WorldWideScience

Sample records for improving storage conditions

  1. Heat storage in forest biomass significantly improves energy balance closure particularly during stable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2009-08-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation nearly perfectly. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy

  2. In Vivo-Like Culture Conditions in a Bioreactor Facilitate Improved Tissue Quality in Corneal Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Richard; Tarau, Ioana-Sandra; Rossi, Angela; Leonhardt, Stefan; Schwarz, Thomas; Schuerlein, Sebastian; Lotz, Christian; Hansmann, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The cornea is the most-transplanted tissue worldwide. However, the availability and quality of grafts are limited due to the current methods of corneal storage. In this study, a dynamic bioreactor system is employed to enable the control of intraocular pressure and the culture at the air-liquid interface. Thereby, in vivo-like storage conditions are achieved. Different media combinations for endothelium and epithelium are tested in standard and dynamic conditions to enhance the viability of the tissue. In contrast to culture conditions used in eye banks, the combination of the bioreactor and biochrom medium 1 allows to preserve the corneal endothelium and the epithelium. Assessment of transparency, swelling, and the trans-epithelial-electrical-resistance (TEER) strengthens the impact of the in vivo-like tissue culture. For example, compared to corneas stored under static conditions, significantly lower optical densities and significantly higher TEER values were measured (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, healing of epithelial defects is enabled in the bioreactor, characterized by re-epithelialization and initiated stromal regeneration. Based on the obtained results, an easy-to-use 3D-printed bioreactor composed of only two parts was derived to translate the technology from the laboratory to the eye banks. This optimized bioreactor facilitates noninvasive microscopic monitoring. The improved storage conditions ameliorate the quality of corneal grafts and the storage time in the eye banks to increase availability and reduce re-grafting. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. Current activities on improving storage conditions of the research reactor RA spent fuel - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Kopecni, M.; Vukadin, Z.; Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.; Sotic, O.; Marinkovic, N.

    1998-01-01

    To minimize further corrosion and preserve integrity of aluminum barrels and the stainless steel channel-type containers that were found to contain leaking spent fuel, actions to improve conditions in the existing spent fuel storage pool at the RA research reactor were initiated. Technology was elaborated and equipment was produced and applied for removal of sludge and other debris from the bottom of the pool, filtration of the pool water, sludge conditioning in cement matrix and disposal at the low and medium waste repository at VINCA site. More sophisticated operations are to be performed together with foreign experts. Safety measures and precautions were determined. Subcriticality was proved under normal and/or possible abnormal conditions. (author)

  4. Condition Evaluation of Storage Equipment Based on Improved D-S Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiao-yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment and prediction of the storage equipment’s condition is always a difficult aspect in PHM technology. The current Condition evaluation of equipment lacks of the state level, and a single test data can’t reflect the change of equipment’s state. To solve the problem, this paper proposes an evaluation method based on improved D-S evidence theory. Firstly, use analytic hierarchy process (AHP to establish a hierarchical structure model of equipment and divide the qualified state into 4 grades. Then respectively compare the test data with the last test value, historical test mean value and standard value. And the triangular fuzzy function to calculate the index membership degree, combined with D-S evidence theory to fuse information from multiple sources, to achieve such equipment real-time state assessment. Finally, the model is used to a servo mechanism. The result shows that this method has a good performance in condition evaluation for the storage equipment

  5. Improvement of storage conditions and closure of the radioactive waste repository - Rozan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Pacey, N.R.; Buckley, M.J.; Thomson, J.G.; Miller, W.; Barraclough, I.; Tomczak, W.; Mitrega, J.; Smietanski, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Rozan repository is a near-surface repository on the site of an ex-military fort, operated by Radioactive Waste Management Plant (RWMP). Solid or encapsulated waste is consigned to the repository. Low- and medium-activity waste produced in Poland is collected, processed, solidified and prepared for disposal at the Swierk facility. The waste is currently stored or disposed of within the fort structures, these have robust concrete walls, that provide both shielding and containment. The project, funded by the European Commission through the Phare Programme, aimed to improve the storage conditions and determine a strategy for closure achieving two key results; Stakeholder agreement to a strategy for the management and closure of the repository, and; Approval by the National Atomic Energy Agency of the safety case for the selected strategy. The strategy was selected using a multi-criteria analysis methodology at workshops that involved experts, regulators and other stakeholders. The selected strategy proposed that the waste in Facilities 3A and 8 should be left in situ and these facilities should continue to operate until the repository is closed. The waste in Rooms K7 to K9 of Facility 1 and in Facilities 2 and 3 should be retrieved, assayed, treated and packaged prior to redisposal. The short-lived waste that is retrieved from Rooms K7 to K9 of Facility 1 and Facilities 2 and 3 should be emplaced in Facility 8 subject to acceptance by the NAEA of the dose of 0.3mSv/y that might occur at long times in the future from a very unlikely scenario. When operations at the repository end, Facilities 3A and 8 should be covered with a multi-layer cap. Following selection of the strategy, assessment work was undertaken to support the production of the suite of safety cases. (author)

  6. Improving of spent fuel monitoring in condition of Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklos, M.; Krsjak, V.; Bozik, M.; Vasina, D.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of WWER fuel assemblies condition in Slovakia is presented in the paper. The leak tightness results of fuel assemblies used in Slovak WWER units in last 20 years are analyzed. Good experiences with the 'Sipping system' are described. The Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility in NPP Jaslovske Bohunice was build and put in operation in 1986. Since 1999, leak tests of WWER-440 fuel assemblies are provided by special leak tightness detection system 'Sipping in Pool' delivered by Framatome-ANP facility with external heating for the precise detection of active specimens. Another system for monitoring of fuel assemblies condition was implemented in December 2006 under the name 'SVYPP-440'. First non-active tests started at February 2007 and are described in the paper. Although those systems seems to be very effective, the detection time of all fuel assemblies in one storage pool is too long (several months). Therefore, a new 'on-line' detection system, based on new sorbent KNiFC-PAN for effective 134 Cs and 137 Cs activity was developed. This sorbent was compared with another type of sorbent NIFSIL and results are presented. The design of this detection system and its possible application in the Slovak wet spent fuel storage facility is discussed. For completeness, the initial results of the new system are also presented. (authors)

  7. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Heating and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    through water evaporation , although some cooling also occurs due to sensible heat transfer . Cooling towers are very effective heat transfer devices... evaporator coil connected to the building heating , ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The refrigerant evaporates in the coil, removing...vapor is directed to a condensing coil, where the refrigerant vapor condenses back into a liquid, releasing its heat of vaporization. During

  8. An improved method of microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria for their stability in acidic and bile conditions during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W K; Shah, N P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for applying an extra coating of palm oil and poly-L-lysine (POPL) to alginate (ALG) microcapsules to enhance the survival of probiotic bacteria. Eight strains of probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, L. salivarius, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, B. lactis type Bl-O4, and B. lactis type Bi-07 were encapsulated using alginate alone or alginate with POPL. Electron microscopy was used to measure the size of the microcapsules and to determine their surface texture. To assess if the addition of POPL improved the viability of probiotic bacteria in acidic conditions, both ALG and POPL microcapsules were inoculated into pH 2.0 MRS broths and their viability was assessed over a 2-h incubation period. Two bile salts including oxgall bile salt and taurocholic acid were used to test the bile tolerance of probiotic bacteria entrapped in ALG and POPL microcapsules. To assess the porosity and the ability of the microcapsule to hold small molecules in an aqueous environment a water-soluble fluorescent dye, 6-carboxyflourescin (6 FAM), was encapsulated and its release was monitored using a UV spectrophotometer. The results indicated that coating the microcapsules with POPL increased the overall size of the capsules by an average of 3 microm +/- 0.67. However, microcapsules with added POPL had a much smoother surface texture when examined under an electron microscope. The results also indicated that the addition of POPL to microcapsules improved the average viability of probiotic bacteria by > 1 log CFU/mL when compared to ALG microcapsules at 2 h of exposure to acidic conditions. However, similar plate counts were observed between ALG and POPL microcapsules when exposed to bile salts. This suggests that an extra coating of POPL could be readily broken down by bile salts that are commonly found in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Upon testing the porosity of the

  9. Effects of storage conditions and storage period on nutritional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the effects of storage conditions and storage period on the nutritional and other qualities of stored yam tubers were investigated. ... environment, signs of deterioration of the tuber such as sprouting, weight loss and rotting and some ...

  10. Lyophilization conditions for the storage of monooxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Hugo L.; Beyer, Nina; Janssen, Dick B.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) was used as a model enzyme to find suitable freeze-drying conditions for long-term storage of an isolated monooxygenase. CHMO is a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) known for its ability to catalyze a large number of oxidation reactions. With a focus on

  11. Storage of RF photons in minimal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromières, J.-P.; Chanelière, T.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the minimal conditions to store coherently a RF pulse in a material medium. We choose a commercial quartz as a memory support because it is a widely available component with a high Q-factor. Pulse storage is obtained by varying dynamically the light-matter coupling with an analog switch. This parametric driving of the quartz dynamics can be alternatively interpreted as a stopped-light experiment. We obtain an efficiency of 26%, a storage time of 209 μs and a time-to-bandwidth product of 98 by optimizing the pulse temporal shape. The coherent character of the storage is demonstrated. Our goal is to connect different types of memories in the RF and optical domain for quantum information processing. Our motivation is essentially fundamental.

  12. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  13. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  14. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.309 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or any other deterioration which may have developed on...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears after...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on pears...

  17. Current status of and problems in ice heat storage systems contributing to improving load rate. Air conditioning system utilizing ice heat storage and building frame storage (Takenaka Corporation); Fukaritsu kaizen ni kokensuru kori chikunetsu system no genjo to kadai. Kori chikunetsu to kutai chikunetsu wo riyoshita kucho system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Yoshitake, Y. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Development was made on a new air conditioning system, `building frame heat storage air conditioning system`, which combines an ice heat storage system with a building frame heat storage. With the building frame heat storage system, a damper is installed on an indoor device to blow cold air from the air conditioner onto slabs on the upper floor during nighttime power generating period. Heat is stored in beams, pillars and walls, and the shell absorbs and dissipates heat during daytime. Since general office buildings consume primary energy at 22.8% for heat source and 26.9% for transportation, which is greater, a natural coolant circulation type air conditioning system was developed as an air conditioning system for the secondary side. This made the building frame heat regeneration possible for the first time. With regard to heat storage quantity and heat dissipation quantity, the quantity of heat which can be stored during nighttime (10 hours) and dissipated during air conditioning using period in daytime (10 hours) is 80% of the stored heat quantity. This system was installed in a building in Kobe City. As a result of the measurement, it was found that indoor heat load reduction rate as a result of using the building frame heat storage was 24% or more in summer and 80% or more in winter. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Current status of and problems in ice heat storage systems contributing to improving load rate. Proliferation of the ice heat storage type air conditioning system and roles of the Heat Pump and Heat Storage Center; Fukaritsu kaizen ni kokensuru kori chikunetsu system no genjo to kadai. Kori chikunetsushiki kucho system no fukyu to heat pump chikunetsu center no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, T.

    1998-02-01

    This paper introduces the roles played by the `Heat Pump and Heat Storage Center`. This foundation had been performing research and development and international information exchange in devices and equipment as the `Heat Pump Technology Development Center`. Development of heat storage type air conditioning systems as a measure for load leveling, and efforts of their proliferation and enlightenment were added to the business activities. As a result, the foundation`s name was changed to the present name. Its activities being planned and performed include: interest supplementing operation for installation of an air conditioning system of the heat pump system using storage of latent heat such as ice heat storage, holding seminars for promoting proliferation of the ice heat storage type air conditioning system, opening the home page, participation in exhibitions of various types, and preparation of different publicity tools. More specifically, carrying series advertisements in newspapers and magazines, holding nation-wide symposiums tying up with Japan Economic Press, publishing an organ newspaper targeted at both of experts and general people, and preparation of general pamphlets to introduce comprehensively the information about heat storage. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Storage of Maize in Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott B; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using hermetic technologies as a pest management solution for stored grain has risen in recent years. One hermetic approach, Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags, has proven successful in controlling the postharvest pests of cowpea. This success encouraged farmers to use of PICS bags for storing other crops including maize. To assess whether maize can be safely stored in PICS bags without loss of quality, we carried out laboratory studies of maize grain infested with Sitophilus zeamais (Motshulsky) and stored in PICS triple bags or in woven polypropylene bags. Over an eight month observation period, temperatures in the bags correlated with ambient temperature for all treatments. Relative humidity inside PICS bags remained constant over this period despite the large changes that occurred in the surrounding environment. Relative humidity in the woven bags followed ambient humidity closely. PICS bags containing S. zeamais-infested grain saw a significant decline in oxygen compared to the other treatments. Grain moisture content declined in woven bags, but remained high in PICS bags. Seed germination was not significantly affected over the first six months in all treatments, but declined after eight months of storage when infested grain was held in woven bags. Relative damage was low across treatments and not significantly different between treatments. Overall, maize showed no signs of deterioration in PICS bags versus the woven bags and PICS bags were superior to woven bags in terms of specific metrics of grain quality.

  20. Pyridostimine Bromide 30mg Stability in Extended Storage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-03

    States Pharmacopeia (USP) >. The real-life storage conditions will be determined using the International Commission for Harmonization’s (ICH) Quality ...Packaging and Storage Requirements. 4 ~ Real-life storage conditions are defined based on the International Council for Harmonisation’s (ICH) Quality ...information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, to the Department of Defense, Executive Service Directorate {0704-0188). Respondents should be

  1. Behaviour of Spent WWER fuel under long term storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarmetov, I M [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-02

    Results of experimental investigation into thermomechanical properties of pre-irradiated Zr-1%Nb alloy over a range temperatures 500-570 grad C are presented. Safety examination of the Ventilation Storage Casks dry storage system has been carried out. Preliminary safety criteria under dry storage conditions in an environment of inert gas are follows: maximum cladding temperature under normal conditions of dry storage should not exceed 330 grad C after 5-year cooling in water-filled pools; maximum allowable temperature of spent fuel rod cladding under operational mode with infringement of heat removal should not exceed 440 grad C over 8 hours. As each SFA dry storage project comprises its individual technology of spent fuel management, it is necessary to evaluate allowable parameters (terms of storage, maximum temperatures of fuel) for each project respectively. The programme of experimental investigations for the justification of safety criteria for WWER-1000 dry spent fuel storage systems is underway. (author)

  2. Influence of storage conditions on the physical and release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of storage conditions on physical and release properties of lipophilic-based piroxicam suppositories with a view to determining the most desirable conditions for their storage. Piroxicam 20 mg suppositories were prepared by fusion method using cocoa butter, Witepsol H15® and Witepsol ...

  3. Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Langvad, Sten; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20,and 40...... °C and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure)used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and EPA. Lipid deterioration......, or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life...

  4. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  5. Leaf storage conditions and genomic DNA isolation efficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Storage of plant tissues for DNA is important to avoid degradation of DNA. Preliminary studies were conducted on Ocimum gratissimum L. in order to establish the storage conditions for the collected samples before DNA extraction. Secondly, the aim was to determine the best protocol for the extraction.

  6. Leaf storage conditions and genomic DNA isolation efficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage of plant tissues for DNA is important to avoid degradation of DNA. Preliminary studies were conducted on Ocimum gratissimum L. in order to establish the storage conditions for the collected samples before DNA extraction. Secondly, the aim was to determine the best protocol for the extraction of high quality DNA, ...

  7. Variation of nephrotoxicity biomarkers by urinary storage condition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jung-Min; Han, Young-Hwan; Choi, Su-Jeong; Park, Ju-Seong; Jang, Jeong-Jun; Bae, Re-Ji-Na; Lee, Mi Ju; Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Duyeol; Lee, Hye-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Park, Cheol-Beom; Kang, Jin Seok; Kang, Jong-Koo

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in the use of several nephrotoxicity biomarkers in preclinical experiments. In addition, it has been indicated that the result may have been influenced by secondary factors, such as sample storage condition or storage period. In this study, we have assessed the variation in urinary nephrotoxicity biomarkers as a result of urine storage conditions and storage period of the urine. Urine was sampled from specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats (19 weeks old), which were housed individually in hanged stainless steel wire mesh cages. Urine was stored at 20℃, at 4℃, or at -70℃ after sampling. The levels of the biomarkers such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), cystatin-C (Cys-C), N-acetyl-β- D-glucosaminidase (NAG), micro albumin (MA), micro protein (MP) were measured at 6, 24, 48 and 144 hr after sampling. The B2M level was significantly decreased at 6, 24, 48, and 144 hr compared to 0 hr at -70℃ (p storage conditions. Taken together, B2M and Cys-C levels were modulated by storage temperature and period. For the enhancement of test accuracy, it is suggested that strict protocols be established for samples to minimize the effects of the storage conditions on the detected levels of biomarkers.

  8. Impact of environmental conditions on sub-surface storage tanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cast iron made storage tanks with gasoline fluid were buried under the soil at a depth of 4 m under various environment conditions. The simulated conditions include natural rain fail, temperature and acidic, alkaline and neutral soils. A control condition of neutral sea sand as base and filling materials were also investigated.

  9. Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, M.-J.; Cheng, C.-H.; Huang, M.-C.; Chen, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

  10. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  11. Improving Postharvest Storage of Apple Cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Etemadi Nasab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the important fruit in Iran. according to respiration and ethylene production behaviors, apple classified as a climacteric fruit. Therefore, any treatments, which can inhibit or prevent the action of ethylene, they can increase the postharvest life of horticultural production. 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP is one of the chemical which is environmental save and use as a very small concentrations. In this experiment, the effects of 1-MCP at concentrations of 0 (as a control, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 µl.l-1 were used in apple cv. "Golab Kohanz", a land race fruits which is cultivated from long times ago in Iran. After the 1-MCP treatment, they were moved to cold room at 2 ºC and RH of ca 90% for 60 days. Samples were removed from the cold room and analysis for physicochemical characteristics. "Golab Kohanz" apples treated with 1-MCP showed improved fruit firmness, titratable acidity (TA, and total soluble solid after 147 days at 2ºC , compared to the control non-treated fruits. Also, treatment with 1-MCP significantly reduced the incidence of superficial scald in "Golab Kohanze". In general, 1-MCP-treated apples delay ripening during storing in cold room and increased shelf life. Overall, the results indicate that 1-MCP has tremendous potential for maintaining apple quality during storage and post storage.

  12. Community energy storage and distribution SCADA improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, M.

    2010-01-01

    The mission of American Electric Power (AEP) is to sustain the real time balance of energy supply and demand. Approximately 2.5 percent of energy generated in the United States (USA) is stored as pumped hydro, compressed air, or in batteries and other devices. This power point presentation discussed the use of SCADA for improving community energy storage (CES) and distribution systems. CES is a distributed fleet of small energy units connected to the transformers in order to serve houses or small commercial loads. CES is operated as a fleet offering multi-megawatt (MW) multi-hour storage. The benefits of CES include backup power, flicker mitigation, and renewable integration. Benefits to the electricity grid include power factor correct, ancillary services, and load leveling at the substation level. SCADA is being used to determine when emergency load reductions are required or when emergency inspections on fans, oil pumps or other devices are needed. An outline of AEP's monitoring system installation plan was also included. tabs., figs.

  13. Heat storage in forest biomass improves energy balance closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation very well. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy covariance

  14. Storage of pineapple fruits under different conditions: implication on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out at Abeokuta to investigate the effects of storage conditions popularly used in Abeokuta metropolis on freshly harvested pineapple fruits. The pineapple fruits were harvested from a farmer's field and stored for 40 days under three conditions: refridgeration (mean temperature 10 0 C), Ambient ...

  15. Energy managemant through PCM based thermal storage system for building air-conditioning: Tidel Park, Chennai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nallusamy, N.; Sampath, S.; Velraj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Many modern building are designed for air-conditioning and the amount of electrical energy required for providing air-conditioning can be very significant especially in the tropics. Conservation of energy is major concern to improve the overall efficiency of the system. Integration is energy storage with the conventional system gives a lot of potential for energy saving and long-term economics. Thermal energy storage systems can improve energy management and help in matching supply and demand patterns. In the present work, a detailed study has been done on the existing thermal energy storage system used in the air-conditioning system in Tidel Park, Chennai. The present study focuses on the cool energy storage system. The modes of operation and advantages of such a system for energy management are highlighted. The reason for the adoption of combined storage system and the size of the storage medium in the air-conditioning plant are analyzed. The possibility of using this concept in other cooling and heating applications, such as storage type solar water heating system, has been explored

  16. Stability of captopril in powder papers under three storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomo, C.K.; Chu, S.A.; Cheng, M.H.; Corpuz, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The stability of captopril in powder papers under three different storage conditions was determined. Captopril 12.5-mg tablets were triturated with lactose to a final concentration of 2 mg of captopril in 100 mg of powder. A total of 240 powder papers were prepared and stored in class A prescription vials (80 papers), 002G plastic zip-lock bags (80 papers), and Moisture Proof Barrier Bags (80 papers). Immediately after preparation and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks of storage at room temperature, powder papers under each storage condition were reweighed and the contents were assayed for captopril concentration by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. More than 90% of the initial captopril concentration was retained under all storage conditions during the first 12 weeks of the study. Captopril disulfide, a degradation product, was detected in one sample stored in a plastic zip-lock bag at 24 weeks. Captopril was stable for the entire 24-week period in powder papers stored in either the class A prescription vial or the Moisture Proof Barrier Bag. Captopril in powder papers is stable for at least 12 weeks when stored at room temperature under all three storage conditions

  17. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables

  18. Thermoeconomic evaluation of air conditioning system with chilled water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hu; Li, Xin-hong; Cheng, Peng-sheng; Xu, Bu-gong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new thermoeconomic evaluation methodology has been presented. • The relationship between thermodynamic and economic performances has been revealed. • A key point for thermal storage technology further application is discovered. • A system has been analyzed via the new method and EUD method. - Abstract: As a good load shifting technology for power grid, chilled energy storage has been paid more and more attention, but it always consumes more energy than traditional air conditioning system, and the performance analysis is mostly from the viewpoint of peak-valley power price to get cost saving. The paper presents a thermoeconomic evaluation methodology for the system with chilled energy storage, by which thermodynamic performance influence on cost saving has been revealed. And a system with chilled storage has been analyzed, which can save more than 15% of power cost with no energy consumption increment, and just certain difference between peak and valley power prices can make the technology for good economic application. The results show that difference between peak and valley power prices is not the only factor on economic performance, thermodynamic performance of the storage system is the more important factor, and too big price difference is a barrier for its application, instead of for more cost saving. All of these give a new direction for thermal storage technology application

  19. Effects of some storage conditions on the stability of hydrocortisone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effects of some environmental storage conditionslight, temperature and humidity on the stability of the steroidal drug, hydrocortisone sodium succinate injection were investigated. The drug samples were stored at varying conditions of light, temperature (0°C, 28°C and 60°C) and humidity, after which each ...

  20. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  1. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  2. DEPENDENCE OF WASTE PAPER QUALITATIVE INDICES ON ITS STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karpunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates an influence of component quantity (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose on qualitative (physical and mechanical indices of waste-paper in relation to its storage period and weather conditions. It has been established that while storing (in waste dumps waste paper it is to be kept at a definite temperature and humidity in order to reduce impact of weather conditions.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on garlic storage under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyoubi, Zouhair; Sharabi, N.E.

    1993-02-01

    Garlic cloves were exposed to 30, 60, and 100 Gy of gamma radiation using Co 60 as a sources, to study the effect of different doses on the sprout inhibition of garlic. All the doses applied were effective. No sprout occurred in any of the treatments subjected to natural storage conditions. The effect of irradiation was evident in limiting the weight decrease. It reached 12 - 19% in 1987 and 1988 experiments respectively after 320 days of storage. Irradiation had no effect on the garlic consumptive specifications compared to the control. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Optimal Time to Invest Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongma Moon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model to determine the optimal investment time for energy storage systems (ESSs in a price arbitrage trade application under conditions of uncertainty over future profits. The adoption of ESSs can generate profits from price arbitrage trade, which are uncertain because the future marginal prices of electricity will change depending on supply and demand. In addition, since the investment is optional, an investor can delay adopting an ESS until it becomes profitable, and can decide the optimal time. Thus, when we evaluate this investment, we need to incorporate the investor’s option which is not captured by traditional evaluation methods. In order to incorporate these aspects, we applied real option theory to our proposed model, which provides an optimal investment threshold. Our results concerning the optimal time to invest show that if future profits that are expected to be obtained from arbitrage trade become more uncertain, an investor needs to wait longer to invest. Also, improvement in efficiency of ESSs can reduce the uncertainty of arbitrage profit and, consequently, the reduced uncertainty enables earlier ESS investment, even for the same power capacity. Besides, when a higher rate of profits is expected and ESS costs are higher, an investor needs to wait longer. Also, by comparing a widely used net present value model to our real option model, we show that the net present value method underestimates the value for ESS investment and misleads the investor to make an investment earlier.

  5. Effect of storage conditions on the calorific value of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzioka, Antony Mutua; Hwang, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Myung-Gyun; Yan, Cao Zheng; Lee, Chang-Soo; Kim, Young-Ju

    2017-08-01

    Storage conditions are considered to be an important factor as far as waste material characteristics are concerned. This experimental investigation was conducted using municipal solid waste (MSW) with a high moisture content and varying composition of organic waste. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of storage conditions and temperature on the moisture content and calorific value of the waste. Samples were subjected to two different storage conditions and investigated at specified temperatures. The composition of sample materials investigated was varied for each storage condition and temperature respectively. Gross calorific value was determined experimentally while net calorific value was calculated using empirical formulas proposed by other researchers. Results showed minimal changes in moisture content as well as in gross and net calorific values when the samples were subjected to sealed storage conditions. Moisture content reduced due to the ventilation process and the rate of moisture removal increased with a rise in storage temperature. As expected, rate of moisture removal had a positive effect on gross and net calorific values. Net calorific values also increased at varying rates with a simultaneous decrease in moisture content. Experimental investigation showed the effectiveness of ventilation in improving the combustion characteristics of the waste.

  6. Computational Search for Improved Ammonia Storage Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Vegge, Tejs

    Metal halide ammines, e.g. Mg(NH3)6Cl2 and Sr(NH3)8Cl2, can reversibly store ammonia, with high volumetric hydrogen storage capacities. The storage in the halide ammines is very safe, and the salts are therefore highly relevant as a carbon-free energy carrier in future transportation infrastructure...... selection. The GA is evolving from an initial (random) population and selecting those with highest fitness, a function based on e.g. stability, release temperature, storage capacity and the price of the elements. The search space includes all alkaline earth, 3d and 4d metals in combination with chloride......, bromide or iodide, and mixtures thereof. In total the search space consists of thousands of combinations, which makes a GA ideal, to reduce the number of necessary calculations. We are screening for a one step release from either a hexa or octa ammine, and we have found promising candidates, which...

  7. Conditioning and storage of spent sealed radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholerzynski, A.; Tomczak, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland sealed radioactive sources (SRS) are extensively used in medicine and in industry. There are mainly Co-60, Cs-137, lr-192 and also historical sources contain in Ra-226. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (ZDUOP) of the Institute of Atomic Energy at Swierk is the only organization licensed for the management, storage and disposal of radioactive waste in Poland. ZDUOP deals with all radioactive waste in the country. Storage and disposal of SRS is one of the most important part of its activity. Every year ZDUOP collects about 1000 spent SRS which total activity is near 600 GBq. Spent Ra-226 sources are a special case and therefore are required suitable procedures. Due to their production according to earlier standards and their undesirable characteristics, leakage of these sources is highly possible and practically observed. For this reason conditioning of radium sources needs strict requirements and quality assurance procedure to guarantee their safe storage for an extended period of time (e.g. 40-70 years). The National Radioactive Waste Repository is superficial type repository and considered as temporary storage site for long-lived waste. A storage facility for spent SRS has been properly prepared and licensed by the regulatory body. This facility consist of several concrete chambers which floor is lined stainless steel. The existing regulatory framework for sealed radioactive sources entered into force with issue of the Atomic Law in 1986

  8. Improved Food Drying and Storage Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Peter R.; And Others

    This manual is intended to serve as a guide for those who are helping future Peace Corps volunteers to acquire basic food drying and storage skills. Included in the guide are lesson outlines and handouts for use in each of the 30 sessions of the course. Representative topics discussed in the individual sessions are scheduling, solar dryers,…

  9. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  10. Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, Norman L. [Hexagon Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Hexagon Lincoln started this DOE project as part of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) contract on 1 February 2009. The purpose of the HSECoE was the research and development of viable material based hydrogen storage systems for on-board vehicular applications to meet DOE performance and cost targets. A baseline design was established in Phase 1. Studies were then conducted to evaluate potential improvements, such as alternate fiber, resin, and boss materials. The most promising concepts were selected such that potential improvements, compared with the baseline Hexagon Lincoln tank, resulted in a projected weight reduction of 11 percent, volume increase of 4 percent, and cost reduction of 10 percent. The baseline design was updated in Phase 2 to reflect design improvements and changes in operating conditions specified by HSECoE Partners. Evaluation of potential improvements continued during Phase 2. Subscale prototype cylinders were designed and fabricated for HSECoE Partners’ use in demonstrating their components and systems. Risk mitigation studies were conducted in Phase 3 that focused on damage tolerance of the composite reinforcement. Updated subscale prototype cylinders were designed and manufactured to better address the HSECoE Partners’ requirements for system demonstration. Subscale Type 1, Type 3, and Type 4 tanks were designed, fabricated and tested. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate vacuum insulated systems for cooling the tanks during fill, and maintaining low temperatures during service. Full scale designs were prepared based on results from the studies of this program. The operating conditions that developed during the program addressed adsorbent systems operating at cold temperatures. A Type 4 tank would provide the lowest cost and lightest weight, particularly at higher pressures, as long as issues with liner compatibility and damage tolerance could be resolved. A Type 1 tank might be the choice if the

  11. Influence of storage conditions on aluminum concentrations in serum, dialysis fluid, urine, and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, M; Ohnesorge, F K

    1990-01-01

    The influence of storage temperature, vessel type, and treatment on alterations of aluminum (Al) concentrations in serum, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied at three different concentrations for each sample over an 18-month period. Furthermore, the influence of acidification on Al levels in tap water, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied over a four-month period. Al was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sample storage in glass vessels was unsuitable, whereas only minor alterations of Al levels were observed with storage in polypropylene tubes, polystyrene tubes, and Monovettes. By using appropriate plastic containers, acid washing of the vessels showed no improvement. Frozen storage was superior compared with 4 degrees C, whereas storage at -80 degrees C offered no advantage compared with storage at -20 degrees C. Acidification of tap water samples was necessary to stabilize Al levels during storage. No striking effect of acidification on Al levels in urine and dialysis fluid samples was found. It is concluded that longterm storage of serum, urine, tap water, and dialysis fluid samples is possible if appropriate conditions are used.

  12. Improving hydrogen storage in Ni-doped carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta, L.; Menendez, J.A.; Pis, J.J.; Arenillas, A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    The effect of nickel distribution and content in Ni-doped carbon nanospheres on hydrogen storage capacity under conditions of moderate temperature and pressure was studied. It was found that the nickel distribution, obtained by using different doping techniques and conditions, has a noticeable influence on hydrogen storage capacity. The samples with the most homogeneous nickel distribution, obtained by pre-oxidising the carbon nanospheres, displayed the highest storage capacity. In addition, storage capacity is influenced by the amount of nickel. It was found a higher storage capacity in samples containing 5 wt.% of Ni. This is due to the greater interactions between the nickel and the support that produce a higher activation of the solid through a spillover effect. (author)

  13. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA, a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  14. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiu; Wang, Chunjie; Jiang, Haibo; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM) resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items) during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  15. Techniques for long term conditioning and storage of radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Gheorghe; Dragolici, Felicia; Nicu, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    The Horia Hulubei National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering developed its own technology for conditioning the radium spent sealed radioactive sources. The laboratory dedicated to radiological characterization, identification of radium sources as well as the encapsulation of spent sealed radioactive sources was equipped with a local ventilation system, welding devices, tightness test devices as well as radiometric portable devices. Two types of capsules have been designed for conditioning of radium spent sealed radioactive sources. For these kinds of capsules different types of storage packaging were developed. Data on the radium inventory will be presented in the paper. The paper contains the description of the process of conditioning of spent sealed radioactive sources as well as the description of the capsules and packaging. The paper describes the equipment used for the conditioning of the radium spent sealed sources. (authors)

  16. Improved Control Strategy for Microgrid Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Dou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultracapacitors (UCs, with their features of high power density and high current charge-discharge, have become the best choice for dynamic power compensation to improve the stability of microgrids and are increasingly being applied in microgrids. This paper presents the control of an energy storage system (ESS based on ultracapacitors in the context of grid-connected microgrids. The ESS is composed of DC/AC and DC/DC converters tied by a dc link. An improved dynamic model for the ESS is proposed. Based on the proposed model a Proportional-Integral-Resonant (PIR DC link voltage controller is proposed to maintain the DC link voltage through the charging-discharging control of ultracapacitors, capable of working properly under all operating conditions. An extra double frequency component is injected into the UC current by a R controller to dynamically compensate for DC instantaneous power and double frequency AC instantaneous power due to unbalanced grid conditions and disturbances. This feature maintains the DC link voltage constant under unbalanced conditions and increases the degrees of freedom of the DC/AC converter and thus facilitates the application of UCs in microgrids. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  17. Exergy storage to exploit solar energy in air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarrete-Gonzalez, J.J.; Torres-Reyes, E. [Guanajuato Univ., Guanajuato (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Cientificas; Cervantes-de Gortari, J.G. [Univ. of Cuidad, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Termoenergia y Mejoramiento Ambiental

    2006-07-01

    A thermodynamic procedure was developed to analyze the exergy of a rock bed thermal storage unit that used solar power to acclimatize a pig farm. Thermal behaviour was described by means of a control volume that included the entire system and assumed a unidirectional air flow and an adiabatic process. The thermodynamic properties of the system were determined as a function of the experimental temperature profiles developed during thermal storage from solar to thermal energy conversion provided by a solar collector at a fixed mass rate of air flow. Experimental data were used to calculate the energy yield and to determine the entropy generation inside the system. The aim of the study was to determine how well the thermodynamic model matched the real data obtained experimentally during normal operating conditions. Results indicated that an exergy accumulation existed inside the control volume, which was the net result of the energy gain during the heating process. However, entropy generation due to irreversibilities was studied for just 1 air flow. Further research is needed to establish a semi-empirical model of the process with the minimum of entropy generation. It was concluded that the thermal energy storage system was suitable for use in pig farms. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign spent nuclear fuel storage facilities and their possible impact on SRS storage basins, twenty-three water samples were analyzed from 12 different countries. Fifteen of the water samples were analyzed and described in an earlier report (WSRC-TR-97-00365 [1]). This report describes nine additional samples received from October 1997 through March 1998. The samples include three from Australia, two from Denmark and Germany and one sample from Italy and Greece. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate-reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to all other foreign samples analyzed to date and monthly samples pulled from the receiving basin for off-site fuel (RBOF), at SRS. Of the nine samples analyzed, four samples from Italy, Germany and Greece had considerably higher microbiological activity than that historically found in the RBOF. This microbial activity included high levels of enzyme diversity and the presence of viable organisms that have been associated with microbial influenced corrosion in other environments. The three samples from Australia had microbial activities similar to that in the RBOF while the two samples from Denmark had lower levels of microbial activity. These results suggest that a significant number of the foreign storage facilities have water quality standards that allow microbial proliferation and survival

  19. Storage of irradiated potatoes under artificially humidified conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Thomas, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Potatoes of the BPI, Up-to-Date, and Pimpernel varieties have been irradiated and stored for sixteen weeks at a relative humidity of 69 per cent to counteract shrinkage caused by low humidity. Moisture loss is reduced by approximately one-quarter compared with storage at ambient humidity (average 42 per cent), and the appearance of the potatoes is considerably improved. The higher humidity causes very few changes in either chemical or physical properties of the potato, except for a slight increase in reducing sugars which is not sufficiently large to preclude the use of the potatoes for processing

  20. Conditioning radium needles for long term storage : Sri Lankan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjith, H.L.A.; Shantha, T.H.S.; Gunaratne, M.G.J.; De Silva, U.W.K.H.; Perera, H.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Radium the first radioisotope invented by Madame Curie was used for cancer therapy for the intracavitory treatment of cervical cancers and as oral implants etc. Radium needles and other geometries were made in standard strengths and Radium therapy enjoyed a heyday during the 1st half of the 20th century. Radium-226 is a long-lived radioactive material with a half-life of 1600 years. The use of radium was abandoned in the world in 1980s with the invention of short lived radioactive materials offering remote after loading systems which minimise radiation protection and waste disposal problems associated with long lived radioactive materials. This paper reports the conditioning procedure of the spent radium sources for long term storage (less than 20 years) and transport to national/ international stores if needed. The dose received by those involved in this exercise is also discussed in terms of radiation protection. The Ra was contained for long term storage according to international radiation safety regulations with a surface dose of less than 2 mSv per hour in a conditioned package having 17.5 GBq activity and can be transported to national/international stores if needed. The highest dose received during the exercise is well within the recommended dose limits for occupational exposures (20 and 500 mSv per year) for whole body and extremities respectively

  1. Storage Process Improvement and An Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Özyörük, Bahar; Arslan, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract- The basic function of storehouses is volume and time management. Under present market conditions, businesses minimize cost and maximize profit by developing efficient material transportation methods. At a time when an infinite number of goods is produced and marketed, every second is valuable; especially in today’s economy and industry, the main goal is to minimize obstacles in production and management to increase profits, and to keep time losses and related financial    losses to ...

  2. [Collagenolytic activity in several species of deuteromycetes under various storage conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, M B; Khoang, T L; Nikitina, Z K

    2006-01-01

    The ability of deuteromycetes of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Botrytis to retain collagenolytic activity was studied after both 2 and 10 years of storage on a Czapek medium under a layer of mineral oil at 4 degrees C, as well as in silica gel granules at 20 and -60 degrees C. The enzymatic activity of several species, including Botrytis terrestris, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, was retained under both conditions of storage. Aspergillus repens retained enzymatic activity only if stored under a layer of mineral oil. The viability of conidia and the collagenolytic activity of Botrytis terrestris, P. janthinellum, P. chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, maintained on silica gel for 10 years, depended on the storage temperature. The viability of the test strains improved after storage on a silica gel at -60 degrees C. A strain of Aspergillus repens lost its ability to dissolve collagen at various storage temperatures on the silica gel. The index of lysis for three strains of Penicillium deuteromycetes (Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum) increased after a 10-year storage on silica gel at -60 degrees C.

  3. Deep Neuromuscular Blockade Improves Laparoscopic Surgical Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Herring, W Joseph; Blobner, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sustained deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during laparoscopic surgery may facilitate optimal surgical conditions. This exploratory study assessed whether deep NMB improves surgical conditions and, in doing so, allows use of lower insufflation pressures during laparoscopic cholecys...

  4. Comparison of storage conditions for human vaginal microbiome studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyun Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (1H-NMR analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight women were enrolled and four mid-vaginal swabs were collected by a physician from each woman. The samples were either processed immediately, stored at -80°C for 4 weeks or at -20°C for 1 week followed by transfer to -80°C for another 4 weeks prior to analysis. Statistical methods, including Kolmogorovo-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests, were performed to evaluate the differences in vaginal bacterial community composition and metabolites between samples stored under different conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between samples processed immediately after collection or stored for varying durations. (1H-NMR analysis of the small molecule metabolites in vaginal secretions indicated that high levels of lactic acid were associated with Lactobacillus-dominated communities. Relative abundance of lactic acid did not appear to correlate with relative abundance of individual Lactobacillus sp. in this limited sample, although lower levels of lactic acid were observed when L. gasseri was dominant, indicating differences in metabolic output of seemingly similar communities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings benefit large-scale, field-based microbiome and metabolomic studies of the vaginal microbiota.

  5. Thermal tests of a transport / Storage cask in buried conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, H.; Gomi, Y.; Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal tests for a hypothetical accident which simulated accidents caused by building collapse in case of an earthquake were conducted using a full-scale dry type transport and storage cask (total heat load: 23 kW). The objectives of these tests were to clarify the heat transfer features of the buried cask under such accidents and the time limit for maintaining the thermal integrity of the cask. Moreover, thermal analyses of the test cask under the buried conditions were carried out on basis of experimental results to establish methodology for the thermal analysis. The characteristics of the test cask are described as well as the test method used. The heat transfer features of the buried cask under such accidents and a time for maintaining the thermal integrity of the cask have been obtained. (O.M.)

  6. Encapsulated Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization for Improved Storage Fluids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Pradhan, S.; Kang, J.; Curtis, C.; Blake, D.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are typically composed of 50--500 atoms and exhibit properties that are significantly different from the properties of larger, macroscale particles that have the same composition. The addition of these particles to traditional fluids may improve the fluids' thermophysical properties. As an example, the addition of a nanoparticle or set of nanoparticles to a storage fluid may double its heat capacity. This increase in heat capacity would allow a sensible thermal energy storage system to store the same amount of thermal energy in half the amount of storage fluid. The benefit is lower costs for the storage fluid and the storage tanks, resulting in lower-cost electricity. The goal of this long-term research is to create a new class of fluids that enable concentrating solar power plants to operate with greater efficiency and lower electricity costs. Initial research on this topic developed molecular dynamic models that predicted the energy states and transition temperatures for these particles. Recent research has extended the modeling work, along with initiating the synthesis and characterization of bare metal nanoparticles and metal nanoparticles that are encapsulated with inert silica coatings. These particles possess properties that make them excellent candidates for enhancing the heat capacity of storage fluids.

  7. Plutonium dioxide storage: Conditions for preparation and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Ricketts, T.E.

