrated that interactive-engagement (`active learning') strategies increase performance, boost confidence, and help build positive 'identity' in STEM. Likewise, the evidence shows that traditional science education practices do not help most students gain a genuine understanding of concepts nor the necessary skill set to succeed in their disciplines. Yet, lecture-heavy courses continue to dominate the higher-ed curriculum, thus, reinforcing the tired notion that only a small percentage of 'special' students have the inherent ability to achieve a STEM degree. In short, very capable students with less experience and confidence in science, who belong to groups that traditionally are less identified with STEM careers, are effectively and efficiently 'weeded out' by traditional education practices. I will share specific examples for how I successfully incorporate active learning in advanced astrophysics courses to encourage students from all backgrounds to synthesize complex ideas, build bedrock conceptual frameworks, gain technical communication skills, and achieve mastery learning outcomes all necessary to successfully complete rigorous degrees like astrophysics. By creating an inclusive and active learning experience in junior-level extragalactic and stellar interiors/atmospheres courses, I am helping students gain fluency in their chosen major and the ability to 'think like a scientist', both critical to
Full Text Available The precise knowledge of species distribution is a key step in conservation biology. However, species detection can be extremely difficult in many environments, specific life stages and in populations at very low density. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge on DNA persistence in water in order to confirm the presence of the focus species in freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic vertebrates (fish: Siberian sturgeon and amphibian: Bullfrog tadpoles were used as target species. In control conditions (tanks and in the field (ponds, the DNA detectability decreases with time after the removal of the species source of DNA. DNA was detectable for less than one month in both conditions. The density of individuals also influences the dynamics of DNA detectability in water samples. The dynamics of detectability reflects the persistence of DNA fragments in freshwater ecosystems. The short time persistence of detectable amounts of DNA opens perspectives in conservation biology, by allowing access to the presence or absence of species e.g. rare, secretive, potentially invasive, or at low density. This knowledge of DNA persistence will greatly influence planning of biodiversity inventories and biosecurity surveys.
Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Harper, William; Moutier, Christine; Durning, Steven J; Power, David V; Massie, F Stanford; Eacker, Anne; Thomas, Matthew R; Satele, Daniel; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D
Although burnout is associated with erosion of professionalism and serious personal consequences, whether positive mental health can enhance professionalism and how it shapes personal experience remain poorly understood. The study simultaneously explores the relationship between positive mental health and burnout with professionalism and personal experience. The authors surveyed 4,400 medical students at seven U.S. medical schools in 2009 to assess mental health (categorized as languishing, moderate, and flourishing) and burnout. Additional items explored professional behaviors, beliefs, suicidal ideation, and serious thoughts of dropping out. A total of 2,682/4,400 (61%) responded. Prevalence of suicidal ideation (55/114 [48.2%], 281/1,128 [24.9%], and 127/1,409 [9.1%]) and serious thoughts of dropping out (15/114 [13.2%], 30/1,128 [2.7%], and 14/1,409 [1.0%]) decreased as mental health improved from languishing, moderate, and flourishing, respectively (all P mental health persisted independent of burnout (all P mental health improved, the prevalence of unprofessional behaviors (i.e., cheating and dishonest behaviors) also declined, whereas students' altruistic beliefs regarding physicians' responsibility toward society improved. For example, 33/113 (29.2%), 426/1,120 (38.0%), and 718/1,391 (51.6%) of students with languishing, moderate, and flourishing mental health endorsed all five altruistic professional beliefs (P mental health persisted among students with burnout, whereas fewer relationships were found among students without burnout. Findings suggest that positive mental health attenuates some adverse consequences of burnout. Medical student wellness programs should aspire to prevent burnout and promote mental health.
Kristen Lee Williams Walton
Full Text Available The ability to understand and interpret data is a critical aspect of scientific thinking. However, although data analysis is often a focus in biology majors classes, many textbooks for allied health majors classes are primarily content-driven and do not include substantial amounts of experimental data in the form of graphs and figures. In a lower-division allied health majors microbiology class, students were exposed to data from primary journal articles as take-home assignments and their data analysis skills were assessed in a pre-/posttest format. Students were given 3 assignments that included data analysis questions. Assignments ranged from case studies that included a figure from a journal article to reading a short journal article and answering questions about multiple figures or tables. Data were represented as line or bar graphs, gel photographs, and flow charts. The pre- and posttest was designed incorporating the same types of figures to assess whether the assignments resulted in any improvement in data analysis skills. The mean class score showed a small but significant improvement from the pretest to the posttest across three semesters of testing. Scores on individual questions testing accurate conclusions and predictions improved the most. This supports the conclusion that a relatively small number of out-of-class assignments through the semester resulted in a significant improvement in data analysis abilities in this population of students.
Larasati, Aisyah; Hajji, Apif Miftahul
Vocational students in Culinary Department is required to mastering the ability on managing restaurant. One of the responsibility of the students while operating a training restaurant is writing financial statements. Most of the time, writing financial statements is the hardest part for students to be conducted in a training restaurant since the students have studied limited theory/courses on that topic. This research aims to explore the improvement of students' ability to write financial statements after the application of interactive worksheet by asking them to solve financial statements case study. This research is an experimental research. Three groups of samples are used in this research, in which each of the group consists of 74 students. The first group consists of the students who solve the case study without using any software/application, the second group solve the case study by using Microsoft excel, and the third group solve the case study by using the interactive worksheet application. The results show that the use of interactive worksheet significantly improve the students ability to solve the financial statement case study either in term of accuracy or time needed to write the financial statement.
Bayless, Theodore M; Brown, Elizabeth; Paige, David M
To evaluate the clinical and nutritional significance of genetically determined lactase non-persistence and potential lactose and milk intolerance in 65-70% of the world's adult population. Milk consumption is decreasing in the USA and is the lowest in countries with a high prevalence of lactase non-persistence. The dairy industry and Minnesota investigators have made efforts to minimize the influence of lactose intolerance on milk consumption. Some lactose intolerant individuals, without co-existent irritable bowel syndrome, are able to consume a glass of milk with a meal with no or minor symptoms. The high frequency of lactase persistence in offspring of Northern European countries and in some nomadic African tribes is due to mutations in the promoter of the lactase gene in association with survival advantage of milk drinking. Educational and commercial efforts to improve calcium and Vitamin D intake have focused on urging consumption of tolerable amounts of milk with a meal, use of lowered lactose-content foods including hard cheeses, yogurt, and lactose-hydrolyzed milk products.
Tan, Lindsay; Hong, Miyoung; Albert, Taneshia West
This case study explores the influence of the healthcare design studio experience on students' short-term professional goals as measured through rates of healthcare-related certification and internship/employment. The value and relevance of interior design is evident in the healthcare design sector. However, interior design students may not perceive this value if it is not communicated through their design education. Students' experience in the design studio plays a crucial role in determining career choices, and students may be more committed to career goals when there is clear connection between major coursework and professional practice. The authors compared healthcare-related certification and internship/employment levels between two student cohorts in a capstone undergraduate interior design healthcare design studio course. The first cohort was led by the existing curriculum. The second cohort was led by the revised curriculum that specifically aimed at encouraging students to commit to healthcare-related design practice. When measured at 3 months from graduation, the second cohort, led by the revised curriculum, saw a 30% increase in Evidence-based Design Accreditation and Certification exam pass rates and a 40% increase in healthcare-related internship/employment. The challenge of interior design education is to instill in emerging professionals not only professional competence but also those professional attitudes that will make them better prepared to design spaces that improve quality of life, particularly in healthcare environments. The results exceeded the project goals, and so this could be considered a promising practice for courses focused on healthcare design education.
De Vos, H. M.; Louw, D. A.
The creation and implementation of strategies that could improve student development is receiving new research interest. The main objective of the research was to establish whether hypnosis-induced mental training programmes as a strategy could alter the self-concept of students which in turn could improve their overall academic functioning. Two…
Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis
The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…
This study investigated effective strategies for improving working memory and processing speed of students identified with dyslexia in Nigeria. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design with the population made up of twenty four thousand seven hundred and twenty seven (24,727) senior secondary school students (S.S.2) in all the public…
Chang, Linda; Popovich, Nicholas G; Iramaneerat, Cherdsak; Smith, Everett V; Lutfiyya, M Nawal
To create, implement, and evaluate a PharmD course on primary care nutrition. A 2-credit hour elective course was offered to second- and third-year pharmacy students. It was informed by the Socratic method using a minimum number of formal lecture presentations and featured problem-based learning exercises, case-based scenarios, and scientific literature to fuel informed debate. A single group posttest design with a retrospective pretest was used to assess students' self-efficacy. There was a significant overall improvement in students' self-efficacy in their ability to practice primary care nutrition. Completion of a nutrition course improved students' confidence in providing primary care nutrition and empowered them to speak more comfortably about the role of nutrition in the prevention of chronic diseases.
Marcia Beatriz Tartarella
Full Text Available PURPOSES: To describe ocular features, management of cataract and functional outcomes in patients with persistent fetal vasculature. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive case series of patients with persistent fetal vasculature. Data were recorded from the Congenital Cataract Section of Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil from 2001 to 2012. All patients were evaluated for sex, age at diagnosis, systemic findings, laterality, age at surgery, and initial and final follow-up visual acuities. Follow-up and complications after cataract surgery were recorded. Ultrasound was performed in all cases and ocular eco-Doppler was performed in most. RESULTS: The study comprised 53 eyes from 46 patients. Age at diagnosis ranged from 5 days of life to 10 years-old (mean 22.7 months. Twenty-seven patients were male (58.7%. Persistent fetal vasculature was bilateral in 7 patients (15.2%. Forty-two eyes (79.2% had combined (anterior and posterior forms PFV presentation, 5 eyes (9.4% had only anterior persistent fetal vasculature presentation and 6 eyes (11.3% had posterior persistent fetal vasculature presentation. Thirty-eight eyes (71.7% were submitted to cataract surgery. Lensectomy combined with anterior vitrectomy was performed in 18 eyes (47.4%. Phacoaspiration with intraocular lens implantation was performed in 15 eyes (39.5%, and without lens implantation in 5 eyes (13.2%. Mean follow-up after surgery was 44 months. Postoperative complications were posterior synechiae (3 cases, retinal detachment (2 cases, phthisis (3 cases, posterior capsular opacification (8 cases, inflammatory pupillary membrane (5 cases, glaucoma (4 cases, intraocular lens implantation displacement (1 case and vitreous hemorrhage (2 cases. Complications were identified in 19 (50% of the 38 operated eyes. Visual acuity improved after cataract surgery in 83% of the eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with persistent fetal vasculature have variable clinical presentation. There is an
Full Text Available The present report describes a case of persistent urethritis accompanied by prostatitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis in a young male patient. The importance of the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis in persistent or recurrent urethritis (ie, testing samples from multiple sites is highlighted, with the aim of improving the clinical recognition of this pathogen.
Wahyu, Wawan; Kurnia, Eli, Rohaeni Nur
The aim of this study is to obtain information about the using Problem-based Learning (PBL) to improve students' creative thinking skills on water purification. The research adopted quasi-experimental method with one group pre-test-post-test design, involving 31students of class XI in one SMK in Cimahi as the subjects of study. The students were divided into three groups categories: high, medium, and low based on the average grades of daily tests. The used instruments in this study were essay, observation sheet, questionnaire (Likert scale), and interview sheet Aspects of creative thinking skills are developed including: fluency, flexibility, originality, detailing (elaborative), and judging (evaluative). To identify the improvement of students' creative thinking skills on water purification, "normalized gain" or of the pre-test and post-test scores was calculated. The results showed that PBL can enhance students' creative thinking skills by means high category (percentage of = 70.12%). This nformation can be used as an input to teachers in the school and teacher education programs.