    1995-08-01

    Desorption and adsorption of plutonium dioxide are derived from production-scale experiments that demonstrate techniques of preparing weapons-grade material for extended storage. In combination with data from literature, results define conditions for preparing and certifying PuO 2 and provide essential information for developing and implementing a repackaging process compliant with DOE standards for safe storage of plutonium. As demonstrated by loss-on-ignition (LOI) analysis, adsorbates are effectively removed by heating the oxide in air at 950 C for two hours. After oxides are fired at this temperature, specific surface areas are consistently less than 5 m 2 /g. Due to this low surface area, water adsorption by fired oxide is limited to a maximum of 0.2 mass % at 50% relative humidity. Kinetic data for the adsorption process show that water is accommodated on the oxide surface by a sequence of distinct first-order steps comprising five types of adsorbate interaction and accumulating ten molecular layers of H 2 0 at 100% humidity. An equation defining the humidity dependence of the adsorption rate during the first step is applied in estimating time periods that a fired oxide may remain in given configurations without detrimental adsorption. Particle size measurements show that the source terms for environmental dispersal of oxides prepared by hydride-catalyzed reaction of metal and by oxalate calcination are approximately 20 and 0.1 mass %, respectively, and that the values are reduced by firing. Evidence for a chemical reaction between dioxide and water is discussed and practical applications of the results to oxide stabilization and LOI analysis are presented

  8. Assessment of spent WWER-440 fuel performance under long-term storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takats, F [TS Enercon Kft. (Hungary)

    2012-07-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia so far. The spent fuel assemblies were shipped back to Russia until 1997 after about 6 years cooling at the plant. A dry storage facility (MVDS type) has been constructed and is operational since then. By 1 January 2008, there were 5107 assemblies in dry storage. The objectives are: 1) Wet AR storage of spent fuel from the NPP Paks: Measurements of conditions for spent fuel storage in the at-reactor (AR) storage pools of Paks NPP (physical and chemical characteristics of pool water, corrosion product data); Measurements and visual control of storage pool component characteristics; Evaluation of storage characteristics and conditions with respect to long-term stability (corrosion of fuel cladding, construction materials); 2) Dry AFR storage at Paks NPP: Calculation and measurement of spent fuel conditions during the transfer from the storage pool to the modular vault dry storage (MVDS) on the site; Calculation and measurement of spent fuel conditions during the preparation of fuel for dry storage (drying process), such as crud release, activity build-up; Measurement of spent fuel conditions during the long-term dry storage, activity data in the storage tubes and amount of crud.

  9. Survival of spray-dried Lactobacillus kefir is affected by different protectants and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golowczyc, Marina A; Gerez, Carla L; Silva, Joana; Abraham, Analía G; De Antoni, Graciela L; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-04-01

    Survival of two Lactobacillus kefir strains after spray drying in reconstituted skim milk with or without the addition of 12.5 g monosodium glutamate/l, 20 g sucrose/l, or 20 g fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)/l and during subsequent storage under different conditions of temperature (20 and 30°C) and relative humidity (RH) (0, 11 and 23%) was evaluated. After being dried, L. kefir 8321 and L. kefir 8348 had a decrease in viability of 0.29 and 0.70 log cfu/ml respectively, while the addition of different protectants improved the survival of both strains significantly. During storage, bacterial survival was significantly higher under lower conditions of RH (0-11%), and monosodium glutamate and FOS proved to be the best protectants.

  10. Researches on the radioactive wastes management: advances in the domain of the conditioning and the storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents in the first part the researches in the domain of the radioactive wastes management at the Cea: separation processes and transmutation, the underground geologic disposal, the conditioning and the storage. The recent progresses in the domain of the conditioning and the storage are then detailed and the legal context presented. A special attention is given to the CECER of Marcoule, the expertise center on the conditioning and the storage of radioactive wastes. (A.L.B.)

  11. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patch test preparations of volatile substances may evaporate during storage, thereby giving rise to reduced patch test concentrations. Objectives. To investigate the stability of selected acrylates/methacrylates and fragrance allergens in three different test chambers under different...... both storage conditions, whereas MMA and 2-HPA required cool storage for maintenance of the limit. Conclusion. The Van der Bend® transport container was the best device for storage of samples of volatile contact allergens....

  12. Testing and evaluation of different energy storage devices for piezoelectric energy harvesting under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Pratheek

    The increasing needs in green technology have propelled the rapid development in energy conversion and the advancement of electric energy storage systems. A viable storage technology is needed to store intermittent electrical energy in different electronic applications. In this thesis, recent progress on the chemistry and design of batteries is summarized with their challenges and improvements. Along with that, electrolytic capacitors are also reviewed with their types, advantages and disadvantages of each in short. Super capacitors having higher surface area and thinner dielectrics than conventional capacitors along with hybrid capacitors, are discussed in detail. The potential of a hybrid capacitor, Ni(OH)2/ Active Carbon, compared with Ni-Cd batteries and electrolytic capacitors in the application of energy storage for high way energy harvesting has been explored in this work. Both the battery and the hybrid capacitor has been tested under various experimental conditions and their properties in relation to their chemical compositions are compared. The results obtained from the experiments have been analyzed and the most suitable energy storage devices have been selected with their application potential evaluated before drawing conclusion reported in this thesis.

  13. Energy efficient hybrid nanocomposite-based cool thermal storage air conditioning system for sustainable buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameshwaran, R.; Kalaiselvam, S.

    2013-01-01

    The quest towards energy conservative building design is increasingly popular in recent years, which has triggered greater interests in developing energy efficient systems for space cooling in buildings. In this work, energy efficient silver–titania HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-based cool thermal energy storage) system combined with building A/C (air conditioning) system was experimentally investigated for summer and winter design conditions. HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposite particles embedded PCM) used as the heat storage material has exhibited 7.3–58.4% of improved thermal conductivity than at its purest state. The complete freezing time for HiNPCM was reduced by 15% which was attributed to its improved thermophysical characteristics. Experimental results suggest that the effective energy redistribution capability of HiTES system has contributed for reduction in the chiller nominal cooling capacity by 46.3% and 39.6% respectively, under part load and on-peak load operating conditions. The HiTES A/C system achieved 27.3% and 32.5% of on-peak energy savings potential in summer and winter respectively compared to the conventional A/C system. For the same operating conditions, this system yield 8.3%, 12.2% and 7.2% and 10.2% of per day average and yearly energy conservation respectively. This system can be applied for year-round space conditioning application without sacrificing energy efficiency in buildings. - Highlights: • Energy storage is acquired by HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-thermal storage) system. • Thermal conductivity of HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposites-PCM) was improved by 58.4%. • Freezing time of HiNPCM was reduced by 15% that enabled improved energy efficiency. • Chiller nominal capacity was reduced by 46.3% and 39.6% in on-peak and part load respectively. • HiTES A/C system achieved appreciable energy savings in the range of 8.3–12.2%

  14. In vitro toxicity of infusion sets depends on their composition, storage time and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Luba; Popilski, Hen; Gorenbein, Pavel; Stepensky, David

    2015-07-15

    Disposable medical devices release toxic leachables during their clinical use. Specifically, the individual parts of the infusion sets (the drip chamber, tube, flashball and injection site) are composed of numerous chemical compounds that can reach the patients' systemic circulation and induce local and systemic toxic effects. We aimed to reveal the relative in vitro toxicity of infusion sets from the leading vendors that are used in Israel, and to determine its dependence on their design and storage time/conditions. We found that leachates of the rubber parts were more toxic than those of the other parts of the infusion sets. The measured toxicity was affected by the experimental settings: the cells, medium composition, exposure duration, and the type of assay applied for toxicity assessment. We recommend to use the capillary endothelium cells for in vitro toxicity testing of the infusion sets, and refrain from the use of the MTT test which is insufficiently reliable, and can lead to artefacts and incorrect conclusions. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic leachables from the individual parts of the infusion sets, and to reveal the risk of their toxicity during the clinical use of the infusion sets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of the conditioning and storage costs of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Moro, A.; Panciatici, G.

    1977-01-01

    The conditioning and storage costs of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes are analyzed. The cost of direct labour is assumed as the reference cost for their computation and the storage cost is considered as resulting from the contract cost ''una tantum'' and from the leasing cost. As an example, the cost trends are reported, relevant to the solution adopted at CAMEN (conditioning in concrete containers and storage on concrete open-air bed)

  16. Combined Statistical Analyses for Long-Term Stability Data with Multiple Storage Conditions : A Simulation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almalik, Osama; Nijhuis, Michiel B.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2014-01-01

    Shelf-life estimation usually requires that at least three registration batches are tested for stability at multiple storage conditions. The shelf-life estimates are often obtained by linear regression analysis per storage condition, an approach implicitly suggested by ICH guideline Q1E. A linear

  17. Leaf storage conditions and genomic DNA isolation efficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Leaf storage ... 2006; Chen and Yang, 2004; Nan et al., 2003; Ipek and. Madison, 2001 ... the same function of pure DNA isolation. These are .... eppendorf tube and then dropped in liquid nitrogen for 2 min. The weighed ..... the solubility of polysaccharides in ethanol, effectively.

  18. Technical Aspects Regarding the Preservation of Dry Onions in Different Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Vintila

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research refers to the ability to maintain the quality of dry onions in different conditions of temperature, the three varieties used in experimentation (De Buzau, Daytona and Countach being stored after proper preparation at ambient temperature (+20…+22°C, refrigerated (+10…+12°C and cold conditions (+3…+5°C. Storage life, the level of weight (mass and decay losses and evolution of some chemical components determined from the 9 variants led to the conclusion that the best results were obtained by De Buzau variety for storage under ambient conditions and Daytona variety for storage under refrigerated and cold conditions. Moreover large differences between varieties and their behavior depending on storage conditions require choosing resistant cultivars and optimum storage temperatures according to destination and period of marketing or consumption.

  19. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  20. Assessment of spent WWER-440 fuel performance under long-term storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L [VUJE Inc. (Slovakia)

    2012-07-01

    In the Slovak Republic are under operation 6 units (4 in the Jaslovske Bohunice site, and 2 in the Mochovce), 2 units are under construction in Mochovce site. All units are WWER-440 type. The fresh fuel is imported from the Russian Federation. The spent fuel assemblies are stored in wet conditions in Bohunice Interim Storage Spent Fuel Facility (SFIS). By 15 July 2008, there were 8413 assemblies in SFIS. The objectives are: 1) Wet AR storage of spent fuel from the NPP Bohunice and Mochovce: Surveillance of conditions for spent fuel storage in the at-reactor (AR) storage pools of both NPP's (characteristics of pool water, corrosion product data); Visual control of storage pool components; Evaluation of storage conditions with respect to long-term stability (corrosion of fuel cladding, structural materials); 2) Wet SFIS storage at Bohunice: Measurement of spent fuel conditions during the long-term wet storage, activity data in the storage casks and amount of crud; Surveillance program for SFIS structural materials.

  1. Dry cooling with night cool storage to enhance solar power plants performance in extreme conditions areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, J.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Abbas, R.; Abánades, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar thermo-electric power plants with thermal storage for condenser cooling. ► Technology to mitigate the negative effect on Rankine cycles of the day-time high temperatures in deserts. ► Electricity production augmentation in demand-peak hours by the use of day-night temperature difference. -- Abstract: Solar thermal power plants are usually installed in locations with high yearly average solar radiation, often deserts. In such conditions, cooling water required for thermodynamic cycles is rarely available. Moreover, when solar radiation is high, ambient temperature is very high as well; this leads to excessive condensation temperature, especially when air-condensers are used, and decreases the plant efficiency. However, temperature variation in deserts is often very high, which drives to relatively low temperatures during the night. This fact can be exploited with the use of a closed cooling system, so that the coolant (water) is chilled during the night and store. Chilled water is then used during peak temperature hours to cool the condenser (dry cooling), thus enhancing power output and efficiency. The present work analyzes the performance improvement achieved by night thermal cool storage, compared to its equivalent air cooled power plant. Dry cooling is proved to be energy-effective for moderately high day–night temperature differences (20 °C), often found in desert locations. The storage volume requirement for different power plant efficiencies has also been studied, resulting on an asymptotic tendency.

  2. Thermal operations conditions in a national waste terminal storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Some of the major technical questions associated with the burial of radioactive high-level wastes in geologic formations are related to the thermal environments generated by the waste and the impact of this dissipated heat on the surrounding environment. The design of a high level waste storage facility must be such that the temperature variations that occur do not adversely affect operating personnel and equipment. The objective of this investigation was to assist OWI by determining the thermal environment that would be experienced by personnel and equipment in a waste storage facility in salt. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the maximum floor and air temperatures with and without ventilation in the first 30 years after waste emplacement. The assumed facility design differs somewhat from those previously analyzed and reported, but many of the previous parametric surveys are useful for comparison. In this investigation a number of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional simulations of the heat flow in a repository have been performed on the HEATING5 and TRUMP heat transfer codes. The representative repository constructs used in the simulations are described, as well as the computational models and computer codes. Results of the simulations are presented and discussed. Comparisons are made between the recent results and those from previous analyses. Finally, a summary of study limitations, comparisons, and conclusions is given

  3. Effect of sample type, centrifugation and storage conditions on vitamin D concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Ayfer; Toprak, Burak; Dogan, Nese; Ustuner, Fusun

    2013-01-01

    Studies about vitamin D [25(OH)D] stability in plasma are limited and preanalytical variables such as tube type may affect results. We aimed to evaluate effect of storage conditions, sample type and some preanalytical variables on vitamin D concentration. Blood samples from 15 healthy subjects were centrifuged at different temperatures and stored under different conditions. Serum and plasma 25(OH)D difference, effect of centrifugation temperature and common storage conditions were investigated. There was no difference between serum and plasma vitamin D concentration. Centrifugation temperature had no impact on vitamin D concentration. 25(OH)D is stable under common storage conditions: 4 hours at room temperature, 24 hours at 2-8 degrees C, 7 days at -20 degrees C, 3 months at -80 degrees C. Vitamin D does not require any special storage conditions and refrigeration. Both serum and plasma can be used for measurement.

  4. Development, DNA fragmentation and cell death in porcine embryos afer 24 h storage under different conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio Pomar, F.J.; Ducro-Steverink, D.W.B.; Hazeleger, W.; Teerds, K.J.; Colenbrander, B.; Bevers, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    For practical applications of porcine embryo transfer (ET) it is important to develop feasible embryo storage conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term storage (24 h) on the quality of in vivo produced porcine embryos. Three temperatures 18, 25 and 38 degreesC

  5. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations...

  6. Effect of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes for improving hydrogen storage behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Yop Rhee, Kyong; Nahm, Seung-Hoon; Park, Soo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the hydrogen storage behaviors of p-type multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were investigated through the surface modification of MWNTs by immersing them in sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at various ratios. The presence of acceptor-functional groups on the p-type MWNT surfaces was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Measurement of the zeta-potential determined the surface charge transfer and dispersion of the p-type MWMTs, and the hydrogen storage capacity was evaluated at 77 K and 1 bar. From the results obtained, it was found that acceptor-functional groups were introduced onto the MWNT surfaces, and the dispersion of MWNTs could be improved depending on the acid-mixed treatment conditions. The hydrogen storage was increased by acid-mixed treatments of up to 0.36 wt% in the p-type MWNTs, compared with 0.18 wt% in the As-received MWNTs. Consequently, the hydrogen storage capacities were greatly influenced by the acceptor-functional groups of p-type MWNT surfaces, resulting in increased electron acceptor–donor interaction at the interfaces. - Graphical abstract: Hydrogen storage behaviors of the p-type MWNTs with the acid-mixed treatments are described. Display Omitted Display Omitted

  7. Safety analysis of spent fuel transport and storage casks under extreme impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, D.; Wieser, G.; Ballheimer, V.; Voelzke, H.; Droste, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Worldwide the security of transport and storage of spent fuel with respect to terrorism threats is a matter of concern. In Germany a spent nuclear fuel management program was developed by the government including a new concept of dry on-site interim storage instead of centralized interim storage. In order to minimize transports of spent fuel casks between nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and central storage facilities, the operators of NPPs have to erect and to use interim storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel on the site or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Up to now, 11 on-site interim storage buildings, one storage tunnel and 4 on-site interim storage areas (preliminary cask storage till the on-site interim storage building is completed) have been licensed at 12 nuclear power plant sites. Inside the interim storage buildings the casks are kept in upright position, whereas at the preliminary interim storage areas horizontal storage of the casks on concrete slabs is used and each cask is covered by concrete elements. Storage buildings and concrete elements are designed only for gamma and neutron radiation shielding reasons and as weather protection. Therefore the security of spent fuel inside a dual purpose transport and storage cask depends on the inherent safety of the cask itself. For nearly three decades BAM has been investigating cask safety under severe accident conditions like drop tests from more than 9 m onto different targets and without impact limiters as well as artificially damaged prototype casks. Since the terror attacks of 11 September 2001 the determination of casks' inherent safety also under extreme impact conditions due to terrorist attacks has been of our increasing interest. With respect to spent fuel storage one of the most critical scenarios of a terrorist attack for a cask is the centric impact of a dynamic load onto the lid-seal-system caused e.g. by direct aircraft crash or its engine as well as by a

  8. The influence of external conditions on the grain storage process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Orlovtseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available .High quality grain - a pledge of his safety, reduce losses and the costs of storage. Wheat is the main source of human nutrition. Elements contained in wheat perform a fundamental role in human life. Storing grain quality is an urgent task. One of the labor-intensive operations in this process is the correct placement of parties in wheat granary and timely monitoring of key parameters (humidity and temperature. In this regard, we consider methods for determining the intensity of the grain breathing method for determining the moisture content and temperature of the grain of wheat. Humidity was determined by electrical hygrometer. To measure the temperature of wheat used mercury thermometer. In analyzing the breathing wheat energy depending on the humidity it was found that the intensity of respiration increasingly affects humidity increase than an increase in temperature. As objects of study used wheat varieties: Hordeiforme 432 and Multiroom 321. According to the results obtained in the study plot the respiratory activity of the grain from moisture. According to the schedules we concluded that the sharp increase in wheat breathing energy occurs with increasing moisture content to a value of more than 15%. Just found out that in addition to breathing in highly humid grain appears vital functions of harmful microorganisms, which under the influence of grain rots and becomes stale. Thus, ho-well-organized and skilled observation, the correct analysis of the obtained data allow to bring the maximum reduction in spending of dry matter and therefore achieve lower grain weight loss during storage.

  9. Influence of the storage conditions on prestressing steel relaxation losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez, F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress relaxation losses on active reinforcement have significant impact on prestressed concrete structures. This is why relaxation tests are carried out on prestressing steel wires and strands after being manufactured. Then, these materials are coiled and stored for a long-term period, sometimes in excess of one year. The influence of these operations, carried out after manufacturing, is usually neglected. Nevertheless, some manufacturers and contractors have noticed that, sometimes, when relaxation tests are carried out after a long-term storage, the relaxation losses found are higher than those measured immediately after manufacturing. In this work, lab tests are performed to check the influence of the coiling radius and the period of storage on the relaxation test. In addition to this, an analytical model is presented to predict the results of a relaxation test carried out on a wire coiled and stored for a long-term period. This model explains the evolution on the cross-sectional stress profile along the coiling-storing-uncoiling process, as well as the influence of the residual stresses on it.

    La pérdida de tensión por relajación en las armaduras activas afecta de forma importante a las estructuras de hormigón pretensado. Por ello se realizan ensayos de relajación de los alambres y cordones de pretensado tras su fabricación. Después, el material es enrollado y almacenado durante periodos que en ocasiones pueden superar el año de duración. Generalmente se desprecia la influencia que estas operaciones posteriores a la fabricación pueden tener sobre el material. Sin embargo, diversos fabricantes y suministradores han constatado experimentalmente que, en ocasiones, el material almacenado durante un periodo prolongado presenta pérdidas de relajación mayores que inmediatamente tras su fabricación. En este trabajo se realizan ensayos de laboratorio para comprobar la influencia que el radio de enrollamiento y el periodo de

  10. Storage Conditions of Skin Affect Tissue Structure and Subsequent in vitro Percutaneous Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Plasencia Gil, Maria Inés; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2011-01-01

    fluorescence microscopy) and in vitro percutaneous penetration of caffeine under four different storage conditions using skin samples from the same donors: fresh skin, skin kept at -20°C for 3 weeks (with or without the use of polyethylene glycol) and at -80°C. Our results show a correlation between increasing...... permeation of caffeine and tissue structural damage caused by the storage conditions, most so after skin storage at -80°C. The presented approach, which combines imaging techniques with studies on percutaneous penetration, enables the link between tissue damage at selected depths and penetration...

  11. Seed origin, storage conditions, and gibberellic acid on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It might help seed conservation and species propagation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro germination of guavira seeds collected from different sites and stored under different conditions. Also, the sowing of these seeds in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) was ...

  12. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-terms recoverability of enteropathogens is necessary for future epidemiological studies to screen stool samples when conditions do not permit immediate processing. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and the recoverability of three enteropathogens bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae O: 1 ...

  13. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  14. Geomechanical Modeling for Improved CO2 Storage Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutqvist, J.; Rinaldi, A. P.; Cappa, F.; Jeanne, P.; Mazzoldi, A.; Urpi, L.; Vilarrasa, V.; Guglielmi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation summarizes recent modeling studies on geomechanical aspects related to Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS,) including modeling potential fault reactivation, seismicity and CO2 leakage. The model simulations demonstrates that the potential for fault reactivation and the resulting seismic magnitude as well as the potential for creating a leakage path through overburden sealing layers (caprock) depends on a number of parameters such as fault orientation, stress field, and rock properties. The model simulations further demonstrate that seismic events large enough to be felt by humans requires brittle fault properties as well as continuous fault permeability allowing for the pressure to be distributed over a large fault patch to be ruptured at once. Heterogeneous fault properties, which are commonly encountered in faults intersecting multilayered shale/sandstone sequences, effectively reduce the likelihood of inducing felt seismicity and also effectively impede upward CO2 leakage. Site specific model simulations of the In Salah CO2 storage site showed that deep fractured zone responses and associated seismicity occurred in the brittle fractured sandstone reservoir, but at a very substantial reservoir overpressure close to the magnitude of the least principal stress. It is suggested that coupled geomechanical modeling be used to guide the site selection and assisting in identification of locations most prone to unwanted and damaging geomechanical changes, and to evaluate potential consequence of such unwanted geomechanical changes. The geomechanical modeling can be used to better estimate the maximum sustainable injection rate or reservoir pressure and thereby provide for improved CO2 storage security. Whether damaging geomechanical changes could actually occur very much depends on the local stress field and local reservoir properties such the presence of ductile rock and faults (which can aseismically accommodate for the stress and strain induced by

  15. Glycogen storage disease type III: modified Atkins diet improves myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Hartmann, Hans; Das, Anibh Martin

    2014-11-28

    Frequent feeds with carbohydrate-rich meals or continuous enteral feeding has been the therapy of choice in glycogen storage disease (Glycogenosis) type III. Recent guidelines on diagnosis and management recommend frequent feedings with high complex carbohydrates or cornstarch avoiding fasting in children, while in adults a low-carb-high-protein-diet is recommended. While this regimen can prevent hypoglycaemia in children it does not improve skeletal and heart muscle function, which are compromised in patients with glycogenosis IIIa. Administration of carbohydrates may elicit reactive hyperinsulinism, resulting in suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and activation of glycogen synthesis. Thus, heart and skeletal muscle are depleted of energy substrates. Modified Atkins diet leads to increased blood levels of ketone bodies and fatty acids. We hypothesize that this health care intervention improves the energetic balance of muscles. We treated 2 boys with glycogenosis IIIa aged 9 and 11 years with a modified Atkins diet (10 g carbohydrate per day, protein and fatty acids ad libitum) over a period of 32 and 26 months, respectively. In both patients, creatine kinase levels in blood dropped in response to Atkins diet. When diet was withdrawn in one of the patients he complained of chest pain, reduced physical strength and creatine kinase levels rapidly increased. This was reversed when Atkins diet was reintroduced. One patient suffered from severe cardiomyopathy which significantly improved under diet. Patients with glycogenosis IIIa benefit from an improved energetic state of heart and skeletal muscle by introduction of Atkins diet both on a biochemical and clinical level. Apart from transient hypoglycaemia no serious adverse effects were observed.

  16. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mose, Kristian F; Andersen, Klaus E; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-04-01

    Patch test preparations of volatile substances may evaporate during storage, thereby giving rise to reduced patch test concentrations. To investigate the stability of selected acrylates/methacrylates and fragrance allergens in three different test chambers under different storage conditions. Petrolatum samples of methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (2-HPA), cinnamal and eugenol in patch test concentrations were stored in three different test chambers (IQ chamber™, IQ Ultimate™, and Van der Bend® transport container) at room temperature and in a refrigerator. The samples were analysed in triplicate with high-performance liquid chromatography. The decrease in concentration was substantial for all five allergens under both storage conditions in IQ chamber™ and IQ Ultimate™, with the exception of 2-HEMA during storage in the refrigerator. For these two chamber systems, the contact allergen concentration dropped below the stability limit in the following order: MMA, cinnamal, 2-HPA, eugenol, and 2-HEMA. In the Van der Bend® transport container, the contact allergens exhibited acceptable stability under both storage conditions, whereas MMA and 2-HPA required cool storage for maintenance of the limit. The Van der Bend® transport container was the best device for storage of samples of volatile contact allergens. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Effect of Mixing Time and Storage Condition on Characterization of Heparinoid Admixtures with Corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Ikumi; Takahashi, Namiki; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In dermatologic therapy, several external preparations formulated as ointments or creams are prescribed. And they are often admixture to improve patient compliance. In this study, we prepared admixtures of moisturizer with steroids and examined their usability and the amount of principal agent in formulations, particularly focusing on the moisturizer content. Four heparinoid semisolid formulations were selected: Hirudoid ® soft ointment 0.3% (Formulation A) and 3 generic agents [(Besoften ® oil-based cream 0.3% (Formulation B), Kuradoido ® ointment 0.3% (Formulation C), and Hepadaerm ointment 0.3% (Formulation D)], and Antebate ® ointment 0.05% (Formulation E) were used as steroids. Formulation A and B are water-in-oil emulsions, and Formulation C and D are oil-in-water emulsions. Admixtures looked like to be mixed uniformly by visual observation. In the examination of heparinoid amount, admixture A+E and B+E were mixed uniformly. On the other hand, admixture C+E was remarkable un-uniformly. It was speculated that the emulsification of formulation C was broken. The phenomenon was supported by the result of malleability. After 8 weeks storage, the heparinoid ratio in each formulation could be expressed as follows: Admixture B≥Admixture A>Admixture C=Admixture D. A suitable storage temperature was 4°C. The results of physicochemical data analysis reveal the formulations composed of water-in-oil cream, i.e., Formulation A and Formulation B, to be the optimal choices for mixing with steroid ointments. Mixing time and storage conditions may be optimized to solve pharmaceutical problems. Moreover, understanding the emulsion type and character of semisolid formulations can expand the range of formulation options.

  18. Combination processes for improving storage of irradiated potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, P.; Nair, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Various combined treatments of harvested potatoes to reduce microbial spoilage of irradiated potatoes in storage were studied. Treatments studied were irradiation in conjunction with hot water dip, cold or hot salicylic acid dip, dusting with salicylic acid powder, and sodium hypochlorite wash followed by storage in well aerated containers. Microbial spoilage in irradiated potatoes was found to be greatly reduced by storage at 10deg or 15degC in well aerated containers. (M.G.B.). 9 refs., 1 tab

  19. Effect of UHT processing and storage conditions on physico-chemical characteristics of buffalo skim milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    The obtained results indicated that physico-chemical and nutritional changes in UHT processed buffalo skimmed milk were more pronounced at 45 deg. C than 25 deg. C and 10 deg. C. Duration of storage adversely affected the chemical and nutritional quality of processed milk. A slight decrease in pH, total ash and lactose contents, was observed, whereas acidity was increased on the mentioned storage conditions. Total nitrogen and casein nitrogen contents gradually decreased during storage, whereas non-casein nitrogen (NCN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased to a great extent in samples stored at higher temperatures. A significant increase in hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF) values occurred in UHT processed buffalo skim milk at 25 deg. C and 45 deg. C after of 90 days storage. Storage at high temperature (45 deg. C) caused undesirable effects on sensory properties, general quality characteristics and acceptability of UHT buffalo skimmed milk. (author)

  20. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    reasons , enlarging the ground loop does not seem like it would be a practical solution for dealing with highly unbalanced systems. Figure 6.5...3) Using reasonable ground loop sizes, assess the degree to which the ground loop temperature will increase over the expected life of the system...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Clemson

  1. In situ conditioning for proton storage ring vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, D.

    1978-01-01

    Average pressure and vacuum-stability limit as expected in the presence of a proton beam were measured after in situ treatments such as bakeout under various conditions, argon glow-discharge cleaning and sputter deposition of titanium. Measurements were carried out for test pipes made of stainless steel (untreated, electropolished, or cooled to 77 K), pure titanium and aluminum alloy. The measurement method used to obtain the vacuum-stability limit in the laboratory and in a prototype system is described. The results can be applied also to other systems of different geometry by use of scaling laws. In situ conditioning generally has a stronger influence on vacuum performance than a particular choice of material. Bakeout gives low average pressures and rather good vacuum stability. Glow discharges also increase the vacuum stability but have only a small effect on the static pressure. Coating the beam-pipe wall with titanium by in situ sputtering provides large linear pumping, thus a lower pressure and an extremely good vacuum stability

  2. Effect of storage conditions on graft of polypropylene non-woven fabric induced by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Young; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kang, Phil Hyun [Radiation Research Dvision for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we fabricated effect of storage conditions on graft of polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric induced by electron beam. The electron beam irradiations on PP non-woven fabric were carried out over a range of irradiation doses from 25 to 100 kGy to make free radicals on fabric surface. The radical measurement was established by electron spin resonance (ESR) for confirming the changes of the alkyl radical and peroxy radical according to effect of storage time, storage temperature and atmosphere. It was observed that the free radicals were increased with irradiation dose and decreased with storage time due to the continuous oxidation. However, the radical extinction was significantly delayed due to reduced mobility of radicals at extremely low temperature. The degree of graft based on the analysis of ESR was investigated. The conditions of graft reaction were set at a temperature: 60 degrees Celcius, reaction time: 6 hours and styrene monomer concentration: 20 wt%.

  3. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented...

  4. U. K. storage market improves after difficult start to year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, J

    1979-07-15

    According to J. Kingston of PD Oil and Chemical Storage Ltd., the present shortage of oil and product supplies has raised storage capacity rates and some tankage expansion is being considered, but there is no prospect of new terminal construction in the short-term without considerable hardening of storage tariffs. The few tanks under construction are for the specific requirements of certain chemical producers. PD Oil and Chemical operates three storage facilities at Barry, South Wales, where many tanks are specially lined for handling difficult products, Ipswich, and Purfleet, U.K., which have a total capacity of 733,600 cu m, as well as seven others in South Africa, Australia, Spain, France, the U.S., Canary Islands, and Cape Verde Islands in conjunction with subsidiary or associated companies. A table lists PD Oil and Chemical's facilities in the U.K., including location, type of storage, capacity, and accessibility.

  5. LLW/Il conditioning for transportation, storage and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pech, R.; Chevalier, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    In France, Sogefibre (Cogema subsidiary) has developed original containers adapted to the conditioning of LLW and ILW and assuring integrity of the waste form over long period of time. These containers have been designed according to the following criteria, derived from Andra's requirement for the surface disposal: Mechanical strength, resistance to microcracking, Radioactive containment and long life: 300 years minimum. Choice of formulation for the concrete as well as selection of raw materials have been optimised in this objective. Sizes and shapes of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Containers (FRCC) have been developed in relation with handling means of Cogema La Hague facilities for automatized operations. Experience gained after nearly 10 years and 40000 FRCC produced shows that choices have been right and properties of FRCC effectively useful. The paper also recalls mechanical and containment properties and the durability assessment recently updated thanks to results of computer modelling. Degradation phenomenon of the Blended Ternary Cement (clinker, slag, ash) used in FRCC is described and the model presented. (authors)

  6. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  7. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Šimenić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The investigation was carried out at storage simulation and by using various packaging material. In addition to well-known packaging material, such as paper 2 and 4-layer bags, jute bags, and PPR bags, the seed was also packed in the PVC transparent and PVC black bags, as well as in bags made of Aluminium foil. The investigation lasted for two years and was carried out in three various storage conditions, such as in the "New Warehouse" - a warehouse of a new type with thermal isolation in the roof and with uncontrolled conditions, ii the "Old Warehouse" made of filled-in brick and with a roof made of asbestos board, and iii under the "Eaves". The results have shown that the best seed was obtained when packed in 2 and 4-layer paper bags, PVC transparent bags and those made of Aluminium foil. Poorer results were obtained with bags of jute, polypropeline bags and PVC black bags. The storage of seed at "Eaves" has attained the best results in both years of the investigation, as compared to all three types of storage and it can in our circumstances meet the needs for wheat seed storage during one year

  8. Recent findings on the oxidation of UO2 fuel under nominally dry storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.; McEachern, R.J.; Sunder, S.; Wasywich, K.M.; Miller, N.H.; Wood, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is an overview of fuel-storage demonstration experiments, supporting research on UO 2 oxidation, and associated model development, in progress at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories. The work is being performed to determine the time/temperature limits for safe storage of irradiated CANDU fuel in dry air. The most significant recent experimental finding has been the detection of small quantities of U 3 O 8 , formed over periods of one to several years in a variety of experiments at 150-170 deg C. Another important trading is the slight suppression of U 3 O 8 formation in SIMFUEL and other doped U0 2 formulations. The development of a nucleation-and-growth model for U 3 O 8 formation is discussed, along with available activation energy data. These provide a basis for predicting U 3 O 8 formation rates under dry-storage conditions, and hence optimizing fuel storage strategies. (author)

  9. Application of Peleg's equation to describe creep responses of potatoes under constant and variable storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, W K; Jindal, V K

    2017-06-01

    The application of Peleg's equation to characterize creep behavior of potatoes during storage was investigated. Potatoes were stored at 25, 15, 5C, and variable (fluctuating) temperature for 16 or 26 weeks. The Peleg equation adequately described the creep response of potatoes during storage at all storage conditions (R 2  = .97to .99). Peleg constant k 1 exhibited a significant (p creep responses during storage or processing will be potentially helpful to better understand the phenomenon. The model parameters from such model could be used to relate rheological properties of raw and cooked potatoes. Moreover, the model parameters could be used to establish relationship between instrumental and sensory attributes which will help in the prediction of sensory attributes from instrumental data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  11. Studies on the control of stored grain pests by gamma radiations under different storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, G.R.; Prasad, H.; Bhatia, Parvathy

    1979-01-01

    Studies conducted earlier at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, demonstrated that it was possible to check further multiplication of adults of rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) by the release of sterile adults under laboratory conditions. These investigations were extended further using mud storage structures and G.I. bins with a capacity to hold 40 and 26 kg of wheat, respectively. Data on observations under these conditions as well as pros and cons of extending this further in small storage godowns are presented. (auth.)

  12. Evaluation of the CDC safe water-storage intervention to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the CDC safe water-storage intervention to improve the microbiological quality of point-of-use drinking water in rural communities in South Africa. ... use of safe household water-storage devices and water treatment processes and improvement of hygiene and sanitation practices in these rural households.

  13. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky in storage condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram B Paneru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C. The findings showed that the maize genotypes had different response to maize weevil damage ranging from susceptible to tolerance. The genotypes Manakamana-3, Lumle White POP Corn and Ganesh-2 showed their tolerance to S. zeamais as evidenced by lower number of weevil emerged/attracted, lower amount of grain debris release and lower proportion of bored grains, while the genotype ZM-627 was the most susceptible to weevil damage in both tests. The other remaining genotypes were intermediate types. This information is useful to improve grain protection in storage and varietal improvement/release program.

  14. Improved biochemical preservation of heart slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Reid, B B; Connors, R C; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-01-01

    Development of myocardial preservation solutions requires the use of whole organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that myocardial slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat hearts were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 200 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in one of the following solutions: Columbia University (CU), University of Wisconsin (UW), D5 0.2% normal saline with 20 meq/l KCL (QNS), normal saline (NS), or a novel cardiac preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Myocardial biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamoles ATP/mg wet weight) and capacity for protein synthesis (counts per minute (cpm)/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 hours), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. ATP content was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of cold storage (p cold storage (p cold storage.

  15. Optimization of Cultivation and Storage Conditions on Red Cabbage Seed Sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, K.H.; Jo, D.J.; Park, J.H.; Kwon, J.H.; Kim, G.R.; Lee, G.D.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, Y.R.; Han, B.S.; Yoon, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to find the optimal conditions for red cabbage seed sprouts in terms of their physicochemical and sensory qualities by electron-beam irradiation, cultivation and storage using the response surface methodology (RSM). Moisture content (R2 = 0.9638) was affected by irradiation dose and cultivation time. Total phenolics content (R2 = 0.9117) was mainly affected by irradiation dose, but carotenoid content (R2 = 0.8338) was affected in the order of irradiation dose, cultivation time and storage time. Sensory properties were also affected by irradiation dose, and thus scores decreased as irradiation dose increased. The optimum conditions estimated by superimposing total phenolics content and overall acceptance were 2.2-3.8 kGy of the irradiation dose, 3.0-4.0 days of cultivation and 2.0-3.0 days of storage

  16. Critical review of creep FRAPCON-3 model under dry storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L.E. [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    There is a general agreement that cladding creep rupture is the most likely and limiting failure mechanism of spent fuel in dry storage compared to other potential mechanisms, like stress corrosion cracking and/or delayed hydride cracking. Nevertheless, occurrence of creep rupture is very improbable since both decay heat and hoop stress tend to decrease throughout dry storage. In spite of this, the current trend to higher burn up levels needs further attention that ensures safe storage of spent fuel irradiated over 45 GWd/MTU. An extensive work has been carried out during the last four decades in the area of in-reactor creep modelling. Unfortunately, the in-reactor conditions are so different from those prevailing under dry storage, that all the experience gained cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner. On the other side, as creep tests simulating conditions throughout a 20-40 year dry storage are impractical, post-irradiation cladding creep behaviour has been modelled by means of time-temperature dependent laws developed on the basis of currently available zirconium alloys data. Additionally, some tests have been exploring the effect of irradiation, hydrogen distribution and material composition on the materials creep behaviour. Adaptation of fuel performance codes initially developed for normal and off-normal reactor operation is not an easy task either. Creep modelling is usually dependent of host codes because a good part of its validation and update has been carried out in an integral way, and as a consequence its independent performance assessment is not an easy task. This work examines the current capability of FRAPCON-3 to model creep behaviour under dry storage conditions. To do so, a review of its major fundamentals has been done and its range of applicability discussed. Once its main approximations and drawbacks have been identified, an attempt to overcome some of them has been intended by implementing an alternative expression for creep under

  17. Improving living conditions in Bossaso, Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiep Decorte

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Involving IDPs, host communities and international agenciesin thinking about the city, the quality of life and economicopportunities in Bossaso has led to significant improvements insettlement organisation and shelter provision for displaced people.

  18. Feasibility of Radiation Processing for Post-Harvest Storage of Potatoes Under Tropical Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A. N.; Padwal-Desai, S. R.; Ghanekar, A. S.; Shirsat, S. G.; Pendharkar, M. B.; Nair, P. M.; Nadkarni, G. B. [Biochemistry and Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-04-15

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10 krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 Degree-Sign C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 Degree-Sign C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 Degree-Sign C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 Degree-Sign C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  19. The effects of frozen tissue storage conditions on the integrity of RNA and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, H; Mobley, J A; Ayers, L W; Bowen, J; Chuaqui, R F; Johnson, L A; Livolsi, V A; Lubensky, I A; McGarvey, D; Monovich, L C; Moskaluk, C A; Rumpel, C A; Sexton, K C; Washington, M K; Wiles, K R; Grizzle, W E; Ramirez, N C

    2014-10-01

    Unfixed tissue specimens most frequently are stored for long term research uses at either -80° C or in vapor phase liquid nitrogen (VPLN). There is little information concerning the effects such long term storage on tissue RNA or protein available for extraction. Aliquots of 49 specimens were stored for 5-12 years at -80° C or in VPLN. Twelve additional paired specimens were stored for 1 year under identical conditions. RNA was isolated from all tissues and assessed for RNA yield, total RNA integrity and mRNA integrity. Protein stability was analyzed by surface-enhanced or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS) and nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). RNA yield and total RNA integrity showed significantly better results for -80° C storage compared to VPLN storage; the transcripts that were preferentially degraded during VPLN storage were these involved in antigen presentation and processing. No consistent differences were found in the SELDI-TOF-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS or nLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of specimens stored for more than 8 years at -80° C compared to those stored in VPLN. Long term storage of human research tissues at -80° C provides at least the same quality of RNA and protein as storage in VPLN.

  20. Structural evaluation and analysis under normal conditions for spent fuel concrete storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Taechul; Baeg, Changyeal; Yoon, Sitae [Korea Radioactive waste Management Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Insoo [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is the verification of stabilities of the structural elements that influence the safety of a concrete storage cask. The evaluation results were reviewed with respect to every design criterion, in terms of whether the results satisfy the criteria, provided by 10CFR 72 and NUREG-1536. The basic information on the design is partially explained in 2. Description of spent fuel storage system and the maintainability and assumptions included in the analysis were confirmed through detailed explanations of the acceptable standards, analysis model, and analysis method. ABAQUS 6.10, a widely used finite element analysis program, was used in the structural analysis. The storage cask shall maintain the sub-criticality, shielding, structural integrity, thermal capability and confinement in accordance with the requirements specified in US 10 CFR 72. The safety of storage cask is analyzed and it has been confirmed to meet the requirements of US 10 CFR 72. This paper summarizes the structural stability evaluation results of a concrete storage cask with respect to the design criteria. The evaluation results of this paper show that the maximum stress was below the allowable stress under every condition, and the concrete storage cask satisfied the design criteria.

  1. Feasibility of radiation processing for post-harvest storage of potatoes under tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Shirsat, S.G.; Pendharkar, M.B.; Nair, P.M.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 0 C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 0 C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 0 C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 0 C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation-induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  2. Report from SG 1.1: improving the performance of existing gas storages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report aims to identify underlying trends for improvements in the underground gas storage (UGS) industry. It highlights best practices and state-of-the-art technology used in operating gas storages. The core conclusions of this report are based on a survey, which was sent out to the member countries. A reply was received from 15 countries, represented by 22 companies/institutions, including more than 100 gas storage sites. This response represents some 30% of the total estimated world storage working volume. In the survey operators were asked to report on the following issues: - measures implemented to improve the performance, - current priorities for improvements, - most important drivers for improvement, - techniques used to analyze performance, - techniques used to optimize storage performance, - software packages used, - technology used for reservoir management, wells and surface facilities, - safety and environment. (author)

  3. Humid storage conditions increase the dissolution rate of diazepam from solid dispersions prepared by melt agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Torstenson, Anette Seo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling mode and storage conditions on the dissolution rate of a solid dispersion prepared by melt agglomeration. The aim has been to relate this effect to the solid state properties of the agglomerates. The cooling mode had an effect on t...

  4. Evaporation of liquefied natural gas in conditions of compact storage containers heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgozhayeva, D. S.

    2014-08-01

    Identical by its power, but located in different parts of the external surface of the tank, the heating sources are different intensity heat transfer modes is heating up, respectively, times of vapour pressure rise to critical values. Developed mathematical model and method of calculation can be used in the analysis of conditions of storage tanks for liquefied gases.

  5. Effect of baking conditions and storage on the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum supplemented to bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lu; Taal, Marieke A.; Boom, Remko M.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2018-01-01

    Bread is an interesting non-dairy-based vehicle for probiotics delivery given its daily consumption worldwide. The incorporation of probiotics in bread is challenging due to the high baking temperatures. In this study the influence of various baking conditions and subsequent storage on survival of a

  6. 40 CFR 266.220 - What does a storage and treatment conditional exemption do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Conditional Exemption for Low-Level Mixed Waste Storage... exemption exempts your low-level mixed waste from the regulatory definition of hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261...

  7. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

    OpenAIRE

    G. Diukareva; A. Pak; A. Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of stud...

  8. Ice thermal storage air conditioning system for electric load leveling; Denryoku heijunka to hyochikunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigenaga, Y. [Daikin Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    Thermal storage air conditioning system is the one to use energy stored into thermal storing materials by using night electric power and to operate effective air conditioning. Therefore, as load can be treated by the stored energy, volume of the apparatus can be reduced. And, by reduction of the consumed power at day time, it can contribute to leveling of electric power demand. In general, there are two types in the thermal storage method: one is a method to store as thermal energy, and the other is that to store as chemical energy. For conditions required for the storing materials, important elements on their actual uses are not only physical properties such as large thermal storage per unit and easy thermal in- and out-puts, but also safety, long-term reliability, and easy receiving and economics containing future. The ice thermal storage air conditioning system is classified at the viewpoint of type of ice, kind of thermal storing medium, melting method on using cooling and heating, kinds of thermal medium on cooling and heating. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Influence of storage conditions on the release of growth factors in platelet-rich blood derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düregger Katharina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes can be concentrated in blood derivatives and used as autologous transplants e.g. for wound treatment due to the release of growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. Conditions for processing and storage of these platelet-rich blood derivatives influence the release of PDGF from the platelet-bound α-granules into the plasma. In this study Platelet rich plasma (PRP and Platelet concentrate (PC were produced with a fully automated centrifugation system. Storage of PRP and PC for 1 h up to 4 months at temperatures between −20°C and +37°C was applied with the aim of evaluating the influence on the amount of released PDGF. Storage at −20°C resulted in the highest release of PDGF in PRP and a time dependency was determined: prolonged storage up to 1 month in PRP and 10 days in PC increased the release of PDGF. Regardless of the storage conditions, the release of PDGF per platelet was higher in PC than in PRP.

  10. The effects of rapid chilling and storage conditions on the quality of Brigitta Blue cultivar highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kozos Karolina; Ochmian Ireneusz; Chełpiński Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Controlled atmosphere storage allows for the long-term and short-term storage of fruit without a significant decrease in quality, resulting in a longer shelflife of fresh fruit. The Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin conducted research on the effects of post-harvest precooling (3-4°C within two hours) and storage conditions (conventional cold room and controlled atmosphere storage) on fruit firmness, chemical composition, colour and weight l...

  11. Safety aspects of the cleaning and conditioning of radioactive sludge from spent fuel storage pool on 'RA' Research reactor in the Vinca Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R; Pavlovic, S.; Plecas, I.

    1999-01-01

    Spent fuel elements from nuclear reactors in the Vinca Institute have been temporary stored in water filled storage pool. Due to the fact that the water in the spent fuel elements storage pool have not been purified for a long time, all metallic components submerged in the water have been hardly corroded and significant amount of the sludge has been settled on the bottom of the pool. As a first step in improving spent fuel elements storage conditions and slowing down corrosion in the storage spent fuel elements pool we have decided to remove the sludge from the bottom of the pool. Although not high, but slightly radioactive, this sludge had to be treated as radioactive waste material. Some safety aspects and radiation protection measures in the process of the spent fuel storage pool cleaning are presented in this paper

  12. Effect of hybrid, storage conditions and seed protection on sunflower field emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed emergence under field conditions decisively and directly determines the number of plants per hectare, which is one of three basic components of yield in the plant world. Influence of chemical treatment on field emergence of three commercial sunflower hybrids stored in different conditions was tested in 2007 and 2008 on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. On average, hybrid H1 had the highest value of field emergence (88.79% and for chemical treatment fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (87.71%. Seed kept in common storage had the highest emergence value in fi eld (87.92%. Seed treated with fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid and stored for one year in common storage had the highest field emergence (90.18%. Considering interaction between storage conditions and genotype, hybrid H1 seed sown after chemical treatment had the highest field emergence (91.82% and seed kept in common storage (90.48%. Hybrid H1 seed compared with other two had the highest field emergence treated with fludioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (91.84%.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF SPUTUM STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE VITAL PROPERTIES OF TUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Rodionova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study: to enhance efficiency of laboratory diagnostics of tuberculous infection through investigating the effect of various storage conditions of samples on the growth properties of Tuberculosis complex mycobacteria.Materials and Methods. 2058 samples of sputum collected by coughing were examined. All sputum samples were aliquoted into 5 parts stored under various conditions: in the fridge under +7°С for 2 hours; frozen for 7 days; by room indoor temperature for 48-72 hours; with the use preservative 10% solution of triple-substituted natrium phosphate for 48 hours; in the fridge under +7°С for 2 hours with consequent treatment by 1% solution of N-acetyl-L-cysteine.Results. The most optimal sputum storage conditions are freezing by -20°С, providing maximum safety of mycobacteria and minimum contamination of the samples with foreign bacteria. Sputum storage by indoor room temperature for 2-3 days reduces the number of positive results of cultures on nutritive media. Using 10% solution of triple-substituted natrium phosphate provides high positive results of bacterioscopic and cultural testing techniques. Time prolongation for biomaterials storage in the preservative solution for more than 72 hours results in the death tuberculous mycobacteria. 

  14. Criticality safety studies involved in actions to improve conditions for storing 'RA' research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.; Marinkovic, N.

    1998-01-01

    A project has recently been initiated by the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences to improve conditions in the spent fuel storage pool at the 6.5 MW research reactor RA, as well as to consider transferring this spent fuel into a new dry storage facility built for the purpose. Since quantity and contents of fissile material in the spent fuel storage at the RA reactor are such that possibility of criticality accident can not be a priori excluded, according to standards and regulations for handling fissile material outside a reactor, before any action is undertaken subcriticality should be proven under normal, as well as under credible abnormal conditions. To perform this task, comprehensive nuclear criticality safety studies had to be performed. (author)

  15. Using optimization to improve radioactive waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, J.C.; Sordi, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In several countries where repository for final disposal is not constructed and in operation, the low level radioactive wastes are treated and stored. In some cases, interim storage can be extended for decades demanding special attention regarding security aspects. On the other hand, some packages contains very small quantities of radioactive material either by the long period of storage or by the rudimental segregation carried out when the radioactive waste were collected. This paper discuss the use of cost-benefit analysis as technique to aid decision making in order to evaluate the feasibility of to open the packages containing compactable solid radioactive wastes and to segregate these waste according to the classification that consider the recent clearance levels and exemption limits recommended by international organisms. (authors)

  16. Hydrogen storage in porous carbons: modelling and performance improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellenq, R.J.M.; Maresca, O.; Marinelli, F.; Duclaux, L.; Azais, P.; Conard, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we aim at exploring using ab initio calculations, the various ways allowing for an efficient hydrogen docking in carbon porous materials. Firstly, the influence of surface curvature on the chemisorption of atomic hydrogen is considered. Then it is shown that electro-donor elements such as lithium or potassium used as dopant of the carbon substrate induce a strong physi-sorption for H 2 , allowing its storage at ambient temperature under moderate pressure. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of storage conditions for tritiated thymidine as reference organically-bound tritium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, T.; Trivedi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Interlaboratory intercomparison exercises have used tritiated thymidine as a reference material for organically-bound tritium (OBT) measurements in urine. We have examined the effects of storage conditions on the degradation behavior of tritium from OBT to tritiated water (HTO) in artificial and natural human urine samples. Tritiated thymidine decomposed less readily in artificial urine than natural urine samples. The degradation rate of tritiated thymidine in artificial urine, at -20 deg C, is about 10% for the first month. The rate of tritium conversion from OBT to HTO is the same at 4 deg C, but this storage temperature is less preferable, because of the danger of microbial contamination in the reference samples. The storage of the reference urine samples beyond three months after the preparation date is not recommended for quality control measurement data. (author)

  18. Improved biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Connors, R C; Reid, B B; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-05-15

    Development of lung preservation solutions typically requires whole-organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that lung slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat lungs were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 500 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in the following solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), Euro-Collins (EC), low-potassium-dextran (LPD), Kyoto (K), normal saline (NS), or a novel lung preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Lung biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamol ATP/mg wet wt) and capacity for protein synthesis (cpm/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as means +/- SD. ATP content was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at each time point (P cold storage. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. An improved method for upscaling borehole thermal energy storage using inverse finite element modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tordrup, Karl Woldum; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Bjørn, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Dimensioning of large-scale borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) is inherently uncertain due to the natural variability of thermal conductivity and heat capacity in the storage volume. We present an improved method for upscaling a pilot BTES to full scale and apply the method to an operational...

  20. Effects of storage conditions on results for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of proteins in canine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théron, Marie-Laure; Piane, Laetitia; Lucarelli, Laetitia; Henrion, Rémi; Layssol-Lamour, Catherine; Palanché, Florence; Concordet, Didier; Braun, Jean-Pierre D; Trumel, Catherine; Lavoué, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of storage conditions on the canine urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) and on SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) of urinary proteins. SAMPLE Urine specimens from 20 proteinuric (UPC > 0.5) and 20 nonproteinuric (UPC ≤ 0.2) dogs. PROCEDURES UPC and SDS-AGE were performed on urine specimens stored at room temperature (20°C) and 4°C for up to 5 days and at -20° and -80°C for up to 360 days; some specimens were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles. Results were compared with those obtained for fresh urine specimens. RESULTS UPC was not affected by storage at room temperature or by freezing. A decrease in UPC was observed for specimens from nonproteinuric dogs after 5 days at 4°C (10%) and from both groups after 90 days at -20° and -80°C (≤ 20% and ≤ 15%, respectively). The SDS-AGE profiles revealed no visual changes regardless of duration of storage for specimens stored at room temperature, 4°C, and -80°C, except for 1 profile after 360 days at -80°C. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles did not affect SDS-AGE profiles. Appearance or strengthening of high-molecular-weight bands that could alter interpretation was evident in SDS-AGE profiles after storage at -20°C for ≥ 15 days (31/40 dogs). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Storage of urine at -20° or -80°C for up to 1 year influenced the UPC without affecting clinical interpretation. Storage of urine specimens at -20°C impaired visual analysis of SDS-AGE. When SDS-AGE cannot be performed on fresh or recently refrigerated urine specimens, storage at -80°C is recommended.

  1. Sugar versus fat: elimination of glycogen storage improves lipid accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutada, Govindprasad; Kavšcek, Martin; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Thomas, Stéphane; Rechberger, Gerald N; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Natter, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) and glycogen are the two major metabolites for carbon storage in most eukaryotic organisms. We investigated the glycogen metabolism of the oleaginous Yarrowia lipolytica and found that this yeast accumulates up to 16% glycogen in its biomass. Assuming that elimination of glycogen synthesis would result in an improvement of lipid accumulation, we characterized and deleted the single gene coding for glycogen synthase, YlGSY1. The mutant was grown under lipogenic conditions with glucose and glycerol as substrates and we obtained up to 60% improvement in TAG accumulation compared to the wild-type strain. Additionally, YlGSY1 was deleted in a background that was already engineered for high lipid accumulation. In this obese background, TAG accumulation was also further increased. The highest lipid content of 52% was found after 3 days of cultivation in nitrogen-limited glycerol medium. Furthermore, we constructed mutants of Y. lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are deleted for both glycogen and TAG synthesis, demonstrating that the ability to store carbon is not essential. Overall, this work showed that glycogen synthesis is a competing pathway for TAG accumulation in oleaginous yeasts and that deletion of the glycogen synthase has beneficial effects on neutral lipid storage. © FEMS 2017.

  2. Storage of Hatching Eggs : Effects of storage and early incubation conditions on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chicken quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: egg storage, embryonic development, albumen quality, hatchability, chick quality

    It is well known that an increase in the storage duration increases incubation duration and decreases hatchability and chick quality. The negative effects of prolonged egg storage (> 7 days)

  3. Design method for photovoltaics-battery storage systems under tropical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, A I.E.; Bassyouni, A H; Al-Motawakel, M K

    1989-01-01

    A very limited number of the available design methods can be used with confidence in sizing and costing the stand-alone photovoltaic-battery storage systems operating under the weather conditions of the tropical countries located between 0 and 30/sup 0/N. For this reason we investigated the performance and economics of various photovoltaic-battery storage system configurations. The aim was to prepare a number of sizing and costing design diagrams which detail the effect of climatic, social, and economics parameters on the choice of the stand-alone photovoltaic-battery storage systems. Our strategy was to guide designers, particularly those trying to utilize the stand-alone photovoltaic-battery storage systems in Sana'a (15/sup 0/N) and Cairo (30/sup 0/N), to the logic for selecting a system that physically and economically matches the site potential and the user's electrical needs. Considered here are the relatively small stand-alone photovoltaic-battery storage systems that can be purchased by individuals or commercial and governmental firms to supply all or part of the electrical needs consumed in residence, farms, remote rural communities, or small factories.

  4. Long-term interim storage concepts with conditioning strategies ensuring compatibility with subsequent disposal or reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moitrier, C.; Tirel, I.; Villard, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the CEA studies carried out under research topic 3 (long-term interim storage) of the 1991 French radioactive waste management law is to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a comprehensive, flexible interim storage facility by thoroughly evaluating and comparing all the basic components of various interim storage concepts. In this context, the CEA is considering reference solutions or concepts based on three primary components (the package, the interim storage facility and the site) suitable for determining the specifications of a very long-term solution. Some aspects are examined in greater detail, such as the implementation of long-term technologies, conditioning processes ensuring the absence of water and contamination in the facility, or allowance for radioactive decay of the packages. The results obtained are continually compiled in reports substantiating the design options. These studies should also lead to an overall economic assessment in terms of the capital and operating cost requirements, thereby providing an additional basis for selecting the design options. The comparison with existing industrial facilities highlights the technical and economic progress represented by the new generation of interim storage units. (authors)

  5. In vitro and in vivo development of mice morulae after storage in non-frozen conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Dios Hourcade Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interchange of genetically modified (GM mice between laboratories using embryos provides several advantages. Not only is transport stress avoided, but also the health status of the recipient colony is not compromised. Embryos do not need to be shipped in frozen stage, which requires expensive packaging in addition to a certain degree of expertise in order to freeze and thaw them correctly. The aim of this study was to examine different storage conditions and their effect on embryo viability in order to establish the feasibility of practical, non-frozen conditions for embryo shipment. Methods Mouse morulae developed in vivo (collected from donors 2.5d post coitum or in vitro (zygotes cultured until morulae stage were stored, combining two different media (KSOMeq or KSOM-H and temperatures (4 degrees C, 15 degrees C and 37 degrees C throughout 24 or 48 hours. After storage in vitro viability was assessed determining percentage of development to blastocyst and total cell number. In vivo viability was determined based on the number of implantations and living fetuses after embryo transfer of stored embryos. The storage effect at the molecular level was assessed by studying a gene pool involved in early development by quantitative RT-PCR. Results In vivo-produced morulae stored for 24 hours did not show differences in development up to the blastocyst stage, regardless of the storage type. Even though a decrease in the total cell number in vivo was observed, embryo development after embryo transfer was not affected. All 24 hour storage conditions tested provided a similar number of implantations and fetuses at day 14 of pregnancy. Morulae obtained from in vitro embryo culture collected at the 1-cell stage showed a decreased ability to develop to blastocyst after 24 hours of storage at 15degrees C both in KSOMeq and KSOM-H. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of embryo implantation rates after transfer to recipients was

  6. Energy Conversion and Transmission Characteristics Analysis of Ice Storage Air Conditioning System Driven by Distributed Photovoltaic Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the investment and operation cost of distributed PV energy system, ice storage technology was introduced to substitute batteries for solar energy storage. Firstly, the ice storage air conditioning system (ISACS driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES was proposed and the feasibility studies have been investigated in this paper. And then, the theoretical model has been established and experimental work has been done to analyze the energy coupling and transferring characteristics in light-electricity-cold conversion process. In addition, the structure optimization analysis was investigated. Results revealed that energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker with only 17.38% energy utilization efficiency and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES were 5.44% and 67.30%, respectively. So the immersed evaporator and cointegrated exchanger were adopted for higher energy utilization efficiency and better financial rewards in structure optimization. The COP and exergy efficiency of ice maker can be increased to 1.48 and 81.24%, respectively, after optimization and the energy utilization efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES could be improved 2.88 times. Moreover, ISACS has the out-of-the-box function of ordinary air conditioning system. In conclusion, ISACS driven by DPES will have good application prospects in tropical regions without power grid.

  7. Different Storage Conditions Influence Biocompatibility and Physicochemical Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zaloga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have attracted increasing attention in many biomedical fields. In magnetic drug targeting SPIONs are injected into a tumour supplying artery and accumulated inside the tumour with a magnet. The effectiveness of this therapy is thus dependent on magnetic properties, stability and biocompatibility of the particles. A good knowledge of the effect of storage conditions on those parameters is of utmost importance for the translation of the therapy concept into the clinic and for reproducibility in preclinical studies. Here, core shell SPIONs with a hybrid coating consisting of lauric acid and albumin were stored at different temperatures from 4 to 45 °C over twelve weeks and periodically tested for their physicochemical properties over time. Surprisingly, even at the highest storage temperature we did not observe denaturation of the protein or colloidal instability. However, the saturation magnetisation decreased by maximally 28.8% with clear correlation to time and storage temperature. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was clearly affected, as cellular uptake of the SPIONs into human T-lymphoma cells was crucially dependent on the storage conditions. Taken together, the results show that the particle properties undergo significant changes over time depending on the way they are stored.

  8. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There

  9. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Ann Tørngren, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were...

  10. Influence of postharvest processing and storage conditions on key antioxidants in pūhā (Sonchus oleraceus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Strachan, Clare J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate effects of different postharvest drying processes and storage conditions on key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaves.......To investigate effects of different postharvest drying processes and storage conditions on key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaves....

  11. Retention of short chain fatty acids under drying and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese whey permeate was used as a substrate for the fermentation of Propionibacterium freudenreichi PS1 for the production of short chain fatty acids, components of the bio-aroma of Swiss cheese. The liquid bio-aroma was encapsulated by spray drying under different conditions of air inlet temperature and feed rate. A study was carried out on the stability of the bio-aroma during storage in laminated packages at 30 °C for 96 days using the product showing the greatest retention of acetic and propionic acids. The results showed that the best drying conditions were an air entrance temperature of 180 °C and a feed rate of 24 g/min resulting in particles with a smooth surface and few invaginations and micro-fissures. However, 72% of the acetic acid and 80% of the propionic acid were lost during storage showing that the wall material used was inadequate to guarantee product stability.

  12. Changes in quality of apple (Malus domestica) cultivars due to γ-irradiation and storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, P.R.; Dar, M.A.; Meena, R.S.; Wani, A.M.; Mir, M.A.; Shafi, F.

    2008-01-01

    Ambri, Golden Delicious and Royal Delicious apple varieties were γ-irradiated (0.1-0.5 kGy) and stored under ambient (15 ±2 degC, 80%RH) and refrigerated (3±1 degC, 90%RH) conditions. They were evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids, acidity, juice yield, physiological loss in weight, overall acceptability and yeast and mold counts. The γ-irradiation doses of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy proved beneficial in maintaining the overall quality of all the 3 varieties of apple under both the storage conditions. γ-irradiation significantly reduced the yeast and mold counts of apples under storage. (author)

  13. Thermal behavior of neutron shielding material, NS-4-FR, under long term storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, N.; O-iwa, A.; Asano, R.; Horita, R.; Kusunoki, K.

    2004-01-01

    NS-4-FR, Epoxy-Resin, has been widely used as a neutron shielding material for casks. It is recognized that the resin will degrade during storage and loose weight under high temperature conditions. Most of the examinations for the resin degrading behavior were conducted with rather small bare resin specimens. However, the actual quantity of neutron shielding is quite large and is covered by the cask body. To confirm the degrading behavior of the resin under the long-term storage conditions, we performed the test on the specimen with the same cross-section as the actual design, Hitz B69. The resin test vessels were made out of stainless steel and equipped with flange

  14. Modelling methane emission mitigation by anaerobic digestion: effect of storage conditions and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, Veronica; Wahid, R; Ward, A; Møller, H B

    2018-03-13

    In this work the methane conversion factor (MCF) of untreated and anaerobically digested cattle manure (CM) as a function of storage temperature, time and co-digestion was measured in an in vitro experiment and modelled based on IPCC (2006) methodology (Tier 2). For this, one sample of untreated CM, one sample of mono-digested CM and three samples of CM co-digested with grass were incubated at seven different temperatures (from 5°C to 50°C) over 346 days. The main results showed that ultimate methane yield (B 0 ) of CM is higher than the B 0 reported by the IPCC (2006). Two temperature ranges should be considered for MCF evolution, below 15°C very low MCF was measured in this work for untreated CM, mono and co-digested samples. At higher temperatures, MCF obtained in this work and that provided by the IPCC could be comparable depending on storage time. Anaerobic mono-digestion decreased MCF compared to untreated CM at all temperatures and times, except in the temperature range between 20°C and 25°C if storage time is low, due to a lag phase observed in CM. This lag phase would probably not happen in real storage conditions depending on the proportion of old manure remaining in the storage tank. Co-digestion with grass-decreased MCF compared to mono-digestion, but increased CH 4 production in terms of fresh matter due to the higher B 0 of the mixture. Storage time, temperature and co-digestion should be considered in the quantification of CH 4 emission from digested material.

  15. A review on the recent development of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning with low temperature storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional air conditioners or vapour compression systems are main contributors to energy consumption in modern buildings. There are common environmental issues emanating from vapour compression system such as greenhouse gas emission and heat wastage. These problems can be reduced by adaptation of solar energy components to vapour compression system. However, intermittence input of daily solar radiation was the main issue of solar energy system. This paper presents the recent studies on hybrid air conditioning system. In addition, the basic vapour compression system and components involved in the solar air conditioning system are discussed. Introduction of low temperature storage can be an interactive solution and improved economically which portray different modes of operating strategies. Yet, very few studies have examined on optimal operating strategies of the hybrid system. Finally, the findings of this review will help suggest optimization of solar absorption and vapour compression based hybrid air conditioning system for future work while considering both economic and environmental factors.

  16. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  17. Optimisation of treatment, storage and disposal strategies for (unconditioned and conditioned) radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bealby, J.

    1989-03-01

    This study examines the trade-offs involved between unconditioned and conditioned waste storage, by investigating the effects of different cost and environmental minimisation strategies on radioactive waste treatment and disposal strategies. The costs and environmental impacts from storage (unconditioned and conditioned), conditioning, transport and disposal are examined. A single generic mixed Magnox/AGR site is investigated, assuming a moderate nuclear power growth scenario over the period 1986 to 2030. Assessments have been performed for four weighting sets which cover the range of views perceived to exist about the relative importance of cost and environmental impact reduction. The base case conditioning option considers the availability of a LLW low force compaction plant in 1986 and two ILW conditioning plants (cement encapsulation and dissolution) in 1990. A base case set of disposal options considers the options of disposal to shallow land and burial facility and deep cavity facilities. The study investigates the effect of deferring the opening dates of the conditioning plants. A set of sensitivity studies show that the assessments are robust to the assumptions and impact parameters used. (author)

  18. Improving offering strategies for wind farms enhanced with storage capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Hu, Zechun; Song, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Due to the flexible charging and discharging capability, energy storage system (ESS) is thought of as a promising complement to wind farms (WF) in participating into electricity markets. This paper proposes a reserve-based real-time operation strategy of ESS to make arbitrage and to alleviate...... the wind power deviation from day-ahead contracts. Taking into account the operation strategy as well as two-price balancing market rules, a day-ahead bidding strategy of WF-ESS system is put forward and formulated. A modified gradient descent algorithm is described to solve the formulations. In the case...... studies, the computational efficiency of the algorithm is validated firstly. Moreover, a number of scenarios with/without considering the temporal dependence of wind power forecast error are designed and employed to compare the proposed strategy with other common ones in terms of profit....

  19. Improvement in HPC performance through HIPPI RAID storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Blake

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, RAID (redundant array of inexpensive (or independent) disks) technology was introduced as a viable solution to the I/O bottleneck. A number of different RAID levels were defined in 1987 by the Computer Science Division (EECS) University of California, Berkeley, each with specific advantages and disadvantages. With multiple RAID options available, taking advantage of RAID technology required matching particular RAID levels with specific applications. It was not possible to use one RAID device to address all applications. Maximum Strategy's Gen 4 Storage Server addresses this issue with a new capability called programmable RAID level partitioning. This capability enables users to have multiple RAID levels coexist on the same disks, thereby providing the versatility necessary for multiple concurrent applications.

  20. Augmenting transport versus increasing cold storage to improve vaccine supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce stationary storage needs.

  1. Augmenting Transport versus Increasing Cold Storage to Improve Vaccine Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A.; Connor, Diana L.; Wateska, Angela R.; Brown, Shawn T.; Mueller, Leslie E.; Norman, Bryan A.; Schmitz, Michelle M.; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S.; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. Methods This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Results Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. Conclusions When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce

  2. Optimization of Vacuum Impregnation with Calcium Lactate of Minimally Processed Melon and Shelf-Life Study in Real Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappi, Silvia; Tylewicz, Urszula; Romani, Santina; Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Rocculi, Pietro

    2016-10-05

    Vacuum impregnation (VI) is a processing operation that permits the impregnation of fruit and vegetable porous tissues with a fast and more homogeneous penetration of active compounds compared to the classical diffusion processes. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact on VI treatment with the addition of calcium lactate on qualitative parameters of minimally processed melon during storage. For this aim, this work was divided in 2 parts. Initially, the optimization of process parameters was carried out in order to choose the optimal VI conditions for improving texture characteristics of minimally processed melon that were then used to impregnate melons for a shelf-life study in real storage conditions. On the basis of a 2 3 factorial design, the effect of Calcium lactate (CaLac) concentration between 0% and 5% and of minimum pressure (P) between 20 and 60 MPa were evaluated on color and texture. Processing parameters corresponding to 5% CaLac concentration and 60 MPa of minimum pressure were chosen for the storage study, during which the modifications of main qualitative parameters were evaluated. Despite of the high variability of the raw material, results showed that VI allowed a better maintenance of texture during storage. Nevertheless, other quality traits were negatively affected by the application of vacuum. Impregnated products showed a darker and more translucent appearance on the account of the alteration of the structural properties. Moreover microbial shelf-life was reduced to 4 d compared to the 7 obtained for control and dipped samples. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair used for locomotive air conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.Z.; Wang, R.Z.; Zhang, M.; Jiangzhou, S.

    2003-01-01

    Adsorption cold storage has lately attracted attention for its large storage capacity and zero cold energy loss during the storing process. Thermodynamic and experimental studies on the cold storage capacity and the cold discharging process, in which the adsorber is either air cooled or adiabatic, have been presented. An adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair has been developed, and some operating results are summarized. This system is used for providing air conditioning for the driver's cab of an internal combustion locomotive. Unlike a normal adsorption air conditioner, the system starts running with the adsorption process, during which the cold energy stored is discharged, and ends running with the generation process. The adsorbent temperature decreases during the cold storing period between two runs. The refrigeration power output for the whole running cycle is about 4.1 kW. It appears that such a system is quite energetically efficient and is comparatively suitable for providing discontinuous refrigeration capacity when powered by low grade thermal energy, such as industrial exhausted heat or solar energy

  4. Influence of ionizing radiation and storage conditions upon some quality parameters of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beczner, J.; Kiss, I.; Peredi, J.

    1983-01-01

    Soyflour produced for animal feeding in a pilot plant was occasionally contaminated to an extent exceeding the microbiological standard set for human consumption. The suitability of ionizing radiation to reduce microbiological contamination was investigated. Soybeans of different moisture content (9 and 13%) were irradiated and stored in spaces of different relative humidity (55 and 75%) at 5-15 deg C or 20-25 deg C temperature. The soybeans samples were irradiated with 1 and 5 kGy, resp. The storage experiments have shown the humidity of the storage room to be of extreme importance to the propagation of moulds. The inhibitory effect of a temperature of 5-10 deg C in itself is not sufficient, neither is the effect of the radiation dose applied during a longer storage period. It was established that the moisture content of the seeds affected strongly the quality of the extracted oil. The unfavourable effects increase at higher temperatures. The radiation doses applied in the experiments did not affect the quality of the oil. It was concluded that the microbial contamination of soybeans can be kept at the initial low value by treatment with 1 kGy radiation dose, even under unfavourable storage conditions for a period of 2 months. Thus, irradiation may be applied as a temporary solution to stabilize the microbiological state of soybeans. (author)

  5. High burnup fuel onset conditions in dry storage. Prediction of EOL rod internal pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L.E.

    2015-07-01

    During dry storage, cladding resistance to failure can be affected by several degrading mechanisms like creep or hydrides radial reorientation. The driving force of these effects is the stress at which the cladding is submitted. The maximum stress in the cladding is determined by the end-of-reactor-life (EOL) rod internal pressure, PEOL, at the maximum temperature attained during dry storage. Thus, PEOL sets the initial conditions of storage for potential time-dependent changes in the cladding. Based on FRAPCON-3.5 calculations, the aim of this work is to analyse the PEOL of a PWR fuel rod irradiated to burnups greater than 60 GWd/tU, where limited information is available. In order to be conservative, demanding irradiation histories have been used with a peak linear power of 44 kW/m. FRAPCON-3.5 results show an increasing exponential trend of PEOL with burnup, from which a simple correlation has been derived. The comparison with experimental data found in the literature confirms the enveloping nature of the predicted curve. Based on that, a conservative prediction of cladding stress in dry storage has been obtained. The comparison with a critical stress threshold related to hydrides embrittlement seems to point out that this issue should not be a concern at burnups below 65 GWd/tU. (Author)

  6. Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Juhņeviča-Radenkova Karina; Radenkovs Vitalijs

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO)-controlled atmosphere (CA) [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1) and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2)] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold st...

  7. Reduction of radioactive waste by improvement of conditioning facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radde, E.

    2014-07-01

    The NES (Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf) is the only radioactive waste conditions and storage facility in Austria. It manages waste originating from research, industry and medicine. Its main goal is, not only to treat and store waste safety, but also to optimize processes to further reduce the waste volume. To achieve this goal, the New Handling Facility was built. In this paper we will show how the waste volume can be easily reduced by optimizing the conditioning and waste stream process. The NES owns a water treatment plant for cleaning of active waste water, an incineration plant that is used to burn radioactive waste. (Author)

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from manure handling - effects of storage conditions and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S.G.; Petersen, S.O.

    2002-01-01

    Stored animal manure and manure applied in the field contributes an estimated 20% to the total anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 0) in Denmark. Manure composition, handling and climatic conditions may all influence the emission level during storage, but there are relatively few experimental data on emissions of N 2 0 from manure management, including animal houses, slurry stores and manure heaps. Among animal housing systems, very high emission rates have been found with pig deep lifter, and N 2 0 emissions are further stimulated by mechanical mixing. Slurry stores are anaerobic, but a recent study showed that N 2 0 can be produced in porous surface covers such as natural surface crusts, straw or leca pebbles, while no N 2 0 was emitted from uncovered slurry. The emission was significantly related to the water balance, i.e., the difference between evaporation and rain, during dry periods; during wet periods no N 2 0 was emitted. For solid manure, previous studies have typically found that less than 1 % of total N is emitted as N 2 0. Nitrous oxide may be produced throughout the manure heap, provided an environment with both aerobic and anaerobic pockets exists. Profiles from an experimental heap indicated that most of the N 2 0 emitted from solid manure was produced near the surface of the heap. Increasing density appears to stimulate N 2 0 emissions up to a point, where the air exchange is significantly impeded. The IPCC methodology calculates N 2 0 emissions from manure on the basis of total N content (that is, on the basis of volume) and climate region only. Possibly, estimates of N 2 0 emissions from slurry stores could be improved by considering surface area, ammonium content and water balance as input variables. Emissions from solid manure heaps should consider surface area and the potential for composting, as reflected in bulk density and moisture content. (au)

  9. Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Knoxville, TN

    2002-11-05

    A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

  10. Changes in the microbiological quality of mangrove oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) during different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanhini, Maike Taís Maziero; Montanhini Neto, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of temperature and period of postharvest storage on the microbiological quality and shelf life of raw mangrove oysters, Crassostrea brasiliana. A total of 150 dozen oysters were collected directly from the points of extraction or cultivation in southern Brazil, and in the laboratory, they were stored raw at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C for 1, 4, 8, 11, and 15 days. On each of these days, the oysters were subjected to microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophilic count, total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella. None of the tested samples under any storage condition showed contamination levels above those allowed by Brazilian legislation for E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella, and there was no change (P > 0.05) in the counts of these microorganisms due to the temperature and/or period of oyster storage. Counts of enterococci and total coliforms showed a tendency to increase (P mangrove oysters remain in safe microbiological conditions for consumption up to 8 days after harvesting, regardless of temperature, and their shelf life may be extended to 15 days if they are stored at temperatures not exceeding 15°C.

  11. Effects of storage conditions of Moringa oleifera seeds on its performance in coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayon, S; Noor, M J Megat Mohd; Asma, M; Ghani, L A Abdul; Thamer, A M; Azni, I; Ahmad, J; Khor, B C; Suleyman, A M

    2006-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose seeds have coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. In this study the coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in different storage conditions were studied. The Moringa oleifera seeds were stored at different conditions and durations; open container and closed container at room temperature (28 degrees C) and refrigerator (3 degrees C) for durations of 1, 3 and 5 months. Comparison between turbidity removal efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature revealed that there was no significant difference between them. The Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature for one month showed higher turbidity removal efficiency, compared to those kept for 3 and 5 months, at both containers. The coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found to be dependent on initial turbidity of water samples. Highest turbidity removals were obtained for water with very high initial turbidity. In summary coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found independent of storage temperature and container, however coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera decreased as storage duration increased. In addition, Moringa oleifera can be used as a potential coagulant especially for very high turbidity water.

  12. Water loss in table grapes: model development and validation under dynamic storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericsem PEREIRA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Water loss is a critical problem affecting the quality of table grapes. Temperature and relative humidity (RH are essential in this process. Although mathematical modelling can be applied to measure constant temperature and RH impacts, it is proved that variations in storage conditions are normally encountered in the cold chain. This study proposed a methodology to develop a weight loss model for table grapes and validate its predictions in non-constant conditions of a domestic refrigerator. Grapes were maintained under controlled conditions and the weight loss was measured to calibrate the model. The model described the water loss process adequately and the validation tests confirmed its predictive ability. Delayed cooling tests showed that estimated transpiration rates in subsequent continuous temperature treatment was not significantly influenced by prior exposure conditions, suggesting that this model may be useful to estimate the weight loss consequences of interruptions in the cold chain.

  13. A case study of remaining storage life prediction using stochastic filtering with the influence of condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoqiang; Hu, Changhua; Wang, Wenbin; Zhou, Zhijie; Si, Xiaosheng

    2014-01-01

    Some systems may spend most of their time in storage, but once needed, must be fully functional. Slow degradation occurs when the system is in storage, so to ensure the functionality of these systems, condition monitoring is usually conducted periodically to check the condition of the system. However, taking the condition monitoring data may require putting the system under real testing situation which may accelerate the degradation, and therefore, shorten the storage life of the system. This paper presents a case study of condition-based remaining storage life prediction for gyros in the inertial navigation system on the basis of the condition monitoring data and the influence of the condition monitoring data taking process. A stochastic-filtering-based degradation model is developed to incorporate both into the prediction of the remaining storage life distribution. This makes the predicted remaining storage life depend on not only the condition monitoring data but also the testing process of taking the condition monitoring data, which the existing prognostic techniques and algorithms did not consider. The presented model is fitted to the real condition monitoring data of gyros testing using the maximum likelihood estimation method for parameter estimation. Comparisons are made with the model without considering the process of taking the condition monitoring data, and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the newly proposed model

  14. Shelf life of donkey milk subjected to different treatment and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Morbarigazzi, Michele; Federici, Simone; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment conditions on microbiological indicators of donkey milk hygiene and their evolution during shelf life at 4 and 12°C from 3 to 30d, simulating a farm-scale pasteurization and packing system. Four treatment conditions were tested: no treatment (raw milk), pasteurization (65°C × 30 min), high-pressure processing (HPP), and pasteurization plus HPP. The microbiological quality of the raw donkey milk investigated was not optimal; our results highlight the importance of raw milk management with the need for animal hygiene management and good dairy farming practices on donkey farms to improve handling procedures. The raw milk treated with HPP alone showed visible alterations with flocks, making the milk unfit for sale. The microbiological risk posed by consumption of raw donkey milk was significantly reduced by heat treatment but farm-scale packing systems cannot guarantee an extended shelf life. In contrast, the pasteurization plus HPP treatment was the most effective method to maintain microbiological milk quality. Microflora growth had little effect on pH in donkey milk: pH values were significantly different only between raw milk and pasteurized and pasteurized plus HPP milk stored at 12°C for 3d. Alkaline phosphatase activity and furosine could be used as indicators of proper pasteurization and thermal processing in donkey milk. Moreover, the presence and growth of Bacillus cereus in the case of thermal abuse hamper the wide-scale marketing of donkey milk due to the potential consequences for sensitive consumers and therefore further tests with time/temperature/high-pressure protocols associated with B. cereus are needed. Finally, our study shows that an HPP treatment of pasteurized milk after packing extends the shelf life of donkey milk and assures its microbial criteria up to 30d if properly stored at 4°C until opening; therefore, combined heat treatment and storage strategies are

  15. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, William; Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-10-07

    Because there is substantial biologic intraindividual variation in albumin excretion, randomized trials of albuminuria-reducing therapies may need multiple urine samples to estimate daily urinary albumin excretion. Mailing spot urine samples could offer a convenient and cost-effective method to collect multiple samples, but urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio stability in samples stored at ambient temperatures for several days is unknown. Patients with kidney disease provided fresh urine samples in two tubes (with and without boric acid preservative). Reference aliquots from each participant were analyzed immediately, whereas remaining aliquots were subject to different handling/storage conditions before analysis, including delayed processing for up to 7 days at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 18°C, and 30°C), multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and long-term frozen storage at -80°C, -40°C, and -20°C. We calculated the mean percentage change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for each condition, and we considered samples stable if the 95% confidence interval was within a ±5% threshold. Ninety-three patients provided samples with detectable albuminuria in the reference aliquot. Median (interquartile range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 87 (20-499) mg/g. The inclusion of preservative had minimal effect on fresh urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio measurements but reduced the changes in albumin and creatinine in samples subject to processing delay and storage conditions. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was stable for 7 days in samples containing preservative at 4°C and 18°C and 2 days when stored at 30°C. It was also stable in samples with preservative after three freeze-thaw cycles and in frozen storage for 6 months at -80°C or -40°C but not at -20°C. Mailed urine samples collected with preservative and received within 7 days if ambient temperature is ≤18°C, or within 2 days if the temperature is higher but does not exceed 30°C, are

  16. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Evan; Wen, Shaoyi; Shi, Li; Silva, Alexandre K. da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an automotive thermal storage air conditioning system model. • The thermal storage unit utilizes phase change materials. • We use semi-analytic solution to the coupled phase change and forced convection. • We model the airside heat exchange using the NTU method. • The system model can incorporate dynamic inputs, e.g. variable inlet airflow. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system’s dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle’s cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle’s cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid–air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semi-analytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid–air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system

  17. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Because there is substantial biologic intraindividual variation in albumin excretion, randomized trials of albuminuria-reducing therapies may need multiple urine samples to estimate daily urinary albumin excretion. Mailing spot urine samples could offer a convenient and cost-effective method to collect multiple samples, but urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio stability in samples stored at ambient temperatures for several days is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Patients with kidney disease provided fresh urine samples in two tubes (with and without boric acid preservative). Reference aliquots from each participant were analyzed immediately, whereas remaining aliquots were subject to different handling/storage conditions before analysis, including delayed processing for up to 7 days at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 18°C, and 30°C), multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and long–term frozen storage at −80°C, −40°C, and −20°C. We calculated the mean percentage change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for each condition, and we considered samples stable if the 95% confidence interval was within a ±5% threshold. Results Ninety-three patients provided samples with detectable albuminuria in the reference aliquot. Median (interquartile range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 87 (20–499) mg/g. The inclusion of preservative had minimal effect on fresh urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio measurements but reduced the changes in albumin and creatinine in samples subject to processing delay and storage conditions. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was stable for 7 days in samples containing preservative at 4°C and 18°C and 2 days when stored at 30°C. It was also stable in samples with preservative after three freeze-thaw cycles and in frozen storage for 6 months at −80°C or −40°C but not at −20°C. Conclusions Mailed urine samples collected with preservative and received within 7 days if

  18. Methodologies for Improving Flight Project Information Capture, Storage, and Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equils, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the drawbacks and risks of the current documentation paradigm, how Document QuickStart improves on that process and ultimately how this stream-lined approach will reduce risk and costs to the next generation of Flight Projects at JPL

  19. Conditioning of spent fuel for interim and final storage in the pilot conditioning plant (PKA) at Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahr, H.; Willax, H.O.; Spilker, H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, due to the change of the nuclear law in Germany, the concept of direct final disposal for spent fuel was developed as an equivalent alternative to the waste management with reprocessing. Since 1979, tests for the direct final disposal of spent fuel have been conducted in Germany. In 1985, the State and the utilities came to an agreement to develop this concept of waste management to technical maturity. Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service (GNS) was commissioned by the utilities with the following tasks: to develop and test components with regard to conditioning technology, to construct and operate the pilot conditioning plant (PKA), and to develop casks suitable for final disposal. Since 1990, the construction of the PKA has taken place at the Brennelementlager Gorleben site. The PKA has been designed as a multipurpose facility and can thus fulfil various tasks within the framework of the conditioning and management of spent fuel assemblies and radioactive waste. The pilot character of the plant allows for development and testing in the field of spent fuel assembly conditioning. The objectives of the PKA may be summarized as follows: to condition spent fuel assemblies, to reload spent fuel assemblies and waste packages, to condition radioactive waste, and to do maintenance work on transport and storage casks as well as on waste packages. Currently, the buildings of the PKA are constructed and the technical facilities are installed. The plant will be ready for service in the middle of 1999. It is the first plant of its kind in the world. (author)

  20. Precision Measurement and Improvement of e+, e- Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.; Cai, Y.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F-J.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Turner, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.