Arif, Sally; Cryder, Brian; Mazan, Jennifer; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Cyganska, Angelika
Objective. To develop, implement, and assess whether simulated patient case videos improve students' understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication in health care. Design. Third-year pharmacy students (N=159) in a health care communications course participated in a one-hour lecture and two-hour workshop on the topic of cross-cultural communication. Three simulated pharmacist-patient case vignettes highlighting cross-cultural communication barriers, the role of active listening, appropriate use of medical interpreters, and useful models to overcome communication barriers were viewed and discussed in groups of 20 students during the workshop. Assessment. A pre-lecture and post-workshop assessed the effect on students' understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication. Understanding of cross-cultural communication concepts increased significantly, as did comfort level with providing cross-cultural care. Conclusion. Use of simulated patient case videos in conjunction with an interactive workshop improved pharmacy students' understanding of and comfort level with cross-cultural communication skills and can be useful tools for cultural competency training in the curriculum.
FitzPatrick, Daniel L.; Dominguez, Victoria S.
Teaching persistence and problem solving must begin with selecting a problem that can be solved mathematically, that allows for multiple methods of solving, and that generally captures the attention and curiosity of the student (Marcus and Fey 2003; NCTM 1991; Van de Walle 2003). This article shows how a STEM three-dimensional (3D) printing…
Ellis, Robert A.; Han, Feifei; Pardo, Abelardo
The field of education technology is embracing a use of learning analytics to improve student experiences of learning. Along with exponential growth in this area is an increasing concern of the interpretability of the analytics from the student experience and what they can tell us about learning. This study offers a way to address some of the…
Davidson, Sandra J; Candy, Laurie
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is considered a key entry to practice competency for nurses. However, many baccalaureate nursing programs continue to teach "traditional" nursing research courses that fail to address many of the critical knowledge, skills, and attitudes that foster EBP. Traditional classroom teaching strategies do little to promote the development of competencies critical for engaging in EBP in clinical contexts. The purpose of this work was to develop, implement, and evaluate an innovative teaching strategy aimed at improving student learning, engagement and satisfaction in an online EBP course. The goals of this paper are to: (1) describe the process of course development, (2) describe the innovative teaching strategy, and (3) discuss the outcomes of the pilot course offered using game-based learning. A midterm course-specific survey and standard institutional end of course evaluations were used to evaluate student satisfaction. Game platform analytics and thematic analysis of narrative comments in the midterm and end of course surveys were used to evaluate students' level of engagement. Student learning was evaluated using the end of course letter grade. Students indicated a high satisfaction with the course. Student engagement was also maintained throughout the course. The majority of students (87%, 26/30) continued to complete learning quests in the game after achieving the minimum amount of points to earn an A. Seven students completed every learning quest available in the game platform. Of the 30 students enrolled in the course, 17 students earned a final course grade of A+ and 13 earned an A. Provide students with timely, individualized feedback to enable mastery learning. Create student choice and customization of learning. Integrate the use of badges (game mechanics) to increase engagement and motivation. Level learning activities to build on each other and create flow. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.
Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…
Kirwin, Jennifer; Greenwood, Kristin Curry; Rico, Janet; Nalliah, Romesh; DiVall, Margarita
Objective. To design and implement a series of activities focused on developing interprofessional communication skills and to assess the impact of the activities on students' attitudes and achievement of educational goals. Design. Prior to the first pharmacy practice skills laboratory session, pharmacy students listened to a classroom lecture about team communication and viewed short videos describing the roles, responsibilities, and usual work environments of four types of health care professionals. In each of four subsequent laboratory sessions, students interacted with a different standardized health care professional role-played by a pharmacy faculty member who asked them a medication-related question. Students responded in verbal and written formats. Assessment. Student performance was assessed with a three-part rubric. The impact of the exercise was assessed by conducting pre- and post-intervention surveys and analyzing students' performance on relevant Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcomes. Survey results showed improvement in student attitudes related to team-delivered care. Students' performance on the problem solver and collaborator CAPE outcomes improved, while performance on the educator outcome worsened. Conclusions. The addition of an interprofessional communication activity with standardized health care professionals provided the opportunity for students to develop skills related to team communication. Students felt the activity was valuable and realistic; however, analysis of outcome achievement from the exercise revealed a need for more exposure to team communication skills.
This study aims to determine the influence of reading comprehension skills of English for PGSD students through the application of SQ3R learning method. The type of this research is Pre-Experimental research because it is not yet a real experiment, there are external variables that influence the formation of a dependent variable, this is because there is no control variable and the sample is not chosen randomly. The research design is used is one-group pretest-post-test design involving one group that is an experimental group. In this design, the observation is done twice before and after the experiment. Observations made before the experiment (O1) are called pretests and the post-experimental observation (O2) is called posttest. The difference between O1 and O2 ie O2 - O1 is the effect of the treatment. The results showed that there was an improvement in reading comprehension skills of PGSD students in Class M.4.3 using SQ3R method, and better SQ3R enabling SQ3R to improve English comprehension skills.
Nordstrom, Donna E.
The purpose of this study was to address the gap in the current literature on community college students in basic math courses by examining motivational, parental and cultural factors as predictors of achievement and persistence of students enrolled in basic skills mathematics courses at a community college. More specifically, this study…
Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; Fichten, Catherine S.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Havel, Alice
This study's goal was to compare aspects related to academic persistence of two groups of college students with non-visible disabilities: 110 Canadian two and four-year college students--55 with mental health related disabilities and 55 with Specific Learning Disorder (LD). Results show that students with mental health related disabilities were…
Batz, Zachary; Olsen, Brian J; Dumont, Jonathan; Dastoor, Farahad; Smith, Michelle K
The high attrition rate among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors has long been an area of concern for institutions and educational researchers. The transition from introductory to advanced courses has been identified as a particularly "leaky" point along the STEM pipeline, and students who struggle early in an introductory STEM course are predominantly at risk. Peer-tutoring programs offered to all students in a course have been widely found to help STEM students during this critical transition, but hiring a sufficient number of tutors may not be an option for some institutions. As an alternative, this study examines the viability of an optional peer-tutoring program offered to students who are struggling in a large-enrollment, introductory biology course. Struggling students who regularly attended peer tutoring increased exam performance, expert-like perceptions of biology, and course persistence relative to their struggling peers who were not attending the peer-tutoring sessions. The results of this study provide information to instructors who want to design targeted academic assistance for students who are struggling in introductory courses. © 2015 Z. Batz et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Borgestig, Maria; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an assistive technology (AT) intervention to improve the use of available computers as assistive technology in educational tasks for students with physical disabilities during an ongoing school year. Fifteen students (aged 12-18) with physical disabilities, included in mainstream classrooms in Sweden, and their teachers took part in the intervention. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were collected with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), a computer usage diary, and with the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Teachers' opinions of goal setting were collected at follow-up. The intervention improved the goal-related computer usage in educational tasks and teachers reported they would use goal setting again when appropriate. At baseline, students reported a positive impact from computer usage with no differences over time regarding the PIADS subscales independence, adaptability, or self-esteem. The AT intervention showed a positive effect on computer usage as AT in mainstream schools. Some additional support to teachers is recommended as not all students improved in all goal-related computer usage. A clinical implication is that students' computer usage can be improved and collaboratively established computer-based strategies can be carried out by teachers in mainstream schools.
Attardi, Stefanie M; Barbeau, Michele L; Rogers, Kem A
An online section of a face-to-face (F2F) undergraduate (bachelor's level) anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered in 2013-2014. Lectures for F2F students (353) were broadcast to online students (138) using Blackboard Collaborate (BBC) virtual classroom. Online laboratories were offered using BBC and three-dimensional (3D) anatomical computer models. This iteration of the course was modified from the previous year to improve online student-teacher and student-student interactions. Students were divided into laboratory groups that rotated through virtual breakout rooms, giving them the opportunity to interact with three instructors. The objectives were to assess student performance outcomes, perceptions of student-teacher and student-student interactions, methods of peer interaction, and helpfulness of the 3D computer models. Final grades were statistically identical between the online and F2F groups. There were strong, positive correlations between incoming grade average and final anatomy grade in both groups, suggesting prior academic performance, and not delivery format, predicts anatomy grades. Quantitative student perception surveys (273 F2F; 101 online) revealed that both groups agreed they were engaged by teachers, could interact socially with teachers and peers, and ask them questions in both the lecture and laboratory sessions, though agreement was significantly greater for the F2F students in most comparisons. The most common methods of peer communication were texting, Facebook, and meeting F2F. The perceived helpfulness of the 3D computer models improved from the previous year. While virtual breakout rooms can be used to adequately replace traditional prosection laboratories and improve interactions, they are not equivalent to F2F laboratories. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life. Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students' oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.
Full Text Available Motivation plays a crucial role in learning. Motivation energizes the behavior of the individual. It also directs the behavior towards specific goals. It helps students acquire knowledge, develop social qualities, increase initiation, persist in activities, improve performance, and develop a sense of discipline. This paper aims to compare the levels of motivation between students in the open education system (OES and in the traditional education system (TES in India. The study further investigates the motivation levels of male and female students in the two systems. An Academic Motivation Scale (AMS was prepared and administered on the students of TES (n = 200 and OES (n = 151. Results show that there exist significant differences in the level of motivation between the students of TES and OES. The study concludes that it is the presence or absence of extrinsic motivation which is predominantly responsible for this difference.
Xu, Yonghong Jade
In this study, an online survey was constructed based on the extant literature on college student success. The survey was used to collect data from a sample of college students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors in order to examine their learning experiences and to identify the factors that may influence their persistence…
Full Text Available This study explores how the participation of parents on school committees improves student achievement. In decentralized education systems like the one in Indonesia, parents’ participation has become a focal point for improving the quality of education. The data for this study were collected using questionnaires distributed to 250 students in state senior high schools, selected by quota-purposive sampling. The qualitative findings of this research are threefold: most parents participated in student learning only by providing material aspects, such as tuition and books; most parents had a misconception that it was the school that should solely be responsible for the education of their children; busy parents tended to ignore the progress of their children’s learning. In order to create social capital for their children, parents need to be active in the learning process, cooperate with school officials, and get involved in the planning of social activities.
Otti, André; Pirson, Magali; Piette, Danielle; Coppieters T Wallant, Yves
The absence of an explicit and coherent conception of the articulation between theory and practice in the reform of nursing training in Benin has resulted in poor quality clinical supervision of student nurses. The objective of this article is to analyze two interventions designed to improve the quality of supervision. A student welcome booklet developed by means of a consultative and provocative participatory approach was tested with twelve student nurses versus a control group. Content analysis of the data collected by individual semi-directed interviews and during two focus groups demonstrated the value of this tool. Student nurses were also taught to use to training diaries inspired by the ?experiential learning? Training diaries were analysed using a grid based on the descriptive elements of the five types of Scheepers training diaries (2008). According to the student nurses, the welcome booklet provided them with structured information to be used as a reference during their training and a better understanding of their teachers, and allowed them to situate the resources of the training course with a lower level of stress. Fifty-eight per cent of the training diaries were are mosaics, reflecting the reflective practice and self-regulated learning of student nurses. This activity also promoted metacognitive dialogue with their supervisors. The student welcome booklet appeared to facilitate integration of student nurses into the clinical setting and promoted professional and organizational socialization. The training diary improved the quality of clinical learning by repeated reflective observation of student nurses and helped to maintain permanent communication with the supervisors.