    2006-01-01

    Through horizontal and vertical excitations, we have been able to make a precision measurement of linear geometric optics parameters with a Model-Independent Analysis (MIA). We have also been able to build up a computer model that matches the real accelerator in linear geometric optics with an SVD-enhanced Least-square fitting process. Recently, with the addition of longitudinal excitation, we are able to build up a computer virtual machine that matches the real accelerators in linear optics including dispersion without additional fitting variables. With this optics-matched virtual machine, we are able to find solutions that make changes of selected normal and skew quadrupoles for machine optics improvement. It has made major contributions to improve PEP-II optics and luminosity. Examples from application to PEP-II machines will be presented

  1. Antioxidant activity of membrane-fractionated coffee extracts in dependence of the storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, D; Peshev, D; Peev, G; Peeva, L

    2016-01-01

    Present paper aims at one of the important aspects of the application of products with antioxidant activity: namely the preservation and change of their properties during the storage in different conditions, as well as their reliable characterisation. The tests of antioxidant properties were conducted with membrane-separated coffee extracts, isolated using a “Microdyn Nadir NP030P” type of commercial nanofiltration membrane (30% retention of NaCl; MWCO∼400). Prepared coffee permeates and retentates were stored 0÷10 days in cool/warm conditions, with/without air access and at different illumination conditions. The kinetics of content changes was evaluated according to Folin-Ciocalteu method of total phenolic/reducing content determination. (paper)

  2. Using data storage tags to link otolith macrostructure in Baltic cod Gadus morhua with environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Nielsen, Birgitte; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    of a strontium chloride solution. Based on environmental conditions experienced, fish were classified into different behavioural types: non-reproducing 'non-spawner', and 'spawner' undertaking spawning migrations. Otolith opacity, an indicator of otolith and fish somatic growth and condition, was examined...... in relation to these environmental drivers. Temperature was the only environmental variable with a significant effect, overlaying a strong size-related effect. The temperature effect was not uniform across behavioural types and spawning periods. Opacity showed a negative correlation with temperature......We examined otolith opacity of Baltic cod in relation to environmental conditions in order to evaluate the formation mechanisms of seasonal patterns used in age determination. Adult fish were tagged with data storage tags (DSTs) and a permanent mark was induced in the otoliths by injection...

  3. Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Tetrahydrofuran and Tetra-N-Butylammonium Bromide Hydrates Under Favorable Thermodynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Weissman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of employing binary hydrates as a medium for H2 storage. Two reagents, tetrahydrofuran (THF and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB, which had been reported previously to have potential to form binary hydrates with H2 under favorable conditions (i.e., low pressures and high temperatures, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. A scale-up facility was employed to quantify the hydrogen storage capacity of THF binary hydrate. Gas chromatography (GC and pressure drop analyses indicated that the weight percentages of H2 in hydrate were less than 0.1%. The major conclusions of this investigation were: (1 H2 can be stored in binary hydrates at relatively modest pressures and temperatures which are probably feasible for transportation applications; and (2 the storage capacity of H2 in binary hydrate formed from aqueous solutions of THF over a concentration range extending from 2.78 to 8.34 mol % and at temperatures above 263 K and pressures below 11 MPa was <0.1 wt %.

  4. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychto, Leszek; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 Ωcm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  5. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychto, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.bychto@tu.koszalin.pl; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia, E-mail: eumat@upvnet.upv.e [Technical University of Valencia, Nanophotonics Technology Center (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 {Omega}cm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  6. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2008-12-01

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 Ωcm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  7. Establishing conditions for the storage and elution of rabies virus RNA using FTA® cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAKAI, Takeo; ISHII, Ayako; SEGAWA, Takao; TAKAGI, Yukihiko; KOBAYASHI, Yuki; ITOU, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    The Flinders Technology Associates filter paper cards (FTA® cards) can be used to store nucleic acid from various samples and are easily portable. However, RNA is physicochemically unstable compared with DNA, and appropriate methods have not been established for storage and extraction of RNA from FTA® cards. The present study investigated the optimum conditions for storage and elution of viral RNA (vRNA) using rabies virus (RABV) applied to FTA® cards. When TE buffer was used, the elution rates of vRNA increased with the length of the elution time. When the cards were stored at −80°C or −20°C, vRNA was stable over 3 months. Degradation of vRNAs occurred following storage at 4°C and room temperature, suggesting that RNA should be extracted from cards as soon as possible if no freezer is available. When we tried to amplify vRNA from RABV-infected animal brains applied to FTA® cards and stored at −80°C for 6 months, we did not detect any amplified products with the primer set for 964 bp of RABV N gene. However, we were able to detect amplified products by increasing the elution time of vRNA from FTA® cards from 30 min to 24 hr or by changing the primer sets to amplify 290 bp of N gene. Thus, we recommend extending the elution time for damaged or low concentration samples in FTA® cards. PMID:25648208

  8. Ventilation and air conditioning system in waste treatment and storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hirotsugu; Sugawara, Kazushige.

    1987-01-01

    So far, the measures concerning the facilities for treating and storing radioactive wastes in nuclear fuel cycle in Japan were in the state which cannot be said to be sufficient. In order to cope with this situation, electric power companies constructed and operated radioactive waste concentration and volume reduction facilities, solid waste storing facilities for drums, high level solid waste storing facilities, spent fuel cask preserving facilities and so on successively in the premises of nuclear power stations, and for the wastes expected in future, the research and the construction plan of the facilities for treating and storing low, medium and high level wastes have been advanced. The ventilation and air conditioning system for these facilities is the important auxiliary system which has the mission of maintaining safe and pleasant environment in the facilities and lowering as far as possible the release of radioactive substances to outside. The outline of waste treatment and storage facilities is explained. The design condition, ventilation and air conditioning method, the features of respective waste treatment and storage facilities, and the problems for the future are described. Hereafter, mechanical ventilation system continues to be the main system, and filters become waste, while the exchange of filters is accompanied by the radiation exposure of workers. (Kako, I.)

  9. Changes in Isotopic Composition of Bottled Natural Waters Due to Different Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferjan, T. [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Brencic, M. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, and Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vreca, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    To establish the influence of environmental conditions on processes affecting the stable isotopic composition of bottled water during storage, various brands of bottled water were exposed for 2 years in different conditions. Selected low mineralized natural mineral water of one particular brand stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was placed at three different locations with different physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, exposure to sunlight). For comparison, bottles of three other low mineralized natural mineral water brands, each from a different aquifer source, were placed in parallel at one of the locations. Each location was characterized by temperature, relative humidity and air pressure measurements. pH, conductivity and stable isotopic composition of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) were measured in regular intervals for nearly two years. Preliminary results from each location show noticeable changes in isotopic composition as well as the physical parameters of water with time of storage.

  10. Influence of pre-cooking protein paste gelation conditions and post-cooking gel storage conditions on gel texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Ilgin; Matak, Kristen E

    2016-01-15

    Gelation conditions affect the setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore the impact of widely applied pre-cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post-cooking period on the texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre-cooking gelation strategies (no setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were analyzed either directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. No-set gels were harder, gummier and chewier (P cooking. Gel-setting conditions had a greater (P cooking stored gels in texture and color, depending on the pre-cooking gelation strategy. Pre-cooking gelation conditions will affect final protein gel texture and color, with gel stability benefiting from a gel-setting period. However, post-cooking storage may have a greater impact on final gels, with textural attributes becoming more consistent between all samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Conditioning of the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring without baking in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, C.K., E-mail: ckchan@nsrrc.org.tw; Chang, C.C.; Shueh, C.; Yang, I.C.; Wu, L.H.; Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, C.M.; Huang, Y.T.; Chuang, J.Y.; Cheng, Y.T.; Hsiao, Y.M.; Sheng, Albert

    2017-04-11

    To shorten the machine downtime, a maintenance procedure without baking in situ has been developed and applied to maintain and to upgrade the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring. The data of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) reveal no obvious discrepancy between baking and not baking the vacuum system in situ. A beam-conditioning dose of extent only 11.8 A h is required to recover quickly the dynamic pressure of an unbaked vacuum system to its pre-intervention value according to the TPS maintenance experience.

  12. Conditioning of the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring without baking in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. K.; Chang, C. C.; Shueh, C.; Yang, I. C.; Wu, L. H.; Chen, B. Y.; Cheng, C. M.; Huang, Y. T.; Chuang, J. Y.; Cheng, Y. T.; Hsiao, Y. M.; Sheng, Albert

    2017-04-01

    To shorten the machine downtime, a maintenance procedure without baking in situ has been developed and applied to maintain and to upgrade the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring. The data of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) reveal no obvious discrepancy between baking and not baking the vacuum system in situ. A beam-conditioning dose of extent only 11.8 A h is required to recover quickly the dynamic pressure of an unbaked vacuum system to its pre-intervention value according to the TPS maintenance experience.

  13. Conditioning of the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring without baking in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Chang, C.C.; Shueh, C.; Yang, I.C.; Wu, L.H.; Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, C.M.; Huang, Y.T.; Chuang, J.Y.; Cheng, Y.T.; Hsiao, Y.M.; Sheng, Albert

    2017-01-01

    To shorten the machine downtime, a maintenance procedure without baking in situ has been developed and applied to maintain and to upgrade the vacuum system of the TPS storage ring. The data of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) reveal no obvious discrepancy between baking and not baking the vacuum system in situ. A beam-conditioning dose of extent only 11.8 A h is required to recover quickly the dynamic pressure of an unbaked vacuum system to its pre-intervention value according to the TPS maintenance experience.

  14. Development of volatile compounds during storage of different skin care products at various conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, A. F.; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe

    a storage experiment on three cleansing milks stored between 14 and 84 days, under different conditions. The samples were exposed to heat (20°C, 40°C and 50°C), light (samples at 20°C) and iron (samples at 40°C). Samples were analysed for their development of volatile compounds by dynamic headspace gas...... chromatography-mass spectrometry and peroxide value, and compared to samples stored at 2°C in the dark. In addition, sensory analyses were carried out to assess the off-odours developed in the samples....

  15. The effects of rapid chilling and storage conditions on the quality of Brigitta Blue cultivar highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozos Karolina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled atmosphere storage allows for the long-term and short-term storage of fruit without a significant decrease in quality, resulting in a longer shelflife of fresh fruit. The Department of Horticulture at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin conducted research on the effects of post-harvest precooling (3-4°C within two hours and storage conditions (conventional cold room and controlled atmosphere storage on fruit firmness, chemical composition, colour and weight loss.

  16. Improving aircraft accident forecasting for an integrated plutonium storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, J.C.; Kiffe, J.; McNerney, M.T.; Turen, T.A.

    1998-06-01

    Aircraft accidents pose a quantifiable threat to facilities used to store and process surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently published its first aircraft accident analysis guidelines: Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities. This document establishes a hierarchy of procedures for estimating the small annual frequency for aircraft accidents that impact Pantex facilities and the even smaller frequency of hazardous material released to the environment. The standard establishes a screening threshold of 10 -6 impacts per year; if the initial estimate of impact frequency for a facility is below this level, no further analysis is required. The Pantex Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) calculates the aircraft impact frequency to be above this screening level. The DOE Standard encourages more detailed analyses in such cases. This report presents three refinements, namely, removing retired small military aircraft from the accident rate database, correcting the conversion factor from military accident rates (accidents per 100,000 hours) to the rates used in the DOE model (accidents per flight phase), and adjusting the conditional probability of impact for general aviation to more accurately reflect pilot training and local conditions. This report documents a halving of the predicted frequency of an aircraft impact at Pantex and points toward further reductions

  17. Effects of dairy manure storage conditions on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 and listeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy manure is regularly applied to crop fields as a solid or liquid to improve the soil nutrient status. However, pathogens may survive during manure storage and enter the environment during application. In this study, three storage practices were evaluated to understand the survival patterns of E...

  18. Monitoring Shelf Life of Pasteurized Whole Milk Under Refrigerated Storage Conditions: Predictive Models for Quality Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaina, Mohamed; Govindan, Byju N; Rasco, Barbara; Coffey, Todd; Sablani, Shyam S

    2018-02-01

    The shelf life of pasteurized milk is generally determined through microbiological analysis. The objective of this study was to correlate microbial quality parameters then to design predictive models for shelf life of pasteurized milk. We analyzed pasteurized milk (3.9% fat) for aerobic plate counts (APCs), psychrotrophic bacteria counts (PBCs), and Bacillus spp. counts at 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, and 19 (±1 °C) to the end of storage time. We also monitored titratable acidity, pH, and, lipase, and protease activity and correlated this with APC, which is the principal index defining shelf life. Results indicate that the shelf life of pasteurized milk was 24, 36, and 72 h at 19, 15, and 13 °C respectively, as determined by APC and acidity indicators. However, milk stored at lower temperatures of 5, 7, and 10 °C had longer shelf life of 30, 24, and 12 d, respectively. A sharp increase in titratable acidity, while decrease pH were observed when APCs reached 5.0 log 10 CFU/mL at all storage temperatures. Lipase and protease activities increased with storage temperature. At 5 and 7 °C, however, protease activity was very low. Therefore, we eliminated this parameter from our quality parameters as a potential spoilage indicator. Findings of this research are useful for monitoring the quality of commercial pasteurized milk, particularly in locations where environmental conditions make longer storage difficult. The study also provides valuable information for development of colorimetric shelf life indicators. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Research and implementation on improving I/O performance of streaming media storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-wu; Wang, Yu-de; Jiang, Guo-song

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we study the special requirements of a special storage system: streaming media server, and propose a solution to improve I/O performance of RAID storage system. The solution is suitable for streaming media applications. A streaming media storage subsystem includes the I/O interfaces, RAID arrays, I/O scheduling and device drivers. The solution is implemented on the top of the storage subsystem I/O Interface. Storage subsystem is the performance bottlenecks of a streaming media system, and I/O interface directly affect the performance of the storage subsystem. According to theoretical analysis, 64 KB block-size is most appropriate for streaming media applications. We carry out experiment in detail, and verified that the proper block-size really is 64KB. It is in accordance with our analysis. The experiment results also show that by using DMA controller, efficient memory management technology and mailbox interface design mechanism, streaming media storage system achieves a high-speed data throughput.

  20. Improved Mg-based alloys for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, K.; Ming, L.; Stetson, N.T.; Evans, J. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The overall objective of this on-going work is to develop low temperature alloys capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen, allowing greater than for 2 wt.% at the system level which is required by most applications. Surface modification of Mg can be used to improve its H-sorption kinetics. The authors show here that the same Mg-transition metal-based multi-component alloy when prepared by melt-spinning results in a more homogeneous materials with a higher plateau pressure as compared to preparing the material by mechanical grinding. They have also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg{sub 50}Al{sub 45}Zn{sub 5} results in a sample having a higher plateau pressure.

  1. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods, Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were determined for the improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods (IMF). Microbial challenge studies showed that protection against molds and Staphylococcus aureus could be achieved by a combination of antimicrobial agents, humectants and food acids. Potassium sorbate and propylene glycol gave the best results. It was also confirmed that the maximum in heat resistance shown by vegetative pathogens at intermediate water activities also occurred in a solid food. Glycols and sorbitol both achieve browning inhibition because of their action as a medium for reaction and effect on viscosity of the adsorbed phase. Chemical availability results showed rapid lysine loss before visual discoloration occurred. This is being confirmed with a biological test using Tetrahymena pyriformis W. Accelerated temperature tests show that effectiveness of food antioxidants against rancidity development can be predicted; however, the protection factor changes with temperature. BHA was found to be the best antioxidant for iron catalyzed oxidation.

  2. Improved synthesis and hydrogen storage of a microporous metal-organic framework material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shaojuan; Liu Shaobing; Zhao Qiang; Li Jinping

    2009-01-01

    A microporous metal-organic framework MOF-5 [Zn 4 O(BDC) 3 , BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic] was synthesized with and without H 2 O 2 by improved methods based on the previous studies. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption, and their hydrogen storage capacities were measured. The synthesis experiments showed that H 2 O 2 favored the growth of high quality sample, large pore volume and high specific surface area. The measurements of hydrogen storage indicated that the sample with higher specific surface area and large pore volume showed better hydrogen storage behavior than other samples. It was suggested that specific surface area and pore volume influenced the capacity of hydrogen storage for MOF-5 material.

  3. Test on Similarity between the Flooded and Optimum Moderation Conditions of the Spent Fuel Storage Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gil Soo; Jang, Chang Sun; Woo, Sweng Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    In the criticality safety analysis, uncertainty and bias should be considered. The final multiplication factor including uncertainty and bias in addition to calculated k-eff should be below the administrative limit. The administrative limit of spent fuel pool is 0.95 with flooded condition (filled with unborated water), and 0.98 with optimum moderation condition (filled with foggy unborated water, usually occurs near 0.1g/cc water density) for new fuel storage. The bias is determined by comparing the calculation results of the critical experiments ever performed. It is important to choose 'good' experiments which have 'similar' condition with application. To obtain realistic bias, many experiments with similar conditions should be chosen and considered. In previous approach, same critical experiment set are used to determine bias of the flooded and optimum moderation conditions. It would be correct way if two conditions are similar. The similarity test on this paper was performed by TSUNAMI code included in SCALE5.1 package. TSUNAMI code produces sensitivity data for each nuclear reaction by using first order perturbation theory. TSUNAMI code performs forward and adjoint multigroup Monte Carlo calculation. Sensitivity data are obtained by forward and adjoint results. TSUNAMI also produces uncertainty data with sensitivity data and cross section covariance data. In this paper, similarity is determined by comparing energy of average lethargy of fission (EALF), uncertainty data, sensitivity data, and correlation coefficient which is also output of the TSUNAMI code.

  4. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Transport and Storage Conditions on Gene Expression in Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Wyrich, Ralf; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara; Pazzagli, Mario; Gelmini, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Inappropriate handling of blood samples might induce or repress gene expression and/or lead to RNA degradation affecting downstream analysis. In particular, sample transport is a critical step for biobanking or multicenter studies because of uncontrolled variables (i.e., unstable temperature). We report the results of a pilot study implemented within the EC funded SPIDIA project, aimed to investigate the role of transport and storage of blood samples containing and not containing an RNA stabilizer. Blood was collected from a single donor both in EDTA and in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. Half of the samples were sent to a second laboratory both at room temperature and at 4°C, whereas the remaining samples were stored at room temperature and at 4°C. Gene expression of selected genes (c-FOS, IL-1β, IL-8, and GAPDH) known to be induced or repressed by ex vivo blood handling and of blood-mRNA quality biomarkers identified and validated within the SPIDIA project, which allow for monitoring changes in unstabilized blood samples after collection and during transport and storage, were analyzed by RT-qPCR. If the shipment of blood in tubes not containing RNA stabilizer is not performed under a stable condition, gene profile studies can be affected by the effects of transport. Moreover, also controlled temperature shipment (4°C) can influence the expression of specific genes if blood is collected in tubes not containing a stabilizer. The use of dedicated biomarkers or time course experiments should be performed in order to verify potential bias on gene expression analysis due to sample shipment and storage conditions. Alternatively, the use of RNA stabilizer containing tubes can represent a reliable option to avoid ex vivo RNA changes.

  6. Improved Hybrid Modeling of Spent Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibber, Karl van [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-03-21

    This work developed a new computational method for improving the ability to calculate the neutron flux in deep-penetration radiation shielding problems that contain areas with strong streaming. The “gold standard” method for radiation transport is Monte Carlo (MC) as it samples the physics exactly and requires few approximations. Historically, however, MC was not useful for shielding problems because of the computational challenge of following particles through dense shields. Instead, deterministic methods, which are superior in term of computational effort for these problems types but are not as accurate, were used. Hybrid methods, which use deterministic solutions to improve MC calculations through a process called variance reduction, can make it tractable from a computational time and resource use perspective to use MC for deep-penetration shielding. Perhaps the most widespread and accessible of these methods are the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) and Forward-Weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS) methods. For problems containing strong anisotropies, such as power plants with pipes through walls, spent fuel cask arrays, active interrogation, and locations with small air gaps or plates embedded in water or concrete, hybrid methods are still insufficiently accurate. In this work, a new method for generating variance reduction parameters for strongly anisotropic, deep penetration radiation shielding studies was developed. This method generates an alternate form of the adjoint scalar flux quantity, ΦΩ, which is used by both CADIS and FW-CADIS to generate variance reduction parameters for local and global response functions, respectively. The new method, called CADIS-Ω, was implemented in the Denovo/ADVANTG software. Results indicate that the flux generated by CADIS-Ω incorporates localized angular anisotropies in the flux more effectively than standard methods. CADIS-Ω outperformed CADIS in several test problems. This initial work

  7. Kinetics of ascorbic acid degradation in un-pasteurized Iranian lemon juice during regular storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, A; Niakousari, M

    2008-05-15

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life stability of un-pasteurized lemon juice filled in clear or dark green glass bottles. Presence of light, time and temperature affect the ascorbic acid retention in citrus juices. Bottles were stored at room temperature (27 +/- 3 degrees C) and in the refrigerator (3 +/- 1 degrees C). Total soluble solids, total titrable acidity and pH value were measured every three weeks and analysis was carried out on ascorbic acid content by means of titration method in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The study was carried out for 12 weeks after which slight changes in color, taste and apparent texture in some samples were observed and ascorbic acid content reduced by 50%. Soluble solids content, pH value and total acidity were 5.5 degrees Brix, 2.73 and 5 g/100 mL, respectively which appeared not to be significantly influenced by storage time or conditions. Ascorbic acid content initially at 38.50 mg/100 mL was sharply reduced to about 22 mg/100 mL within the first three weeks of storage. The final ascorbic acid content of all samples was about 15 mg/100 mL. The deteriorative reaction of ascorbic acid in the juice at all conditions followed a first-order kinetic model with activation energy of 137 cal mol(-1).

  8. Optimization of conditions for long-term prefreezing storage of brown bear sperm before cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Urueña, E; Alvarez, M; Gomes-Alves, S; Anel-López, L; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Manrique, P; Borragan, S; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2015-10-15

    Brown bear ejaculates are usually collected in field conditions and may need to be shipped to a laboratory for the application of reproductive biotechnologies before cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to extend the prefreezing step to 48 hours (1 hour vs. long-term storage [LS] to 24 and 48 hours) to enable the sample to be transported. The effects of storage temperature (experiment 1), glycerol concentration (experiment 2), and dilution rate (experiment 3) on sperm were evaluated. Electroejaculates from brown bears were stored under different experimental conditions and cryopreserved. The sperm motility and viability, apoptotic status, and acrosomal status of sperm were assessed before freezing (prefreezing), after thawing, and after 2-hour incubation at 37 °C (thermal stress test). In all experiments, one control sample was frozen using a standard protocol (control). In experiment 1, three temperatures during LS with 6% glycerol were tested: 5 °C (T5), 15 °C (T15), and room temperature (RT). The LS-T5 sample yielded the highest postthawing results for viability (42.4%), progressive motility (15.6%), and intact acrosome (83.1%) after 24 hours in comparison with the other temperatures (P bear electroejaculates are at 5 °C, at a concentration of 100 × 10(6) sperm/mL, and with 6% glycerol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on the storage of domestic onions under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyoubi, Zouhair; Sharabi, N.E.

    1993-02-01

    Local variety (red and white onions) were stored under natural conditions using gamma radiation. 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy of doses were used in three replicates with the control. Onions were irradiated after fifteen days of harvesting. Weight reduction, internal and external sprout were recorded monthly during the storage which lasted for eight months. The results proved a positive effect of radiation in all the doses used in sprout inhibition and accepted effect statistically in limiting the loss of weight. Decrease in the occurrence and intensity of disease and insect infection have been noticed in the treatments in comparison with the control. Therefore, doses of 60 and 90 Gy have been considered to be the best in storing onions under the conditions of the experiments. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  10. Study of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, A.P.; Lacroix, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study is performed of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions. This unit is employed to maintain the temperature inside the refrigerated compartment of a truck below 265 K. The system consists of parallel plates filled with a phase change material (PCM) that absorbs heat from the flow of warm moist air. A mathematical model for the system is first presented and, next, validated with numerical and experimental data. It is then exploited to assess the effects of design parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the system. The recommended thickness and distance separating the PCM plates are found to be 50x10 -3 and 30x10 -3 m, respectively. The results indicate that the performance of the unit is enhanced by turbulent air flow in spite of the increased pressure loss and accentuated frost growth. The unit also performs well even when the surrounding relative humidity is 100%

  11. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  12. Improving working conditions and increasing profits in forestry.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson K; Strehlke B

    1996-01-01

    Briefly looks at the links between work organization, productivity and working conditions. Discusses the advantages which can be gained by using appropriate tools and techniques and improving working conditions and safety. Based on 24 case studies which cover a broad range of forestry activities.

  13. Improving waveform inversion using modified interferometric imaging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuebao; Liu, Hong; Shi, Ying; Wang, Weihong; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Similar to the reverse-time migration, full waveform inversion in the time domain is a memory-intensive processing method. The computational storage size for waveform inversion mainly depends on the model size and time recording length. In general, 3D and 4D data volumes need to be saved for 2D and 3D waveform inversion gradient calculations, respectively. Even the boundary region wavefield-saving strategy creates a huge storage demand. Using the last two slices of the wavefield to reconstruct wavefields at other moments through the random boundary, avoids the need to store a large number of wavefields; however, traditional random boundary method is less effective at low frequencies. In this study, we follow a new random boundary designed to regenerate random velocity anomalies in the boundary region for each shot of each iteration. The results obtained using the random boundary condition in less illuminated areas are more seriously affected by random scattering than other areas due to the lack of coverage. In this paper, we have replaced direct correlation for computing the waveform inversion gradient by modified interferometric imaging, which enhances the continuity of the imaging path and reduces noise interference. The new imaging condition is a weighted average of extended imaging gathers can be directly used in the gradient computation. In this process, we have not changed the objective function, and the role of the imaging condition is similar to regularization. The window size for the modified interferometric imaging condition-based waveform inversion plays an important role in this process. The numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly enhances waveform inversion performance.

  14. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insha Kousar Kalem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%, T2 (0.50% and T3 (0.75% and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p < 0.05 effect on the lipid oxidative stability as the treated products exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 lower TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg values in comparison to control. A significant (p < 0.05 effect was also observed on the microbial stability as T. arjuna incorporated products showed significantly (p < 0.05 lower values for total plate count (log cfu/g, psychrophilic count (log cfu/g, yeast and mould count (log cfu/g and FFA (% oleic acid values. Significantly (p < 0.05 higher scores were observed for various sensory parameters of the products incorporated with T. arjuna during refrigerated storage. T. arjuna successfully improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product and may be commercially exploited as a novel preservative in muscle foods. Keywords: Terminalia arjuna, Chevon sausages, Natural preservative, Lipid oxidation, Storage quality

  15. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  16. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S P C; Surki, A A; de Vos, R C H; Kodde, J

    2012-11-01

    Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. methods: Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice.

  17. Changes in fungi and mycotoxins in pearl millet under controlled storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjevic, Zeljko; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Wilson, David M; Casper, Howard H

    2007-11-01

    Pearl millet is increasingly being grown as a premium-value grain for the recreational wildlife and poultry industries in the southern US. We conducted three experiments to assess grain mold development in storage conditions typically encountered in the region of production. Variables included production year, temperature, relative humidity, atmosphere, and grain moisture content. In the first experiment, grain was stored for 9 weeks at 20 or 25 degrees C and maintained at 86% or 91% relative humidity (r.h.). In the second experiment, grain was stored for 9 weeks at 20 or 25 degrees C in either air (aerobic) or N2 (anaerobic), and maintained at 100% r.h. In the third experiment, high-moisture grain was stored for 3 weeks at 20 or 25 degrees C and maintained at 100% r.h. Grain was sampled at weekly intervals and plated to determine changes in fungal frequency. Fungi isolated included Fusarium chlamydosporum (19% of grain), Curvularia spp. (14%), F. semitectum (16%), Alternaria spp. (9%), Aspergillus flavus (8%), "Helminthosporium"-type spp. (6%), and F. moniliforme sensu lato (3%). Year of grain production significantly affected isolation frequency of fungi. Isolation frequencies from low-moisture grain were rarely affected by temperature, relative humidity, or atmosphere treatments, but was affected by storage duration for some fungi. Changes in isolation of toxigenic fungi occurred in high-moisture grain. Isolation frequency of F. chlamydosporum increased in grain stored at 86% and 91% r.h. Incidence of A. flavus increased in high-moisture grain treatments, particularly at 25 degrees C. Incidence of deoxynivalenol was not affected by storage treatment. Low concentrations of nivalenol were detected in most grain incubated at 100% r.h. Zearalenone was detected only when grain moisture content was 20-22%. Aflatoxin contamination averaged 174 ng g(-1) over all treatments, and increased up to 798 ng g(-1) in high-moisture grain at stored at 25 degrees C.

  18. Establishing conditions for the storage and elution of rabies virus RNA using FTA(®) cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takeo; Ishii, Ayako; Segawa, Takao; Takagi, Yukihiko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Itou, Takuya

    2015-04-01

    The Flinders Technology Associates filter paper cards (FTA(®) cards) can be used to store nucleic acid from various samples and are easily portable. However, RNA is physicochemically unstable compared with DNA, and appropriate methods have not been established for storage and extraction of RNA from FTA(®) cards. The present study investigated the optimum conditions for storage and elution of viral RNA (vRNA) using rabies virus (RABV) applied to FTA(®) cards. When TE buffer was used, the elution rates of vRNA increased with the length of the elution time. When the cards were stored at -80 °C or -20 °C, vRNA was stable over 3 months. Degradation of vRNAs occurred following storage at 4 °C and room temperature, suggesting that RNA should be extracted from cards as soon as possible if no freezer is available. When we tried to amplify vRNA from RABV-infected animal brains applied to FTA(®) cards and stored at -80 °C for 6 months, we did not detect any amplified products with the primer set for 964 bp of RABV N gene. However, we were able to detect amplified products by increasing the elution time of vRNA from FTA(®) cards from 30 min to 24 hr or by changing the primer sets to amplify 290 bp of N gene. Thus, we recommend extending the elution time for damaged or low concentration samples in FTA(®) cards.

  19. SMES [Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage] systems applications to improve quality service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, P.; Gutierrez-Iglesias, J.L. [ASINEL (Spain); Bautista, A. [IBERDROLA (Spain); Rodriguez, J.M.; Urretavizcaya, E. [Red Electrica de Espana (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    This article presents the contribution of SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) systems to improvement quality of service, either as a mitigating element or as a power support for critical loads. It also describes these systems and its operation. Finally, a description is shown of the state of the art of this technology in Spain, as developed until now in the AMAS500 project. (Author)

  20. Improved thermal stability of gas-phase Mg nanoparticles for hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Palasantzas, G.; Kooi, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on improving the thermal stability of Mg nanoparticles (NPs) for use in hydrogen storage. Three ways are investigated that can achieve this goal. (i) Addition of Cu prevents void formation during NP production and reduces the fast evaporation/voiding of Mg during annealing. (ii)

  1. Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, GH

    2004-01-15

    Full Text Available of Food and Agriculture J Sci Food Agric 84:52?58 (online: 2003) DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.1609 Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions Gretel H van der Merwe,1asteriskmath... Lourens M du Plessis1 and John RN Taylor2 1CSIR Bio/Chemtek, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Abstract: Six quality indices, namely free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide...

  2. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (lyral) in patch test preparations under varied storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The common practice of preparing patch tests in advance has recently been called into question by researchers. It has been established that fragrance compounds are volatile and their testing efficacy may be affected by storage conditions and preparation. Allergens in fragrance mix I rapidly decrease in concentration after preapplication to test chambers. This study aimed to investigate the volatility of hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) in petrolatum when stored in test chambers and to explore the correlation between vapor pressure and allergen loss in petrolatum during preparation and storage. Standardized HICC in petrolatum was prepared and stored in IQ Chambers and Finn Chambers with covers at 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C, and concentration was analyzed at intervals for up to 9 days using gel permeation chromatography. Changes in HICC concentrations were not statistically significant at 8 hours at 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C. After 9 days, HICC concentrations were found to fall approximately 30% when stored at 35°C, 10% at 25°C, and less than 5% at 5°C. There was no significant difference between IQ and Finn chambers. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde concentrations are more stable in petrolatum than many other studied fragrance allergens, but HICC is still at risk for decreasing concentration when exposed to ambient air or heat for prolonged periods.

  3. UO{sub 2} oxidation under dry storage conditions: From data gaps to research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E. [CIEMAT, Andalucia (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Dry interim storage is becoming a major activity of today's fuel cycle. The potential contact between no grossly damaged fuel rods (i.e., rods containing tiny defects like pinhole leaks and hairline cracks) and an oxidizing atmosphere during the cask water removal might lead to unacceptable consequences. One way to prevent it is to determine the time to propagation of a defect at given conditions. This paper compiles and critically reviews the existing database concerning time at temperature profile of fuel rods containing tiny defects that are exposed to oxidizing atmospheres. This review has pointed out significant drawbacks and limitations that would hinder its reliable application to assess the potential for defect propagation of current LWR fuels to be loaded in dry storage casks. Those weaknesses come essentially from data scarcity and lack of tests representativity. Based on this study, three main areas of work are recommended to fill the existing knowledge gaps: sound characterization of fuel rod responses in the low burnup range (<30 GWd/tU), extension of the database to high burnups characteristic of current discharged LWR fuels (<60GWd/tU), assessment of availability (i.e., amount and nature) of oxidizing agents. The result of the work suggested would result in a more complete and extensive database that would strongly support the potential use of 'time at temperature' curves.

  4. Seasonal carbon storage and growth in Mediterranean tree seedlings under different water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Joffre, Richard

    2009-09-01

    In all Mediterranean-type ecosystems, evergreen and deciduous trees differing in wood anatomy, growth pattern and leaf habit coexist, suggesting distinct adaptative responses to environmental constraints. This study examined the effects of summer water stress on carbon (C) storage and growth in seedlings of three coexisting Mediterranean trees that differed in phenology and wood anatomy characteristics: Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp., Quercus faginea Lam. and Pinus halepensis L. Seedlings were subjected to two levels of watering during two consecutive summers and achieved a minimum of -0.5 and -2.5 MPa of predawn water potential in the control and water stress treatment, respectively. Both Quercus species concentrated their growth in the early growing season, demanding higher C in early spring but replenishing C-stores in autumn. These species allocated more biomass to roots, having larger belowground starch and lipid reserves. Quercus species differed in seasonal storage dynamics from P. halepensis. This species allocated most of its C to aboveground growth, which occurred gradually during the growing season, leading to fewer C-reserves. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations sharply declined in August in P. halepensis, probably because reserves support respiration demands as this species closed stomata earlier under water stress. Drought reduced growth of the three species, mainly in Q. faginea and P. halepensis, but not C-reserves, suggesting that growth under water stress conditions is not limited by C-availability.

  5. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  6. The regulatory approach for spent nuclear storage and conditioning facility: The Hanford example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, E.D.; Mooers, G.C. III; Daschke, K.D.; Driggers, S.A.; Timmins, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Hearings held before the House Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources in March 1994, requested that officials of federal agencies and other experts explore options for providing regulatory oversight of the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and operations. On January, 25, 1995, the DOE, supported by the White House Office of Environmental Quality and the Office of Management and Budget, formally initiated an Advisory Committee on External Regulation of DOE Nuclear Safety. In concert with this initiative and public opinion, the DOE Richland Operations Office has initiated the K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Project -- Regulatory Policy. The DOE has established a program to move the spent nuclear fuel presently stored in the K Basins to a new storage facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. New facilities will be designed and constructed for safe conditioning and interim storage of the fuel. In implementing this Policy, DOE endeavors to achieve in these new facilities ''nuclear safety equivalency'' to comparable US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facilities. The DOE has established this Policy to take a proactive approach to better align its facilities to the requirements of the NRC, anticipating the future possibility of external regulation. The Policy, supplemented by other DOE rules and directives, form the foundation of an enhanced regulatory, program that will be implemented through the DOE K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (the Project)

  7. Effects of processing methods and commercial storage conditions on the extra virgin olive oil quality indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiritsakis, A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of machinery groups, packing materials and light intensities was ascertained on indices of oxidative deterioration, peroxide value, and extinction coefficient K232 and K270 of extra virgin olive oil for one season of olive harvesting in an effort to simulate commercial storage conditions. It was revealed that during the storage of olive oil the peroxide value was significantly affected by the type of extraction machinery, packing material and light intensity. It is significant that oil exposed to diffused daylight and artificial light attained maximum PV in the second or third month of storage and de creased thereafter, while samples stored in the dark attained their maximum PV during the sixth month of storage. Oil samples extracted using the centrifugal type of machines and kept in glass containers in the dark had higher peroxide values than those extracted by the classic method. The rate of changes of the PV and the two indices K232 and K270 was also affected similarly by the type of machinery, packing material and light intensity.El efecto de la maquinaria, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz fue relacionado con los índices de deterioración oxidativa, índice de peróxidos (IP y coeficientes de extinción K232 y K270 del aceite de oliva virgen extra durante una campaña de cosecha de aceituna en un esfuerzo por simular las condiciones de almacenamiento comercial. Esto reveló que durante el almacenamiento del aceite de oliva el índice de peróxidos fue afectado significativamente por el tipo de maquinaria de extracción, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz. Es significativo que el aceite expuesto a la luz diaria difusa y a la artificial alcanzara el máximo IP en el segundo o tercer mes de almacenamiento, decreciendo a partir de este momento, mientras que las muestras almacenadas en oscuridad no alcanzaban su máximo IP hasta el sexto mes de conservación. Las muestras de aceite extraídas con centr

  8. Color Shade Nets Improve Vegetables Quality at Harvest and Maintain Quality During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The photoselective, light-dispersive shade nets can be used as an alternative to protect crops from adverse environmental conditions such as; excessive solar radiation, heat and drought stress, wind and hail, birds, flying pests, thus improving crop’s production, yield and quality. The physiological parameters discussed in the review include: vegetable growth parameters (leaf area, leaf chlorophyll, tissue structure, fruit ripening, physiological disorders, pest and disease incidence, fruit quality parameters (soluble solids content and titratable acidity, bioactive compounds (antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, carotenoid and flavonoid contents and aroma volatile compounds at harvest. Also, it is evident in the reviewed literature that light quality influences the biosynthesis, accumulation and retention of vegetable phytochemicals, as well as the decay development during storage. These new strategies to modulate light quality should be conveyed to vegetable producing farmers, thus allowing them to preserve the freshness and post-harvest quality of vegetables for an extended period of time, and to meet the consumers demand for vegetables with high nutritional value all year round. Research on light manipulation in horticultural systems is necessary for a sustainable and market-oriented open field and greenhouse vegetable production in the future.

  9. Development of salt hydrate eutectics as latent heat storage for air conditioning and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, Anastasia; Pinnau, Sebastian; Mischke, Matthias; Breitkopf, Cornelia; Ruck, Michael; Schmidt, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Inorganic salt hydrates. • Latent heat thermal energy storage. • Thermal behavior of melting and crystallization. • Cycling stability. • Nucleation. - Abstract: Sustainable air conditioning systems require heat reservoirs that operate between 4 and 20 °C. A systematic search for binary and ternary eutectics of inorganic salts and salt hydrates with melting temperatures in this temperature regime and with high enthalpies of fusion has been performed by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Promising results were obtained for the pseudo-ternary system Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, Mn(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O, and KNO 3 with the melting temperature range 18–21 °C and the enthalpy of fusion of about 110 kJ kg −1 . Suitable nucleating and thickening agents have been found and tested to prevent the mixture from supercooling and phase separation

  10. Storage of a lithium-ion secondary battery under micro-gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Yoshitsugu; Ooto, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Eguro, Takashi; Sakai, Shigeru; Yoshida, Teiji; Takahashi, Keiji; Uno, Masatoshi; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Tajima, Michio; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    'HAYABUSA' is a Japanese inter-planetary spacecraft built for the exploration of an asteroid named 'ITOKAWA.' The spacecraft is powered by a 13.2 Ah lithium-ion secondary battery. To realize maximum performance of the battery for long flight operation, the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery was maintained at ca. 65% during storage, in case it is required for a loss of attitude control. The capacity of the battery was measured during flight operations. Along with the operation in orbit, a ground-test battery was discharged, and both results showed a good agreement. This result confirmed that the performance of the lithium-ion secondary battery stored under micro-gravity conditions is predictable using a ground-test battery.

  11. Storage pool water condition of multipurpose compact 60Co irradiator of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yasko; Rela, Paulo R.

    2008-01-01

    A new type compact gamma irradiator was developed and installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, it is classified as category IV irradiator according to International Atomic Energy Agency-IAEA. The originality of its design remains on the rotating concrete door, which integrates the shielding system with the product handling system, permitting the input and output of the products in a continuous way, without the necessity to lower the sources and open the irradiator chamber to change the batch. The licensed capacity of this irradiator is 37 P Bq (1 MCi) and the water pool liner, manufactured in stainless steel, has 7.0 m deep and 2.7 m diameter. A sealed radiation source may be defined as a quantity of radioactive material sealed within non-radioactive material, which the confining barrier is intended to prevent leakage or escape of the radioactive material under normal handling conditions and also under foreseeable mishaps. The use of cobalt-60 radiation sources in a wet storage environment requires care in the control of that environment to avoid the potential for deterioration of the stainless steel. In the literature, the tests performed demonstrated that stainless steel had excellent performance under controlled environment conditions. The inspection includes assessing the condition of storage pool water and measuring the pool water conductivity. The demineralized water normally used in storage pools is usually an effective and secure medium in which to store stainless steel. However, there are certain constituents and contaminants in the water which can affect this behaviour. For instance, the pH has a small but definite effect on the tendency for pitting corrosion. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that both strongly alkaline and strongly acid environments can encourage pitting corrosion. In general, an around neutral pH is recommended. The conductivity is used as a measure of the extent to which ionic species are present in the pool water. International recommendations

  12. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: effect of cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, A A; Dekker, M; de Jager, A; Jongen, W M

    2001-08-01

    Consumers' increasing interest in the relationship between diet and health is a sign for food producers to pay more attention to potential health-protecting compounds in new product development and food processing. From a production chain perspective the choice of the raw material that is used is important for the health-protecting potential of the end product. Four apple cultivars (Jonagold, Golden Delicious, Cox's Orange, and Elstar), which can be used as fresh apples or in processed apple products, were compared with regard to flavonol, catechins, phloridzin, and chlorogenic acid concentrations and antioxidant activity. Jonagold apples possessed the highest flavonoid concentration and the highest antioxidant activity. To study seasonal differences, apples from three different harvest years were analyzed, but in three cultivars no effect on flavonoid concentration and antioxidant activity was observed. Long-term storage, both at refrigerator temperature and under controlled atmosphere conditions, was found not to influence flavonoid concentration or antioxidant activity.

  13. Storage systems for improved grid integration of photovoltaic systems; Speichersysteme fuer eine verbesserte Netzintegration von Photovoltaikanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Shaoqing [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). CEBra-Research

    2013-07-15

    Since the enactment of the Renewable Energy Law in the year 2000 Germany has seen a massive increase in capacity for energy production from renewable resources. Of these, wind power and photovoltaics show heavily fluctuating supply profiles, with significant impact on energy supply grids. One approach to lessening the load on power grids, aside from their expansion, is to install energy storage systems. Recent studies on the use of such storage systems for improved grid integration of photovoltaic systems have shown the viability of this approach for ground-mounted plants connected to the medium or high voltage level as well as for roof-mounted plants for the low-voltage level.

  14. Improving the storage stability of Bifidobacterium breve in low pH fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, M; Alakomi, H L; Mättö, J; Ahonen, A M; Puhakka, A; Tynkkynen, S

    2011-09-01

    Bifidobacterial food applications are limited since bifidobacteria are sensitive to e.g. acidic conditions prevalent in many food matrices. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a low pH selection step alone or combined to UV mutagenesis could improve the viability of an acid sensitive Bifidobacterium strain, B. breve 99, in low pH food matrices. Furthermore, the potential of carriers and an oat fibre preparation to further improve the stability was studied. The best performing low pH tolerant variants in the present study were generated by UV-mutagenesis with 70-700μJ/cm(2) followed by incubation in growth medium at pH 4.5. The most promising variants regarding the low pH tolerance showed, in repeated tests with cells grown without pH control, about one Log-value better survival in pH 3.8 fruit juice after one week storage at 4°C compared to wild-type B. breve 99. Cells grown with pH control, PDX formulated and then frozen showed poorer viability in low pH fruit juice than cells grown with no pH control. For frozen concentrates pH 3.8 was too stressful and no or small differences between the variants and the wild-type strain were seen. The differences detected at pH 3.8 with the cells grown without pH control were also seen with the frozen concentrates at pH 4.5. Some improvement in the stability could be achieved by using a combination of trehalose, vitamin C and PDX as a freezing carrier material, whereas a significant improvement in the stability was seen when oat fibre was added into the fruit juice together with the frozen cells. Due to the initial very poor fruit juice tolerance of B. breve 99 the obtained improvement in the stability was not enough for commercial applications. However, the same methods could be applied to initially better performing strains to further improve their stability in the fruit juice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stability of 26 Sedative Hypnotics in Six Toxicological Matrices at Different Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Dani C

    2016-10-01

    Forensic laboratories are challenged with backlogs that produce turnaround times that vary from days to months. Therefore, drug stability is important for interpretation in both antemortem (blood and urine) and postmortem (blood, brain, liver, stomach contents) cases. In this study, 23 benzodiazepines (2-hydroxyethylflurazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, α-hydroxyalprazolam, α-hydroxytriazolam, alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, demoxepam, desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, estazolam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, phenazepam, temazepam and triazolam) and three sedative hypnotics (zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem) were spiked into the six matrices at two different concentrations for each drug. The samples were stored in either a refrigerator (4°C) or freezer (-20°C) and analyzed in triplicate at various time intervals over an 8-month period using an SWGTOX validated method. The concentrations decreased over time regardless of the initial spiked concentration, and the storage conditions had little effect on the decrease of most drugs. Conversion from drug to metabolite was difficult to determine since all 26 drugs were present in each sample. Zopiclone and phenazepam were the least stable drugs; zopiclone was the only drug that completely disappeared in any matrix (both antemortem and postmortem blood). Urine was the most stable matrix with only phenazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, 2-hydroxyethylflurazepam, and zopiclone decreasing >20% over the 8 months in either storage condition. Postmortem blood, the least stable matrix, had only two drugs, zolpidem and bromazepam, decreasing <20% in the 8-month time period. Further experiments on stability of these drugs should be undertaken to remove the freeze-thaw cycle effect and more thoroughly examining drug-metabolite conversion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  16. Comparing CO2 Storage and Advection Conditions at Night at Different Carboeuroflux Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, Ch.; et al.

    Anemometer and CO2 concentration data from temporary campaigns performed at six CARBOEUROFLUX forest sites were used to estimate the importance of non-turbulent fluxes in nighttime conditions. While storage was observed to be significant only during periods of both low turbulence and low advection, the advective fluxes strongly influence the nocturnal CO2 balance, with the exception of almost flat and highly homogeneous sites. On the basis of the main factors determining the onset of advective fluxes, the ‘advection velocity’, which takes net radiation and local topography into account, was introduced as a criterion to characterise the conditions of storage enrichment/depletion. Comparative analyses of the six sites showed several common features of the advective fluxes but also some substantial differences. In particular, all sites where advection occurs show the onset of a boundary layer characterised by a downslope flow, negative vertical velocities and negative vertical CO2 concentration gradients during nighttime. As a consequence, vertical advection was observed to be positive at all sites, which corresponds to a removal of CO2 from the ecosystem. The main differences between sites are the distance from the ridge, which influences the boundary-layer depth, and the sign of the mean horizontal CO2 concentration gradients, which is probably determined by the source/sink distribution. As a consequence, both positive and negative horizontal advective fluxes (corresponding respectively to CO2 removal from the ecosystem and to CO2 supply to the ecosystem) were observed. Conclusive results on the importance of non-turbulent components in the mass balance require, however, further experimental investigations at sites with different topographies, slopes, different land covers, which would allow a more comprehensive analysis of the processes underlying the occurrence of advective fluxes. The quantification of these processes would help to better quantify nocturnal

  17. Evolution and development of a deliverability improvement program for gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, T.D.; Sikorski, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    With the implementation in November 1993 of FERC Order 636, the responsibilities and contractual obligations for a Gas Transmission Company operating Gas Storage have changed. Among these responsibilities is the ability to deliver gas from storage in a timely manner as specified by gas storage contracts. To ensure that their deliverability obligations are met, a program has been implemented to review well performance and to re-work wells where deliverability can economically be improved. This program is aimed at maintaining or improving deliverability from wells and monitoring their future performance. Re-working existing wells has proven to be an economically successful method of maintaining deliverability compared to drilling new wells to meet this purpose. Re-working can be broken into two groups of wells: wells that have mechanical problems that need to be corrected or wells that need some type of stimulation treatment. In developing a rework program, several things need to be addressed such as: a candidate recognition program, the design of the work to be performed, execution of that work, and the evaluation of the results obtained along with the economics. The Deliverability Improvement Program is in its third year. It has developed from a small pilot program to a substantial part of normal storage activities. The purpose of this paper is to review the processes used to find candidates to work on and an evaluation of work performed

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-05-13

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase genes and their association with fruit storage conditions in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel; Harb, Jamil; Qudeimat, Enas

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry is a widely grown and easily perishable fruit crop. An efficient post-harvest handling is critical, and for that purpose gene technology methods have been part of ongoing programmes to improve crops with high food values such as blueberry. Here we report the isolation, cloning, characterization and differential expression levels of two cDNAs encoding Polygalacturonase-Inhibitor Protein (PGIP) and Cinnamoyl-Coa Reductase (CCR) from blueberry fruits in relation to various storage conditions. The open reading frame of PGIP and CCR encodes a polypeptide of 329 and 347 amino acids, respectively. To assess changes in the expression of blueberry PGIP and CCR after harvest, a storage trial was initiated. The northern blots hybridization showed a clear differential expression level of PGIP and CCR between freshly harvested and stored fruits as well as between fruits stored under various storage conditions. Although the prospects of exploiting such a strategy for crop improvement are limited, the results provide further insight into the control of the quality over the storage period at the molecular level.

  20. Concept of a modified flywheel for megajoule storage and pulse conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a flywheel with a variable moment of inertia for electromagnetic launch (EML). A flywheel is among the best energy density storage devices. The modified flywheel will further improve upon the energy density and efficiency. Coupled to a pulse-duty generator, it could produce a near-square pulse or other desirable pulse shapes. The mount of energy, its rate, and its switching all could be controlled prior to electric energy conversion. The modified flywheel is structured with masses movable along radial paths. Potential energy is stored with respect to mass position and kinetic energy with respect to spin. This mass positioning provides a means to control the rate of energy discharge. Control with spring-loaded weight--the design presented here--would have near constant spin output

  1. Experimental characterization and modelling of the alteration of fractured cement under CO2 storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdoulghafour, Halidi

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to characterize and to model the hydrodynamic and thermochemical processes leading to the alteration of the wellbore cement materials under borehole conditions. Percolation experiments were performed on fractured cement samples under CO 2 storage conditions (60 C and 10 MPa). Injection flow rate was dictated by the fracture aperture of each sample. CO 2 enriched brine was flowed along the fracture aperture, and permeability changes as well as chemical evolution of major cations were continuously acquired during the experiment time. Reaction paths developed by the alteration of the cement were characterized using microtomography and ESEM images. The experiments conducted using samples presenting large fracture apertures during 5 h showed that permeability was maintained constant during the experiment time. Three reacted layers were displaying by the alteration of portlandite and CSH. Long term experiment (26 h) conducted with large initial fracture aperture showed a decrease of the permeability after 15 hours of CO 2 exposure. Otherwise, experiments performed on samples presenting narrow apertures indicated the conversion of portlandite and CSH to calcite leading to the permeability reduction and the fracture clogging. Assemblages of phases and chemical changes were modelled using GEMS-PSI speciation code. We studied also using a coupled transport-reactive model the conditions leading to the cement alteration and the formation of associated layers. (author)

  2. A computational study on the performance of a solar air-conditioning system with a partitioned storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.F.; Sumathy, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of a modified solar powered air-conditioning system, which is integrated with a partitioned storage tank. In addition, the effect of two main parameters that influence the system performance is presented and discussed. The study shows that by partitioning the storage tank, the solar cooling effect can be realized much earlier and could attain a total solar cooling COP of 12% higher compared to the conventional whole-tank mode. Simulation results also indicate that there exists an optimum ratio of storage tank volume over collector area

  3. Improving the hydrogen storage properties of metal-organic framework by functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liangzhi; Liu, Qing; Wang, Fengling; Lu, Jinming

    2016-10-01

    Based on the structure of MOF-808, different substituents were introduced to replace hydrogen atom on the phenyl ring of MOF-808. The GCMC method was used to study the effect of functional groups on the hydrogen storage properties of MOF-808-X (X = -OH, -NO 2 , -CH 3 , -CN, -I). The H 2 uptakes and isosteric heat of adsorption were simulated at 77 K. The results indicate that all these substituents have favorable impact on the hydrogen storage capacity, and -CN is found to be the most promising substituent to improve H 2 uptake. These results may be helpful for the design of MOFs with higher hydrogen storage capacity. Graphical abstract Atomistic structures of MOFs. (a) The structures of MOF-808-X. (b) Model of organic linker. Atom color scheme: C, gray; H, white; O, red; X, palegreen (X = -OH, -NO 2 , -CH 3 , -CN, -I).

  4. Penicillin improves the milt quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during short-term storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Halimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of antibiotic (5000 units of penicillin on sperm quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during 9 days in vitro storage of milt. For this purpose, the milt samples were stored in the presence and absence of 5000 units of penicillin. Freshwater was used as sperm activator. The milt samples were stored at 4°C and the motility indices were measured 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after storage. The sperm duration and percentage of sperm motility decreased after 6 days of storage both in the presence and absence of antibiotic, although this decrease was more significant in the absence of antibiotic. After 9 days of storage, the lowest values of sperm motility indices was recorded for antibiotic receiving milt samples while no motile spermatozoa observed for antibiotic-free milt samples. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that 5000 units of penicillin improve the Persian sturgeon milt quality during short-term storage.

  5. Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhņeviča-Radenkova Karina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO-controlled atmosphere (CA [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1 and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold storage and after 25 days of maintaining at market condition had been evaluated. The physical (firmness, weight losses, chemical (total soluble solids and acid contents, and sensory (aroma, taste, acidity, sweetness, juiciness, and color characteristics of apples had been evaluated after 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days to ascertain maximal shelf-life. Results from sensory evaluation indicated that apples treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA were characterized with distinctive aroma, whereas apples stored under CA were poor in sweetness and had remarkable acidity and juiciness. Apples that were stored in cold had pronounced aroma and color but without taste. Based on the evaluation by panelist, maximum shelf-life of apples that were kept under cold storage and ULO1 was 15 days, whereas that of apples that had been treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA and those stored in ULO2 was 25 days.

  6. Neuromuscular blockade for improvement of surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Scheppan, Susanne; Kissmeyer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    neuromuscular blockade (NMB), defined as a post-tetanic-count (PTC) of 0-1, paralyses the abdominal wall muscles and the diaphragm. We hypothesised that deep NMB (PTC 0-1) would improve surgical conditions during upper laparotomy as compared to standard NMB with bolus administration. METHODS...

  7. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for deposition of 210Po and evaluate the accuracy and precision of the results for its determination in environmental samples. To improve the technique for measurement of polonium-210(210Po) in environmental samples. The optimization of five factors (volume ...

  8. Can ensemble condition in a hall be improved and measured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    1988-01-01

    of the ceiling reflectors; and (c) changing the position of the orchestra on the platform. These variables were then tested in full scale experiments in the hall including subjective evaluation by the orchestra in order to verify their effects under practical conditions. New objective parameters, which showed......In collaboration with the Danish Broadcasting Corporation an extensive series of experiments has been carried out in The Danish Radio Concert Hall with the practical purpose of trying to improve the ensemble conditions on the platform for the resident symphony orchestra. First, a series...... very high correlations with the subjective data, also made it possible to compare the improvements with conditions as recently measured in famous European Halls. Besides providing the needed results, the experiments also shed some light on how musicians change their criteria for judging acoustic...

  9. Stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality in different storage conditions: Relevance of temperature and centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda-Vives, Macià; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Rubio-Alaejos, Ana; Valiña, Laura; Robles, Juan; Bauça, Josep Miquel

    2017-09-01

    Osmolality reflects the concentration of all dissolved particles in a body fluid, and its measurement is routinely performed in clinical laboratories for the differential diagnosis of disorders related with the hydrolytic balance regulation, the renal function and in small-molecule poisonings. The aim of the study was to assess the stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality through time and under different common storage conditions, including delayed centrifugation. Blood and urine samples were collected, and classified into different groups according to several preanalytical variables: serum or plasma lithium-heparin tubes; spun or unspun; stored at room temperature (RT), at 4°C or frozen at -21°C. Aliquots from each group were assayed over time, for up to 14days. Statistical differences were based on three different international performance criteria. Whole blood stability was higher in the presence of anticoagulant. Serum osmolality was stable for 2days at RT and 8days at 4°C, while plasma was less stable when refrigerated. Urine stability was 5days at RT, 4days at 4°C and >14days when frozen. Osmolality may be of great interest for the management of several conditions, such as in case of a delay in the clinical suspicion, or in case of problems in sample collection or processing. The ability to obtain reliable results for samples kept up to 14days also offers the possibility to retrospectively assess baseline values for patients which may require it. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Experience and projects concerning treatment, conditioning and storage of all radioactive wastes from Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, G.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyahara, K.

    1984-01-01

    The active operation of Tokai reprocessing plant started in September 1977, and about 170 t U of spent fuel were reprocessed between then and December 1982. During this period, the low-level waste processing plant reduced the amount of radioactivity discharged into the environment. For radioactive liquid waste, the treatment procedures consist mainly of evaporation to keep the discharge into the sea at a low level. For combustible low-level solid waste and the solvent waste, which is of low tributyl phosphate content, incineration has been used successfully (burned: about 150 t of combined LLSW, about 50 m 3 of solvent waste, i.e. diluent waste). Most of the past R and D work was devoted to reducing the activity discharged into the environment. Current R and D work is concerned with the treatment of solvent waste, the conditioning of solid wastes, the bituminization of low-level liquid waste and the vitrification of high-level liquid waste. The paper describes present practices, R and D work and future aspects of the treatment, conditioning and storage of all radioactive wastes from Tokai reprocessing plant. (author)

  11. Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Predominant Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Piper betle Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameena Ali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic constituents in Piper betle are well known for their antioxidant potential; however, current literature has very little information on their stability under the influence of storage factors. Present study evaluated the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity together with individual phenolic constituents (hydroxychavicol, eugenol, isoeugenol and allylpyrocatechol 3,4-diacetate present in dried Piper betle’s extract under different storage temperature of 5 and 25 °C with and without light for a period of six months. Both light and temperature significantly influenced TPC and its corresponding antioxidant activity over time. More than 95% TPC and antioxidant activity was retained at 5 °C in dark condition after 180 days of storage. Hydroxychavicol demonstrated the best stability with no degradation while eugenol and isoeugenol displayed moderate stability in low temperature (5 °C and dark conditions. 4-allyl-1,2-diacetoxybenzene was the only compound that underwent complete degradation. A new compound, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, was detected after five weeks of storage only in the extracts exposed to light. Both zero-order and first-order kinetic models were adopted to describe the degradation kinetics of the extract’s antioxidant activity. Zero-order displayed better fit with higher correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.9046 and the half-life was determined as 62 days for the optimised storage conditions (5 °C in dark conditions.

  12. Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Predominant Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Piper betle Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ameena; Chong, Chien Hwa; Mah, Siau Hui; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Choong, Thomas Shean Yaw; Chua, Bee Lin

    2018-02-23

    The phenolic constituents in Piper betle are well known for their antioxidant potential; however, current literature has very little information on their stability under the influence of storage factors. Present study evaluated the stability of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity together with individual phenolic constituents (hydroxychavicol, eugenol, isoeugenol and allylpyrocatechol 3,4-diacetate) present in dried Piper betle 's extract under different storage temperature of 5 and 25 °C with and without light for a period of six months. Both light and temperature significantly influenced TPC and its corresponding antioxidant activity over time. More than 95% TPC and antioxidant activity was retained at 5 °C in dark condition after 180 days of storage. Hydroxychavicol demonstrated the best stability with no degradation while eugenol and isoeugenol displayed moderate stability in low temperature (5 °C) and dark conditions. 4-allyl-1,2-diacetoxybenzene was the only compound that underwent complete degradation. A new compound, 2,4-di- tert -butylphenol, was detected after five weeks of storage only in the extracts exposed to light. Both zero-order and first-order kinetic models were adopted to describe the degradation kinetics of the extract's antioxidant activity. Zero-order displayed better fit with higher correlation coefficients ( R ² = 0.9046) and the half-life was determined as 62 days for the optimised storage conditions (5 °C in dark conditions).

  13. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M; Kusdiyantini, E; Wuryanti, W; Winarni, T A; Widyanto, S A; Muharam, H

    2015-01-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog. (paper)

  14. MUFITS Code for Modeling Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide at Sub- and Supercritical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Two-phase models are widely used for simulation of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. These models support gaseous phase mainly saturated with CO2 and liquid phase mainly saturated with H2O (e.g. TOUGH2 code). The models can be applied to analysis of CO2 storage only in relatively deeply-buried reservoirs where pressure exceeds CO2 critical pressure. At these supercritical reservoir conditions only one supercritical CO2-rich phase appears in aquifer due to CO2 injection. In shallow aquifers where reservoir pressure is less than the critical pressure CO2 can split in two different liquid-like and gas-like phases (e.g. Spycher et al., 2003). Thus a region of three-phase flow of water, liquid and gaseous CO2 can appear near the CO2 injection point. Today there is no widely used and generally accepted numerical model capable of the three-phase flows with two CO2-rich phases. In this work we propose a new hydrodynamic simulator MUFITS (Multiphase Filtration Transport Simulator) for multiphase compositional modeling of CO2-H2O mixture flows in porous media at conditions of interest for carbon sequestration. The simulator is effective both for supercritical flows in a wide range of pressure and temperature and for subcritical three-phase flows of water, liquid CO2 and gaseous CO2 in shallow reservoirs. The distinctive feature of the proposed code lies in the methodology for mixture properties determination. Transport equations and Darcy correlation are solved together with calculation of the entropy maximum that is reached in thermodynamic equilibrium and determines the mixture composition. To define and solve the problem only one function - mixture thermodynamic potential - is required. The potential is determined using a three-parametric generalization of Peng-Robinson equation of state fitted to experimental data (Todheide, Takenouchi, Altunin etc.). We apply MUFITS to simple 1D and 2D test problems of CO2 injection in shallow reservoirs subjected to phase changes between

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS OF CANDIED FRUITS ENRICHED WITH VITAMIN C BY DIFFERENT METHODS ON ITS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wypchoł

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of storage conditions of candied fruits enriched with vitamin C on its concentration in that product. The materials were candied fruits (black chokeberry and black currant enriched with vitamin C by two methods during their production. The final products were stored within 3 months at 8 and 20°C. On the basis of the results it was stated that enrichment method affected the concentration of the vitamin C in fruits measured during storage period at the above conditions. doi:10.5219/55

  16. Dry Storage at long term of nuclear fuels: Influence of the fuel design and commercial irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Armando C

    2009-01-01

    The BaCo code was applied to simulate the behaviour for a PHWR fuel under storage conditions showing a strong dependence on the original design of the fuel and the irradiation history. In particular, the results of the statistical analysis of BaCo indicate that the integrity of the fuel is influenced by the manufacture tolerances and the solicitations during the NPP irradiation. The main conclusion of the present study is that the fuel temperature of the device should be carefully controlled in order to ensure safe storage conditions. [es

  17. Structural analysis of porous rock reservoirs subjected to conditions of compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friley, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations are described which were performed to assess the structural behavior of porous rock compressed air energy storage (CAES) reservoirs subjected to loading conditions of temperature and pressure felt to be typical of such an operation. Analyses performed addressed not only the nominal or mean reservoir response but also the cyclic response due to charge/discharge operation. The analyses were carried out by assuming various geometrical and material related parameters of a generic site. The objective of this study was to determine the gross response of a generic porous reservoir. The site geometry for this study assumed a cylindrical model 122 m in dia and 57 m high including thicknesses for the cap, porous, and base rock formations. The central portion of the porous zone was assumed to be at a depth of 518 m and at an initial temperature of 20/sup 0/C. Cyclic loading conditions of compressed air consisted of pressure values in the range of 4.5 to 5.2 MPa and temperature values between 143 and 204/sup 0/C.Various modes of structural behavior were studied. These response modes were analyzed using loading conditions of temperature and pressure (in the porous zone) corresponding to various operational states during the first year of simulated site operation. The results of the structural analyses performed indicate that the most severely stressed region will likely be in the wellbore vicinity and hence highly dependent on the length of and placement technique utilized in the well production length. Analyses to address this specific areas are currently being pursued.

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Valente Caçola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA, modified atmosphere (MA, and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. For each cold storage duration, after removal from cold storage, the seeds were submitted or not to scarification (by cutting a small portion of the apical seed tegument, avoiding the damage of the endosperm, letting the germinate in a chamber with controlled environment, in plastic trays filled with vermiculite, for 60 days. The experiment followed the completely randomized factorial design (4x3x2, with four cold storage durations (0, 60, 120, and 180 days, three storage methods (NA, MA, and CA, with or without escarification, and four replicates. There was a good preservation of physiological quality for seeds submitted to different conservation methods in cold storage along the 180-day period. However, there was a faster germination and initial growth of seedlings for seeds left in cold storage for 60 days than in seeds assessed at harvest or left in cold storage for 120-180 days. The NA storage of seeds in perfurated plastic bags was as efficient as MA and CA storage to preserve seeds quality. Seeds scarification increased vigor and promoted seedlings initial growth of Araucaria angustifolia after being removed from cold storage.

  19. A Dynamic Momentum Compaction Factor Lattice for Improvements to Stochastic Cooling in Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, David Nicholas [Massachusetts U., Amherst

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic momentum compaction factor, also referred to as a dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$, lattice for the FNAL Antiproton Source Debuncher Storage Ring is studied, both theoretically and experimentally, for the purpose of improving stochastic precooling, and hence, improving the global antiproton production and stacking performance. A dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice is proposed due to the competing requirements inherent within the Debuncher storage ring upon $\\gamma \\tau$· Specifically, the Debuncher storage ring performs two disparate functions, $(i)$ accepting and debunching a large number of $\\overline{p}$s/pulse at the outset of the production cycle, which would perform ideally with a large value of $\\gamma\\tau$, and $(ii)$ subsequently employing stochastic cooling throughout the remainder of the $\\overline{p}$ production cycle for improved transfer and stacking efficiency into the Accumulator, for which a small value $\\gamma \\tau$ is ideal in order to reduce the diffusive heating caused by the mixing factor. In the initial design of the Debuncher optical lattice, an intermediate value of $\\gamma \\tau$ was chosen as a compromise between the two functional requirements. The goal of the thesis is to improve stochastic precooling by changing $\\gamma \\tau$ between two desired values during each p production cycle. In particular, the dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice accomplishes a reduction in $\\gamma \\tau$, and hence the mixing factor, through an uniform increase to the dispersion throughout the arc sections of the storage ring. Experimental measurements of cooling rates and system performance parameters, with the implementation of the dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice, are in agreement with theoretical predictions based upon a detailed integration of the stochastic cooling Fokker Planck equations. Based upon the consistency between theory and experiment, predictions of cooling rates are presented for future operational

  20. Core–shell TiO2 microsphere with enhanced photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hong; Tian, Dongxue; Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Yapeng; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Xiangjun

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic hollow core–shell spheres have attracted considerable interest due to their singular properties and wide range of potential applications. Herein a novel facile generic strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare core–void–shell anatase TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregates with an excellent photocatalytic activity, and enhanced lithium storage in large quantities. Amorphous carbon can be loaded on the TiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly under a suitably formulated ethanol/water system in the solvothermal alcoholysis process, and the subsequent calcination results of the formation of core–shell–shell anatase TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregates. The intrinsic core–void–shell nature as well as high porosity of the unique nanostructures contributes greatly to the superior photocatalytic activity and improved performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: A novel strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare unique core–void–shell anatase TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage. Highlights: ► TiO 2 mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. ► It is core–void–shell structure and the thickness of shell is estimated to 80 nm. ► It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

  1. Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores in nutritional pellets: effect of storage time and conditions on the trapping ability against Haemonchus contortus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Aranda, J A; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Liébano-Hernández, E; López-Arellano, M E; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Quiroz-Romero, H

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of storage time and conditions of nutritional pellets (NP) containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores on its in vitro trapping ability against Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae. The treated batch (200 NP) contained 4 × 106 chlamydospores of the FTH0-8 strain, whereas the control batch (200 NP) was produced without spores. Both NP batches were exposed to four experimental storage conditions: (T1) shelves (indoors); (T2) refrigeration (4°C); (T3) outdoors under a roof; and (T4) 100% outdoors. Each group comprised 48 NP with spores and 48 NP without spores (control). The ability of D. flagrans spores to trap H. contortus L3 larvae was evaluated for 8 weeks for each storage condition. For that purpose, six randomly selected NP with spores were compared to their respective control NP. Each NP was individually crushed. The crushed material (1 g) was placed on the surface of a 2% water agar plate with 200 H. contortus L3 larvae. Plates were sealed and were incubated at room temperature for 8 days. The whole content of every plate was transferred to a Baermann apparatus to recover the remaining larvae. There was a clear larval reduction in the NP with spores, compared to the respective control NP in the four storage conditions (PT2), 77 ± 6.1 (T1), 81.5 ± 3.8 (T4) and 82.1 ± 2.5 (T3). Larval reductions were similar at all times and were not affected by storage conditions or storage time (R 20.05). The long-term shelf-life of the chlamydospores in the NP suggests that this spore dosage technology is a viable option.

  2. Development of salt hydrate eutectics as latent heat storage for air conditioning and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efimova, Anastasia [Brandenburgische Technische Universität (BTU) Cottbus – Senftenberg, Chair of Inorganic Chemistry, Großenhainer Str. 57, 01968 Senftenberg (Germany); Pinnau, Sebastian; Mischke, Matthias; Breitkopf, Cornelia [Technische Universität Dresden, Chair of Technical Thermodynamics, Helmholtzstr. 14, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Ruck, Michael [Technische Universität Dresden, Chair of Inorganic Chemistry, Bergstr. 66, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Peer, E-mail: peer.schmidt@hs-lausitz.de [Brandenburgische Technische Universität (BTU) Cottbus – Senftenberg, Chair of Inorganic Chemistry, Großenhainer Str. 57, 01968 Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Inorganic salt hydrates. • Latent heat thermal energy storage. • Thermal behavior of melting and crystallization. • Cycling stability. • Nucleation. - Abstract: Sustainable air conditioning systems require heat reservoirs that operate between 4 and 20 °C. A systematic search for binary and ternary eutectics of inorganic salts and salt hydrates with melting temperatures in this temperature regime and with high enthalpies of fusion has been performed by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Promising results were obtained for the pseudo-ternary system Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, Mn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O, and KNO{sub 3} with the melting temperature range 18–21 °C and the enthalpy of fusion of about 110 kJ kg{sup −1}. Suitable nucleating and thickening agents have been found and tested to prevent the mixture from supercooling and phase separation.

  3. Heat exchange studies on coconut oil cells as thermal energy storage for room thermal conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Z.; Wonorahardjo, S.; Kurnia, D.

    2017-07-01

    As reported by many thermal environment experts, room air conditioning might be controlled by thermal mass system. In this paper we discuss the performance of coconut oil cells as room thermal energy storage. The heat exchange mechanism of coconut oil (CO) which is one of potential organic Phase Change Material (PCM) is studied based on the results of temperature measurements in the perimeter and core parts of cells. We found that the heat exchange performance, i.e. heat absorption and heat release processes of CO cells are dominated by heat conduction in the sensible solid from the higher temperature perimeter part to the lower temperature core part and heat convection during the solid-liquid phase transition and sensible liquid phase. The capability of heat absorption as measured by the reduction of air temperature is not influenced by CO cell size. Besides that, the application of CO as the thermal mass has to be accompanied by air circulation to get the cool sensation of the room’s occupants.

  4. A laboratory study of supercritical CO2 adsorption on cap rocks in the geological storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedli, Hedi; Jbara, Abdessalem; Hedfi, Hachem; Bouzgarrou, Souhail; Slimi, Khalifa

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, various cap rocks have been experimentally reacted in water with supercritical CO2 in geological storage conditions ( P = 8 × 106 Pa and T = 80 °C) for 25 days. To characterize the potential CO2-water-rock interactions, an experimental setup has been built to provide additional information concerning the effects of structure, thermal and surface characteristics changes due to CO2 injection with cap rocks. In addition, CO2 adsorption capacities of different materials (i.e., clay evaporate and sandstone) are measured. These samples were characterized by XRD technique. The BET specific surface area was determined by nitrogen isotherms. In addition, thermal characteristics of untreated adsorbents were analyzed via TGA method and topography surfaces are identified by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Taking into account pressure and temperature, the physical as well as chemical mechanisms of CO2 retention were determined. Isotherm change profiles of samples for relative pressure range indicate clearly that CO2 was adsorbed in different quantities. In accordance with the X-ray diffraction, a crystalline phase was formed due to the carbonic acid attack and precipitation of some carbonate.

  5. Neuromuscular blockade for improvement of surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Scheppan, Susanne; Kissmeyer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During laparotomy, surgeons frequently experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. This issue is particularly pertinent while closing the fascia and placing the intestines into the abdominal cavity. Establishment of a deep neuromus......INTRODUCTION: During laparotomy, surgeons frequently experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. This issue is particularly pertinent while closing the fascia and placing the intestines into the abdominal cavity. Establishment of a deep...... neuromuscular blockade (NMB), defined as a post-tetanic-count (PTC) of 0-1, paralyses the abdominal wall muscles and the diaphragm. We hypothesised that deep NMB (PTC 0-1) would improve surgical conditions during upper laparotomy as compared to standard NMB with bolus administration. METHODS...

  6. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  7. A Cloud Storage Platform in the Defense Context : Mobile Data Management With Unreliable Network Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.S. van der; Bastiaans, M.; Jonge, M. de; Strijkers, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a cloud storage platform in the defense context. The mobile and dismounted domains of defense organizations typically use devices that are light in storage, processing and communication capabilities. This means that it is difficult to store a lot of information on these devices

  8. The proteome of red cell membranes and vesicles during storage in blood bank conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Lasonder, E.; Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Novotny, V.M.J.; Bos, H.; Grip, W.J. de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During storage of red cells (RBCs) for transfusion, RBCs undergo a number of biochemical and morphologic changes. To be able to identify the mechanisms underlying these storage lesions, a proteomic analysis of the membranes of RBCs and their vesicles was performed during various periods

  9. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-05-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ''Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report'' [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel

  10. Impact of storage conditions and variety on quality attributes and aroma volatiles of pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitahaya are increasing in popularity but knowledge on the effects of storage and the potential impact of variety on subsequent quality following storage is incomplete, particularly in terms of the potential effects on sensory acceptability. In this study six varieties of pitahaya, having white, pin...

  11. Thermoluminescence response of calcic bentonite subjected to conditions of high nuclear waste underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Miralles, L.; Tarrasa, F.; Pueyo, J.J.; Cuevas, C. de las

    2002-01-01

    Bentonite is regarded as a backfilling material for underground storage facilities of highly radioactive nuclear waste built on granite formations. In these facilities, bentonite will be subjected to a gradient of temperature and dose rate, achieving a very high integrated dose and, therefore, changes in its structure and physical properties may take place. Two experiments to discriminate between the thermal and the irradiation effect were performed. In the first (named BIC-2A), samples were subjected to temperature while in second (named BIC-2B) the combined effect of temperature and irradiation was studied. The experimental conditions were: a thermal gradient between 130 deg. C and 90 deg. C, a maximum dose rate of 3.5 kGy.h -1 and a gradient of the integrated dose between 1.75 MGy and 10 MGy. Both experiments lasted a total of 124 days. An irradiation source of 60 Co with an activity close to 300,000 Ci, and bentonite samples of 200 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter were used. After the experiment, the samples were ground and two fractions were obtained: a fine fraction ( 80 μm). The results are described of thermoluminescence analyses on the two fractions obtained which showed that the coarse fractions can be 100 times more sensitive to radiation than the fine fraction. On the other hand, the heated and irradiated samples showed a thermoluminescence response around 50 times greater than the samples that were only heated. In addition to this, the temperature and dose rate conditions are relevant parameters in the generation and stabilisation of radiation induced defects. Finally, the response of samples heated and irradiated for two months was quite similar to that obtained on samples heated and irradiated for four months, indicating a saturation phenomenon. (author)

  12. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers: effect of synthesis catalyst and pretreatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela D; Yang, Ralph T; Rodriguez, Nelly M; Baker, R Terry K

    2004-02-03

    A series of graphite nanofibers (GNFs) that were subjected to various pretreatments were used to determine how modifications in the carbon structure formed during either synthesis or pretreatment steps results in active or inactive materials for hydrogen storage. The nanofibers possessing a herringbone structure and a high degree of defects were found to exhibit the best performance for hydrogen storage. These materials were exposed to several pretreatment procedures, including oxidative, reductive, and inert environments. Significant hydrogen storage levels were found for several in situ pretreatments. Examination of the nanofibers by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after pretreatment and subsequent hydrogen storage revealed the existence of edge attack and an enhancement in the generation of structural defects. These findings suggest that pretreatment in certain environments results in the creation of catalytic sites that are favorable toward hydrogen storage. The best pretreatment resulted in a 3.8% hydrogen release after exposure at 69 bar and room temperature.

  13. Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: kinetics study and stability as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The kinetics of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei as affected by storage temperature were studied. When shrimp oil was incubated at different temperatures (4, 30, 45 and 60 °C for 16 h, the rate constants (k of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil increased with increasing temperatures (p < 0.05. Thus, astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil were augmented at high temperature. When shrimp oils with different storage conditions (illumination, oxygen availability and temperature were stored for up to 40 days, astaxanthin contents in all samples decreased throughout storage (p < 0.05. All factors were able to enhance astaxanthin degradation during 40 days of storage. With increasing storage time, the progressive formation of primary and secondary oxidation products were found in all samples as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (p < 0.05. Light, air and temperatures therefore had the marked effect on astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oils during the extended storage.

  14. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level.

  15. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  16. Electric field improved hydrogen storage of Ca-decorated monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Nahong [College of Computer and Information Engineering, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Yusheng [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Gao, Haiyan; Jiang, Weifen; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Bin [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Sun, Qiang [International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Jia, Yu, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn [International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2015-04-17

    Hydrogen storage property of Ca-decorated MoS{sub 2} is carried out using first-principles calculations. Our calculations demonstrate that the preferential binding of Ca atoms on MoS{sub 2} effectively prevent the Ca clustering. Six H{sub 2} molecules per Ca atom can be adsorbed with a desirable adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H{sub 2}. Both hybridization of the Ca-3d and S-2s with the H-1s orbital and the polarization of the H{sub 2} molecules contribute to the hydrogen adsorption. Our results show that the external electric field can effectively tune the hydrogen adsorption energy, therefore making hydrogen storage and release reversible. - Highlights: • Ca binds with MoS{sub 2} stalely without clustering. • It can operate under ambient thermodynamic conditions. • External electric field can effectively tune the hydrogen adsorption energy.

  17. Viscoelastic response of HTPB based solid fuel to horizontal and vertical storage slumping conditions and it's affect on service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Q.; Nizam, F.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of solid fuels as thrust generating energy source in modern day space vehicle systems has created a need to assess their serviceability for long term storage under various conditions. Solid fuel grain, the most important part of any solid fuel system, responds visco elastically to any loading condition. For the assessment of the service life of any solid fuel system, the solid fuel grain has to be structurally evaluated in applied storage conditions. Structural integrity of the grain is exceptionally significant to guarantee the successful operation of the solid fuel system. In this work, numerical simulations have been performed to assess the mechanical stresses and strains induced in an HTPB based solid fuel grain during service life employing ABAQUS standard FEA software using 4-node bilinear quadrilateral elements. For finite element analysis (FEA), typical 2-D and p/nth axisymmetric section of 5-point (n) star grain geometry is considered. Mechanical loads include the horizontal or vertical 1-g (solid fuel weight) storage condition. The simulation results are compared with the analytical results for the same grain geometry. Analytically measured slump deflections in grain segment at various storage times have been found in good relation with the FEA based simulation results. This proves the validity of the procedure adopted and is helpful in assessment of the service life of solid fuel systems. (author)

  18. Simplified models of transport and reactions in conditions of CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchodolska, Katarzyna; Labus, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Simple hydrogeochemical models may serve as tools of preliminary assessment of CO2 injection and sequestraton impact on the aquifer and cap-rocks. In order to create models of reaction and transport in conditions of CO2 injection and storage, the TOUGHREACT simulator, and the Geochemist's Workbench software were applied. The chemical composition of waters for kinetic transport models based on the water - rock equilibrium calculations. Analyses of reaction and transport of substances during CO2 injection and storage period were carried out in three scenarios: one-dimensional radial model, and two-dimensional model of CO2 injection and sequestration, and one-dimensional model of aquifer - cap-rock interface. Modeling was performed in two stages. The first one simulated the immediate changes in the aquifer and insulating rocks impacted by CO2 injection (100 days in case of reaction model and 30 years in transport and reaction model), the second - enabled assessment of long-term effects of sequestration (20000 years). Reactions' quality and progress were monitored and their effects on formation porosity and sequestration capacity in form of mineral, residual and free phase of CO2 were calculated. Calibration of numerical models (including precipitation of secondary minerals, and correction of kinetics parameters) describing the initial stage of injection, was based on the experimental results. Modeling allowed to evaluate the pore space saturation with gas, changes in the composition and pH of pore waters, relationships between porosity and permeability changes and crystallization or dissolution minerals. We assessed the temporal and spatial extent of crystallization processes, and the amount of carbonates trapping. CO2 in mineral form. The calculated sequestration capacity of analyzed formations reached n·100 kg/m3 for the: dissolved phase - CO(aq), gas phase - CO2(g) and mineral phase, but as much as 101 kg/m3 for the supercritical phase - SCCO2. Processes of gas

  19. Energy Storage System by Means of Improved Thermal Performance of a 3 MW Grid Side Wind Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    method of the energy storage system. Then the conventional thermal evaluation approach is simplified for evaluation with long term wind profile. The case studies are done to address the optimal power size and capacity of the energy storage system by comparing the improvement of the thermal performance....... Also, the two promising candidates, ultracapacitors and batteries, are compared....