Full Text Available Background: Hand washing is among the most effective ways to prevent diseases. In Indonesia, only a quarter of the entire population practice proper handwashing techniques. Of these, children are the most vulnerable group for contracting diseases. Nevertheless, they also are crucial agent for behavior transformation as they are keen and open to new ideas. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if training would have an improvement on a proper hand washing practices among elementary school students. Methods:An observational descriptive study design using random sampling was conducted from September to November 2013 in Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, Indonesia using primary data of one hundred elementary school students from four elementary schools. Questionnaires were given after informed consent. A demonstration on hand washing techniques and education on proper hand washing practices was then given. Two weeks later, the same questionnaire was given to measure the influence of the training. The collected data were presented using frequency tabulation. Results: Before the training on proper hand washing practices was conducted, only 86.9% students were practicing it properly. After the training was given, 90.7% of the students were doing it properly. For the hand washing technique, only 66.8% of students knew the correct steps before the intervention was given and 78.7% students did them correctly after the intervention. Conclusions:The training shows an overall improvement on the students’ hand washing practices. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1073
Green, Rodney A; Farchione, Davide; Hughes, Diane L; Chan, Siew-Pang
Asynchronous online discussion forums are common in blended learning models and are popular with students. A previous report has suggested that participation in these forums may assist student learning in a gross anatomy subject but it was unclear as to whether more academically able students post more often or whether participation led to improved learning outcomes. This study used a path model to analyze the contribution of forum participation, previous academic ability, and student campus of enrolment to final marks in a multicampus gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. The course has a substantial online learning management system (LMS) that incorporates asynchronous forums as a learning tool, particularly to answer learning objectives. Students were encouraged to post new threads and answer queries in threads started by others. The forums were moderated weekly by staff. Discussion forums were the most used feature of the LMS site with 31,920 hits. Forty-eight percent of the students posted at least once with 186 threads initiated by students and a total of 608 posts. The total number of posts made a significant direct contribution to final mark (P = 0.008) as did previous academic ability (P = 0.002). Although campus did not contribute to final mark, there was a trend for students at the campus where the course coordinator was situated to post more often than those at the other campus (P = 0.073). These results indicate that asynchronous online discussion forums can be an effective tool for improving student learning outcomes as evidenced by final marks in gross anatomy teaching. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
Paul, W. Kohle; Fitzpatrick, Colleen
Student satisfaction with advising is positively linked to first-year student retention and sophomore persistence to their senior year. However, inconsistencies in the advising literature confound conclusions about the most effective advising approach to elicit student satisfaction. Positive links between the servant leadership approach and…
Brown, Dale; Bateman, David N.
Through the student activities of the Profession and Career Package (PAC), general principles taught in an introductory business course, "Principles of Management," are made relevant to students' future career plans. The development of the PAC approach, its objectives, and student reaction to this method are discussed. (JMD)
Full Text Available This study is a Quasi Experimental study with the design of The Pretest-Post-Test Non-Equivalent Group Design. Population in this research is all student of class X SHS in South Jakarta. Sampling is done by purposive sampling, to obtain an experimental class and control class. In the experimental class, students learn with Treffinger learning model and control, class learning with conventional learning. This study is also to examine the differences of self-efficacy improvement and students literacy skills, and decreased students' mathematical anxiety. Also, this study also examines the relevance of early mathematical abilities (high, medium, low with improving students' math literacy skills. The instrument used in this research is literacy skill test, self-efficacy scale, mathematical anxiety scale, observation sheet, and student interview. Data were analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA, and two lines. From the results of the data, it is found that: (1 The improvement of literacy ability of students who are learned with Treffinger model learning is not significantly higher than students who learn with conventional. (2 The self-efficacy of students who learning with the Treffinger model learning is better than the student that is learning by conventional. (3 The mathematical anxiety of students learning with Treffinger model learning reduces better than students learning with conventional. (4 There is a difference in the improvement of students' mathematical literacy skills learning by learning the Treffinger model and students learning with conventional learning based on early mathematical abilities. (5 Student response to Treffinger model learning is better than students learning with conventional learning. Therefore, learning model Treffinger can be an alternative model of learning to improve students' mathematical literacy skills, and self-efficacy students, and able to reduce mathematical anxiety.
Taylor, Purcell; El-Sabawi, Taleed; Cangin, Causenge
Objective: To improve the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye opener) questionnaire's predictive accuracy in screening college students. Participants: The sample consisted of 219 midwestern university students who self-administered a confidential survey. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, receiver operating…
Olyazadeh, R.; Aye, Z. C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M. H.
Nowadays, open-source developments in the field of natural hazards and risk management increase rapidly. The governments, NGOs and other research institutes are producing data for risk and disaster analysis, but a few platforms are available to bring a real-life experience to the students. This work focuses on the preliminary results of testing a WebGIS platform called RISKGIS with the bachelor students at the University of Lausanne. The platform is designed based on a geospatial open-source technology called OpenGeo (Boundless). This platform can calculate the potential risk of the buildings and assist the students to understand the situations for risk reduction mitigation and decision-making. The center of Jomsom in Nepal was selected for the first exercise that may be affected by amplifications of earthquake. The shaking intensity map was designed by an expert based on the geological characteristics and DEM (Digital Elevation Model) of the area. All buildings data were extracted from OpenStreetMap using QGIS and adapted to the platform. The video tutorial was prepared to guide the students through the platform, and 80 students have tested the application online successfully and 40 of them participated in Moodle (a free Open Source software package for educators) for online feedback and quiz. Among those, 30 of them have completely answered to both. We had interesting results for effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction based on System Usability Scale (SUS). The SUS score for this platform was 68.6 out of 100. The average result of the quiz was 9.39 out of 10 with a duration of 8 to 33 minutes to answer the quiz. There were several outliers for this duration with 2 minutes (two students) and 9 to 18 hours (three students). Further exercises will be carried out with students by adding more advanced functions to the platform and improving the willingness of participation in this online learning platform. This project is funded by Fonds d'innovation p
Ayaz, Muhammed; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Soylu, Nusret; Yüksel, Serhat
The aim of this study was to investigate medication persistence in Turkish children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The effects of sociodemographic characteristics, symptom severity of ADHD, comorbidity, and treatment-related factors influencing medication persistence in children diagnosed with ADHD were studied. Medication persistence over a continuous 12 month period was evaluated for 877 children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age, who were diagnosed with ADHD for the first time and started to receive medication. Medication persistence was determined according to whether or not taking the prescribed medication continued for 12 months after the initiation of treatment. Whereas the symptom severity of ADHD was assessed by using the Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV)-based Child and Adolescent Behaviour Disorders Screening and Rating Scale-Parents Form (T-DSM-IV-S), perceived medication efficacy after the first treatment was evaluated by the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (CGI-I). In this study, medication persistence over a continuous 12 month period occurred at a rate of 30.2% (n=265) in the subjects studied. The hierarchical regression analysis conducted in this research revealed that younger age, higher hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom severity, use of long-acting methylphenidate, addition of another ADHD medication, addition of other psychotropic medications, absence of side effects, and perceived medication efficacy were associated with successful medication persistence over a continuous 12 month period. Understanding the factors that affect medication persistence in ADHD may improve treatment efficacy and symptom control, while minimizing future risks.
Hansen, Mads Syska; Kirschmeyer, Martin; Jensen, Christian D.
present a proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed mechanism, which employs camera based tracking with a single stationary 3D camera that uses the "time of flight" principle. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed mechanism indicates that persistent authentication is technically possible...... with the proposed hardware. The proposed model is sufficiently general to allow the addition of more cameras or supplemental tracking technologies, which will improve the robustness and scalability of the proposed mechanism....
Kane, Sunanda V; Brixner, Diana; Rubin, David T; Sewitch, Maida J
Non-adherence to therapy is a widespread problem, with typical adherence rates for prescribed medications being approximately 50%. An estimated 20% to 50% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) do not take their medications as prescribed, resulting in higher disease-recurrence rates and potentially higher health care costs. To characterize the problem of non-adherence in UC, to review the many factors affecting compliance and persistence in this population, and to discuss practical strategies to improve adherence in these patients. Adherence to and persistence with medication are complex and multifactorial behaviors. Factors shown to affect adherence in UC patients include disease extent and duration, cost of medications, fear of adverse effects, individual psychosocial variables, and the patient-physician relationship. In contrast, recent data do not support an important role for treatment-related factors such as daily dose, regimen, and formulation in influencing adherence in this population, particularly with longer duration of use. Strategies to improve adherence should involve the patient, the provider, and the health care delivery system. For UC patients, knowledge and discussion of the rationale for supporting persistence, such as recent data regarding agents that have a potential chemoprotective benefit, may encourage persistence, even during periods of quiescence. The patient-physician relationship is critical in encouraging adherence, particularly with respect to education, open communication, and agreement regarding the value of the assigned treatment. Health care delivery systems can improve adherence by encouraging the participation of multidisciplinary teams, providing reporting and tracking systems, and eliminating financial barriers where possible.
Lina Marcela Trigos Carrillo
Full Text Available The paper presents empirical data supporting the hypothesis that the systematic and guided use of academic writing prompts is a successful instructional strategy to improve the academic writing in Spanish of college students, mainly during their first semesters. A combined methodology, with pre- and post-tests, was used in this research project conducted from July 2009 to June 2010. The participants were freshmen students of different disciplines of the Human Sciences in a private university in Bogota, Colombia. The aim of this research project was twofold. First, it sought to identify the difficulties students faced in the writing process of academic texts when they are related to real communicative contexts. Second, it involved the design and application of the guided and systematic use of writing prompts for academic writing in a sequence called "The Cognitive Pedagogical Model of Writing for Higher Education". The results show empirical evidence supporting the use of writing prompts designed with specific academic purposes to improve the academic writing level of college students in their first stages of study. However, further research is needed to consolidate the results presented here.
Hayati, R. S.
This research aim is develop the potential of Taka Bonerate National Park as learning resources through edutourism with scientific approach to improve student learning outcomes. Focus of student learning outcomes are students psychomotor abilities and comprehension on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The edutourism development products are teacher manual, edutourism worksheet, material booklet, guide’s manual, and Taka Bonerate National Park governor manual. The method to develop edutourism products is ADDIE research and development model that consist of analysis, design, development and production, implementation, and evaluation step. The subjects in the implementation step were given a pretest and posttest and observation sheet to see the effect of edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach to student learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The data were analyzed qualitative descriptively. The research result is edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach can improve students learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. Edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park can be an alternative of learning method on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics.
Wolf, Alex M.; Liachovitzky, Carlos; Abdullahi, Abass S.
This study assessed the effectiveness of the introduction of active learning exercises into the anatomy and physiology curriculum in a community college setting. Specifically, the incorporation of a spirometry-based respiratory physiology lab resulted in improved student performance in two concepts (respiratory volumes and the hallmarks of…
Raley, R. Kelly; Kim, Yujin; Daniels, Kimberly
The analyses described in this article investigated the association between adolescent fertility expectations and college enrollment (N = 7,838). They also explored the potential impact of fertility expectations and events on college persistence among 4-year (n = 2,605) and 2-year (n = 1,962) college students. The analysis, which used data from…
Verdin, Dina; Godwin, Allison F; Morazes, Jennifer
Latina undergraduates pursuing an engineering degree continue to be an underrepresented group at four-year universities. Compared to their male counterparts, fewer women enter the field of engineering; however, of those Latino/as who do matriculate, they have the same likelihood of persisting as their White counterparts. Furthermore, a dearth of underrepresented students such as Latino/as and first-generation college students enter or remain in the field of engineering. The need for increased...
Full Text Available This study presents new vision how to upgrade business higher education at the Faculty of Economics at University of Tourism and Management in Skopje (UTMS. This paper is result of analyses of best practices of leading higher education institutions as well authors experience in higher education and business education and practice. The UTMS is orientated to introduce best practices and objective standards in order to offer high-quality business education for its students. UTMS has mission for permanent implementation of quality improvement measures as a way to achieve high professional and academic standards and become part of prosperous and respective Universities. In order to achieve this goal, UTMS plan to use additional measures, outcomes assessment as a way to measure institutional effectiveness, as well as effective technique for identifying where changes and improvements are necessary. UTMS has developed Students Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan (SLOAP as a way to reach this goal.Based on permanent analysis of students needs as well as business sector suggestions about desirable level of knowledge, skills and competence of the students from Faculty of Economics, gained from conducted evaluations, UTMS decide to make additional improvement and development of business education. This process have 4 phases: 1 evaluation of students attitude towards curricula and the instructors efficiency, 2preparation of the SLOAP (Student Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan document, 3 implementation of two direct measures from the SLOAP through assessment analysis and action planning, and 4 monitoring changes and improvements made as a result of action planning.The first phase was completed in spring semester 2012, as well as second one with development of Comprehensive Exam and Capstone Course as direct measures. Complete SLOAP also has indirect measures like student satisfaction inventory, course evaluations, alumni, and employers’ surveys, and a
Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM is often explained by women’s greater likelihood to leave STEM at each key juncture from elementary school into the workforce. It is important to examine this more closely and look for points in the pipeline where gender equity exists. This study uses nationally representative data from a recent cohort of college students to investigate thoroughly gender differences in STEM persistence. Results indicate that no significant gender differences in persistence exist. This finding holds among those in computer science, engineering, mathematics, and physical science, and for those in life science. Additionally, the results are unchanged if the sample is limited to degree earners and are robust to the inclusion of individual and institutional variables. Although it is clear that women are less likely to choose certain STEM majors, those who do are no less likely to earn a STEM degree.
Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Fukuda, Sanae; Tajima, Seiki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education and is related to academic outcomes in medical students. In this study, the relationships between personality traits and intrinsic academic motivation were examined in medical students. The study group consisted of 119 Year 2 medical students at Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine. They completed questionnaires dealing with intrinsic academic motivation (the Intrinsic Motivation Scale toward Learning) and personality (the Temperament and Character Inventory [TCI]). On simple regression analyses, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness, co-operativeness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. On multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the TCI dimensions of persistence, self-directedness and self-transcendence were positively associated with intrinsic academic motivation. The temperament dimension of persistence and the character dimensions of self-directedness and self-transcendence are associated with intrinsic academic motivation in medical students.
Satuna Indah Wardani
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find out whether the word mapping strategywas able to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. The process of masteringis mainly affected by the worst thought of the vocational students who said that English as the most difficult subject to learn and was often tracked into boringcondition since theywere not involved in the process of learning. Thisstudy was conducted by using classroom action research in two cycles and each cycleconsisted of four me...
Hellerstein, David J; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J; Keller, Samantha; Peterson, Bradley S; Chen, Ying
To determine efficacy of continued treatment with the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on symptom reduction and functional improvement in outpatients with dysthymia. Fifty outpatients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed dysthymia who had participated in a 10 week double-blind, placebo-controlled study of duloxetine received open treatment for three months. Nineteen duloxetine responders continued duloxetine, 24 patients initially treated with placebo started open duloxetine treatment, and 7 duloxetine non-responders were treated with desvenlafaxine or bupropion, selected by clinician choice. Patients continuing duloxetine maintained symptom improvement, 84% meeting response and 63% remission criteria at week 22. Patients initially treated with placebo showed similarly high levels of response (83%) and remission (62%) at week 22, and most duloxetine non-responders subsequently responded to other antidepressants. Duloxetine-continuation patients improved modestly between weeks 10 and 22 on measures of social and cognitive functioning and temperament. Despite this improvement concurrently across several functional domains, 66.7% of patients continuing duloxetine remained in the impaired range of functioning according to the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS). Continued duloxetine treatment appears to be effective in maintaining symptom response in dysthymic disorder, and has positive effects on social functioning. However, the majority of patients do not show normalization of functioning, even when controlling for remission status. Additional treatments should be considered to target residual impairments in social functioning in mood remitted patients with persistent depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. Community-based education research and service (COBERS is a platform for embedding progressive transformative leadership andresearch-related medical education in Uganda. The leadership development programme (LDP developed at Mbarara University of Science andÂ Technology (MUST, Uganda is a key component of COBERS. Health science students at MUST are equipped by means of the LDP with leadershipÂ knowledge and skills, and a positive attitude towards leadership and rural communities. The programme involves employing interactive learner-centredÂ education techniques, with the opportunity to implement these skills in a community setting immediately after the training.Objective. To assess the studentsâ€™ self-reported perception and effectiveness of the precommunity placement LDP at MUST and its impact duringÂ the community clinical placement, and to measure the self-reported improvement of studentsâ€™ knowledge and their application of leadership skills inÂ the community. The results of the evaluation will improve and build on this educational programme. The study also evaluated the effectiveness of theÂ preplacement leadership training course for undergraduates at MUST, as reported by students.Methods. The programme evaluation of the LDP used quantitative pretest and post-test measures and qualitative data from focus group discussionsto enrich the evaluation. Data were collected from students before and after the 1-week leadership training course using the same self-administeredquestionnaire. Variables were then compared to evaluate the impact of the LDP.Results. Prior to the intervention, only 14% of the participants had ever attended a leadership training session. There was significant self-reportedchange in the task accomplishment skills, interpersonal relationship skills and quality of leadership.Conclusion. The results suggest that the LDP may increase leadership skills among health science students to improve
R. Poppy Yaniawati
Full Text Available The role of technology integration on modern learning is essential to optimize the acceleration process in Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS. This research describes how to implement e-learning to improve HOTS of students and students’ attitude toward e-learning of mathematics, pre- learning students knowledge, duration of login in website, and correlation of variables with HOTS. There is a significant correlation between pre-learning knowledge and students’ HOTS, but there is no significant correlation between students’ HOTS and students’ attitude toward e-learning of mathematics. There is a significant correlation between login duration and students attitude toward e-learning of mathematics. No significant correlation is found between login duration and students’ HOTS.
Duijnhouwer, H.; Prins, F.J.; Stokking, K.M.
This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students’ writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the
Abdulahi, Mohammed Mussa; Hashim, Hakim; Kawo, Mohammed
The purpose of this action research is to improve the achievement of students in general and, to examine the perception of students and teachers about cooperative learning, to identify major factors affecting the implementation of cooperative learning and to identify the possible strategies used to improve cooperative learning in Madawalabu…
Maxwell, Karen L; Wright, Vivian H
The purpose of this study was to evaluate two teaching strategies with regard to quality and safety education for nurses content on quality improvement and safety. Two groups (total of 64 students) participated in online learning or online learning in conjunction with a flipped classroom. A pretest/posttest control group design was used. The use of online modules in conjunction with the flipped classroom had a greater effect on increasing nursing students' knowledge of quality improvement than the use of online modules only. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for safety.
Firdaus, F.; Priatna, N.; Suhendra, S.
One of the affective factors that affect student learning outcomes is student self-esteem in mathematics, learning achievement and self-esteem influence each other. The purpose of this research is to know whether self-esteem students who get 7E learning cycle model is better than students who get conventional learning. This research method is a non-control group design. Based on the results obtained that the normal and homogeneous data so that the t test and from the test results showed there are significant differences in self-esteem students learning with 7E learning cycle model compared with students who get conventional learning. The implications of the results of this study are that students should be required to conduct many discussions, presentations and evaluations on classroom activities as these learning stages can improve students’ self-esteem especially pride in the results achieved.
Gahala, Jan, Ed.
"Viewpoints" is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a short, informative booklet. This volume of "Viewpoints" focuses on how technology can help improve student learning. The audio CDs provide the voices, or viewpoints, of various leaders from the education field who work closely with technology issues. Their…
Cone, Catherine; Godwin, Donald; Salazar, Krista; Bond, Rucha; Thompson, Megan; Myers, Orrin
Objective. The Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) is a validated instrument to assess critical-thinking skills. The objective of this study was to determine if HSRT results improved in second-year student pharmacists after exposure to an explicit curriculum designed to develop critical-thinking skills. Methods. In December 2012, the HSRT was administered to students who were in their first year of pharmacy school. Starting in August 2013, students attended a 16-week laboratory curriculum using simulation, formative feedback, and clinical reasoning to teach critical-thinking skills. Following completion of this course, the HSRT was readministered to the same cohort of students. Results. All students enrolled in the course (83) took the HSRT, and following exclusion criteria, 90% of the scores were included in the statistical analysis. Exclusion criteria included students who did not finish more than 60% of the questions or who took less than 15 minutes to complete the test. Significant changes in the HSRT occurred in overall scores and in the subdomains of deduction, evaluation, and inference after students completed the critical-thinking curriculum. Conclusions. Significant improvement in HSRT scores occurred following student immersion in an explicit critical-thinking curriculum. The HSRT was useful in detecting these changes, showing that critical-thinking skills can be learned and then assessed over a relatively short period using a standardized, validated assessment tool like the HSRT.
Denton, Paul W.; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz; Tolstrup, Martin
Research challenges associated with understanding HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy can be categorized as temporal, spatial and combinatorial. Temporal research challenges relate to the timing of events during establishment and maintenance of HIV persistence. Spatial research challeng...... for directly addressing these research challenges. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of these recent translational advances made in animal models of HIV persistence....... will improve our understanding of HIV persistence and move the field closer to achieving eradication of persistent HIV. Given that humanized mice and non-human primate HIV models permit rigorous control of experimental conditions, these models have been used extensively as in vivo research platforms...
Full Text Available Pathogenic bacterial persisters are responsible for the recalcitrance of chronic and persistent infections to antimicrobial therapy. Although the mechanisms of persister formation and survival have been widely studied in Escherichia coli, persistence mechanisms in S. aureus remain largely unknown. Here, we screened a transposon mutant library of a clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus（MRSA）strain, USA500 (ST8, under antibiotic pressure and identified 13 genes whose insertion mutations resulted in a defect in persistence. These candidate genes were further confirmed by evaluating the survival of the mutants upon exposure to levofloxacin and several other stress conditions. We found 13 insertion mutants with significantly lower persister numbers under several stress conditions, including sdhA, sdhB, ureG, mnhG1, fbaA, ctaB, clpX, parE, HOU_0223, HOU_0587, HOU_2091, HOU_2315 and HOU_2346, which mapped into pathways of oxidative phosphorylation, TCA cycle, glycolysis, cell cycle and ABC transporters, suggesting that these genes and pathways may play an important role in persister formation and survival. The newly constructed knockout strains of ureG, sdhA and sdhB and their complemented strains were also tested for defect in persisters following exposure to levofloxacin and several other stress conditions. The results from these experiments were consistent with the screening results, which indicated that deletion of these genes in MRSA USA500 leads to persister defect. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of persister formation and survival in S. aureus and offer new targets for the development of persister-directed antibiotics for the improved treatment of chronic and persistent infections.
Nurjanah; Dahlan, J. A.
This study is back grounded by the importance of self-regulated learning as an affective aspect that determines the success of students in learning mathematics. The purpose of this research is to see how the improvement of junior high school students' self-regulated learning through computer based learning is reviewed in whole and school level. This research used a quasi-experimental research method. This is because individual sample subjects are not randomly selected. The research design used is Pretest-and-Posttest Control Group Design. Subjects in this study were students of grade VIII junior high school in Bandung taken from high school (A) and middle school (B). The results of this study showed that the increase of the students' self-regulated learning who obtain learning with computer-based learning is higher than students who obtain conventional learning. School-level factors have a significant effect on increasing of the students' self-regulated learning.
Baier, Stefanie T.; Markman, Barry S.; Pernice-Duca, Francesca M.
We surveyed 237 first-time college students to examine the extent to which social-cognitive factors--self-efficacy, perceptions of mentorship, high school GPA, ACT scores, first-semester college GPA, and demographic characteristics-- influence freshmen's intent to persist. Standard multiple regression and MANOVA were conducted to determine the…
Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Edlin, Margot; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita
This study examined how self-efficacy and motivation affected student persistence at an urban community college. Self-efficacy was studied at two dimensions: self-regulated learning efficacy and self-efficacy for academic achievement. Motivation was also investigated at two levels: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Results show that…
Chow, Alan F.; Woodford, Kelly C.; Maes, Jeanne
Student understanding and retention can be enhanced and improved by providing alternative learning activities and environments. Education theory recognizes the value of incorporating alternative activities (games, exercises and simulations) to stimulate student interest in the educational environment, enhance transfer of knowledge and improve…
Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.