  20. Storage conditions of the mafic and silicic magmas at Cotopaxi, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Caroline; Andújar, Joan; Mothes, Patricia; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Molina, Indira

    2018-04-01

    The 2015 reactivation of the Cotopaxi volcano urges us to understand the complex eruptive dynamics of Cotopaxi for better management of a potential major crisis in the near future. Cotopaxi has commonly transitioned from andesitic eruptions of strombolian style (lava flows and scoria ballistics) or nuées ardentes (pyroclastic flows and ash falls) to highly explosive rhyolitic ignimbrites (pumiceous pyroclastic flows), which entail drastically different risks. To better interpret geophysical and geochemical signals, Cotopaxi magma storage conditions were determined via existing phase-equilibrium experiments that used starting materials chemically close to the Cotopaxi andesites and rhyolites. The results suggest that Cotopaxi's most mafic andesites (last erupted products) can be stored over a large range of depth from 7 km to ≥16 km below the summit (pressure from 200 to ≥400 MPa), 1000 °C, NNO +2, and contain 4.5-6.0±0.7 wt% H2O dissolved in the melt in equilibrium with 30-40% phenocrysts of plagioclase, two pyroxenes, and Fe-Ti oxides. These mafic andesites sometimes evolve towards more silicic andesites by cooling to 950 °C. Rhyolitic magmas are stored at 200-300 MPa (i.e. 7-11 km below the summit), 750 °C, NNO +2, and contain 6-8 wt% H2O dissolved in a nearly aphyric melt (<5% phenocrysts of plagioclase, biotite, and Fe-Ti oxides). Although the andesites produce the rhyolitic magmas by fractional crystallization, the Cotopaxi eruptive history suggests reactivation of either reservoirs at distinct times, likely reflecting flux or time fluctuations during deep magma recharge.

  1. Overnight storage of whole blood: cooling and transporting blood at room temperature under extreme temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, L; Beauséjour, A; Jacques, A; Ducas, E; Tremblay, M

    2014-02-01

    Many countries allow the overnight storage of whole blood (WB) at ambient temperature. Some countries, such as Canada, also require a rapid cooling of WB with an active cooling system. Given the significant operational constraints associated with current cooling systems, an alternative method for cooling and transporting WB at 20-24°C was evaluated. Phase 22 cooling packs (TCP Reliable Inc., USA) were used in combination with vacuum-insulated panel (VIP) boxes. Temperature profiles of simulated WB units were studied in extreme temperatures (-35 and 40°C). The quality of blood components prepared using Phase 22 packs and CompoCool-WB (Fresenius HemoCare, Germany) was studied. Phase 22 packs reduced the temperature of simulated WB bags from 37 to 24°C in 1·7 ± 0·2 h. Used in combination with VIP boxes, Phase 22 packs maintain the temperature of bags between 20 and 24°C for 15 and 24 h, compared to 2 and 11 h with CompoCool-WB, when exposed at -35 and 40°C, respectively. The quality of platelet concentrates and plasma was comparable, regardless of the cooling system used. For red blood cell units, per cent haemolysis on day 42 was slightly higher in products prepared after cooling with Phase 22 packs compared to CompoCool-WB (0·33 ± 0·15% vs. 0·21 ± 0·06%; P environmental conditions. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  2. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Diukareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of study arenewly developed biscuits: "Health" (rich in iodine and with the replacement of 50 % sugar by stevioside, "Light" (with the replacement of 75% of sugar by stevioside and enriched with wheat bran, "Fortified" (containselamine, which is a natural source of iodine. Control – the biscuit prepared according to traditional recipes. Tenzometric method was used to study the sorption equilibrium moisture content. Differential function of pore radius distribution was determined using sorption isotherms and then have been subjected to approximation. Results. New biscuits samples are in the area of polymolecular and monomolecular sorption in the range of the relative air humidity (RAH from 10 to 75 ... 80%. The control sample has less distinct plot of monomolecular sorption (10 to 20% and short- moisture range wich is corresponding with polymolecularsorption (from 20 to 65 ... 70%. There is a moisture absorbtion ofmicrocapillary and swelling of samples when RAHincreases to 75 ... 80% for all the samples. The ratio of average pore radius tothe most likely of the test samples are differentthat wasshown by the investigation of differential function of pore distribution. So this ratio for biscuit "Health" is 5.73, for biscuit "Light" − 2.98,forbiscuit "Fortified"− 4.91 and for the control − 3.88. Conclusions. There’s the sense to store developed biscuits in a cardboard packaging with polymeric covering, if RAH is not more than 75%, and vapor-proof if RAH is above that.

  3. Effects of storage conditions on the fatty acid composition of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-08-31

    Aug 31, 2015 ... Key words: Pentadesma butyracea, oil seed, storage, butter, fatty acid. INTRODUCTION ... oil, in skin and hair care and in the manufacturing of soap because of its ..... study of Ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil.

  4. Role of crucible partition in improving Czochralski melt conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, I. H.; Prasad, V.; Anselmo, A. P.; Gupta, K. P.

    1995-09-01

    Many of the inhomogeneities and defects in the crystal grown from a pool of melt are because of the inherent unsteady growth kinetics and flow instabilities of the process. A scaled up version of the Czochralski process induces oscillatory and turbulent conditions in the melt, thereby resulting in the production of non-uniform silicon crystals. This numerical study reveals that a crucible partition shorter than the melt height can significantly improve the melt conditions. The obstruction at the bottom of the crucible is helpful but the variations in heat flux and flow patterns remain random. However, when the obstruction is introduced at the top of the melt, the flow conditions become much more desirable and oscillations are greatly suppressed. It is also found that a full-melt height partition or a double-crucible may not be a good choice. An optimal size of the blockage and its location to produce the most desirable process conditions will depend on the growth parameters including the melt height and the crucible diameter. These findings should be particularly useful in designing a solid polysilicon pellets-feed continuous Czochralski process for Si crystals.

  5. CO2 storage in deep aquifers. Study in real conditions of cap-rock confinement properties and of their alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachaud, P.

    2010-01-01

    A promising solution to reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse effect gases consists in the injection and long-term storage of a part of the industrial carbon dioxide discharges in underground formations. These formations must be composed of a reservoir surrounded by tight cap-rocks, which represent the first barrier preventing fluids migration. The characterization of their confining properties and of their evolution in presence of CO 2 is thus a key element regarding a storage site security. This work presents a methodology allowing the measurement of cap-rocks transport parameters and the consequences of an alteration under representative conditions of deep aquifers storage. This methodology was applied to carbonate rocks from the Paris basin. The breakthrough pressure, the diffusion coefficient of CO 2 dissolution products,and the permeability, controlling parameters of leakage mechanisms, were measured before and after alteration of the materials by reaction with a CO 2 -saturated brine under reservoir thermodynamic conditions (about 80 C and 100 bar). Results revealed a satisfactory global behaviour under these aggressive conditions, but also a strong diminution of the confinement potential in presence of initial structural faults (sealed fractures, large-diameter pores...) forming higher-permeability zones. A numeric simulation describing the evolution of a homogeneous rock formation during 1000 years was also realized based on parameters directly measured or obtained by modelling of the alteration experiments. It showed that the transformations brought by the CO 2 storage under a rock formation with no initial faults remain very localized spatially. (author)

  6. Improved distorted wave theory with the localized virial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Y. K.; Zerrad, E.

    2009-12-01

    The distorted wave theory is operationally improved to treat the full collision amplitude, such that the corrections to the distorted wave Born amplitude can be systematically calculated. The localized virial conditions provide the tools necessary to test the quality of successive approximations at each stage and to optimize the solution. The details of the theoretical procedure are explained in concrete terms using a collisional ionization model and variational trial functions. For the first time, adjustable parameters associated with an approximate scattering solution can be fully determined by the theory. A small number of linear parameters are introduced to examine the convergence property and the effectiveness of the new approach.

  7. In vitro propagation of Cyathea atrovirens (Cyatheaceae): spore storage and sterilization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Isabel Beatriz de; Droste, Annette

    2014-03-01

    Cyathea atrovirens occurs in a wide range of habitats in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. In the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul, this commonly found species is a target of intense exploitation, because of its ornamental characteristics. The in vitro culture is an important tool for propagation which may contribute toward the reduction of extractivism. However, exogenous contamination of spores is an obstacle for the success of aseptic long-term cultures. This study evaluated the influence of different sterilization methods combined with storage conditions on the contamination of the in vitro cultures and the gametophytic development of C. atrovirens, in order to establish an efficient propagation protocol. Spores were obtained from plants collected in Novo Hamburgo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the first experiment, spores stored at 7 degrees C were surface sterilized with 0.5, 0.8 and 2% of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 15 minutes and sown in Meyer's culture medium. The cultures were maintained in a growth room at 26 +/- 1 degrees C for a 12-h photoperiod and photon flux density of 100 micromol/m2/s provided by cool white fluorescent light. Contamination was assessed at 60 days, and gametophytic development was scored at 30, 60, 120 and 130 days of in vitro culture, analyzing 300 individuals for each treatment. There was no significant difference in culture contamination among the different sodium hypochlorite concentrations tested, and all treatments allowed for the development of cordiform gametophytes at 130 days of culture. In the second experiment, spores stored at 7 and -20 degrees C were divided into two groups. Half of the spores were surface sterilized with 2% of NaClO for 15 minutes and the other half was not sterilized. All spores were sown in Meyer's medium supplemented with one of the following antibiotics: nystatin, Micostatin and actidione. The culture conditions and the procedures used for evaluating contamination and

  8. Effect of substrate storage conditions on the stability of “Smart” films used for mammalian cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluestein, Blake M.; Reed, Jamie A.; Canavan, Heather E., E-mail: Canavan@unm.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • pNIPAM can be deposited onto a surface using plasma polymerization or spin coating. • Storage conditions can affect both surfaces although thermoresponse is maintained. • spNIPAM surfaces delaminate over time, regardless of storage conditions. • Delamination will affect cell attachment/detachment, resulting in limited attachment. • ppNIPAM surfaces are more stable, regardless of storage conditions. - Abstract: When poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM) is tethered to a surface, it can induce the spontaneous release of a sheet of mammalian cells. The release of cells is a result of the reversible phase transition the polymer undergoes at its lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Many techniques are used for the deposition of pNIPAM onto cell culture substrates. Previously, we compared two methods of deposition (plasma polymerization, and co-deposition with a sol-gel). We proved that although both were technically appropriate for obtaining thermoresponsive pNIPAM films, the surfaces that were co-deposited with a sol-gel caused some disruption in cell activity. The variation of cell behavior could be due to the delamination of pNIPAM films leaching toxic chemicals into solution. In this work, we assessed the stability of these pNIPAM films by manipulating the storage conditions and analyzing the surface chemistry using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements over the amount of time required to obtain confluent cell sheets. From XPS, we demonstrated that ppNIPAM (plasma polymerized NIPAM) films remains stable across all storage conditions while sol-gel deposition show large deviations after 48 h of storage. Cell response of the deposited films was assessed by investigating the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility. The 37 °C and high humidity storage affects sol-gel deposited films, inhibiting normal cell growth and proper thermoresponse of the film. Surface chemistry, thermoresponse and cell growth remained

  9. Eggs viability of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae under different environmental and storage conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Soares-Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract The viability of Aedes aegypti eggs was assessed in the Amazon region. The eggs were maintained under different conditions: indoors (insectarium and outdoors (natural environment, as well as in different storage types (plastic cup, paper envelope, plastic bag for different days. Egg viability was measured as the mean of hatchings observed from egg-bearing sheets of filter paper immersed in water, using three sheets randomly selected from each storage type and at both sites. There were significant differences in the viability of Ae. aegypti eggs with respect to the location (F=30.40; DF=1; P<0.0001, storage type (F=17.66; DF=2; P<0.0001, and time of storage (F=49.56; DF=9; P<0.0001. The interaction between storage site versus storage type was also significant (F=15.96; DF=2; P<0.0001. A higher hatching mean was observed for the eggs kept in the insectarium than for those outdoors (32.38 versus 7.46. Hatching rates of egg batches stored for 12 to 61 days ranged between 84 and 90%. A reduction was observed between 89 and 118 days, with values of 63 and 48%, respectively. With respect to type of storage, mean egg hatching was higher for the eggs in plastic cups (44.46. It was concluded that the viability of the eggs of Ae. aegypti in the Amazon region remains high up to 4 months, after which it declines drastically, although in this study hatching occurred for up to 8 months in very low percentages.

  10. Improving energy efficiency of cyclone circuits in coal beneficiation plants by pump-storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pump-storage system (PSS) is introduced in a coal washing plant to reduce energy consumption and cost. • Optimal operation of the PSS under TOU tariff is formulated and solved. Life cycle cost analysis of the design is done. • Simulation results show the effectiveness of energy efficiency improvement and load shifting effect of the proposed approach. • An annual 38% reduction of overall cost of the coal washing plant with 2.86 years payback period is achieved. • Capacity improvement of power plants contracted to the coal mine is expected as less electricity is required to get fuel. - Abstract: A pump storage system (PSS) is introduced to the coal preparation dense medium cyclone (DMC) plants to improve their energy efficiency while maintaining the required medium supply. The DMC processes are very energy intensive and inefficient because the medium supply pumps are constantly over-pumping. The PSS presented is to reduce energy consumption and cost by introducing an addition medium circulation loop. The corresponding pump operation optimization problem in the PSS scheme under time-based electricity tariff is formulated and solved, based on which the financial benefits of the design is investigated using life cycle cost analysis. A case study based on the operation status of a South African coal mine is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is demonstrated that the energy cost can be reduced by more than 50% in the studied case by introducing a 160 m 3 storage tank. According to life cycle analysis, the PSS Option 1 yields an annual 38% reduction of the overall cost for the beneficiation plant with a payback period of 2.68 years

  11. Sealing behavior of Container Closure Systems under Frozen Storage Conditions: Nonlinear Finite Element Simulation of Serum Rubber Stoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger

    2018-03-15

    There has been a growing interest in recent years in the assessment of suitable vial/stopper combinations for storage and shipment of frozen drug products. Considering that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of butyl rubber stoppers used in Container Closure Systems (CCS) is between -55°C to -65°C, a storage or shipment temperature of a frozen product below the Tg of the rubber stopper, may require special attention, since below the Tg the rubber becomes more plastic-like and loses its elastic (sealing) characteristics. Thus they risk maintaining Container Closure Integrity (CCI). Given that the rubber regains its elastic properties and reseals after rewarming to ambient temperature, leaks during frozen temperature storage and transportation are transient and the CCI methods used at room temperature conditions are unable to confirm CCI in the frozen state. Hence, several experimental methods have been developed in recent years in order to evaluate CCI at low temperatures. Finite Element (FE) simulations were applied in order to investigate the sealing behaviour of rubber stoppers for the drug product CCS under frozen storage conditions. FE analysis can help reducing the experimental design space and thus number of measurements needed, as they can be used as an ad-on to experimental testing. Several scenarios have been simulated including the effect of thermal history, rubber type, storage time, worst case CCS geometric tolerances and capping pressure. The results of these calculations have been validated with experimental data derived from laboratory experiments (CCI at low temperatures), and a concept for tightness has been developed. It has been concluded that FE simulations have the potential to become a powerful predictive tool towards a better understanding of the influence of cold storage on the rubber sealing properties (and hence on CCI) when dealing with frozen drug products. Copyright © 2018, Parenteral Drug Association.

  12. Influence of development, postharvest handling, and storage conditions on the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas Lam.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabubuya, Agnes; Namutebi, Agnes; Byaruhanga, Yusuf; Narvhus, Judith; Wicklund, Trude

    2017-11-01

    Changes in total starch and reducing sugar content in five sweetpotato varieties were investigated weekly during root development and following subjection of the roots to different postharvest handling and storage conditions. Freshly harvested (noncured) roots and cured roots (spread under the sun for 4 days at 29-31°C and 63-65% relative humidity [RH]) were separately stored at ambient conditions (23°C-26°C and 70-80% RH) and in a semiunderground pit (19-21°C and 90-95% RH). Changes in pasting properties of flour from sweetpotato roots during storage were analyzed at 14-day intervals. Significant varietal differences ( p  < .05) in total starch, sucrose, glucose, maltose, and fructose concentrations were registered. The total starch and sucrose content of the roots did not change significantly ( p  < .05) during root development (72.4 and 7.4%, respectively), whereas the average concentrations of glucose, maltose, and fructose decreased markedly (0.46-0.18%, 0.55-0.28%, and 0.43-0.21%), respectively. Storage led to decrease in total starch content (73-47.7%) and increase in sucrose and glucose concentrations (8.1-11.2% and 0.22-1.57%, respectively). Storage also resulted in reduction in sweetpotato flour pasting viscosities. Curing resulted in increased sucrose and glucose concentrations (9.1-11.2% and 0.45-0.85%, respectively) and marked reduction ( p  < .05) in total starch content (72.9-47.6%). This resulted in low pasting viscosities compared to flour from storage of uncured roots. These findings show that significant changes occur in the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato roots during storage compared to development and present an opportunity for diverse utilization of flours from sweetpotato roots in the food industry.

  13. Ray Tracing through the Edge Focusing of Rectangular Benders and an Improved Model for the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolski, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barlow, David B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macek, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Particle ray tracing through simulated 3D magnetic fields was executed to investigate the effective quadrupole strength of the edge focusing of the rectangular bending magnets in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). The particle rays receive a kick in the edge field of the rectangular dipole. A focal length may be calculated from the particle tracking and related to the fringe field integral (FINT) model parameter. This tech note introduces the baseline lattice model of the PSR and motivates the need for an improvement in the baseline model's vertical tune prediction, which differs from measurement by .05. An improved model of the PSR is created by modifying the fringe field integral parameter to those suggested by the ray tracing investigation. This improved model is then verified against measurement at the nominal PSR operating set point and at set points far away from the nominal operating conditions. Lastly, Linear Optics from Closed Orbits (LOCO) is employed in an orbit response matrix method for model improvement to verify the quadrupole strengths of the improved model.

  14. Improvement of numerical simulation methods on safety assessment of the spent fuel storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Improvement of numerical simulation methods on safety assessment of the spent fuel storage facility is one of main objectives of JNES activities. For the thermal and structural analyses, the radiative heat transfer analysis code S-FOKS has been developed to reduce computing time and to avoid using large memory area. In order to simulate the specular reflection, a new model (called 'model-2') is planned to install to S-FOKS code. The theoretical values with the specular reflection in simple geometry were lead to verify S-FOKS model-2. (author)

  15. Application of superconducting magnet energy storage to improve power system dynamic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Y.; Tsuji, K.; Murakami, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The application of Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage (SMES) to the stabilization of a power system with long distance bulk power transmission lines which has the problem of poorly damped power oscillations, is presented. Control schemes for stabilization using SMES which is capable of controlling active and reactive power simultaneously in four quadrant ranges, is proposed. The effective locations and the necessary capacities of SMES for power system stabilizing control are discussed in detail. Results of numerical analysis and experiments in an artificial power transmission system demonstrate the significant effect of the control by SMES on the improvement of power system oscillatory performance

  16. Biogenic Amine Production in Olomouc Curd Cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky at Various Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Standarová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature and storage time on the formation of biogenic amines (BAs in the traditional Czech curd cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky. Samples were stored for 7 weeks at 5 °C and 20 °C. BAs were studied as dansyl derivatives by the RP-HPLC method with fluorescence detection, histamine was determined using a photodiode array detector. Physical and chemical properties were analyzed as specified by the Czech National Standard, as were the sensory characteristics (colour, odour, texture and flavour. The major amines found were cadaverine (124–2413 mg kg-1 and tyramine (117–1058 mg kg-1, followed by putrescine (75–767 mg kg-1 and histamine (74–411 mg kg-1. Low concentrations of tryptamine, spermine and spermidine were present. Total concentrations of BAs significantly increased with storage time (P P -1 at the end of storage. The toxicologically critical value of 900 mg kg-1 for the sum of histamine + tyramine + putrescine + cadaverine was reached 17 days later in the cheese stored at 5 °C compared to 20 °C. When stored at 5 °C, the samples retained adequate sensory characteristics for the entire safe storage time. The effects of storage conditions on BAs formation are relevant to reducing the risk associated with consumption of cheese high in BAs.

  17. Investigation of Heat Pump Operation Strategies with Thermal Storage in Heating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangsik Jung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A heat pump with thermal storage system is a system that operates a heat pump during nighttime using inexpensive electricity; during this time, the generated thermal energy is stored in a thermal storage tank. The stored thermal energy is used by the heat pump during daytime. Based on a model of a dual latent thermal storage tank and a heat pump, this study conducts control simulations using both conventional and advanced methods for heating in a building. Conventional methods include the thermal storage priority method and the heat pump priority method, while advanced approaches include the region control method and the dynamic programming method. The heating load required for an office building is identified using TRNSYS (Transient system simulation, used for simulations of various control methods. The thermal storage priority method shows a low coefficient of performance (COP, while the heat pump priority method leads to high electricity costs due to the low use of thermal storage. In contrast, electricity costs are lower for the region control method, which operates using the optimal part load ratio of the heat pump, and for dynamic programming, which operates the system by following the minimum cost path. According to simulation results for the winter season, the electricity costs using the dynamic programming method are 17% and 9% lower than those of the heat pump priority and thermal storage priority methods, respectively. The region control method shows results similar to the dynamic programming method with respect to electricity costs. In conclusion, advanced control methods are proven to have advantages over conventional methods in terms of power consumption and electricity costs.

  18. Effect of storage conditions on the biogenic amine content in wild boar meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of game meat depends on many factors during and after hunting. Freshness of meat is connected with the concentration of biogenic amines which is related to meat spoilage. The aim of this study was to assess changes in concentration of biogenic amines in raw meat of wild boar (n = 20, mean age 1–2 years during storage at different temperatures. Carcases of wild boars hunted in winter 2012 in hunting districts of south Moravia were stored unskinned during 21 days at various temperatures (0, 7 and 15 °C. Concentrations of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine and spermidine were determined in the shoulder and leg muscles by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Good hygienic quality was maintained when wild boar carcasses were stored for a maximum of 14 days at 0 °C (content of biogenic amines in 3 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 21 of storage or a maximum of 7 days at 7 °C (content of biogenic amines in 4 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 14 of storage. The temperature of 15 °C should be considered as unsuitable storage temperature if good hygienic quality of game meat during storage is to be guaranteed (content of biogenic amines in 2 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg already on day 7 of storage. The study brings new information about the biogenic amine content and its changes in wild boar meat during the storage period of 21 days.

  19. The maximum allowable temperature of zircaloy-2 fuel cladding under dry storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuzumi, M.; Yoshiki, S.; Yasuda, T.; Nakatsuka, M.

    1990-09-01

    Japan plans to reprocess and reutilise the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power generation. However, the temporary storage of spent fuel is assuming increasing importance as a means of ensuring flexibility in the nuclear fuel cycle. Our investigations of various methods of storage have shown that casks are the most suitable means of storing small quantities of spent fuel of around 500 t, and research and development are in progress to establish dry storage technology for such casks. The soundness of fuel cladding is being investigated. The most important factor in evaluating soundness in storage under inert gas as currently envisaged is creep deformation and rupture, and a number of investigations have been made of the creep behaviour of cladding. The present study was conducted on the basis of existing in-house results in collaboration with Nippon Kakunenryo Kaihatsu KK (Nippon Nuclear Fuel Department Co.), which has hot lab facilities. Tests were run on the creep deformation behaviour of irradiated cladding, and the maximum allowable temperature during dry storage was investigated. (author)

  20. Improvement of oxygen storage components for compliance with LEV/ULEV and Euro III/IV emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touret, O.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The presentation will be divided in two sections. The first part will explain briefly the role of the oxygen storage component in the performance of the catalyst and the dramatic improvement in performance required by the future emission legislation especially in North America and the European Union. A survey of the different technical solutions available will be given. The second part will be focused on the description of the CeO 2 and CeO 2 ZrO 2 sintering mechanism the demonstration of the possibility to reach a solid solution for a large range of compositions using different analytical technique such as XRD, XPS, EXAFS. Finally the influence of ageing condition on the solid solution stability will be described with a tentative correlation with model catalyst activity

  1. Nondestructive detection of total viable count changes of chilled pork in high oxygen storage condition based on hyperspectral technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    The plate count method is commonly used to detect the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in pork, which is timeconsuming and destructive. It has also been used to study the changes of the TVC in pork under different storage conditions. In recent years, many scholars have explored the non-destructive methods on detecting TVC by using visible near infrared (VIS/NIR) technology and hyperspectral technology. The TVC in chilled pork was monitored under high oxygen condition in this study by using hyperspectral technology in order to evaluate the changes of total bacterial count during storage, and then evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the storage condition. The VIS/NIR hyperspectral images of samples stored in high oxygen condition was acquired by a hyperspectral system in range of 400 1100nm. The actual reference value of total bacteria was measured by standard plate count method, and the results were obtained in 48 hours. The reflection spectra of the samples are extracted and used for the establishment of prediction model for TVC. The spectral preprocessing methods of standard normal variate transformation (SNV), multiple scatter correction (MSC) and derivation was conducted to the original reflectance spectra of samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) of TVC was performed and optimized to be the prediction model. The results show that the near infrared hyperspectral technology based on 400-1100nm combined with PLSR model can describe the growth pattern of the total bacteria count of the chilled pork under the condition of high oxygen very vividly and rapidly. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the nondestructive method of TVC based on NIR hyperspectral has great potential in monitoring of edible safety in processing and storage of meat.

  2. Liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage: catalytic hydrogen generation under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xin-Bo; Xu, Qiang

    2010-05-25

    There is a demand for a sufficient and sustainable energy supply. Hence, the search for applicable hydrogen storage materials is extremely important owing to the diversified merits of hydrogen energy. Lithium and sodium borohydride, ammonia borane, hydrazine, and formic acid have been extensively investigated as promising hydrogen storage materials based on their relatively high hydrogen content. Significant advances, such as hydrogen generation temperatures and reaction kinetics, have been made in the catalytic hydrolysis of aqueous lithium and sodium borohydride and ammonia borane as well as in the catalytic decomposition of hydrous hydrazine and formic acid. In this Minireview we briefly survey the research progresses in catalytic hydrogen generation from these liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage materials.

  3. Responses of fresh-cut products of four mango cultivars under two different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonu; Rao, Tadapaneni Venkata Ramana

    2017-05-01

    Due to availability of minimally processed products, the consumption of fresh produce has increased over recent years. The present study has been undertaken with the objective of screening of four mango cultivars ('Kesar', 'Rajapuri', 'Totapuri' and 'Ladvo') for evaluating the consequences of minimal processing on their quality attributes under storage at two different temperatures (5 ± 1 °C, 95% RH and 10 ± 1 °C, 87% RH) up to 12 days. The result of the study revealed significant impacts of low temperature storage on the quality parameters of fresh-cut mango cultivars. The evaluated bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, vitamin C and carotenoids were better retained in the samples stored at 5 °C as compared with that of 10 °C. Moreover, the storage of fresh-cut mango cultivars at 5 °C showed lower water loss and microbial contamination. Sensory analyses revealed that the storage of fresh-cut mango cultivars at 10 °C influenced overall acceptability due to changes in their visual perception, though taste, odor and firmness were less affected. This study revealed a significant variation in the storability of fresh-cut mango cultivars with respect to the storage temperature. Among currently studied four cultivars of mango, slices of 'Totapuri' showed comparatively the least change in color, firmness and sensory properties during storage at 5 and 10 °C and it can be a potential cultivar for fresh-cut processing.

  4. Effect of storage conditions on the weight and appearance of dried blood spot samples on various cellulose-based substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniff, Philip; Spooner, Neil

    2010-11-01

    Before shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) samples must be dried in order to protect the integrity of the spots. In this article, we examine the time required to dry blood spot samples and the effects of different environmental conditions on their integrity. Under ambient laboratory conditions, DBS samples on Whatman 903(®), FTA(®) and FTA(®) Elute substrates are dry within 90 min of spotting. An additional 5% of moisture is lost during subsequent storage with desiccant. When exposed to elevated conditions of temperature and relative humidity, the DBS samples absorb moisture. DBS samples on FTA lose this moisture on being returned to ambient conditions. DBS samples on 903 show no visible signs of deterioration when stored at elevated conditions. However, these conditions cause the DBS to diffuse through the FTA Elute substrate. Blood spots are dry within 90 min of spotting. However, the substrates examined behave differently when exposed to conditions of high relative humidity and temperature, in some cases resulting in the integrity of the substrate and DBS sample being compromised. It is recommended that these factors be investigated as part of method development and validation.

  5. Using Enhanced Grace Water Storage Data to Improve Drought Detection by the U.S. and North American Drought Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; Rodell, Matthew; Lawrimore, Jay; Li, Bailing; Reichle, Rolf; Heim, Richard; Rosencrans, Matthew; Tinker, Rich; Famiglietti, James S.; Svoboda, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites measure time variations of the Earth's gravity field enabling reliable detection of spatio-temporal variations in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), including groundwater. The U.S. and North American Drought Monitors rely heavily on precipitation indices and do not currently incorporate systematic observations of deep soil moisture and groundwater storage conditions. Thus GRACE has great potential to improve the Drought Monitors by filling this observational gap. GRACE TWS data were assimilating into the Catchment Land Surface Model using an ensemble Kalman smoother enabling spatial and temporal downscaling and vertical decomposition into soil moisture and groundwater components. The Drought Monitors combine several short- and long-term drought indicators expressed in percentiles as a reference to their historical frequency of occurrence. To be consistent, we generated a climatology of estimated soil moisture and ground water based on a 60-year Catchment model simulation, which was used to convert seven years of GRACE assimilated fields into drought indicator percentiles. At this stage we provide a preliminary evaluation of the GRACE assimilated moisture and indicator fields.

  6. New fuel vault criticality analysis at Chinshan nuclear power station with new approaches to improve the storage flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, P. H.

    2010-10-01

    The Chinshan new fuel vault (NFV) consists of 13 fuel storage racks, each rack may store 10 fuel assemblies. Prior to 2008, the NFV had never been used and the practice by the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) was to temporarily store the fuel assemblies in the shipping containers after received, until the inspection work was performed shortly before the outage, and then assemblies were loaded directly into the spent fuel pool (SFP). Starting from 2009, this practice has been revised since the new fuel contract would only supply a small amount of containers for storage, and the SFP would lose full-core-off load capability soon; therefore, use of NFV to store fuel assemblies following inspection becomes extremely crucial. The original Chinshan NFV criticality analysis was performed for the initial fuel design. Although many new fuel designs had been used (e.g., Atrium-10 reported in PBNC-14), no reanalysis had been performed because it was not anticipated that NFV would be used. Therefore, TPC requested the vendor to perform the analysis for Atrium-10. Originally, the vendor estimated that number of assemblies allowed to be stored would be limited severely to about 60. To enhance storage flexibility, Tpc proposed some new approaches: 1) All assemblies are assumed in vendor's standard method to contain a single limiting lattice for entire fuel length, it is suggested that axially zoned limiting lattices be selected based on characteristics of reloads to be delivered, and this significantly improves flexibility. 2) The maximum k-effective equation used by vendor was corrected (manufacturing tolerances were conservatively mistreated). Also, the vendor typically used 0.95 k-effective as the criterion, it is suggested that NUREG-0800 requirement (≤0.98 for optimum moderation conditions) be applied. After several iterations, all the 130 locations are allowed to store fuel. The analysis report has been approved by the authority in June 2008. (Author)

  7. New fuel vault criticality analysis at Chinshan nuclear power station with new approaches to improve the storage flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, P. H., E-mail: u808966@taipower.com.t [Taiwan Power Company, Department of Nuclear Generation, 242 Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 3, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    The Chinshan new fuel vault (NFV) consists of 13 fuel storage racks, each rack may store 10 fuel assemblies. Prior to 2008, the NFV had never been used and the practice by the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) was to temporarily store the fuel assemblies in the shipping containers after received, until the inspection work was performed shortly before the outage, and then assemblies were loaded directly into the spent fuel pool (SFP). Starting from 2009, this practice has been revised since the new fuel contract would only supply a small amount of containers for storage, and the SFP would lose full-core-off load capability soon; therefore, use of NFV to store fuel assemblies following inspection becomes extremely crucial. The original Chinshan NFV criticality analysis was performed for the initial fuel design. Although many new fuel designs had been used (e.g., Atrium-10 reported in PBNC-14), no reanalysis had been performed because it was not anticipated that NFV would be used. Therefore, TPC requested the vendor to perform the analysis for Atrium-10. Originally, the vendor estimated that number of assemblies allowed to be stored would be limited severely to about 60. To enhance storage flexibility, Tpc proposed some new approaches: 1) All assemblies are assumed in vendor's standard method to contain a single limiting lattice for entire fuel length, it is suggested that axially zoned limiting lattices be selected based on characteristics of reloads to be delivered, and this significantly improves flexibility. 2) The maximum k-effective equation used by vendor was corrected (manufacturing tolerances were conservatively mistreated). Also, the vendor typically used 0.95 k-effective as the criterion, it is suggested that NUREG-0800 requirement ({<=}0.98 for optimum moderation conditions) be applied. After several iterations, all the 130 locations are allowed to store fuel. The analysis report has been approved by the authority in June 2008. (Author)

  8. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  9. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  10. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro propagation of Cyathea atrovirens (Cyatheaceae: spore storage and sterilization conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Beatriz de Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyathea atrovirens occurs in a wide range of habitats in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. In the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul, this commonly found species is a target of intense exploitation, because of its ornamental characteristics. The in vitro cultura is an important tool for propagation which may contribute toward the reduction of extractivism. However, exogenous contamination of spores is an obstacle for the success of aseptic long-term cultures. This study evaluated the influence of different sterilization methods combined with storage conditions on the contamination of the in vitro cultures and the gametophytic development of C. atrovirens, in order to establish an efficient propagation protocol. Spores were obtained from plants collected in Novo Hamburgo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the first experiment, spores stored at 7oC were surface sterilized with 0.5, 0.8 and 2% of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO for 15 minutes and sown in Meyer’s culture medium. The cultures were maintained in a growth room at 26±1ºC for a 12-h photoperiod and photon flux density of 100μmol/m²/s provided by cool white fluorescent light. Contamination was assessed at 60 days, and gametophytic development was scored at 30, 60, 120 and 130 days of in vitro culture, analyzing 300 individuals for each treatment. There was no significant difference in culture contamination among the different sodium hypochlorite concentrations tested, and all treatments allowed for the development of cordiform gametophytes at 130 days of culture. In the second experiment, spores stored at 7 and -20°C were divided into two groups. Half of the spores were surface sterilized with 2% of NaClO for 15 minutes and the other half was not sterilized. All spores were sown in Meyer’s medium supplemented with one of the following antibiotics: nystatin, Micostatin® and actidione. The culture conditions and the procedures used for evaluating contamination and

  12. Effect of storage conditions on losses and crop utilization of nitrogen from solid cattle manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, G.M.; Shah, G.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Oenema, O.; Raza, A.S.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to quantify the effects of contrasting methods for storing solid cattle manure on: (i) total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balances during storage, and (ii) crop apparent N recovery (ANR) following manure application to arable land, with maize as a test

  13. The Effects of Storage Conditions on Lycopene Content and Color of Tomato Hot Pot Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato hot pot sauce (THPS at different storage temperatures (0, 25, and 37°C and with two kinds of packaging for 120 days was investigated in this study. High performance liquid chromatography was employed for detecting lycopene and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. The changes of lycopene and HMF during storage were regressed with kinetic equation of both zero-order and first-order models, and the latter fitted better. The kinetic equation constant (k value of lycopene or HMF at 37°C was higher than that at 25°C. The k value of lycopene of PET/PE (P1 packaged THPS was 1.60 times of that of PET/Al/EAA/PE (P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 2.12 times at 25°C. The k value of HMF of P1 packaged THPS was 1.69 times of that of P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 1.01 times at 25°C. Significant correlations between color index of L⁎, a⁎, and a⁎/b⁎ and lycopene or HMF were found at storage temperature. Browning color was attributed to both Maillard reaction and degradation of lycopene. In conclusion, lower storage temperature and stronger oxygen barrier property of package could maintain color stability and extend shelf life.

  14. Tutorial review of spent-fuel degradation mechanisms under dry-storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    This tutorial reviews our present understanding of fuel-rod degradation over a range of possible dry-storage environments. Three areas are covered: (1) why study fuel-rod degradation; (2) cladding-degradation mechanisms; and (3) the status of fuel-oxidation studies

  15. Comparing CO2 storage and advection conditions at night at different carboeuroflux sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Cescatti, A.; Feigenwinter, C.; Granier, A.; Grunwald, TH; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Montagnani, L.; Sedlák, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2005), s. 63-94 ISSN 0006-8314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : advection * CO2 storage * forest ecosystems Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  16. Effect of moisture content and storage conditions on the storability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Rhizopus sp. were more abundant with increasing moisture content. Air-tight .... jute bag. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of moisture and storage .... be due to contamination as a result of local method of processing.

  17. Thermal Energy Storage for the Small Packaged Terminal Air Conditioning Unit. Quarterly progress report, February 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    To finalize the IceBear design for full-scale production, build two preproduction prototypes, and confirm cost projections for production and market analysis. The 5 tasks being carried out are: Task 1--Finalize thermal energy storage tank design; Task 2--Finalize internal heat exchanger; Task 3--Finalize refrigerant management and control components; Task 4--Preproduction prototype laboratory testing; and Task 5--Reporting.

  18. Enhancing sedimentation by improving flow conditions using parallel retrofit baffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Scott, Eric; Rochfort, Quintin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, placing parallel-connected baffles in the vicinity of the inlet was proposed to improve hydraulic conditions for enhancing TSS (total suspended solids) removal. The purpose of the retrofit baffle design is to divide the large and fast inflow into smaller and slower flows to increase flow uniformity. This avoids short-circuiting and increases residence time in the sedimentation basin. The newly proposed parallel-connected baffle configuration was assessed in the laboratory by comparing its TSS removal performance and the optimal flow residence time with those from the widely used series-connected baffles. The experimental results showed that the parallel-connected baffles outperformed the series-connected baffles because it could disperse flow faster and in less space by splitting the large inflow into many small branches instead of solely depending on flow internal friction over a longer flow path, as was the case under the series-connected baffles. Being able to dampen faster flow before entering the sedimentation basin is critical to reducing the possibility of disturbing any settled particles, especially under high inflow conditions. Also, for a large sedimentation basin, it may be more economically feasible to deploy the proposed parallel retrofit baffle in the vicinity of the inlet than series-connected baffles throughout the entire settling basin. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving flight condition situational awareness through Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In aviation, there is currently a lack of accurate and timely situational information, specifically weather data, which is essential when dealing with the unpredictable complexities that can arise while flying. For example, weather conditions that require immediate evasive action by the flight crew, such as isolated heavy rain, micro bursts, and atmospheric turbulence, require that the flight crew receive near real-time and precise information about the type, position, and intensity of those conditions. Human factors issues arise in considering how to display the various sources of weather information to the users of that information and how to integrate this display into the existing environment. In designing weather information display systems, it is necessary to meet the demands of different users, which requires an examination of the way in which the users process and use weather information. Using Human Centered Design methodologies and concepts will result in a safer, more efficient and more intuitive solution. Specific goals of this approach include 1) Enabling better fuel planning; 2) Allowing better divert strategies; 3) Ensuring pilots, navigators, dispatchers and mission planners are referencing weather from the same sources; 4) Improving aircrew awareness of aviation hazards such as turbulence, icing, hail and convective activity; 5) Addressing inconsistent availability of hazard forecasts outside the United States Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ); and 6) Promoting goal driven approaches versus event driven (prediction).

  20. An urgent need to improve life conditions of seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, R

    2010-10-01

    In the fall of 2007, the Government of Quebec set up a Public Consultation on Living Conditions of Seniors. Fifty sessions were held in 26 cities across all 17 regions of the province. More than 4000 seniors attended the sessions and 275 briefs were received from scientists and associations. Three themes were identified in the report published in 2008: supporting seniors and their caregivers, reinforcing the place of seniors in society, and preventing problems associated with aging (suicide, abuse, addictions). The main actions that I recommended included: Increasing the Guaranteed Income Supplement to prevent poverty; Modifying pension plans and working conditions to allow for progressive retirement; Making a major investment in home care to provide access to services regardless of place of residence; Introducing an Autonomy Support Benefit and autonomy insurance program for financing services to support people with disabilities; Generalizing an Integrated Service Delivery Network providing services to frail older people; Better training for professionals in gerontology. I also recommended setting up a National Policy on Seniors to align all government departments and agencies, municipalities and the private sector around a vision, objectives and a set of actions for improving the integration of seniors in an aging society. This would contribute to a more equitable, interdependent and wiser society. Unfortunately, the Government did not support these recommendations. It is now time for scientists to get involved in leading policy on seniors and in the political arena.

  1. A study on EUV reticle surface molecular contamination under different storage conditions in a HVM foundry fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, SherJang; Yatzor, Brett; Taylor, Ron; Wood, Obert; Mangat, Pawitter

    2017-03-01

    The prospect of EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) insertion into HVM (High Volume Manufacturing) has never been this promising. As technology is prepared for "lab to fab" transition, it becomes important to comprehend challenges associated with integrating EUVL infrastructure within existing high volume chip fabrication processes in a foundry fab. The existing 193nm optical lithography process flow for reticle handling and storage in a fab atmosphere is well established and in-fab reticle contamination concerns are mitigated with the reticle pellicle. However EUVL reticle pellicle is still under development and if available, may only provide protection against particles but not molecular contamination. HVM fab atmosphere is known to be contaminated with trace amounts of AMC's (Atmospheric Molecular Contamination). If such contaminants are organic in nature and get absorbed on the reticle surface, EUV photon cause photo-dissociation resulting into carbon generation which is known to reduce multilayer reflectivity and also degrades exposure uniformity. Chemical diffusion and aggregation of other ions is also reported under the e-beam exposure of a EUV reticle which is known to cause haze issues in optical lithography. Therefore it becomes paramount to mitigate absorbed molecular contaminant concerns on EUVL reticle surface. In this paper, we have studied types of molecular contaminants that are absorbed on an EUVL reticle surface under HVM fab storage and handling conditions. Effect of storage conditions (gas purged vs atmospheric) in different storage pods (Dual pods, Reticle Clamshells) is evaluated. Absorption analysis is done both on ruthenium capping layer as well as TaBN absorber. Ru surface chemistry change as a result of storage is also studied. The efficacy of different reticle cleaning processes to remove absorbed contaminant is evaluated as well.