There is an unmet need for new therapies in severe persistent asthma. Bronchial thermoplasty is a bronchoscopic procedure which employs radiofrequency energy to reduce airway smooth muscle and has been demonstrated to improve symptomatic control in severe persistent asthma in other populations. Seven patients have completed bronchial thermoplasty at a tertiary referral centre in Ireland. Asthma Control Test scores and data on hospitalisations, exacerbations, maintenance corticosteroid requirements, rescue bronchodilator use and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared one year before and one year post treatment. Significant improvements were demonstrated in mean Asthma Control Test scores, from 8.9 to 14.7 (p = 0.036). Trends towards improvement were seen in mean hospitalisations (respective values for total in 12 month period 5.0, 0.9; p = 0.059) and PEFR (181.4 l\\/min, 280 l\\/min respectively; p = 0.059). These data support the use of bronchial thermoplasty in severe persistent asthma in the Irish population.
Т. М. Кравчук
Full Text Available Research objective: to determine the health-improving potential of dancing exercises used in physical education of female students of higher educational institutions. Research methods: study and analysis of pedagogical, scientific and methodological literature on the subject matter of the research; observations, questionnaires, functional tests; statistical methods of data reduction. Conclusions. As part of the study, the use of dancing exercises in the physical education of female students of higher educational institutions proved contributing to a significant increase in the level of their physical health in general and improvement of some of its indicators, including strength and life indices, heart rate recovery time after 20 squats. Dancing exercises also boost spirits, improve health and activity of the female students, which the study proved statistically.
Nair, Nisha; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Blakely, Tony
To assess the cost-effectiveness of a cancer care coordinator (CCC) in helping women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) early breast cancer persist with tamoxifen for 5 years. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of a CCC across eight breast cancer subtypes, defined by progesterone receptor (PR) status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and local/regional spread. These subtypes range from excellent to poorer prognoses. The CCC helped in improving tamoxifen persistence by providing information, checking-in by phone, and "troubleshooting" concerns. We constructed a Markov macrosimulation model to estimate health gain (in quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) and health system costs in New Zealand, compared with no CCC. Participants were modeled until death or till the age of 110 years. Some input parameters (e.g., the impact of a CCC on tamoxifen persistence) had sparse evidence. Therefore, we used estimates with generous uncertainty and conducted sensitivity analyses. The cost-effectiveness of a CCC for regional ER+/PR-/HER2+ breast cancer (worst prognosis) was NZ $23,400 (US $15,800) per QALY gained, compared with NZ $368,500 (US $248,800) for local ER+/PR+/HER2- breast cancer (best prognosis). Using a cost-effectiveness threshold of NZ $45,000 (US $30,400) per QALY, a CCC would be cost-effective only in the four subtypes with the worst prognoses. There is value in investigating cost-effectiveness by different subtypes within a disease. In this example of breast cancer, the poorer the prognosis, the greater the health gains from a CCC and the better the cost-effectiveness. Incorporating heterogeneity in a cost-utility analysis is important and can inform resource allocation decisions. It is also feasible to undertake in practice. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henneman, Elizabeth A; Roche, Joan P; Fisher, Donald L; Cunningham, Helene; Reilly, Cheryl A; Nathanson, Brian H; Henneman, Philip L
This study examined types of errors that occurred or were recovered in a simulated environment by student nurses. Errors occurred in all four rule-based error categories, and all students committed at least one error. The most frequent errors occurred in the verification category. Another common error was related to physician interactions. The least common errors were related to coordinating information with the patient and family. Our finding that 100% of student subjects committed rule-based errors is cause for concern. To decrease errors and improve safe clinical practice, nurse educators must identify effective strategies that students can use to improve patient surveillance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roheni; Herman, T.; Jupri, A.
This study investigates the skills of elementary school students’ in problem solving through the Scientific Approach. The purpose of this study is to determine mathematical problem solving skills of students by using Scientific Approach is better than mathematical problem solving skills of students by using Direct Instruction. This study is using quasi-experimental method. Subject of this study is students in grade V in one of state elementary school in Cirebon Regency. Instrument that used in this study is mathematical problem solving skills. The result of this study showed that mathematical problem solving skills of students who learn by using Scientific Approach is more significant than using Direct Instruction. Base on result and analysis, the conclusion is that Scientific Approach can improve students’ mathematical problem solving skills.
O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg
selected with a non-grade-based or ’non-cognitive’ admission program. The two admission groups were compared on seven social indices (doctor parent, ethnic origin, father’s education, mother’s education, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit). Result: Selection strategy made no difference...... to the social diversity of admitted medical students. The non-cognitive admission program studied was not a useful initiative for improving medical student diversity nor did it further disadvantaged educationally vulnerable population groups in these cohorts. Discussion: The social heritage and general...
Saurino, Dan R.; Hinson, Kenneth; Bouma, Amy
This paper focuses on the use of a group action research approach to help student teachers develop strategies to improve the grade point average of at-risk students. Teaching interventions such as group work and group and individual tutoring were compared to teaching strategies already used in the field. Results indicated an improvement in the…
Joseph B. House
Full Text Available Introduction Medical student mistreatment is a prevalent and significant challenge for medical schools across the country, associated with negative emotional and professional consequences for students. The Association of American Medical Colleges and Liaison Committee on Medical Education have increasingly emphasized the issue of mistreatment in recent years, and medical schools are tasked with creating a positive learning climate. Methods The authors describe the efforts of an emergency department (ED to improve its clerkship learning environment, using a multifaceted approach for collecting mistreatment data and relaying them to educators and clerkship leadership. Data are gathered through end-of-rotation evaluations, teaching evaluations, and an online reporting system available to medical students. Mistreatment data are then relayed to the ED during semi-annual meetings between clerkship leadership and medical school assistant deans, and through annual mistreatment reports provided to department chairs. Results Over a two-year period, students submitted a total of 56 narrative comments related to mistreatment or unprofessional behavior during their emergency medicine (EM clerkship. Of these comments, 12 were submitted in 2015–16 and 44 were submitted in 2016–17. The most frequently observed themes were students feeling ignored or marginalized by faculty (14 comments; students being prevented from speaking or working with patients and/or attending faculty (11 comments; and students being treated in an unprofessional manner by staff (other than faculty, 8 comments. Conclusion This article details an ED’s efforts to improve its EM clerkship learning environment by tracking mistreatment data and intentionally communicating the results to educators and clerkship leadership. Continued mistreatment data collection and faculty development will be necessary for these efforts to have a measurable effect on the learning environment.
Mason, Susan E.; Miller, Rachel
The persistence of stigma related to schizophrenia is addressed as a continuing challenge for social work students working in mental health. Student education is best grounded in direct clinical work with clients in conjunction with field supervision and classroom education. Through direct practice in individual and group sessions, students learn…
Halkett, Georgia K.B.; McKay, Janice; Shaw, Therese
Background: Radiographers can have a marked impact on the way patients deal with their illness because they are often one of the first health professionals that patients see. Therefore, it is essential that radiographers have effective communication skills and are able to provide patients with the information they require. The purpose of this study was to test whether the introduction of additional education on communication and history taking improved students' communication skills. Methods: A short program on communication skills and history taking was introduced to third year undergraduate students prior to a clinical placements period. Three workshops were run; the third included a role play exercise using professional actors as simulated patients. Students completed questionnaires at baseline, following the three workshops and after their subsequent clinical placement. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression Generalized Estimating Equations models were fitted to test for differences over time in students' confidence levels. Results: Twenty-seven out of 36 students completed the baseline and final surveys. Students indicated they were highly satisfied with the workshops provided. Statistically significant differences were observed for seven items relating to student's confidence levels in communicating with patients after they had participated in the workshops and their subsequent clinical placement. Conclusion: The use of communication skills workshops involving actor/patients is an effective method of assisting students to develop their communication and history taking skills. This program has now been implemented into the mentioned undergraduate course and it is recommended that radiography students at other institutions be provided with the opportunity to develop their communication and history taking skills.
Full Text Available Increasingly, numerous universities have identified benefits of flipped learning environments and have been encouraging instructors to adapt such methodologies in their respective classrooms, at a time when departments are facing significant budget constraints. This article proposes an instructional design framework utilized to strategically enhance traditional flipped methodologies in a first-year engineering course, by using low-cost technology aids and proven pedagogical techniques to enhance student learning. Implemented in a first-year engineering course, this modified flipped model demonstrated an improved student awareness of essential engineering concepts and improved academic performance through collaborative and active learning activities, including flipped learning methodologies, without the need for expensive, formal active learning spaces. These findings have been validated through two studies and have shown similar results confirming that student learning is improved by the implementation of multi-pedagogical strategies in-formed by the use of an instructional design in a traditional classroom setting.
Basso, A.; Chiorri, C.; Bracco, F.; Carnasciali, M. M.; Alloisio, M.; Grotti, M.
Improving the interest of high-school students towards chemistry (and science in general) is one of the goals of the Italian Ministry of Education. To this aim, we designed a context-based activity that actively involved students in six different laboratory experiences interconnected by a case study of the murder of Miss Scarlet, from the famous…
Henk van den Hurk; Dr. Thoni Houtveen; W.J.C.M. van de Grift; Dorothe Cras
A study of the improvement of the quality of student teachers’ lessons in interactive (story)book reading through the use of data-feedback on observed lessons. Variables regarding the optimal time use, the quality of instruction and the student teachers’ pedagogical relation with pupils were
Jukema, Jan S; Harps-Timmerman, Annelies; Stoopendaal, Annemiek; Smits, Carolien H M
Change management is an important area of training in undergraduate nursing education. Successful change management in healthcare aimed at improving practices requires facilitation skills that support teams in attaining the desired change. Developing facilitation skills in nursing students requires formal educational support. A Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program based on a nationwide format of change management in healthcare was designed to act as a Powerful Learning Environment for nursing students developing competencies in facilitating change. This article has two aims: to provide comprehensive insight into the program components and to describe students' learning experiences in developing their facilitation skills. This Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program considers three aspects of a Powerful Learning Environment: self-regulated learning; problem-based learning; and complex, realistic and challenging learning tasks. These three aspects were operationalised in five distinct areas of facilitation: increasing awareness of the need for change; leadership and project management; relationship building and communication; importance of the local context; and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. Over a period of 18 months, 42 nursing students, supported by trained lecturer-coaches, took part in nine improvement teams in our Regional Care Improvement Program, executing activities in all five areas of facilitation. Based on the students' experiences, we propose refinements to various components of this program, aimed at strengthenin the learning environment. There is a need for further detailed empirical research to study the impact this kind of learning environment has on students developing facilitation competencies in healthcare improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To identify effective compounds that are active against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus persisters, we screened a clinical drug library consisting of 1524 compounds and identified six drug candidates that had anti-persister activity: tosufloxacin, clinafloxacin, sarafloxacin, doxycycline, thiostrepton, and chlorosalicylanilide. Among them, tosufloxacin had the highest anti-persister activity, which could completely eradicate S. aureus persisters within 2 days in vitro. Clinafloxacin ranked the second with very few persisters surviving the drug exposure. Interestingly, we found that both tosufloxacin and trovafloxacin that had high activity against persisters contained at the N-1 position the 2,4-difluorophenyl group, which is absent in other less active quinolones and may be associated with the high anti-persister activity. Further studies are needed to evaluate tosufloxacin in animal models and to explain its unique activity against bacterial persisters. Our findings may have implications for improved treatment of persistent bacterial infections.
Mutz, Rudiger; Daniel, Hans-Dieter
Background: It is often claimed that psychology students' attitudes towards research methods and statistics affect course enrolment, persistence, achievement, and course climate. However, the inter-institutional variability has been widely neglected in the research on students' attitudes towards research methods and statistics, but it is important…
Nakos, George; Whiting, Anita
The authors investigate whether frequent in class exams can improve the performance of students in hybrid global business courses. An experiment was conducted in three hybrid sections of a global business course exposing students to short in class exams. The expectation of a short exam forces students to watch the online lectures and study the…
Improving at-risk students' low self-esteem, changing the negative feeling that at-risk students have about themselves, and helping at-risk students to become empowered to do something about their poor achievement in school were the major undertaking of this project. A formalized self-esteem assessment tool, the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory,…
Manning, Michael W; Bean, Eric W; Miller, Andrew C; Templer, Suzanne J; Mackenzie, Richard S; Richardson, David M; Bresnan, Kristin A; Greenberg, Marna R
The Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC) initiative for Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency includes as an element of Entrustable Professional Activity 13 to "identify system failures and contribute to a culture of safety and improvement." We set out to determine the feasibility of using medical students' action learning projects (ALPs) to expedite implementation of evidence-based pathways for three common patient diagnoses in the emergency department (ED) setting (Atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary embolism). These prospective quality improvement (QI) initiatives were performed over six months in three Northeastern PA hospitals. Emergency physician mentors were recruited to facilitate a QI experience for third-year medical students for each project. Six students were assigned to each mentor and given class time and network infrastructure support (information technology, consultant experts in lean management) to work on their projects. Students had access to background network data that revealed potential for improvement in disposition (home) for patients. Under the leadership of their mentors, students accomplished standard QI processes such as performing the background literature search and assessing key stakeholders' positions that were involved in the respective patient's care. Students effectively developed flow diagrams, computer aids for clinicians and educational programs, and participated in recruiting champions for the new practice standard. They met with other departmental clinicians to determine barriers to implementation and used this feedback to help set specific parameters to make clinicians more comfortable with the changes in practice that were recommended. All three clinical practice guidelines were initiated at consummation of the students' projects. After implementation, 86% (38/44) of queried ED providers felt comfortable with medical students being a part of future ED QI
Improving students' problem-solving abilities is a major, if not the major, goal of middle grades mathematics. To address this goal, the author, who is a university mathematics educator, and nine inner-city middle school teachers developed a math/science action research project. This article describes their unique approach to mathematical problem…
Hagemann, Vera; Herbstreit, Frank; Kehren, Clemens; Chittamadathil, Jilson; Wolfertz, Sandra; Dirkmann, Daniel; Kluge, Annette; Peters, Jürgen
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a tailor-made, non-technical skills seminar on medical student's behaviour, attitudes, and performance during simulated patient treatment. Seventy-seven students were randomized to either a non-technical skills seminar (NTS group, n=43) or a medical seminar (control group, n=34). The human patient simulation was used as an evaluation tool. Before the seminars, all students performed the same simulated emergency scenario to provide baseline measurements. After the seminars, all students were exposed to a second scenario, and behavioural markers for evaluating their non-technical skills were rated. Furthermore, teamwork-relevant attitudes were measured before and after the scenarios, and perceived stress was measured following each simulation. All simulations were also evaluated for various medical endpoints. Non-technical skills concerning situation awareness (ptechnical skills to improve student's non-technical skills. In a next step, to improve student's handling of emergencies and patient outcomes, non-technical skills seminars should be accompanied by exercises and more broadly embedded in the medical school curriculum.
There has been a remarkable improvement in access and rate of adoption of technology in higher education. Even so, reports indicate that faculty members are not integrating technology into instruction in ways that make a difference in student learning (Cuban, 2001; McCannon & Crews, 2000). To help faculty make informed decisions on student…
Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D.
Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4th to 9th graders (n=35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword- (handwriting), word- (spelling), and syntax- (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities. PMID:25378768
Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D
Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4 th to 9 th graders ( n =35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword - (handwriting), word - (spelling), and syntax - (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities.
Ghorbani, Ahmad; Ghazvini, Kiarash
Many studies have emphasized the incorporation of active learning into classrooms to reinforce didactic lectures for physiology courses. This work aimed to determine if presenting classic papers during didactic lectures improves the learning of physiology among undergraduate students. Twenty-two students of health information technology were…
Khan, Anjum B; Carpenter, Ben; Santos E Sousa, Pedro; Pospori, Constandina; Khorshed, Reema; Griffin, James; Velica, Pedro; Zech, Mathias; Ghorashian, Sara; Forrest, Calum; Thomas, Sharyn; Gonzalez Anton, Sara; Ahmadi, Maryam; Holler, Angelika; Flutter, Barry; Ramirez-Ortiz, Zaida; Means, Terry K; Bennett, Clare L; Stauss, Hans; Morris, Emma; Lo Celso, Cristina; Chakraverty, Ronjon
A key predictor for the success of gene-modified T cell therapies for cancer is the persistence of transferred cells in the patient. The propensity of less differentiated memory T cells to expand and survive efficiently has therefore made them attractive candidates for clinical application. We hypothesized that redirecting T cells to specialized niches in the BM that support memory differentiation would confer increased therapeutic efficacy. We show that overexpression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in CD8+ T cells (TCXCR4) enhanced their migration toward vascular-associated CXCL12+ cells in the BM and increased their local engraftment. Increased access of TCXCR4 to the BM microenvironment induced IL-15-dependent homeostatic expansion and promoted the differentiation of memory precursor-like cells with low expression of programmed death-1, resistance to apoptosis, and a heightened capacity to generate polyfunctional cytokine-producing effector cells. Following transfer to lymphoma-bearing mice, TCXCR4 showed a greater capacity for effector expansion and better tumor protection, the latter being independent of changes in trafficking to the tumor bed or local out-competition of regulatory T cells. Thus, redirected homing of T cells to the BM confers increased memory differentiation and antitumor immunity, suggesting an innovative solution to increase the persistence and functions of therapeutic T cells.
Daunt, Laura A; Umeonusulu, Patience I; Gladman, John R F; Blundell, Adrian G; Conroy, Simon P; Gordon, Adam L
computer-aided learning (CAL) is increasingly used to deliver teaching, but few studies have evaluated its impact on learning within geriatric medicine. We developed and implemented CAL packages on falls and continence, and evaluated their effect on student performance in two medical schools. traditional ward based and didactic teaching was replaced by blended learning (CAL package combined with traditional teaching methods). Examination scores were compared for cohorts of medical students receiving traditional learning and those receiving blended learning. Control questions were included to provide data on cohort differences. in both medical schools, there was a trend towards improved scores following blended learning, with a smaller number of students achieving low scores (P learning was associated with improvement in student examination performance, regardless of the setting or the methods adopted, and without increasing teaching time. Our findings support the use of CAL in teaching geriatric medicine, and this method has been adopted for teaching other topics in the undergraduate curriculum.
Full Text Available By taking the role as a mentor and a facilitator, a teacher in the 4th grade of elementary school needs to look at the condition of the students in the concrete thinking stage. Learning process needs to be adjusted such that the abstract objects in mathematics can be represented through concrete objects as a bridge to enter the knowledge that the students already had, especially for the material of fraction. This research aims to analyze the achievement and the improvement of students’ mathematics reasoning ability through the implementation of Indonesian realistic mathematics education (PMRI approach. The research subject consisted of 51 students in the experiment group and 45 students in the control group which categorized into three levels (low, intermediate, and high. The result suggests that the achievement and the improvement of students’ reasoning ability in the mathematics learning using PMRI approach are better than the conventional learning.
Full Text Available Objective: In this trial, we intend to assess the effect of simulation-based education approach on advanced cardiovascular life support skills among medical students. Methods: Through convenient sampling method, 40 interns of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in their emergency medicine rotation (from September to December 2012 participated in this study. Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS workshops with pretest and post-test exams were performed. Workshops and checklists for pretest and post-test exams were designed according to the latest American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Results: The total score of the students increased significantly after workshops (24.6 out of 100 to 78.6 out of 100. This demonstrates 53.9% improvement in the skills after the simulation-based education (P< 0.001. Also the mean score of each station had a significant improvement (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Pretests showed that interns had poor performance in practical clinical matters while their scientific knowledge, such as ECG interpretation was acceptable. The overall results of the study highlights that Simulation based-education approach is highly effective in Improving ACLS skills among medical students.
Hammonds, Frank; Mariano, Gina J.; Ammons, Gracie; Chambers, Sheridan
Student evaluations of teaching (SET) are widely used in both North America and the UK as a means of documenting and improving teaching quality. This article discusses current research on SET administration and interpretation in both regions. Sections of the article are dedicated to various problems associated with SETs and how these may be…
Pakrosnis, Rytis; Cepukiene, Viktorija
Along with positive developments in psychology, the self-help movement is becoming widespread, based on the belief that people are capable of growing and achieving positive change with only minimal help. This article addresses the potential of a solution-focused self-help tool to improve university students' well-being by comparing its outcome to…
Jessee, Mary Ann
A persistent deficit in new graduate nurses' clinical reasoning skill exists. Clinical reasoning is best learned in the sociocultural clinical learning environment (CLE), yet many CLEs fail to engage nursing students in the cognitive work of nursing that promotes development of clinical reasoning. Despite two decades of recommendations to improve CLEs based on students' perceptions of learning, widespread improvement remains elusive. The aim of this review was to synthesize what is known about the influence of sociocultural factors in the acute-care CLE on prelicensure nursing students' perceptions of learning, for the purpose of identifying factors that when modified may promote improvement of clinical reasoning skill. The integrative review methodology was used to synthesize and identify gaps in evidence on students' perceptions of learning in the acute-care CLE. Global commonalities exist in the impact of the sociocultural CLE on students' perceptions of learning, including overall sociocultural atmosphere, membership in the health care team, supervisory relationships, peer relationships, and clinical education structure. This review provides evidence that modification of CLE factors and examination of their influence on measurable learning outcomes such as clinical reasoning are the necessary next steps to facilitate improvement of new graduate nurses' clinical reasoning skill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Groot-Reuvekamp, Marjan; Ros, Anje; van Boxtel, Carla
The teaching of historical time is an important aspect in elementary school curricula. This study focuses on the effects of a curriculum intervention with "Timewise," a teaching approach developed to improve students' understanding of historical time using timelines as a basis with which students can develop their understanding of…
Friedrich, Bettina; Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Rhydderch, Danielle; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham
Education Not Discrimination (END) is the component of the Time to Change programme intended to reduce mental health stigma among professionals and professional trainees. To investigate the impact of the END anti-stigma programme on medical students immediately and after 6 months with regard to knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and empathy. A total of 1452 medical students participated in the study (intervention group n = 1066, control group n = 386). Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, and at immediate and 6-month follow-up. Groups were compared for changes in stigma outcomes. All measures improved in both groups, particularly among students with less knowledge and more stigmatising attitudes and intended behaviour at baseline. At immediate follow-up the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in stigma-related knowledge and reductions in stigma-related attitudes and intended behaviour, relative to the control group. At 6 months' follow-up, however, only one attitude item remained significantly better. Although the intervention produced short-term advantage there was little evidence for its persistent effect, suggesting a need for greater integration of ongoing measures to reduce stigma into the medical curriculum.
Cadavid, A. C.; Pedone, V. A.; Horn, W.; Rich, H.
STEPS (Students Targeting Engineering and Physical Science) is an NSF-funded program designed to increase the number of California State University Northridge students getting bachelor's degrees in the natural sciences, mathematics, engineering and computer science. The greatest loss of STEM majors occurs between sophomore and junior- years, so we designed Summer Interdisciplinary Team Experience (SITE) as an early career program for these students. Students work closely with a faculty mentor in teams of ten to investigate regionally relevant problems, many of which relate to sustainability efforts on campus or the community. The projects emphasize hands-on activities and team-based learning and decision making. We report data for five years of projects, qualitative assessment through entrance and exit surveys and student interviews, and in initial impact on retention of the participants.
Syawal - Syawal
Full Text Available This research was classroom action research, which aims at improving students' motivation of their poor performance through learning model Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI on VII.3 grade students of SMP Negeri 6 Parepare. Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI can serve individual student differences by adjusting treatment or learning method with students' abilities. The use of this model was emphasizing to create small groups of students that have achievement alike. Students with have low academic achievement based on test results and teacher interview will be grouped into one group and will be given preferential treatment by tutoring intensity rather than the group of high academic achievement. Subjects of this research were students of class VII.3 SMP Negeri 6 Parepare which is consist of 25 students. This research was conducted in two cycles. The procedure of this research involved four phases: (1 planning, (2 Implementation of action, (3 observation, (4 Reflection. The data collection was done by observation, tests, and questionnaires for each cycle after giving treatment through learning model Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI. Data collected were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The results of this research indicate that the Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI can be an alternative method to improve learning motivation of low achievement students. The results of this research also showed that the Aptitude Treatment Interaction (ATI can be an alternative to problem-solving in the classroom, especially for low achievement students.