  2. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasqualotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM. The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm. In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt. The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, internal CO2 concentration (Ci, transpiration (T, water use efficiency (WUE, and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi. In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment, baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were

  3. Post-harvest quality model of pineapple guava fruit according to storage and weather conditions of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The post-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruit is determined by the storage and prevailing weather conditions during growth and development. This study proposes a model for post-harvest fruit quality according to the storage and weather conditions in the pineapple guava growing region. Physiologically ripe fruit were collected during two harvests from two locations within the Department of Cundinamarca (Colombia: Tenjo and San Francisco de Sales. The fruits were stored at 18 ± 1 °C (76 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, over 11 days and at 5 ± 1 °C (87 ± 5% RH, over 31 days, and the quality attributes were evaluated every two days. Models of the most significant physio-chemical quality characteristics of the post-harvest fruit were developed by using the Excel® Solver tool for all data obtained in the two crop periods. The results showed that storage and prevailing weather conditions, which differed according to the altitude of the growing site, had considerable impacts on the physio-chemical characteristics of the fruit throughout the post-harvest ripening process.

  4. Impact of food processing and storage conditions on nitrate content in canned vegetable-based infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Meremäe, K; Kiis, A

    2009-08-01

    The nitrate and nitrite contents were determined in canned vegetable-based infant foods of five varieties. Furthermore, changes in nitrate content during industrial processing were studied. Samples were taken from raw materials, homogenized mixtures, and final products after sterilization, and then analyzed for nitrate and nitrite content by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Processing steps preceding heat treatment, such as vegetable peeling and washing, decreased the nitrate concentrations in the range of 17 to 52%. During processing, the nitrate content in canned infant foods decreased 39 to 50%, compared with nitrate concentration in the raw-vegetable mixture. The final nitrate concentration in infant foods depends mainly on the initial nitrate content of the raw-vegetable mixture. The effect of storage time (24 and 48 h) and temperature (4 to 6 degrees C and 20 to 22 degrees C) on nitrate and nitrite content in opened canned infant-food samples was studied. After 24 h of storage at refrigerated and room temperatures, the mean nitrate content increased on average by 7 and 13%, and after 48 h of storage by 15 and 29%, respectively. The nitrite content in all analyzed samples was below the quantification limit. Storage requirements of industrial manufacturers must be followed strictly. Opened can foods, stored under refrigerated conditions, have to be consumed within 2 days, as recommended by manufacturers. The infant-food producers must pay more attention to the quality of raw materials. Nitrate content analyses should be added as compulsory tests to the quality assurance programs.

  5. A Study of Demand Response Effect of Thermal Storage Air-Conditioning Systems in Consideration of Electricity Market Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omagari, Yuko; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    This paper evaluates the economic impact of the introduction of customer-owned Thermal Storage Air-conditioning (TSA) systems, in an electricity market, from the viewpoint of the load service entity. We perform simulations on the condition that several thousand customers install TSA systems and shift peak demand in an electricity market by one percent. Our numerical results indicate that the purchase cost of the LSE was reduced through load management of customers with TSA systems. The introduction of TSA systems also reduced the volatility of market clearing price and reduced the whole-trade cost in an electricity market.

  6. Optimization of HPV DNA detection in urine by improving collection, storage, and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsters, A; Van den Bergh, J; Micalessi, I; Biesmans, S; Bogers, J; Hens, A; De Coster, I; Ieven, M; Van Damme, P

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of using urine for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA have been evaluated in disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and screening for cervical cancers in specific subgroups. HPV DNA testing in urine is being considered for important purposes, notably the monitoring of HPV vaccination in adolescent girls and young women who do not wish to have a vaginal examination. The need to optimize and standardize sampling, storage, and processing has been reported.In this paper, we examined the impact of a DNA-conservation buffer, the extraction method, and urine sampling on the detection of HPV DNA and human DNA in urine provided by 44 women with a cytologically normal but HPV DNA-positive cervical sample. Ten women provided first-void and midstream urine samples. DNA analysis was performed using real-time PCR to allow quantification of HPV and human DNA.The results showed that an optimized method for HPV DNA detection in urine should (a) prevent DNA degradation during extraction and storage, (b) recover cell-free HPV DNA in addition to cell-associated DNA, (c) process a sufficient volume of urine, and (d) use a first-void sample.In addition, we found that detectable human DNA in urine may not be a good internal control for sample validity. HPV prevalence data that are based on urine samples collected, stored, and/or processed under suboptimal conditions may underestimate infection rates.

  7. Application of a Surimi-Based Coating to Improve the Quality Attributes of Shrimp during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf Eddin, Abdulhakim; Tahergorabi, Reza

    2017-09-05

    Shrimp is a popular seafood throughout the world. However, shrimp is highly perishable due to biochemical, microbiological, or physical changes during postmortem storage. In this study, the effect of a surimi-based coating with and without montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay on shrimp quality was evaluated during eight days of refrigerator storage. Use of a surimi-based coating resulted in reductions of aerobic plate counts (APC) up to 2 log units. The combined effect of the MMT and coating was observed. Surimi-based coating with MMT resulted in lower APC ( p coating with MMT to the shrimp samples improved sensory quality and delayed lipid oxidation and color deterioration during storage time. In general, better texture was observed when coating was applied either with or without MMT. This study suggests that surimi-based coating may improve the quality of shrimp during refrigerated storage.

  8. Storage conditions of skin affect tissue structure and in vitro percutaneus penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    skin at -20oC causes structural changes in the upper Stratum Corneum observable with image techniques such as multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy. The presently available literature does, however, not support that the observed structural damage to the integrity is sufficient to cause...... structural changes in upper as well as deeper parts of Stratum Corneum. These more severe changes corresponds to significantly increased percutaneous penetration of chemicals applied to skin specimens stored at very low temperatures. Storage of human skin for later use in in vitro studies on percutaneous......For logistic and practical reasons it is difficult to perform in vitro studies on percutaneous penetration on fresh human skin obtained directly from surgery. Skin samples are therefore often kept frozen until use. The present chapter present the available literature on the topic. Storage of human...

  9. Measuring gravity change caused by water storage variations: Performance assessment under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Lund, Sanne; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface water content is an important state variable in hydrological systems. Established methods to measure subsurface water content have a small support scale which causes scaling problems in many applications. Time-lapse relative gravimetry can give an integrated measure of soil water storage...... changes over tens to hundreds of cubic meters. The use of time-lapse gravimetry in hydrology has until recent years been limited by the large efforts required to obtain precise and accurate gravity data at the 1μGal (10−8ms−2) scale. A typical modern relative gravimeter, the Scintrex CG-5, has...... lead to a loss of accuracy. As a performance test of a CG-5 for applications of time-lapse gravity in hydrology, we have measured the change in water storage in an indoor basin. The experiment was designed to resemble a field application, e.g. a pumping test, a forced infiltration experiment...

  10. Irradiated ground beef: sensory and quality changes during storage under various packaging conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murano, P.S.; Murano, E.A.; Olson, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Ground beef patties (irradiated with 2 kGy and nonirradiated) were packaged using oxygen permeable (polyolefin) or oxygen impermeable material (polyethylene). Samples were irradiated in air and stored in air; irradiated under vacuum and stored under vacuum; or irradiated under vacuum and stored in air. Changes in flavor, texture, juiciness or aftertaste were evaluated after either 1 or 7 days storage at -25 degrees C prior to cooking. Irradiated 'Vac/Air' samples were more tender, irradiated 'Vac' samples were more moist, and irradiated 'Air' samples had the least aftertaste. A 3 log10 reduction in total aerobic counts was detected immediately after irradiation. No difference in lipid oxidation was found within the first week of storage, regardless of packaging atmosphere. Shelf life of ground beef patties was extended 55 days at 4 degrees C

  11. The improved damping of superconductor bearings for 35 kWh superconductor flywheel energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.H.; Park, B.J.; Jung, S.Y.; Han, S.C.; Lee, W.R.; Bae, Y.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We made a 35 kWh superconductor flywheel energy storage system. ► The damping coefficient of the superconductor bearing was increased over 3000 N s/m. ► The source of damping was discussed. -- Abstract: A 35 kWh Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage system (SFES) using hybrid bearing sets, which is composed of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) bearing and an active magnet damper (AMD), has been developed at KEPCO Research Institute (KEPRI). Damping is a source of energy loss but necessary for the stability of the flywheel system. We found that the damping of HTS bearings can be improved by thermal insulating bolts, which play a role of passive type external damper. To investigate the source of the increased damping, damping coefficients were measured with HTS bearings using insulating bolts made of three kinds of polymer materials. The damping coefficient was raised over 3000 N s/m in the case of PEEK bolts. The value was almost a quarter of the AMD. In this study, thermoelastic and Coulomb friction damping mechanisms are discussed. The main damping mechanism was the thermoelastic damping of the bolts themselves. And interfacial gap between the insulating bolt and metal chamber, which increased during the cooling process, was considered to be the cause of the anisotropic damping coefficients. Finally, the effects of the HTS bearings on the first critical speed are shown

  12. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Stationary Energy Storage System Locating and Sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of a stationary ultra-capacitor energy storage system (ESS in urban rail transit allows for the recuperation of vehicle braking energy for increasing energy savings as well as for a better vehicle voltage profile. This paper aims to obtain the best energy savings and voltage profile by optimizing the location and size of ultra-capacitors. This paper firstly raises the optimization objective functions from the perspectives of energy savings, regenerative braking cancellation and installation cost, respectively. Then, proper mathematical models of the DC (direct current traction power supply system are established to simulate the electrical load-flow of the traction supply network, and the optimization objections are evaluated in the example of a Chinese metro line. Ultimately, a methodology for optimal ultra-capacitor energy storage system locating and sizing is put forward based on the improved genetic algorithm. The optimized result shows that certain preferable and compromised schemes of ESSs’ location and size can be obtained, acting as a compromise between satisfying better energy savings, voltage profile and lower installation cost.

  13. Comparing CO2 Storage and Advection Conditions at Night at Different Carboeuroflux Sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, C.; Cescatti, A.; Feigenwinter, C.; Granier, A.; Grünwald, T.; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Montagnani, L.; Sedlák, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2005), s. 63-94 ISSN 0006-8314 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Grant - others:Carboeuroflux(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Advection * CO2 storage * Forest ecosystems Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  14. Effects of processing and storage conditions of cocoyam strips on the quality of fries

    OpenAIRE

    Oguntowo, Oyindamola; Obadina, Adewale O.; Sobukola, Olajide P.; Adegunwa, Mojisola O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The effects of blanching time and temperature on the sensory and textural properties of frozen cocoyam strips were studied for cocoyam varieties. The most preferred variety after sensory evaluation was blanched at 90?C for 5?min, reproduced, and frozen at a temperature of ?18?C for storage studies over a period of 12?weeks with Irish potato as control. Sensory evaluation and instrumental texture analysis of frozen fried samples were conducted at 3?weeks intervals for 12?weeks. Sensor...

  15. Study of blasting seismic effects of underground powerhouse of pumped storage project in granite condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sheng; Li, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Though the test of blasting vibration, the blasting seismic wave propagation laws in southern granite pumped storage power project are studied. Attenuation coefficient of seismic wave and factors coefficient are acquired by the method of least squares regression analysis according to Sadaovsky empirical formula, and the empirical formula of seismic wave is obtained. This paper mainly discusses on the test of blasting vibration and the procedure of calculation. Our practice might as well serve as a reference for similar projects to come.

  16. A Porphyrin Complex as a Self-Conditioned Electrode Material for High-Performance Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Chen, Zhi; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Mueller, Jonathan E; Jung, Christoph; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Diemant, Thomas; Fuhr, Olaf; Jacob, Timo; Behm, R Jürgen; Ruben, Mario; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2017-08-21

    The novel functionalized porphyrin [5,15-bis(ethynyl)-10,20-diphenylporphinato]copper(II) (CuDEPP) was used as electrodes for rechargeable energy-storage systems with an extraordinary combination of storage capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. The ability of CuDEPP to serve as an electron donor or acceptor supports various energy-storage applications. Combined with a lithium negative electrode, the CuDEPP electrode exhibited a long cycle life of several thousand cycles and fast charge-discharge rates up to 53 C and a specific energy density of 345 Wh kg -1 at a specific power density of 29 kW kg -1 . Coupled with a graphite cathode, the CuDEPP anode delivered a specific power density of 14 kW kg -1 . Whereas the capacity is in the range of that of ordinary lithium-ion batteries, the CuDEPP electrode has a power density in the range of that of supercapacitors, thus opening a pathway toward new organic electrodes with excellent rate capability and cyclic stability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Conditioning and storage of low level radioactive waste in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    2000-01-01

    FR Yugoslavia is a country without any nuclear power plant on its territory. In the last forty years in the country, as a result of the two research reactors operation and also from radionuclides applications in medicine, industry and agriculture, radioactive waste materials of different levels of specific activity are generated. As a temporary solution, these radioactive waste materials are stored in the two interim storage facility. Since one of the storage facilities is completely full with radioactive wastes, packed in metal drums and plastic barrels, and the second one has an effective space for the next few years, attempts are made in the 'Vinca' Institute of Nuclear Sciences in developing the the immobilization process, for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes and their safe disposal. As an immobilization process, cementation process is investigated. Developed immobilization process has, as a final goal, production of solidified waste-matrix mixture form, that is easy for handling and satisfies requirements for interim storage and final disposal. Radioactive wastes immobilized in inactive matrices are to be placed into concrete containers for further manipulation and disposal

  18. Vitamin D3 in Pigs: Distribution, Storage and Turnover under Various Input Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burild, Anders

    Vitamin D3 is important for the mineralization of the skeleton to prevent the deficiency diseases rickets and osteoporosis, and to maintain a healthy skeleton throughout life. Vitamin D3 is synthesized in the skin after exposure to the sun. Due to the low angle of the sun during wintertime at high...... latitudes, no or only a negligible amount of vitamin D3 is synthesized and the body needs to rely on its storages of vitamin D3, or dietary vitamin D3 in the form of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The information of the size of the storages of vitamin D3 in humans is sparse, but very low levels...... of vitamin D3 is found in tissues from animals fed physiologically relevant doses of vitamin D3. The natural synthesis of vitamin D3 might, however, influence on the storages of vitamin D3. The different inherent properties of the two forms of vitamin D3 might also affect the tissue distribution of vitamin D...

  19. Surface Modification of MXenes: A Pathway to Improve MXene Electrode Performance in Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2017-12-31

    The recent discovery of layered transition metal carbides (MXenes) is one of the most important developments in two-dimensional (2D) materials. Preliminary theoretical and experimental studies suggest a wide range of potential applications for MXenes. The MXenes are prepared by chemically etching ‘A’-layer element from layered ternary metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides (MAX phases) through aqueous acid treatment, which results in various surface terminations such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine. It has been found that surface terminations play a critical role in defining MXene properties and affects MXene performance in different applications such as electrochemical energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, sensors and catalysis. Also, the electronic, thermoelectric, structural, plasmonic and optical properties of MXenes largely depend upon surface terminations. Thus, controlling the surface chemistry if MXenes can be an efficient way to improve their properties. This research mainly aims to perform surface modifications of two commonly studied MXenes; Ti2C and Ti3C2, via chemical, thermal or physical processes to enhance electrochemical energy storage properties. The as-prepared and surface modified MXenes have been studied as electrode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs). In pursuit of desirable MXene surface, we have developed an in-situ room temperature oxidation process, which resulted in TiO2/MXene nanocomposite and enhanced Li-ion storage. The idea of making metal oxide and MXene nanocomposites was taken to the next level by combining a high capacity anode materials – SnO2 – and MXene. By taking advantage of already existing surface functional groups (–OH), we have developed a composite of SnO2/MXene by atomic layer deposition (ALD) which showed enhanced capacity and excellent cyclic stability. Thermal annealing of MXene at elevated temperature under different atmospheres was

  20. A participatory model for improving occupational health and safety: improving informal sector working conditions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manothum, Aniruth; Rukijkanpanich, Jittra; Thawesaengskulthai, Damrong; Thampitakkul, Boonwa; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Arphorn, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of an Occupational Health and Safety Management Model for informal sector workers in Thailand. The studied model was characterized by participatory approaches to preliminary assessment, observation of informal business practices, group discussion and participation, and the use of environmental measurements and samples. This model consisted of four processes: capacity building, risk analysis, problem solving, and monitoring and control. The participants consisted of four local labor groups from different regions, including wood carving, hand-weaving, artificial flower making, and batik processing workers. The results demonstrated that, as a result of applying the model, the working conditions of the informal sector workers had improved to meet necessary standards. This model encouraged the use of local networks, which led to cooperation within the groups to create appropriate technologies to solve their problems. The authors suggest that this model could effectively be applied elsewhere to improve informal sector working conditions on a broader scale.

  1. Multiple-unit tablet of probiotic bacteria for improved storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hee Jun Park,1 Ga Hyeon Lee,1 Joonho Jun,1 Miwon Son,1 Myung Joo Kang2 1Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi, 2College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam, Korea Abstract: The aim of this study was to formulate probiotics-loaded pellets in a tablet form to improve storage stability, acid tolerability, and in vivo intestinal protective effect. Bacteria-loaded pellets primarily prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate were compressed into tablets with highly compressible excipients and optimized for flow properties, hardness, and disintegration time. The optimized probiotic tablet consisted of enteric-coated pellets (335 mg, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH102, 37.5 mg, and porous calcium silicate (25 mg and allowed whole survival of living bacteria during the compaction process with sufficient tablet hardness (13 kp and disintegration time (14 minutes. The multiple-unit tablet showed remarkably higher storage stability under ambient conditions (25°C/60% relative humidity over 6 months and resistance to acidic medium compared to uncoated strains or pellets. Repeated intake of this multiple-unit tablet significantly lowered plasma level of endotoxin, a pathogenic material, compared to repeated intake of bare probiotics or marketed products in rats. These results, therefore, suggest that the multiple-unit tablet is advantageous to better bacterial viability and gain the beneficial effects on the gut flora, including the improvement of intestinal barrier function. Keywords: probiotics, multiple-unit tablet, bacterial viability, acid resistance, intestinal barrier function

  2. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of the INSTAR [INertial STorage And Recovery] System: A Flywheel-based, High Power Energy Storage System for Improved Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Talancon, Daniel Raul

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of the INSTAR system: a high-power, cost-effective energy storage system designed to improve HEV regenerative braking capabilities by combining chemical batteries with an electromechanical flywheel. This combination allows the regenerative braking system in hybrid vehicles to recapture more available braking energy at a lower battery pack charging current, increasing vehicle energy efficiency while also potentially increasing battery life.A prototype flyw...

  3. Patient preferences in the treatment of hemophilia A: impact of storage conditions on product choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischer B

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bernd Tischer,1 Renato Marino,2 Mariasanta Napolitano3 1Kantar Health, Munich, Germany; 2Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, University Hospital of Bari, Apulia, Italy; 3University of Palermo, Reference Regional Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis Hematology Unit, Palermo, Italy Objectives: To gain insights into the usage of factor VIII (FVIII products by patients diagnosed with moderate/severe hemophilia A, and to assess the impact and perceived importance of product storage.Methods: In this study, 200 patients diagnosed with moderate or severe hemophilia A across seven countries participated. Data were collected via a 30-minute, face-to-face interview in six countries and via a web-based survey in the seventh country. The questionnaire evaluated the effect of six features associated with FVIII products on the choice of the product; the structure and flow of data collection was designed to eliminate potential bias.Results: Two-thirds of the respondents were using recombinant FVIII products. Only 17% were generally dissatisfied with current FVIII products, whereas >40% of the respondents were dissatisfied with frequency of administration and storage issues when traveling. The majority noted restrictions in their daily activities, particularly travel and sports. Most of them (85%, stored their product in the refrigerator and of these, 88% believed that it should always be stored there. These patients were also less satisfied with the product overall, more concerned about storage temperature, more restricted in daily activities, and spent more time on preparation and injection compared with patients who stored their product at room temperature. Conjoint analysis revealed that origin of FVIII (plasma-derived vs recombinant was the strongest driver of product choice among all respondents, followed by storage flexibility (temperature, reconstitution device, and administration frequency. In this study, we did not investigate the efficacy and safety of

  4. Reproducibility of NMR analysis of urine samples: impact of sample preparation, storage conditions, and animal health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining (1)H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at -20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  5. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schreier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  6. Influences of Soaking Temperature and Storage Conditions on Hardening of Soybeans (Glycine max) and Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takako; Sato, Yoko; Iijima, Kumiko; Kasai, Midori

    2017-07-01

    The influences of soaking treatment and storage conditions on the softening of cooked beans, namely, soybeans and red kidney beans, were investigated. It was revealed that the softening of fresh soybeans and fresh red kidney beans was suppressed during subsequent boiling after soaking treatment at 50 and 60 °C. Furthermore, in treated aged soybeans and red kidney beans that were subjected to storage at 30 °C/75% relative humidity for 6 mo and soaking treatment at 50 to 60 °C, the hardness during cooking was further amplified. This suggested that the mechanism of softening suppression differs depending on the influences of soaking and storage. Analysis of the pectin fraction in alcohol insoluble solid showed insolubilization of metal ions upon storage at high temperature and high humidity in both soybeans and red kidney beans, which suggests interaction between Ca ions and hemicellulose or cellulose as cell wall polysaccharides. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that aged soybeans exhibited a shift in the thermal transition temperature of glycinin-based protein to a higher temperature compared with fresh soybeans. From the results of DSC and scanning electron microscopy for aged red kidney beans, damaged starch is not conspicuous in the raw state after storage but is abundant upon soaking treatment. As for the influence of soaking at 60 °C, it can be suggested that its influence on cell wall crosslinking was large in soybeans and red kidney beans in both a fresh state and an aged state. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Marziah Mahmood; Sobri Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water condition is a research project under Program Research of Sustainable Production of High Yielding Irrigated Rice under Minimal Water Input (IRPA- 01-01-03-0000/ PR0068/ 0504). Several agencies were involved in this project such as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). The project started in early 2004 with approved IRPA fund of RM 275,000.00 for 3 years. The main objective of the project is to generate superior genotypes for minimal water requirement through induced mutation techniques. A cultivated rice Oryza sativa cv MR219 treated with gamma radiation at 300 and 400 Gray were used in the experiment. Two hundred gm M2 seeds from each dose were screened under minimal water stress in greenhouse at Mardi Seberang Perai. Five hundred panicles with good filled grains were selected for paddy field screening with simulate precise water stress regime. Thirty eight potential lines with required adaptive traits were selected in M3. After several series of selection, 12 promising mutant line were observed tolerance to minimal water stress where two promising mutant lines designated as MR219-4 and MR219-9 were selected for further testing under several stress environments. (author)

  8. Sustainable Livestock Farming for Improving Socio-Economic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsuddoha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm was chosen to develop a model for the case industry. A Simulation model was developed using simul8 software to construct the real poultry operation. The objectives of this paper are to construct a sustainable model for a case poultry industry along with socio-economic issues. Later, simulated model output will examine it through various performance indicators (KPIs to find out the impacts on socio-economic benefits. Numbers of KPIs have been briefly discussed in light of the research problem to illustrate positive effects of sustainable production.

  9. Nanoconfinement in activated mesoporous carbon of calcium borohydride for improved reversible hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comănescu, Cezar; Capurso, Giovanni; Maddalena, Amedeo

    2012-09-28

    Mesoporous carbon frameworks were synthesized using the soft-template method. Ca(BH(4))(2) was incorporated into activated mesoporous carbon by the incipient wetness method. The activation of mesoporous carbon was necessary to optimize the surface area and pore size. Thermal programmed absorption measurements showed that the confinement of this borohydride into carbon nanoscaffolds improved its reversible capacity (relative to the reactive portion) and performance of hydrogen storage compared to unsupported borohydride. Hydrogen release from the supported hydride started at a temperature as low as 100 °C and the dehydrogenation rate was fast compared to the bulk borohydride. In addition, the hydrogen pressure necessary to regenerate the borohydride from the dehydrogenation products was reduced.

  10. An Evaluation Model for Tailings Storage Facilities Using Improved Neural Networks and Fuzzy Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mine industry, tailings storage facility (TSF, as the important facility of mining, has attracted increasing attention for its safety problems. However, the problems of low accuracy and slow operation rate often occur in current TSF safety evaluation models. This paper establishes a reasonable TSF safety evaluation index system and puts forward a new TSF safety evaluation model by combining the theories for the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and improved back-propagation (BP neural network algorithm. The varying proportions of cross validation were calculated, demonstrating that this method has better evaluation performance with higher learning efficiency and faster convergence speed and avoids the oscillation in the training process in traditional BP neural network method and other primary neural network methods. The entire analysis shows the combination of the two methods increases the accuracy and reliability of the safety evaluation, and it can be well applied in the TSF safety evaluation.

  11. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  12. Mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao He; Wang Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The corrosion resistance of V-based phase is much lower than that of C14 Laves phase of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. - Abstract: In this work, the mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys were investigated systemically. Several key factors for example corrosion resistance, pulverization resistance and oxidation resistance were evaluated individually. The V-based solid solution phase has much lower anti-corrosion ability than C14 Laves phase in KOH solution, and the addition of Cr in V-Ti-based alloys can suppress the dissolution of the main hydrogen absorption elements of the V-based phase in the alkaline solution. During the charge/discharge cycling, the alloy particles crack or break into several pieces, which accelerates their corrosion/oxidation and increases the contact resistance of the alloy electrodes. Proper decreasing the Vickers hardness and enhancing the fracture toughness can increase the pulverization resistance of the alloy particles. The oxidation layer thickness on the alloy particle surface obviously increases during charge/discharge cycling. This deteriorates their electro-catalyst activation to the electrochemical reaction, and leads to a quick degradation. Therefore, enhancing the oxide resistance can obviously improve the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys.

  13. Preliminary safety analysis of criticality for dual-purpose metal cask under dry storage conditions in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeman, E-mail: tmkim@korad.or.kr [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Dho, Hoseog; Baeg, Chang-Yeal [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gang-uk [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co. (KONES), Hyundai Plaza, 341-4 Jangdae-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • DPC is under development led by Korea Radioactive Waste Agency in South Korea. • The results of criticality analysis with respect to design requirements. • The k{sub eff} under normal and off-normal conditions were 0.36 and 0.46, respectively. • In addition, the k{sub eff} under a postulated accident condition was evaluated to be 0.94. - Abstract: A dual-purpose metal cask is under development led by Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) in Korea, for the dry interim storage and long-distance transportation. This cask comprises a main body made of carbon steel and a stainless steel Dry Shielded Canister (DSC), with stainless steel baskets inside to contain spent fuel assemblies. In this study, nuclear criticality safety analysis was conducted as a part of safety assessment of the metal cask. Analysis to show criticality safety in accordance with regulatory requirements of PWR spent fuel storage was carried out. 10CFR72.124 “Criteria for nuclear criticality safety” and the Regulatory Guide of the American Nuclear Society, ANSI/ANS-57.9 “Design Criteria for an Independent Spent Fuel” and US NRC's “Standard Review Plan for Spent Fuel Dry Storage Systems at a General License Facility” were employed as regulatory standard and criteria. This paper shows results of criticality analysis with respect to each designated criterion with modeling of a virtual nuclear fuel assembly and a cask body that induces the maximum reactivity among various design basis fuels of the metal cask. In addition, the sensitivity analysis of nuclear criticality taking into account the various modeling deviation such as manufacturing tolerance and modeling assumptions of conventional models was carried out to ensure the reliability of the analysis result. The criticality evaluation result of the metal cask and the maximum k{sub eff} under normal and off-normal conditions were 0.36884 and 0.46255, respectively. The maximum k{sub eff} under a postulated

  14. Tightness and suitability evaluation of abandoned salt caverns served as hydrocarbon energies storage under adverse geological conditions (AGC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Liu; Jie, Chen; Deyi, Jiang; Xilin, Shi; Yinping, Li; Daemen, J.J.K.; Chunhe, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tightness conditions are set to assess use of old caverns for hydrocarbons storage. • Gas seepage and tightness around caverns are numerically simulated under AGC. • κ of interlayers act as a key factor to affect the tightness and use of salt cavern. • The threshold upper permeability of interlayers is proposed for storing oil and gas. • Three types of real application are introduced by using the tightness conditions. - Abstract: In China, the storage of hydrocarbon energies is extremely insufficient partially due to the lack of storage space, but on the other side the existence of a large number of abandoned salt caverns poses a serious threat to safety and geological environments. Some of these caverns, defined as abandoned caverns under adverse geological conditions (AGC), are expected to store hydrocarbon energies (natural gas or crude oil) to reduce the risk of potential disasters and simultaneously support the national strategic energy reserve of China. Herein, a series of investigations primarily related to the tightness and suitability of the caverns under AGC is performed. Laboratory measurements to determine the physical and mechanical properties as well as porosity and permeability of bedded salt cores from a near target cavern are implemented to determine the petro-mechanical properties and basic parameters for further study. The results show that the mechanical properties of the bedded rock salts are satisfactory for the stability of caverns. The interface between the salt and interlayers exhibits mechanical properties that are between those of rock salt and interlayers and in particular is not a weak zone. The silty mudstone interlayers have relatively high porosity and permeability, likely due to their low content of clay minerals and the presence of halite-filled cracks. The conditions for evaluating the tightness and suitability of a cavern for storing hydrocarbons are proposed, including “No tensile stress,”

  15. Degradation rates of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas L. oil and pressed seeds under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasukarratchai, Naphatsarnan; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2017-03-01

    Phorbol esters (PEs), found in Jatropha curcas crude oil (JCO) and J. curcas pressed seeds (JPS), are known as bioactive compounds in agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. The degradation rates of PEs in JCO and JPS under various conditions is important for the utilisation of PEs. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the PE degradation rates in JCO and JPS under different storage conditions. PE degradation rates were found to be first-order reactions. The slowest degradation rate was at 0.9 × 10 -3 d -1 for both JCO and JPS unexposed to light at 4 °C. Light intensity (1097 lx and 4690 lx, representing diffused sunlight and fluorescent lighting, respectively) and temperature (25 to 35 °C) were the significant degradation factors. Light exposure led to 280% to 380% higher degradation rates in JCO than in JPS due to light penetration through the transparent oil. Dried and sterilised JPS showed an 80% to 90% lower PE degradation rate than untreated JPS under all storage conditions since biodegradation was assembly limited. The PEs were unstable under the studied conditions, especially when exposed to light and room temperature. To protect against PE degradation, a material should be stored in a light-protected container and below 4 °C. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscodor albus, a biofumigant fungus, has the potential to control post-harvest pathogens in storage. It has been shown to produce over 20 volatile compounds with fungicidal, bactericidal and insecticidal properties. However, M. albus is a warm climate endophyte, and its biofumigant activity is significantly inhibited at temperatures below 5 °C. Conidia of seven mycotoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum, were killed or prevented from germinating by exposure to volatiles from 2 g M. albus-colonized rye grain per L of headspace in sealed glass jars for 24 h at 20 °C. Two major volatiles of M. albus, isobutyric acid (IBA and 2-methyl-1-butanol (2MB at 50 µL/L and 100 µL/L, respectively, gave differential control of the seven fungi when applied individually at 20 °C. When the fungi were exposed to both IBA and 2MB together, an average of 94% of the conidia were killed or suppressed. In a factorial experiment with controlled atmosphere storage (CA at 3 °C and 72 h exposure to four concentrations of IBA and 2MB combinations, 50 µL/L IBA plus 100 µL/L 2MB killed or suppressed germination of the conidia of all seven fungi. Controlled atmosphere had no significant effect on conidial viability or volatile efficacy. Major volatiles of M. albus may have significant potential to control plant pathogens in either ambient air or CA storage at temperatures below 5 °C. However, combinations of volatiles may be required to provide a broader spectrum of control than individual volatiles.

  17. Simulation of Evacuated Tube Collector and Storage of Hybrid Air-conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ahmed Abdulhussain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The CFD transient simulation of superheating the refrigerant R410 through the heat exchange with the evacuated tube water heating system of the hybrid split air conditioner that is subjected to solar radiation of constant intensity with the contribution of fan accelerated air is performed by the ANSYS-CFX code. The comparison with experimental work showed a minimum percentage error 8% of the predicted refrigerant evaporative heat transfer with storage tank horizontal tubing. In addition, the results denoted high absorption rate for the evacuated tubes, reducing highly reversed heat transmission for the circulated water. 

  18. Patient preferences in the treatment of hemophilia A: impact of storage conditions on product choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Bernd; Marino, Renato; Napolitano, Mariasanta

    2018-01-01

    To gain insights into the usage of factor VIII (FVIII) products by patients diagnosed with moderate/severe hemophilia A, and to assess the impact and perceived importance of product storage. In this study, 200 patients diagnosed with moderate or severe hemophilia A across seven countries participated. Data were collected via a 30-minute, face-to-face interview in six countries and via a web-based survey in the seventh country. The questionnaire evaluated the effect of six features associated with FVIII products on the choice of the product; the structure and flow of data collection was designed to eliminate potential bias. Two-thirds of the respondents were using recombinant FVIII products. Only 17% were generally dissatisfied with current FVIII products, whereas >40% of the respondents were dissatisfied with frequency of administration and storage issues when traveling. The majority noted restrictions in their daily activities, particularly travel and sports. Most of them (85%), stored their product in the refrigerator and of these, 88% believed that it should always be stored there. These patients were also less satisfied with the product overall, more concerned about storage temperature, more restricted in daily activities, and spent more time on preparation and injection compared with patients who stored their product at room temperature. Conjoint analysis revealed that origin of FVIII (plasma-derived vs recombinant) was the strongest driver of product choice among all respondents, followed by storage flexibility (temperature), reconstitution device, and administration frequency. In this study, we did not investigate the efficacy and safety of the product. Not refrigerating FVIII products was associated with greater patient satisfaction and less restriction on daily activities. If efficacy and safety are unaffected, then storing FVIII at room temperature might have a positive impact on product choice. Few patients were aware that FVIII can be stored without

  19. Surface chemical state of Ti powders and its alloys: Effect of storage conditions and alloy composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryha, Eduard, E-mail: hryha@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE - 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Shvab, Ruslan [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE - 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Bram, Martin; Bitzer, Martin [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Materials Synthesis and Processing (IEK-1), D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Nyborg, Lars [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE - 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Powder particles of Ti, NiTi and Ti6Al4V are covered by homogeneous Ti-oxide layer. • Thickness of the Ti-oxide layer is in the range of 2.9 to 4.2 nm in as-atomized state. • Exposure to the air results in immediate oxide thickness increase of up to 30%. • Oxide thickness increase of only 15% during storage for 8 years. • High passivation of the Ti, NiTi and Ti6Al4V powder surface by Ti-oxide layer. - Abstract: High affinity of titanium to oxygen in combination with the high surface area of the powder results in tremendous powder reactivity and almost inevitable presence of passivation oxide film on the powder surface. Oxide film is formed during the short exposure of the powder to the environment at even a trace amount of oxygen. Hence, surface state of the powder determines its usefulness for powder metallurgy processing. Present study is focused on the evaluation of the surface oxide state of the Ti, NiTi and Ti6Al4V powders in as-atomized state and after storage under air or Ar for up to eight years. Powder surface oxide state was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR SEM). Results indicate that powder in as-atomized state is covered by homogeneous Ti-oxide layer with the thickness of ∼2.9 nm for Ti, ∼3.2 nm and ∼4.2 nm in case of Ti6Al4V and NiTi powders, respectively. Exposure to the air results in oxide growth of about 30% in case of Ti and only about 10% in case of NiTi and Ti6Al4V. After the storage under the dry air for two years oxide growth of only about 3-4% was detected in case of both, Ti and NiTi powders. NiTi powder, stored under the dry air for eight years, indicates oxide thickness of about 5.3 nm, which is about 30% thicker in comparison with the as-atomized powder. Oxide thickness increase of only ∼15% during the storage for eight years in comparison with the powder, shortly exposed to the air after manufacturing, was detected. Results indicate a

  20. Cumulative effects of heat exposure and storage conditions of Oxytocin-in-Uniject in rural Ghana: implications for scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Luke C; Newton, Sam; Afari-Asiedu, Samuel; Adiibokah, Edward; Agyemang, Charlotte T; Cofie, Patience; Brooke, Steve; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Stanton, Cynthia K

    2014-08-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage can be reduced substantially in home deliveries attended by community-based workers by using Oxytocin-in-Uniject (OIU) devices affixed with temperature-time indicators. We characterized the distribution of time to discard of these devices when stored under normal field conditions in Ghana. Two drug storage simulation studies were conducted in rural Ghana in 2011 and 2012. Devices were transported under refrigeration from manufacture (Argentina) to storage at the study site. Twenty-three field workers each stored at home (unrefrigerated) 25 OIU devices and monitored them daily to record: (1) time to transition from usable to unusable, and (2) continuous digital ambient temperature to determine heat exposure over the simulation period. Time to discard was estimated and compared with mean kinetic temperature exposure of the devices during the shipment and storage phases and with characteristics of the storage locations using Weibull regression models. We used the time to discard distributions in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate wastage rates in a hypothetical program setting. Time for shipment and transfer to long-term refrigerated storage and mean kinetic temperature during the shipment phase was 8.6 days/10.3°C and 13.4 days/12.1°C, for the first and second simulation studies, respectively. Median (range) time to discard when stored under field conditions (unrefrigerated) was 43 (6 to 59) days and 33 (14 to 50) days, respectively. Mean time to discard was 10.0 days shorter in the second simulation, during which mean kinetic temperature exposure was 3.9°C higher. Simulating a monthly distribution system and assuming typical usage, predicted wastage of product was less than 10%. The time to discard of devices was highly sensitive to small changes in temperature exposure. Under field conditions typical in rural Ghana, OIU packages will have a half-life of approximately 30 to 40 days based on the temperature monitor used during the study

  1. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, S.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  2. Structural Performance Optimization and Verification of an Improved Thin-Walled Storage Tank for a Pico-Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Teng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved mesh storage tank structure obtained using 3D metal printing. The storage tank structure is optimized using a multi-objective uniform design method. Each parameter influencing the storage tank is considered as the optimization factor, and the compression stress ( σ , volume utilization ratio ( v , and weight ( m , are considered as the optimization objectives. Regression equations were established between the optimization factors and targets, the orders of the six factors affecting three target values are analyzed, and the relative deviations between the regression equation and calculation results for σ , v , and m were 9.72%, 4.15%, and 2.94%, respectively. The optimization results showed that the regression equations can predict the structure performance of the improved storage tank, and the values of the influence factors obtained through the optimization are effective. In addition, the compression stress was improved by 24.98%, the volume utilization ratio was increased by 26.86%, and the weight was reduced by 26.83%. The optimized storage tank was developed through 3D metal printing, and the compressive stress was improved by 58.71%, the volume utilization ratio was increased by 24.52%, and the weight was reduced by 11.67%.

  3. Nutritional value of Rosa spp. l. and Cornus mas l. fruits, as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita-Maria Rosu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two storage methods (freezing and drying of fruits, in terms of ascorbic acid, carotenes, total sugar and protein content in Rosa spp. L. species and Cornus mas L. was performed. In the dried rose hips, the major losses were registered at the level of ascorbic acid content (32.04–50.25 %, followed by carotenes (30.85–52.08 %, total sugar (21.57–34.6 % and protein content (21.33–46.89 %. The freezing method resulted in a better preservation of ascorbic acid (only 19.80–29.21 % decrease and total sugar content (3.41–12.94 % increase. In the preserved cornelian cherry fruits, no statistically significant differences were registered between fruits categories, except carotene content, which was dramatically decreased in dried fruits (88.23 %. For cornelian cherry fruits, both storage methods induced a decrease of ascorbic acid and protein contents (57.60 and 46.32 % and an increase of total sugar level (37.60 %.

  4. Alteration of R7T7-type nuclear glass in deep geological storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, G. de

    2007-02-01

    This PhD thesis is aimed to study the alteration of SON68 glass, French inactive glass of R7T7-type, in contact with near field materials of a deep geological storage (French concept from ANDRA) which are mainly metallic iron and Callovo-Oxfordian clay. Therefore, experiments involving a 'glass-iron-clay' system at lab-scale have been carried out. Interactions between glass, iron and clay have been characterised from submicron to millimeter scale by means of SEM, TEM, XRD and XAS and Raman spectroscopies in terms of chemistry and crystal-chemistry. In the mean time, a conceptual model of glass alteration has been developed to account for most of the experimental observations and known mechanisms of alteration. The model has been then transposed within the transport-chemistry code HYTEC, together with developed models of clay and iron corrosion, to simulate the experiments described above. This work is thus a contribution to the understanding of iron corrosion in Callovo-Oxfordian clay and subsequent glass alteration in the newly formed corrosion products, the whole process being considered as a lab-scale model of a deep geological storage of radioactive wastes. (author)

  5. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Kubiak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods.

  6. Development of a new esomeprazole delayed release gastro-resistant pellet formulation with improved storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Grypioti, Agni

    2018-06-01

    This study describes the development of a new esomeprazole (ESO) delayed release gastro-resistant formulation with improved storage stability. A three-step (drug-, sub(seal)- and enteric-) coating process was employed with the aid of a fluid bed coater. Several formulation factors (namely, size and quantity of starting non-pareil sugar spheres, binder quantity during drug-layering, sub(seal)-coating polymer type, and quantity and enteric coating quantity) were evaluated and the whole process was modeled with the aid of feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural networks (ANNs). Results showed that the selection of small-sized starting spheres (45/60 mesh size) leads to pellet agglomeration, while as sub(seal)-coating weight gain increases a reduction in ESO dissolution rate is observed. The enteric-coating applied (Eudragit L30D-55) showed good gastro-resistant performance in both 0.1 N HCl and pH 4.5 media, while immediate release profiles with more than 85% of ESO being released in less than 30 min were obtained. The effect of cellulose-based sub(seal)-coating polymers, (namely, hydroxypropyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) on formulation's storage stability at 40 ± 2 °C/75 ± 5%RH indicated that only hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose was able to stabilize ESO delayed-release formulations in terms of assay, dissolution, impurities, and gastro-resistance performance. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed smooth and homogeneous external surface/coating layers in all three levels (drug-, sub(seal)-, and enteric- coating), while x-ray diffraction showed no polymorphic transformations.