Kristianti, T. P.; Ramli, M.; Ariyanto, J.
This research aims to know how students’ argumentative skills improved by applying teacher’s questioning techniques and argumentative assessment through collaborative action research between college student who did teaching practicum, biology teacher as tutor teacher, and lecturers. The action research was done in three cycles involving one class consisted of 36 eleventh graders. Lesson plans were developed collaboratively, and teaching practices were by the student teacher. In the reflective phase prior to the first cycle, learning processes were dominated by the teacher, hence students did not have sufficient opportunity to argue. Students were divided into two, 14 students were grouped as low achievement (LA) and 22 students were the high achievement (HA). Teacher questions and students’ responses were furtherly coded and interpreted following the validated rubric of level of argumentation. A divergent essay as an argumentative assessment was also tested to students at the end of each cycle. At the end of the third cycle, HA and LA students showed a significant change in argumentative skills responded the teacher’s questions. However, only four LA students who actively argued. Students from HA groups also showed the improvement on the level of argumentation, where they move from level 1 to 3.
Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert
Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the
Peter Mazzolini, Alexander; Arthur Daniel, Scott
Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) have been used across introductory university physics as a successful active learning (AL) strategy to improve students' conceptual understanding. We have developed ILDs for more complex topics in our first-year electronics course. In 2006 we began developing ILDs to improve students' conceptual understanding of Operational Amplifiers (OAs) and negative feedback in amplification circuits. The ILDs were used after traditional lecture instruction to help students consolidate their understanding. We developed a diagnostic test, to be administered to students both before and after the ILDs, as a measure of how effective the ILDs were in improving students' understanding.
Gilkes, Lucy A; Liira, Helena; Emery, Jon
Medical students benefit from their contact with clinicians and patients in the clinical setting. However, little is known about whether patients and clinicians also benefit from medical students. We developed an audit and feedback intervention activity to be delivered by medical students to their general practice supervisors. We tested whether the repeated cycle of audit had an effect on the preventive care practices of general practitioners (GPs). The students performed an audit on topics of preventive medicine and gave feedback to their supervisors. Each supervisor in the study had more than one student performing the audit over the academic year. After repetitive cycles of audit and feedback, the recording of social history items by GPs improved. For example, recording alcohol history increased from 24% to 36%. This study shows that medical students can be effective auditors, and their repeated audits may improve their general practice supervisors' recording of some aspects of social history.
Takeda, Mikiko Y; Smith, Mark J; Cone, Catherine J
Although recent literature suggests that students should be trained in the care of persons with disability (PWDs) as a form of cultural sensitivity (CS), healthcare professionals may receive limited experience during their formal training. After pharmacy students in 2 previous years of testing failed to adequately assess and plan for the care of a standardized patient's chief complaint and disability in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), the investigators added debriefing to the OSCE to determine if it would improve student's ability to assess and plan for the care of PWD. Two sequentially enrolled second-year pharmacy school student cohorts participated in this study (control n = 90; intervention n = 82). During the OSCE, students interviewed and examined a standardized patient with a simulated physical disability and other chronic disease states. Students were then instructed to develop a care plan considering the patient's disability and other disease states. The intervention cohort received debriefing; the control did not. Students documented the care plan in a subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) note. Investigators assessed SOAP note score (general ability of students to write a SOAP note) and CS score (specific ability to care for PWD) to determine the effectiveness of the debriefing. The intervention group showed a significantly higher percent mean CS score than the control group (93.6% ± 19% and 61.1% ± 30.7%, respectively, P improvement in pass rates (those students scoring ≥70% on the OSCE) of 59.4% with 92.7% of the students passing in the intervention group versus 33.3% of the students passing in the control group (P improved students' performance in developing care plans for disabled patients. Ideally, longitudinal studies should be completed to determine if these skills transfer from debriefings to clinical practice. Development of effective training and assessment methods is essential for students to obtain
Wagner, Elissa A
This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available In this study we introduce a new model for primary education called ISMS: Improving Student Motivation and Self-esteem. Following a two-year study undertaken in a primary school (n=67, the new model was found to be successful. Students who participated in the research, reported that a course based on ISMS principles was very helpful for strengthening their perceived ability and their motivation to make an effort. They became more enthusiastic, responsible, self-confident, optimistic and determined to succeed. The meaning of such findings is that it is possible to improve key variables having vital influence on student learning and academic performance. The ISMS model was found to be applicable to primary education, in particular, but it may be suitable to secondary schools as well.
Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.
As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order
D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.
Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…
Kerber, Michael; Morozov, Dmitriy; Nigmetov, Arnur
Exploiting geometric structure to improve the asymptotic complexity of discrete assignment problems is a well-studied subject. In contrast, the practical advantages of using geometry for such problems have not been explored. We implement geometric variants of the Hopcroft--Karp algorithm for bottleneck matching (based on previous work by Efrat el al.), and of the auction algorithm by Bertsekas for Wasserstein distance computation. Both implementations use k-d trees to replace a linear scan with a geometric proximity query. Our interest in this problem stems from the desire to compute distances between persistence diagrams, a problem that comes up frequently in topological data analysis. We show that our geometric matching algorithms lead to a substantial performance gain, both in running time and in memory consumption, over their purely combinatorial counterparts. Moreover, our implementation significantly outperforms the only other implementation available for comparing persistence diagrams.
Mueller, Matthias; Sharma, Gopal; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard
In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.
In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.
Berkeley, Sheri; Marshak, Lisa; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.
This study employed a randomized experimental design to investigate the effectiveness of a self-questioning strategy for improving student reading comprehension of grade-level social studies text material. Fifty-seven seventh grade students with a range of abilities, including English as second language learners and students with learning and…
Skryzalin, Jacek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlsson, Gunnar [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
In this paper, we analyze the space of multidimensional persistence modules from the perspectives of algebraic geometry. We first build a moduli space of a certain subclass of easily analyzed multidimensional persistence modules, which we construct specifically to capture much of the information which can be gained by using multidimensional persistence over one-dimensional persistence. We argue that the global sections of this space provide interesting numeric invariants when evaluated against our subclass of multidimensional persistence modules. Lastly, we extend these global sections to the space of all multidimensional persistence modules and discuss how the resulting numeric invariants might be used to study data.
persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc
Bridgewater, Laura C.; Jensen, Jamie L.; Breakwell, Donald P.; Nielsen, Brent L.; Johnson, Steven M.
A critical area of emphasis for science educators is the identification of effective means of teaching and engaging undergraduate students. Personal microbiome analysis is a means of identifying the microbial communities found on or in our body. We hypothesized the use of personal microbiome analysis in the classroom could improve science education by making courses more applied and engaging for undergraduate students. We determined to test this prediction in three Brigham Young University undergraduate courses: Immunology, Advanced Molecular Biology Laboratory, and Genomics. These three courses have a two-week microbiome unit and students during the 2016 semester students could submit their own personal microbiome kit or use the demo data, whereas during the 2017 semester students were given access to microbiome data from an anonymous individual. The students were surveyed before, during, and after the human microbiome unit to determine whether analyzing their own personal microbiome data, compared to analyzing demo microbiome data, impacted student engagement and interest. We found that personal microbiome analysis significantly enhanced the engagement and interest of students while completing microbiome assignments, the self-reported time students spent researching the microbiome during the two week microbiome unit, and the attitudes of students regarding the course overall. Thus, we found that integrating personal microbiome analysis in the classroom was a powerful means of improving student engagement and interest in undergraduate science courses. PMID:29641525
Deegan, William L.
Reports on a study which reviewed student successes and failures in an on-going student controlled program, where accountability, persistence and continuing commitment were required. Several conclusions are presented and weaknesses noted in these programs, many of which can be seen in faculty and administrative programs, too. (Author/PC)
Xu, Jian; Murata, Daisuke; Ueda, Jumpei; Viana, Bruno; Tanabe, Setsuhisa
Persistent luminescence (PersL) imaging without real-time external excitation has been regarded as the next generation of autofluorescence-free optical imaging technology. However, to achieve improved imaging resolution and deep tissue penetration, developing new near-infrared (NIR) persistent phosphors with intense and long duration PersL over 1000 nm is still a challenging but urgent task in this field. Herein, making use of the persistent energy transfer process from Cr 3+ to Er 3+ , we report a novel garnet persistent phosphor of Y 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 codoped with Er 3+ and Cr 3+ (YAG G:Er-Cr), which shows intense Cr 3+ PersL (∼690 nm) in the deep red region matching well with the first biological window (NIR-I, 650-950 nm) and Er 3+ PersL (∼1532 nm) in the NIR region matching well with the third biological window (NIR-III, 1500-1800 nm). The optical imaging through raw-pork tissues (thickness of 1 cm) suggests that the emission band of Er 3+ can achieve higher spatial resolution and more accurate signal location than that of Cr 3+ due to the reduced light scattering at longer wavelengths. Furthermore, by utilizing two independent electron traps with two different trap depths in YAG G:Er-Cr, the Cr 3+ /Er 3+ PersL can even be recharged in situ by photostimulation with 660 nm LED thanks to the redistribution of trapped electrons from the deep trap to the shallow one. Our results serve as a guide in developing promising NIR (>1000 nm) persistent phosphors for long-term optical imaging.
The present study examined the relationship between second-year medical students' group performance and individual performance in a collaborative-learning environment. In recent decades, university professors in the scientific and humanistic disciplines have successfully put into practice different modalities of collaborative approaches to teaching. Essentially, collaborative approach refers to a variety of techniques that involves the joint intellectual effort of a small group of students, which encourages interaction and discussion among students and professors. The present results show the efficacy of collaborative learning, which, furthermore, allowed students to participate actively in the physiology class. Average student's grades were significantly higher when they engaged in single-best-response, multiple-choice tests as a student team, compared with taking the same examinations individually. The method improved notably knowledge retention, as learning is more effective when performed in the context of collaborative partnership. A selected subset of questions answered wrongly in an initial test, both individually and collectively, was used on a second test to examine student retention of studied material. Grade averages were significantly improved, both individually and groupwise, when students responded to the subset of questions a second time, 1, 2, or 3 wk after the first attempt. These results suggest that the collaborative approach to teaching allowed a more effective understanding of course content, which meant an improved capacity for retention of human physiology knowledge.
Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna
Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kuneni, Erna; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar
Geometry is the most important branch in mathematics. The purpose of teaching this material is to develop students' level of thinking for a better understanding. Otherwise, geometry in particular, has contributed students' failure in mathematics examinations. This problem occurs due to special feature in geometry which has complexity of correlation among its concept. This relates to mathematical connection. It is still difficult for students to improve this ability. This is because teachers' lack in facilitating students towards it. Eventhough, facilitating students can be in the form of teaching material. A learning module can be a solution because it consists of series activities that should be taken by students to achieve a certain goal. A series activities in this case is adopted by the phases of discovery-based learning model. Through this module, students are facilitated to discover concept by deep instruction and guidance. It can build the mathematical habits of mind and also strengthen the mathematical connection. Method used in this research was ten stages of research and development proposed by Bord and Gall. The research purpose is to create a valid learning module to improve students' mathematical connection in teaching quadrilateral. The retrieved valid module based on media expert judgment is 2,43 for eligibility chart aspect, 2,60 for eligibility presentation aspect, and 3,00 for eligibility contents aspect. Then the retrieved valid module based on material expert judgment is 3,10 for eligibility content aspect, 2,87 for eligibility presentation aspect, and 2,80 for eligibility language and legibility aspect.
Guseh, Stephanie H; Chen, Xiaodong P; Johnson, Natasha R
The purpose of this pilot study was to examine our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence through resident coaches could improve third-year medical students' adaptability and proactivity on the Obstetrics and Gynecology clerkship. An observational pilot study was conducted in a teaching hospital. Fourteen 3rd year medical students from two cohorts of clerkships were randomly divided into two groups, and equally assigned to trained resident coaches and untrained resident coaches. Data was collected through onsite naturalistic observation of students' adaptability and proactivity in clinical settings using a checklist with a 4-point Likert scale (1=poor to 4=excellent). Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the differences between these two groups. A total of 280 data points were collected through onsite observations conducted by investigators. All (n=14) students' adaptability and proactivity performance significantly improved from an average of 3.04 to 3.45 (p=0.014) over 6-week clerkship. Overall, students with trained resident coaches adapted significantly faster and were more proactive in the obstetrics and gynecology clinical setting than the students with untrained coaches (3.31 vs. 3.24, p=0.019). Findings from our pilot study supported our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence knowledge through resident coaches was able to help medical students adapt into obstetrics and gynecology clinical settings faster and become more proactive in learning. Clerkship programs can incorporate the concept of a resident coach in their curriculum to help bridge medical students into clinical settings and to help them engage in self-directed learning throughout the rotation.
Ibrahim Rajab Abbas Ibrahim
The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of cooperative learning in improving mathematical concepts among students with mild intellectual disability (SMID). The sample of the study consisted of 8 SMID at Najran in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The sample of the study was divided randomly into two equal groups control and experimental. The students in the experimental group have studied the mathematical concepts by using cooperative learning; however the students in the contr...
Berger, Joseph B.
Used concepts from community psychology literature to elaborate a revised version of Tinto's model of individual student departure. Employed a longitudinal analysis of 718 college students. Results indicate that students' sense of community in their residence halls was a source of social integration and a precursor to student departure decisions.…
Usman, Abdurrahman Hi
This research was conducted to improve students' English speaking ability by using the think-pair-share strategy designed in CAR. The findings in Cycle 1 was unsuccessful because the students' average scores was 74.18 and classroom atmospheres were "mid" that did not meet the criteria of success. Therefore, the implementation of the…
Widiana, I. Wayan; Jampel, I. Nyoman
This classroom action research aimed to improve the students' creative thinking and achievement in learning science. It conducted through the implementation of multiple intelligences with mind mapping approach and describing the students' responses. The subjects of this research were the fifth grade students of SD 8 Tianyar Barat, Kubu, and…
Boyd, Jamie Kamailani; Hernandez, Jesika Y; Braun, Kathryn L
Students from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds have historically experienced high rates of college dropout. Surveys often are used to assess supports and barriers (SB) to college enrollment and completion, and findings drive the design of interventions to improve student recruitment and retention. However, standard surveys may not include questions that solicit the breadth of issues facing low-income minority individuals. We used community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to develop an SB survey to better reflect the concerns of rural, first-generation college students in Hawai'i. An advisory panel (AP) of students and community partners guided the work. The literature informed the first draft of the SB survey. Then we worked with students who had successfully completed a vocational Nurse Aide (NA) Training Program (NATP) course to refine four versions of the SB survey through multiple cycles of online survey review and focus groups. The final product included questions in new areas and differently phrased questions in standard areas (e.g., transportation, dependent care, housing, financial aid) to better capture reasons for students dropping out. The survey has proven useful as a student assessment tool, and findings are being used by instructors, counselors, and community partners to add resources and modify programs to increase student success in community college. Findings confirm the usefulness of engaging target partners in tool development. An enhanced understanding of SB of students from underrepresented groups will help to improve college recruitment and retention interventions.
Jespersen, L.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Hvelplund, Anders
To evaluate persistent angina in stable angina pectoris with no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to obstructive CAD and its relation to long-term anxiety, depression, quality of life (QOL), and physical functioning. We invited 357 patients (men = 191; women = 166; response rate 83......-obstructive CAD or normal coronary arteries than in patients with obstructive CAD. Persistent angina symptoms were associated with long-term anxiety, depression, impaired physical functioning, and QOL irrespective of the degree of CAD. Contrary to common perception, excluding obstructive CAD in stable angina does...... %) with no prior cardiovascular disease who had a first-time coronary angiography (CAG) in 2008-2009 due to suspected stable angina to participate in a questionnaire survey in 2011 with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as key elements. Long-term persistent angina (i...
Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel
In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…
Kaja Høiseth Brugård
This paper studies the relationship between school choice and student performance for high school students in Norway. The analysis exploits both the fact that the degree of school choice formally differs between counties, and detailed information on travelling distances to high schools, which more closely reflects the students' actual school choice possibilities. Information on students' residence, high school location, and the degree of formal school choice is used to estimate the effect on ...
Twu, Chih-Wen [Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wen-Yi [Section of Basic Medicine, Department of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Chih [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Kai-Li; Jiang, Rong-San [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Te [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital–Chiayi Branch, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Martin De Porres Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Po-Ju; Liu, Yi-Chun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jin-Ching, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)
Purpose: To investigate the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with persistently detectable plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pEBV DNA) after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 625 NPC patients with available pEBV DNA levels before and after treatment. Eighty-five patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after 1 week of completing radiation therapy were eligible for this retrospective study. Of the 85 patients, 33 were administered adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of oral tegafur-uracil (2 capsules twice daily) for 12 months with (n=4) or without (n=29) preceding intravenous chemotherapy of mitomycin-C, epirubicin, and cisplatin. The remaining 52 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy served as the control group. Results: Baseline patient characteristics at diagnosis (age, sex, pathologic type, performance status, T classification, N classification, and overall stage), as well as previous treatment modality, were comparable in both arms. After a median follow-up of 70 months for surviving patients, 45.5% (15 of 33 patients) with adjuvant chemotherapy and 71.2% (37 of 52 patients) without adjuvant chemotherapy experienced tumor relapses (P=.0323). There were a significant reduction in distant failure (P=.0034) but not in local or regional recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.6% for patients with adjuvant chemotherapy and 28.7% for patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.55; P<.0001). Conclusions: Our retrospective data showed that adjuvant chemotherapy can reduce distant failure and improve overall survival in NPC patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy.
Twu, Chih-Wen; Wang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Chien-Chih; Liang, Kai-Li; Jiang, Rong-San; Wu, Ching-Te; Shih, Yi-Ting; Lin, Po-Ju; Liu, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jin-Ching
Purpose: To investigate the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with persistently detectable plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pEBV DNA) after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 625 NPC patients with available pEBV DNA levels before and after treatment. Eighty-five patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after 1 week of completing radiation therapy were eligible for this retrospective study. Of the 85 patients, 33 were administered adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of oral tegafur-uracil (2 capsules twice daily) for 12 months with (n=4) or without (n=29) preceding intravenous chemotherapy of mitomycin-C, epirubicin, and cisplatin. The remaining 52 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy served as the control group. Results: Baseline patient characteristics at diagnosis (age, sex, pathologic type, performance status, T classification, N classification, and overall stage), as well as previous treatment modality, were comparable in both arms. After a median follow-up of 70 months for surviving patients, 45.5% (15 of 33 patients) with adjuvant chemotherapy and 71.2% (37 of 52 patients) without adjuvant chemotherapy experienced tumor relapses (P=.0323). There were a significant reduction in distant failure (P=.0034) but not in local or regional recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.6% for patients with adjuvant chemotherapy and 28.7% for patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.55; P<.0001). Conclusions: Our retrospective data showed that adjuvant chemotherapy can reduce distant failure and improve overall survival in NPC patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy
Hitt, S. J.; Bright, K.
Many educators in the fields of science and engineering assure their students that writing is an important and necessary part of their work. According to David Lindsay, in Scientific Writing=Thinking in Words, 99% of scientists agree that writing is an integral part of their jobs. However, only 5% of those same scientists have ever had formal instruction in scientific writing, and those who are also educators may then feel unconfident in teaching this skill to their students (2). Additionally, making time for writing instruction in courses that are already full of technical content can cause it to be hastily and/or peremptorily included. These situations may be some of the contributing factors to the prevailing attitude of frustration that pervades the conversation about writing in science and engineering classrooms. This presentation provides a summary of past, present, and ongoing Writing Center research on effective writing tutoring in order to give science and engineering educators integrated approaches for working with student writers in their disciplines. From creating assignments, providing instruction, guiding revisions, facilitating peer review, and using assessments, we offer a comprehensive approach to getting your students motivated to improve their writing. Our new research study focuses on developing student writing resources and support in science and engineering institutions, with the goal of utilizing cross-disciplinary knowledge that can be used by the various constituencies responsible for improving the effectiveness of writing among student engineers and scientists. We will will draw upon recent findings in the study of the rhetoric and compositional pedagogy and apply them to the specific needs of the science and engineering classroom. The fields of communication, journalism, social sciences, rhetoric, technical writing, and philosophy of science have begun to integrate these findings into classroom practice, and we will show how these can also
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Dias, Paulo; Vaz, Filipa Machado; Vaz, Joao Machado
There is a growing need for the integration of various theoretical perspectives on academic performance, especially the theories on educational persistence, and motivational theories. Recent models of students' engagement with school incorporate different dimensions of students, family and school. However, some authors are arguing that academic…
Full Text Available Persisters comprise a group of phenotypically heterogeneous metabolically quiescent bacteria with multidrug tolerance and contribute to the recalcitrance of chronic infections. Although recent work has shown that toxin-antitoxin (TA system HipAB depends on stringent response effector (pppGppin persister formation, whether other persister pathways are also dependent on stringent response has not been explored. Here we examined the relationship of (pppGpp with 15 common persister genes (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, pspF, tnaA, sucB, ssrA, smpB, recA, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ using Escherichia coli as a model. By comparing the persister levels of wild type with their single gene knockout and double knockout mutants with relA, we divided their interactions into five types, namely A “dependent” (dnaK, recA, B “positive reinforcement” (rpoS, pspF, ssrA, recA, C “antagonistic” (clpB, sucB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ, D “epistasis” (clpB, rpoS, tnaA, ssrA, smpB, hipA, and E “irrelevant” (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, tnaA, sucB, smpB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ. We found that the persister gene interactions are intimately dependent on bacterial culture age, cell concentrations (diluted versus undiluted culture, and drug classifications, where the same gene may belong to different groups with varying antibiotics, culture age or cell concentrations. Together, this study represents the first attempt to systematically characterize the intricate relationships among the different mechanisms of persistence and as such provide new insights into the complexity of the persistence phenomenon at the level of persister gene network interactions.
Full Text Available We describe a training program on “Psychology of effective professional activity”, realized on the basis of the Ural College of the Beauty Industry. The purpose of this discipline is to improve the effectiveness of education and professional activities of college students acquiring professions of “Human-Human” type. To improve effectiveness of education and professional activities, this program provides formation of professionally important qualities of students. The results of the program can be: students’ acquisition of knowledge required for the effective performance of professional activities (ways to prevent burnout, increase self-confidence, etc.; mastery of professional skills (planning, simulation, etc.; formation of professionally important qualities (stress, tolerance, etc.; increasing the efficiency of their professional activities.
Understanding chemical reactions is crucial in learning chemistry at all educational levels. Nevertheless, research in science education has revealed that many students struggle to understand chemical processes. Improving teaching and learning about chemical reactions demands that we develop a clearer understanding of student reasoning in this area and of how this reasoning evolves with training in the discipline. Thus, we have carried out a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews as the main data collection tool to explore students reasoning about reaction mechanism and causality. The participants of this study included students at different levels of training in chemistry: general chemistry students (n=22), organic chemistry students (n=16), first year graduate students (n=13) and Ph.D. candidates (n=14). We identified major conceptual modes along critical dimensions of analysis, and illustrated common ways of reasoning using typical cases. Main findings indicate that although significant progress is observed in student reasoning in some areas, major conceptual difficulties seem to persist even at the more advanced educational levels. In addition, our findings suggest that students struggle to integrate important concepts when thinking about mechanism and causality in chemical reactions. The results of our study are relevant to chemistry educators interested in learning progressions, assessment, and conceptual development.