  7. Improving Large-scale Storage System Performance via Topology-aware and Balanced Data Placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of big data, the I/O subsystems of large-scale compute clusters are becoming a center of focus, with more applications putting greater demands on end-to-end I/O performance. These subsystems are often complex in design. They comprise of multiple hardware and software layers to cope with the increasing capacity, capability and scalability requirements of data intensive applications. The sharing nature of storage resources and the intrinsic interactions across these layers make it to realize user-level, end-to-end performance gains a great challenge. We propose a topology-aware resource load balancing strategy to improve per-application I/O performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on an extreme-scale compute cluster, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Our experiments with both synthetic benchmarks and a real-world application show that, even under congestion, our proposed algorithm can improve large-scale application I/O performance significantly, resulting in both the reduction of application run times and higher resolution simulation runs.

  8. Improving communication for interdisciplinary teams working on storage of digital information in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Emily E; Sayir, Jossy; Goldman, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Close collaboration between specialists from diverse backgrounds and working in different scientific domains is an effective strategy to overcome challenges in areas that interface between biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. Communication in such collaborations can itself be challenging.  Even when projects are successfully concluded, resulting publications - necessarily multi-authored - have the potential to be disjointed. Few, both in the field and outside, may be able to fully understand the work as a whole. This needs to be addressed to facilitate efficient working, peer review, accessibility and impact to larger audiences. We are an interdisciplinary team working in a nascent scientific area, the repurposing of DNA as a storage medium for digital information. In this note, we highlight some of the difficulties that arise from such collaborations and outline our efforts to improve communication through a glossary and a controlled vocabulary and accessibility via short plain-language summaries. We hope to stimulate early discussion within this emerging field of how our community might improve the description and presentation of our work to facilitate clear communication within and between research groups and increase accessibility to those not familiar with our respective fields - be it molecular biology, computer science, information theory or others that might become relevant in future. To enable an open and inclusive discussion we have created a glossary and controlled vocabulary as a cloud-based shared document and we invite other scientists to critique our suggestions and contribute their own ideas.

  9. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Aru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. 1H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the 1H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled “Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels’ freshness” (Aru et al., 2016 [1].

  10. Investigation of water-logged spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, R.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-09-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the amount of moisture contained in breached, water-logged spent fuel rods and the rate of release. Two well-characterized BWR fuel rods with reactor-induced breaches were tested in a hot cell. These rods contained approximately 6 to 10 g of moisture, most of which was released during heating tests simulating normal cask drying operations. Additional testing with two intentionally defected fuel rods (BWR and PWR) was performed to evaluate the effect of the cladding breach on migration of moisture along the length of the fuel rod. The results showed that the moisture released from reactor-breached spent fuel rods was insufficient to cause degradation of fuel or dry storage system components

  11. Evaluation of storage and disposal costs for conditioned radioactive waste in several European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccai, H.

    1990-01-01

    A survey on radioactive waste storage and disposal costs has been performed. In order to proceed to such a cost assessment, a survey has been carried on within various nuclear waste agencies throughout Europe. In addition, in order to collect sufficient related economic data, reference has been made to other available information. The results may be summarized as follows: until disposal sites become available, many countries store low-level waste at costs between 400 and 1 400 ECU/m 3 ; little information is supplied for medium- and high-level waste storage; however, for the projects under way, levels of the order of 100 000 ECU/m 3 for vitrified waste are probable, whereas for medium- and high-level waste these costs are expected to vary from 10 000 to 20 000 ECU/m 3 ; the economic analysis of disposal facilities shows that cost elasticity is high at low capacities both for the surface disposal ( 3 ) and deep burial ( 3 ). The economic benefit that might result from the scaling effect at larger capacities appears to be of little significance; despite the diversity of geological formations and disposal concepts for which economic data were compared, a certain coherence can be detected; thus, for the disposal of low-level waste, costs evolve as a function of site capacity from 2 000 to 6 000 ECU/m 3 for deep burial, and from 1 000 to 3 000 ECU/m 3 for surface disposal or shallow burial. For deep burial of medium- and high-level waste, costs vary as a function of site capacity from 10 000 to 70 000 ECU/m 3 for non-heat-emitting waste, and from 0.4 to 1.4 MECU/m 3 for vitrified waste

  12. Can a conditioning programme improve Handicap Index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of a conditioning programme on body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, ... The 14-week training programme consisted of a 60-minute supervised basic conditioning phase (Weeks 1-4: 9 resistance training exercises, 2-3 sets, 12-20 repetitions), ...

  13. WAYS OF IMPROVEMENT RAILWAY TRANSPORT IN OVERPASS ECONOMIC CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Deineka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article a problem of adapting the railway transport to market requirements is presented and the ways of improving its competitiveness are investigated. Some measures and reserves of improving the operation efficiency for the railway transport are offered.

  14. Improving the Efficiency and Durability of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth Allen

    This thesis presents research on the use of solid oxide cells (SOCs) as energy storage devices, and covers methods to improve their efficiency and durability for this use. It specifically covers two main topics: the durability of the oxygen electrode under forced alternating current, and the effect of pressurization on various oxygen electrode materials. Additionally, research was completed on thermodynamic modeling of a pressurized SOC energy storage system, and a new experimental testing apparatus was constructed to enable investigation of SOC samples operating under pressure. Forced alternating current using a symmetric sample structure was used to simulate the operation of a reversible SOC, effectively isolating the measurement of the performance response of the oxygen electrode. Cells consisting of La 0.8Sr0.2MnO3-delta - 8mol% Y2O 3-stabilized ZrO2 (LSM-YSZ) oxygen electrodes on YSZ electrolytes were tested. Early testing utilizing Ag current collectors showed that forced currents and the elevated operating temperature of SOCs cause silver to vaporize and deposit at the active region of the electrode. To avoid this artifact, a new test setup utilizing LSM current collectors was created. It was found that a shorter current cycling time of 1 hour helps prevent degradation compared to 12 hour cycles. Additionally, both cycling times showed improvement compared cells operated with dc current. Further study showed that operating at current densities of 0.8 A/cm2 and below can prevent degradation entirely. Pressurization of oxygen electrodes showed, as expected, that polarization resistance decreases with increasing oxygen pressure. The materials tested were LSM-YSZ and La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Co0.2 O3-d - Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.95 (LSCF-GDC), both in single-phase and composite electrode structures. Additionally, LSM-infiltrated YSZ was tested. The resistance typically decreased following power-law behavior with exponents ranging from -0.17 to -0.30, with similar trends found in all

  15. Effect of different storage conditions on the physical properties of bleached enamel: An in vitro vs. in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeczkowski, Marília; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2015-09-01

    Evaluate the effect of different storage conditions on bleached enamel using Knoop microhardness (KHN) and colour variation. Forty-eight tooth blocks were divided into four groups (n=12), based on storage media (SM): purified water (PW), artificial saliva (AS), natural saliva (NS), in situ (IS). Three whitening sessions were carried out using 35% hydrogen peroxide, with a week interval. Colour and KHN measurements were taken before the samples were placed in the SM (t1), after 24h in the SM (t2), and after 24h at the end of the bleaching treatment (t3). Two extra samples from each group were analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). KHN results were analysed by PROC-MIXED and Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.05), and colour changes were evaluated using ΔL, Δa, Δb, ΔE between the different times Δ1(t1-t2), Δ2(t2-t3) using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's test (α=0.05). Significant statistical difference was noted in KHN at t3, with the lowest values found for PW. As for colour analysis in ΔE2 and Δb2, IS showed values that were statistically lower when compared to AS. Likewise, there were differences between PW and AS in relation to IS when evaluating ΔL2. In addition, NS showed similar values to IS. The storage conditions had different effects on the physical properties of bleached enamel. NS was the only SM that showed similar behaviour to IS. NS proved an effective SM in the protection and recovery of damage caused by bleaching and is a viable SM for in vitro studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. T cell activation and proliferation following acute exercise in human subjects is altered by storage conditions and mitogen selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Benedict, Stephen H; Bhatta, Anuja; Dunbar, Amanda J; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Philip M

    2017-07-01

    Recent work investigating exercise induced changes in immunocompetence suggests that some of the ambiguity in the literature is resultant from different cell isolation protocols and mitogen selection. To understand this effect, we compared post-exercise measures of T cell activation and proliferation using two different stimulation methods (costimulation through CD28 or stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin [PHA]). Further, we investigated whether exercise induced changes are maintained when T cell isolation from whole blood is delayed overnight in either a room temperature or chilled (4°C) environment. As expected, an increased proliferation response was observed post-exercise in T cells isolated from whole blood of previously trained individuals immediately after blood collection. Also, cells stimulated with PHA after resting overnight in whole blood were not adversely impacted by the storage conditions. In contrast, allowing cells to rest overnight in whole blood prior to stimulation through CD28, lessened the proliferation observed by cells following exercise rendering both the room temperature and chilled samples closer to the results seen in the control condition. Changes in early markers of activation (CD25), followed a similar pattern, with activation in PHA stimulated cells remaining fairly robust after overnight storage; whereas cell activation following stimulation through CD3+CD28 was disproportionately decreased by the influence of overnight storage. These findings indicate that decisions regarding cell stimulation methods need to be paired with the timeline for T cell isolation from whole blood. These considerations will be especially important for field based studies of immunocompetence where there is a delay in getting whole blood samples to a lab for processing as well as clinical applications where a failure to isolate T cells in a timely manner may result in loss of the response of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, K; Rocha, C A; Quick, R E; Montano, S M; Tilley, D H; Mock, C N; Carrasco, A J; Cabrera, R M; Hawes, S E

    2016-07-01

    Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92-1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water.

  18. Improved Rosen's conditions on bound states of Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.

    1984-01-01

    We derive a necessary condition on a Schroedinger operator H=-Δ+V on Lsup(2)(Rsup(d)), d>=3 to have a bound state below a given energy epsilon, and a lower bound to the ground-state energy of H. These conditions are expressed in terms of the potential V alone, and generalize the recent results of Rosen to the dimensions d>3 and to the potentials that are not necessarily rapidly decreasing. Some examples are given

  19. Radio-Frequency-Controlled Urea Dosing for NH₃-SCR Catalysts: NH₃ Storage Influence to Catalyst Performance under Transient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Reitmeier, Willibald; Burger, Katharina; Hien, Markus; Grass, Philippe; Kubinski, David; Visser, Jaco; Moos, Ralf

    2017-11-28

    Current developments in exhaust gas aftertreatment led to a huge mistrust in diesel driven passenger cars due to their NO x emissions being too high. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with ammonia (NH₃) as reducing agent is the only approach today with the capability to meet upcoming emission limits. Therefore, the radio-frequency-based (RF) catalyst state determination to monitor the NH₃ loading on SCR catalysts has a huge potential in emission reduction. Recent work on this topic proved the basic capability of this technique under realistic conditions on an engine test bench. In these studies, an RF system calibration for the serial type SCR catalyst Cu-SSZ-13 was developed and different approaches for a temperature dependent NH₃ storage were determined. This paper continues this work and uses a fully calibrated RF-SCR system under transient conditions to compare different directly measured and controlled NH₃ storage levels, and NH₃ target curves. It could be clearly demonstrated that the right NH₃ target curve, together with a direct control on the desired level by the RF system, is able to operate the SCR system with the maximum possible NO x conversion efficiency and without NH₃ slip.

  20. Classification of radioactive waste and determination of waste specifications as well as conditions of acceptance for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1983-04-01

    The determination of waste specification and conditions of acceptance must follow a certain scheme, the basics of which will be presented. First the types of waste and the ultimate storage facilities will be characterized. The various categories of waste will be listed in a universally valid system, and the preliminary conditioning options will be determined. Based on the results of safety analysis taking into account the whole system - geological circumstances, ultimate store mines, types and forms of waste - specifications for the various ultimate store products are to be derived following iterative methods. Suggestions though not of a binding nature and probably subject to eventual revisions in part will be presented. To ensure the safety goals, i.e. the exclusion of radioactivity from the human biosphere, appropriate quality control is required concerning the production and the acceptance at the ultimate store. The guiding principles to be heeded will be discussed in brief. (orig./HP) [de

  1. In vitro conditions modify immunoassayability of bovine pituitary prolactin and growth hormone: insights into their secretory granule storage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenson, M.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion

  2. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario. Seed moisture content (mc was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It was shown that the rate of seed aging depended on the species and seed moisture content. The fastest decrease of germinability upon storage was observed in seed with the highest moisture level. Complete germinability loss for winter rye, winter triticale cv. Fidelio, winter triticale cv. Woltario and spring wheat seed with mc 0.10 g H2O/g dm3 occurred after 81, 81, 101 and 133 weeks, respectively. Fructose, glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, sucrose, galactinol, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were the main soluble carbohydrates found in the seed. The obtained data on the contents of specific sugars and the composition of soluble sugars fraction in seed of rye, wheat and triticale did not corroborate any profound effect of reducing sugars, sucrose and oligosaccharides on seed longevity.

  3. Conditional inevitability: Expert perceptions of carbon capture and storage uncertainties in the UK context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evar, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings on expert perceptions of uncertainty in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and policy in the UK, through survey data and semi-structured interviews with 19 individual participants. Experts were interviewed in industry, research, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the summer of 2009 and were asked to comment on a range of technical processes as well as policy concerns. The survey revealed that perceptions of the technology conform to a 'certainty trough' with users expressing the lowest level of uncertainty, and outsiders expressing the highest level of uncertainty. The interviews revealed that experts express certitude in the prospects for deploying large-scale CCS technology in the UK, all the while questioning several underlying technical and policy premises that are necessary to ensure this goal. - Highlights: → Expert perceptions of CCS in the UK are reported in interviews and a survey. → Surveyed perceptions conform to a 'certainty trough'. → Experts express certitude in prospect of large-scale CCS deployment in the UK. → Experts state that several technical and policy premises are necessary to ensure this goal. → Prospect of large-scale CCS deployment is observed to be highly belief-based.

  4. Evolution of quality characteristics of minimally processed asparagus during storage in different lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, S; Olarte, C; Ayala, F; Echávarri, J F

    2009-08-01

    The effect of different types of lighting (white, green, red, and blue light) on minimally processed asparagus during storage at 4 degrees C was studied. The gas concentrations in the packages, pH, mesophilic counts, and weight loss were also determined. Lighting caused an increase in physiological activity. Asparagus stored under lighting achieved atmospheres with higher CO(2) and lower O(2) content than samples kept in the dark. This activity increase explains the greater deterioration experienced by samples stored under lighting, which clearly affected texture and especially color, accelerating the appearance of greenish hues in the tips and reddish-brown hues in the spears. Exposure to light had a negative effect on the quality parameters of the asparagus and it caused a significant reduction in shelf life. Hence, the 11 d shelf life of samples kept in the dark was reduced to only 3 d in samples kept under red and green light, and to 7 d in those kept under white and blue light. However, quality indicators such as the color of the tips and texture showed significantly better behavior under blue light than with white light, which allows us to state that it is better to use this type of light or blue-tinted packaging film for the display of minimally processed asparagus to consumers.

  5. Conditional inevitability: Expert perceptions of carbon capture and storage uncertainties in the UK context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evar, Benjamin, E-mail: ben.evar@ed.ac.uk [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Drummond Street, Edinburgh EH8 9XP (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    This paper presents findings on expert perceptions of uncertainty in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and policy in the UK, through survey data and semi-structured interviews with 19 individual participants. Experts were interviewed in industry, research, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the summer of 2009 and were asked to comment on a range of technical processes as well as policy concerns. The survey revealed that perceptions of the technology conform to a 'certainty trough' with users expressing the lowest level of uncertainty, and outsiders expressing the highest level of uncertainty. The interviews revealed that experts express certitude in the prospects for deploying large-scale CCS technology in the UK, all the while questioning several underlying technical and policy premises that are necessary to ensure this goal. - Highlights: > Expert perceptions of CCS in the UK are reported in interviews and a survey. > Surveyed perceptions conform to a 'certainty trough'. > Experts express certitude in prospect of large-scale CCS deployment in the UK. > Experts state that several technical and policy premises are necessary to ensure this goal. > Prospect of large-scale CCS deployment is observed to be highly belief-based.

  6. Energy Storage System Control Algorithm by Operating Target Power to Improve Energy Sustainability of Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongkwan Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy issues are emerging around the world, a variety of smart home technologies aimed at realizing zero energy houses are being introduced. Energy storage system (ESS for smart home energy independence is increasingly gaining interest. However, limitations exist in that most of them are controlled according to time schedules or used in conjunction with photovoltaic (PV generation systems. In consideration of load usage patterns and PV generation of smart home, this study proposes an ESS control algorithm that uses constant energy of energy network while making maximum use of ESS. Constant energy means that the load consumes a certain amount of power under all conditions, which translates to low variability. The proposed algorithm makes a smart home a load of energy network with low uncertainty and complexity. The simulation results show that the optimal ESS operating target power not only makes the smart home use power constantly from the energy network, but also maximizes utilization of the ESS. In addition, since the smart home is a load that uses constant energy, it has the advantage of being able to operate an efficient energy network from the viewpoint of energy providers.

  7. Methods and Conditions for Achieving Continuous Improvement of Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Florica BADEA; Catalina RADU; Ana-Maria GRIGORE

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the Taylor model improved, in a spectacular maner the efficiency of the production processes. This allowed obtaining high productivity by low-skilled workers, but used in large number in the execution of production. Currently this model is questioned by experts and was replaced by the concept of "continuous improvement". The first signs of change date from the '80s, with the apparition of quality circles and groups of operators on quality issues, principles whi...

  8. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of [le] 10 [mu]m dia.

  9. Improvement of hydrogen storage kinetics in ball-milled magnesium doped with antimony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír; Roupcová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2017), s. 6144-6151 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Hydrogen * Hydrogen storage * Storage capacity * Magnesium alloys * Antimony Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  10. A Wind Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage for Improving the Utilization of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the wind energy industry is seriously restricted by grid connection issues and wind energy generation rejections introduced by the intermittent nature of wind energy sources. As a solution of these problems, a wind power system integrating with a thermal energy storage (TES system for district heating (DH is designed to make best use of the wind power in the present work. The operation and control of the system are described in detail. A one-dimensional system model of the system is developed based on a generic model library using the object-oriented language Modelica for system modeling. Validations of the main components of the TES module are conducted against experimental results and indicate that the models can be used to simulate the operation of the system. The daily performance of the integrated system is analyzed based on a seven-day operation. And the influences of system configurations on the performance of the integrated system are analyzed. The numerical results show that the integrated system can effectively improve the utilization of total wind energy under great wind power rejection.

  11. An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements in dry storage silos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Soares, Milton G.; Filho, Anizio M.; Martorelli, Daniel S.; Fonseca, Manoel

    2000-01-01

    An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements stored in dry storage silos was developed. It is constituted by a mechanical device which moves a semi-conductor detector along a vertical verification pipe incorporated to the silo, and a modified portable multi-channel analyzer. The mechanical device contains a winding drum accommodating a cable hanging the detector, in such a way that the drum rotates as the detector goes down due to its own weight. The detector is coupled to the multi-channel analyzer operating in the multi-scaler mode, generating therefore a spectrum of total counts against time. To assure a linear transformation of time into detector position, the mechanical device dictating the detector speed is controlled by the multi-channel analyzer. This control is performed via a clock type escapement device activated by a solenoid. Whenever the multi-channel analyzer shifts to the next channel, the associated pulse is amplified, powering the solenoid causing the drum to rotate a fixed angle. Spectra taken in laboratory, using radioactive sources, have shown a good reproducibility. This qualify the system to be used as an equipment to get a fingerprint of the overall distribution of the fuel elements along the silo axis, and hence, to verify possible diversion of the nuclear material by comparing spectra taken at consecutive safeguards inspections. All the system is battery operated, being thus capable to operate in the field where no power supply is available. (author)

  12. Improving the network infeed accuracy of non-dispatchable generators with energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, Gaudenz; Korpaas, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The power output of generators based on renewable energy sources is often difficult to predict due to the non-deterministic behaviour of the energy source. Particularly in the case of wind turbines this leads to unpredicted line loading and requires balancing energy, at relatively high costs, depending on market structures. Consequently, the income from the production from such non-dispatchable generators can be significantly reduced by the penalty costs incurred. This paper investigates the potential of operating an energy storage device in parallel with the non-dispatchable generator in order to compensate the inaccuracies of the forecasted infeed and to avoid infeed deviations. A time series based simulation methodology is discussed, suitable for any type of non-dispatchable generator. The methodology contains a procedure for simulating different forecast errors, applying an exponentially weighted moving average approach. Analysis procedures and system performance indices are introduced for the evaluation of the configuration's performance. The applicability is shown in two case studies, using measurement data from a wind turbine and from a photovoltaic system. Both case studies show that the suggested configuration considerably improves the reliability or dependability of the network infeed, in turn reducing the demand for balancing energy and back-up generation. The relation between forecast error magnitude and required energy capacity is identified and the coherence of the time series analysis is discussed. (author)

  13. A Control Strategy for Flywheel Energy Storage System for Frequency Stability Improvement in Islanded Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khodadoost Arani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Micro-Grid (MG stability is a significant issue that must be maintained in all operational modes. Usually, two control strategies can be applied to MG; V/f control and PQ control strategies. MGs with V/f control strategy should have some Distributed Generators (DGs which have fast responses versus load changes. The Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS has this characteristic. The FESS, which converts the mechanical energy to electrical form, can generate electrical power or absorb the additional power in power systems or MGs. In this paper, the FESS structure modeled in detail and two control strategies (V/f and PQ control are applied for this application. In addition, in order to improve the MG frequency and voltage stability, two complementary controllers are proposed for the V/f control strategy; conventional PI and Fuzzy Controllers. A typical low voltage network, including FESS is simulated for four distinct scenarios in the MATLAB/ Simulink environment. It is shown that fuzzy controller has better performance than conventional PI controller in islanded microgrid.

  14. Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings Containing Cellulase for Improved Preservation of Meat Quality during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimoch-Korzycka, Anna; Jarmoluk, Andrzej

    2017-03-02

    The objectives of this study were to optimize the composition of edible food coatings and to extend the shelf-life of pork meat. Initially, nine meat samples were coated with solutions containing chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose at various cellulase concentrations: 0%, 0.05%, and 0.1%, stored for 0, 7, and 14 days. Uncoated meat served as the controls. The samples were tested for pH, water activity (a w ), total number of microorganisms (TNM), psychrotrophs (P), number of yeast and molds (NYM), colour, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The pH and a w values varied from 5.42 to 5.54 and 0.919 to 0.926, respectively. The reductions in the TNM, P, and NYM after 14 days of storage were approximately 2.71 log cycles, 1.46 log cycles, and 0.78 log cycles, respectively. The enzyme addition improved the stability of the red colour. Significant reduction in TBARS was noted with the inclusion of cellulase in the coating material. Overall, this study provides a promising alternative method for the preservation of pork meat in industry.

  15. Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings Containing Cellulase for Improved Preservation of Meat Quality during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zimoch-Korzycka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to optimize the composition of edible food coatings and to extend the shelf-life of pork meat. Initially, nine meat samples were coated with solutions containing chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose at various cellulase concentrations: 0%, 0.05%, and 0.1%, stored for 0, 7, and 14 days. Uncoated meat served as the controls. The samples were tested for pH, water activity (aw, total number of microorganisms (TNM, psychrotrophs (P, number of yeast and molds (NYM, colour, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. The pH and aw values varied from 5.42 to 5.54 and 0.919 to 0.926, respectively. The reductions in the TNM, P, and NYM after 14 days of storage were approximately 2.71 log cycles, 1.46 log cycles, and 0.78 log cycles, respectively. The enzyme addition improved the stability of the red colour. Significant reduction in TBARS was noted with the inclusion of cellulase in the coating material. Overall, this study provides a promising alternative method for the preservation of pork meat in industry.

  16. An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements in dry storage silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Soares, Milton G.; Filho, Anizio M.; Martorelli, Daniel S.; Fonseca, Manoel [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements stored in dry storage silos was developed. It is constituted by a mechanical device which moves a semi-conductor detector along a vertical verification pipe incorporated to the silo, and a modified portable multi-channel analyzer. The mechanical device contains a winding drum accommodating a cable hanging the detector, in such a way that the drum rotates as the detector goes down due to its own weight. The detector is coupled to the multi-channel analyzer operating in the multi-scaler mode, generating therefore a spectrum of total counts against time. To assure a linear transformation of time into detector position, the mechanical device dictating the detector speed is controlled by the multi-channel analyzer. This control is performed via a clock type escapement device activated by a solenoid. Whenever the multi-channel analyzer shifts to the next channel, the associated pulse is amplified, powering the solenoid causing the drum to rotate a fixed angle. Spectra taken in laboratory, using radioactive sources, have shown a good reproducibility. This qualify the system to be used as an equipment to get a fingerprint of the overall distribution of the fuel elements along the silo axis, and hence, to verify possible diversion of the nuclear material by comparing spectra taken at consecutive safeguards inspections. All the system is battery operated, being thus capable to operate in the field where no power supply is available. (author)

  17. Off-flavors removal and storage improvement of mackerel viscera by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Uddin, M Salim; Chun, Byung Soo

    2008-07-01

    The oil in mackerel viscera was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process and the fatty acids composition in the oil was identified. Also the off-flavors removal in mackerel viscera and the storage improvement of the oils were carried out. As results obtained, by increasing pressure and temperature, quantity was increased. The maximum yield of oils obtained from mackerel viscera by SCO, extraction was 118 mgg(-1) (base on dry weight of freeze-dried raw anchovy) at 50 degrees C, 350 bar And the extracted oil contained high concentration of EPA and DHA. Also it was found that the autoxidation of the oils using SCO2 extraction occurred very slowly compared to the oils by organic solvent extraction. The off-flavors in the powder after SCO2 extraction were significantly removed. Especially complete removal of the trimethylamine which influences a negative compound to the products showed. Also other significant off-flavors such as aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, ketones, acids or alcohols were removed by the extraction.

  18. Improving the sludge conditioning potential of moringa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Joel O.; Eze, Romanus M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a cheaper material to effectively condition sludge, oil-free moringa seed was prepared and tested. A Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract the oil from moringa seed ( Moringa oleifera). The oil-free seed (marc) has been found to have higher conditioning potential than the ordinary moringa seed. However, the traditional ferric chloride is still a better sludge conditioner than moringa seed marc. For the digested domestic sludge used, optimum conditioning dosages were found to be 0.6, 0.80, and 1.10% of the total solids for ferric chloride, marc of the moringa seed, and ordinary moringa seed, respectively. Since little or no operational material is lost in the extraction process, the moringa seed marc is a promising conditioner in place of the ordinary seed.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on post harvest storage life of onion bulb under ordinary room condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Badshah, N.; Mahboob, F.; Ayub, G.

    2003-01-01

    Post harvest storage life of radiated onion bulbs harvested at different stages of maturity and stored at ordinary room temperature (30-39 degree C) was studied at the Department of Horticulture, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during August 2002. Onion bulbs were harvested at two stages i.e. drooping and complete dried leaf. Four radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kilo rad (Kr) were applied with normal (control). The data of experiment was collected from weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. The results revealed that various radiation doses significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. Onion bulbs radiated with 8 Kr showed minimum percent weight loss (28.59%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency. Minimum percent rot attack (6.3%) was observed in 6 and 8 Kr. Radiation doses of 4, 6 and 8 Kr showed no sprouting at all. Maximum weight loss (43.20%), rot attack (16.2%), sprouting (40.78%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency were recorded for control. The results showed that harvesting stages are statistically non-significant. The interaction between radiation doses and harvesting stages are also non-significant. Harvesting stages significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting and taste pungency. Onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage recorded maximum percent weight loss (35.42%), percent sprouting (11.7%) and taste pungency while minimum percent weight loss (31.62%), percent sprouting (5.01%) and taste pungency was observed in onion bulbs of drooping stage. Maximum percent rot attack (10.9%) was noted in onion bulbs of drooping stage while minimum (7.3%) in onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage. Radiation dose of 8 Kr is recommended to reduce the post-harvest losses in onion bulbs. Drooping stage comparatively prolonged the shelf life of bulb

  20. Dynamic water allocation policies improve the global efficiency of storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, Amin; Perona, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Water impoundment by dams strongly affects the river natural flow regime, its attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Fostering the sustainability of water uses e.g., hydropower systems thus implies searching for innovative operational policies able to generate Dynamic Environmental Flows (DEF) that mimic natural flow variability. The objective of this study is to propose a Direct Policy Search (DPS) framework based on defining dynamic flow release rules to improve the global efficiency of storage systems. The water allocation policies proposed for dammed systems are an extension of previously developed flow redistribution rules for small hydropower plants by Razurel et al. (2016).The mathematical form of the Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution applied to lake equations for the stored water in the dam is used to formulate non-proportional redistribution rules that partition the flow for energy production and environmental use. While energy production is computed from technical data, riverine ecological benefits associated with DEF are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are applied to build ecological versus economic efficiency plot and locate its (Pareto) frontier. This study benchmarks two MOEAs (NSGA II and Borg MOEA) and compares their efficiency in terms of the quality of Pareto's frontier and computational cost. A detailed analysis of dam characteristics is performed to examine their impact on the global system efficiency and choice of the best redistribution rule. Finally, it is found that non-proportional flow releases can statistically improve the global efficiency, specifically the ecological one, of the hydropower system when compared to constant minimal flows.

  1. The effect of storage conditions on salivary cortisol concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Anjana A; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos

    2015-01-01

    it was stored at - 80°C. The last tube was stored directly at - 80°C and served as the 'gold standard'. The saliva samples were assayed using Salivary Cortisol Diagnostic EIA. Differences in cortisol measurements between each of the five conditions and the 'gold standard' (- 80°C) were evaluated by one-sample t...

  2. Improvement of disfiguring skin conditions by laser therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Since their introduction in dermatology, lasers became a welcome addition to the therapeutic armentarium for disfiguring skin conditions. In this thesis, we evaluated laser therapy for the treatment of scars, of benign dermal tumours, and of port-wine stains. For scars, many different laser devices

  3. Determination of improved steeping conditions for sorghum malting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dewar, J

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various steeping conditions (time, temperature and aeration) on the quality of sorghum malt for brewing (in terms of diastatic power, free amino nitrogen and hot water extract) was examined. Steeping time and temperature had a highly...

  4. Improvement of greenhouse design and climate control in mediterranean conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzel, Yuksel; Zwart, de Feije; Sapounas, A.; Hemming, Silke; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is one of the most important areas of the world in terms of protected cultivation. Turkey, with its increasing greenhouse area, is one of the representative countries of the region. Thanks to the mild winter climatic conditions, cultivation of vegetables under simple

  5. Improvement of radiation protection conditions during radiodiagnostic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.V.; Livshits, R.E.; Lev, M.Ya.; Zakharenko, Yu.S.; Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Nechiporuk, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimeters were used to estimate individual doses of radiation received by personnel of radiodiagnostic laboratories. The experiment, which lasted 3 months, showed that although the average levels of radiation did not exceed the permissible values, in some cases the personnel could receive an annual dose close to the maximum permissible one. A number of arrangements to improve radiation safety were proposed

  6. Gap Analysis of Storage Conditions between NNSS and LANL for SAVY 4000 Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Becker, Chandler Gus [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karns, Tristan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-25

    As part of the gap analysis for utilizing the SAVY 4000® at NNSS, the hydrogen gas generation rate and the effect of atmospheric pressure changes on the maximum normal operating pressure (MNOP) of the SAVY container must be evaluated because the nuclear material characteristics and atmospheric conditions will not be the same for NNSS and LANL. This paper documents this analysis and demonstrates that the LANL SAVY Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is bounding with respect to the Nevada facilities.

  7. Influence of packaging and conditions of storaging on content of mineral water Guber-Srebrenica

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Dragana D.; Lazić Dragica; Škundrić Branko; Škundrić Jelena; Vukić Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Mineral waters are found in nature in greater depths most often in reduction conditions, so after surfacing their content alters in contact with oxygen, which is caused by oxidation of certain components. Due to this, efforts were made to make these waters more stabile so they could be used after certain time. This work monitors the stability of Guber (Argentaria)-Srebrenica water exposed to light and with addition of ascorbic acid. The methods of analysis and the parameters analyzed are: gra...

  8. Therapeutic improvement of colonic anastomotic healing under complicated conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerstrøm, Malene; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify therapeutic agents for the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal anastomotic leakage (AL) under complicated conditions. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for English articles published between January 1975 and September 2014. Studies with the primary purpose of imp...... controls in experimental chemotherapeutic models. CONCLUSION: This systematic review identified potential therapeutic agents, but more studies are needed before concluding that any of these are useful for AL prophylaxis....

  9. Improvement of disfiguring skin conditions by laser therapy

    OpenAIRE

    van Drooge, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Since their introduction in dermatology, lasers became a welcome addition to the therapeutic armentarium for disfiguring skin conditions. In this thesis, we evaluated laser therapy for the treatment of scars, of benign dermal tumours, and of port-wine stains. For scars, many different laser devices have been proposed. In this thesis, we performed a review that showed the pulsed dye laser most effective in hypertrophic scars. We did not find enough evidence for the efficacy of ablative fractio...

  10. The use of ambient humidity conditions to improve influenza forecast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Shaman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance (at 1-4 lead weeks, 3.8% more peak week and 4.4% more peak intensity forecasts are accurate than with no forcing and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing (4.4% and 2.6% respectively. These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast.

  11. The Use of Ambient Humidity Conditions to Improve Influenza Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; Kandula, S.; Yang, W.; Karspeck, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing. These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast and provide further evidence that humidity modulates rates of influenza transmission.

  12. The use of ambient humidity conditions to improve influenza forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Kandula, Sasikiran; Yang, Wan; Karspeck, Alicia

    2017-11-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance (at 1-4 lead weeks, 3.8% more peak week and 4.4% more peak intensity forecasts are accurate than with no forcing) and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing (4.4% and 2.6% respectively). These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast.

  13. Necessary Conditions for Improving Civic Competence: A Scientific Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Lupia

    2005-01-01

    Many attempts to increase civic competence are based on premises about communication and belief change that are directly contradicted by important insights from microeconomic theory and social psychology. At least two economic literatures are relevant to my effort to improve matters. One is the literature on strategic communication, which includes Spence (1974), Crawford and Sobel (1982), Banks (1991), and Lupia and McCubbins (1998). The other is the literature on mechanism design, which incl...

  14. Influence of postharvest processing and storage conditions on key antioxidants in pūhā (Sonchus oleraceus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Strachan, Clare J; Rades, Thomas; McDowell, Arlene

    2014-07-01

    To investigate effects of different postharvest drying processes and storage conditions on key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaves. Fresh leaves were oven-dried (60°C), freeze-dried or air-dried (∼25°C) for 6 h, 24 h and 3 days, respectively. Design of experiments (DOE) was applied to study the stability of antioxidants (caftaric, chlorogenic and chicoric acids) in S. oleraceus leaves and leaf extracts stored at different temperatures (4, 25 and 50°C) and relative humidities (15%, 43% and 75%) for 180 days. The concentration of antioxidants was quantified by a HPLC-2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl post-column derivatisation method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by a cellular antioxidant activity assay. The three antioxidants degraded to unquantifiable levels after oven-drying. More than 90% of the antioxidants were retained by freeze-drying and air-drying. Both leaf and extract samples retained >90% of antioxidants, except those stored at 75% relative humidity. Leaf material had higher antioxidant concentrations and greater cellular antioxidant activity than corresponding extract samples. Freeze-drying and air-drying preserved more antioxidants in S. oleraceus than oven-drying. From DOE analysis, humidity plays an important role in degradation of antioxidants during storage. To preserve antioxidant activity, it is preferable to store S. oleraceus as dried leaf material. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Shelf-Life and Sensory Scores of Squid Sundae under Accelerated Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.B.W.R.; Kim, D.H.; Sunwoo, C.; Jung, S.A.; Jeong, D.H.; Jung, H.Y.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.W.; Do, S.R.; Byun, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life and sensory scores of squid Sundae under accelerated storage conditions. Squid Sundae was stored at 37°C for 35 days following gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 10, and 20 kGy. For total viable cell counts, control and gamma-irradiated (GI) (10 kGy) squid Sundae were already spoiled in 4 days, whereas GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae showed complete suppression of bacterial growth during storage. There were no significant changes in pH values compared to the control. The VBN and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values of GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae were significantly lower than those of the control. In addition, the induction period of GI (20 kGy) squid Sundae as measured by a Rancimat showed a higher level compared to that of the control. In the sensory evaluation, there were no significant changes between the control and GI samples. These results suggest that a dose of 20 kGy is the optimum and effective dose for preservation of squid Sundae. (author)

  16. Impact of 6-month frozen storage of cervical specimens in alkaline buffer conditions on human papillomavirus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMere, Brandon J; Howell, Renee; Fetterman, Barbara; Shieh, Jen; Castle, Philip E

    2008-08-01

    The impact of 6-month storage of cervical specimens under alkaline conditions that occurs as the result of Hybrid Capture 2 testing on human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping is not well documented. To examine this issue, 143 frozen hc2-positive specimens in specimen transport medium were selected at random from each of the following groups: specimens stored for 6 months, 4 months, and 2.5 months under alkaline pH (pH 12-13) and specimens stored 1 month at neutral pH (pH 6-7) as controls. Specimens were tested in a masked fashion for 20 HPV genotypes (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, and 82) using a prototype, research-use-only GP5+/6+ L1 consensus PCR method and multiplex hybridization using Luminex xMAP for detection of specific HPV genotypes One control specimen had missing test results. There were no statistical differences in the number of HPV genotypes detected, number of carcinogenic HPV genotypes detected, or in the signal strength among HPV-positive results across groups. Six-month frozen storage of cervical specimens at alkaline pH had little impact on testing for HPV genotypes among hc2-positive women using this HPV genotyping method.

  17. Conditioning for definitive storage of radioactive graphite bricks from reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Koch, C.; Tassigny, C. de; Vidal, H.; Raymond, A.

    1990-01-01

    The decommissioning of gas-graphite reactors in the EC (e.g. French UNGGs, British Magnox reactors and AGRs, and reactors in Spain and in Italy) will produce large amounts of graphite bricks. This graphite cannot be accepted without particular conditioning by the existing shallow land disposal sites. The aim of the study is to examine the behaviour of graphite waste and to develop a conditioning technique which makes this waste acceptable for shallow land disposal sites. 18 kg of graphite core samples with an outside diameter of 74 mm were removed from the G2 gas-cooled reactor at Marcoule. Their radioactivity is highly dependent on the position of the graphite bricks inside the reactor. Measured results indicate an activity range of 100-400 MBq/kg with 90% Tritium, 5% 14 C, 3% 60 Co, 1.5% 63 Ni. Repeated porosity analyses showed that open porosity ranging from 0 to 100 μm exceeded 23 vol% in the graphite. Water penetration kinetics were investigated in unimpregnated graphite and resulted in impregnation by water of 50-90% of the open porosity. Preliminary lixiviation tests on the crude samples showed quick lixidegree of Cs (several per cent) and of 60 Co, and 133 Ba at a lesser degree. The proposed conditioning technique does not involve a simple coating but true impregnation by a tar-epoxy mixture. The bricks recovered intact from the core by robot services will be placed one by one inside a cylindrical metallic container. But this container may corrode and the bricks may become fragmented in the future, the normally porous graphite will be unaffected by leaching since it is proved that all pores larger than 0.1 μm will be filled with the tar-epoxy mixture. This is a true long-term waste packaging concept. The very simple technology required for industrial implementation is discussed

  18. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1985-03-01

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables.

  19. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky) in storage condition

    OpenAIRE

    Ram B Paneru; Resham B Thapa

    2017-01-01

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C). The fin...

  20. Improvement of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Yook, H.S.; Kwon, J.H.; Kim, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    Dried-red pepper, whole and powdered types, was subjected to a storage-study by investigation the effects of packaging methods (polycloth & polyethylene/polycloth, whole dried-red pepper; nylon/polyethylene-lam-inated film, red pepper powder), temperature and gamma irradiation doses (0-10 kGy). After 6 months storage in polyclith sack at ambient temperature, all whole dried-red pepper showed quality deterioration, such as weight change, insect infestation, discoloration and chemical changes, After 2 years storage in combined packaging with polyethylene/polycloth sack of 5-7.5 kGy irradiated whole dried-red pepper at ambient temperature, however, quality deterioration was not observed. Gamma-irradiated red pepper powder (7.5-10kGy) showed a good quality in hygienic, physicochemical and organoleptic evaluation after 2 years of storage at ambient temperature

  1. Environmental Protection: Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephenson, John

    2001-01-01

    ...) Underground Storage Tank (UST) program. 1 The program is relevant to today's hearing because studies have shown that tanks that leak hazardous substances, such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE...

  2. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  3. Improved plant availability by advanced condition based inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulshof, Harry J.M.; Noteboom, Jan W.; Welberg, Paul G.M.; Bruijn, Leo E.

    2004-01-01

    An industrial plant has to operate safely, reliably and efficiently at the lowest possible cost. Plant availability plays an important role regarding economic life optimisation. Industrial installations that are under pressure and are operating at high temperatures have a limited life due to creep and fatigue. It is, therefore, of critical importance to know the location of any possible weak spots in the installation. To avoid safety risks, unplanned plant shutdown and, as a consequence, high costs for unavailability, cycling and repair, periodic inspections and strain measurements are recommended. A Speckle Image Correlation Analysis (SPICA) system enables on-stream measurement of deformation due to creep in critical areas like the heat-affected zone in welds. Plant management and operators use the strain measurements to take action when necessary and, consequently, prevent failures. In those plants that have been provided with SPICA-technology for some years plant availability has improved significantly as a result. Another important development for yielding improved availability concerns steam drums. During some 20 years, KEMA has been performing automated ultrasonic steam drum inspections from outside. The Dutch authorities accepted this methodology in this period as an alternative (rather than an addition) after several pilot projects. An advantage of this inspection methodology is the possibility to record of the inspection results and possibility of thus trending these data. The resulting reduction of through time appeared a major benefit for plant owners. Since the authorities adopted the RBI approach during the last 10 years, another advantage of the inspection methodology became apparent: complete scanning and recording of the inspection data of circumferential and longitudinal (butt and fillet) welds, inspection of nozzle welds and inner radius as well as corrosion mapping has been covering all higher risk areas in these drums. This enhanced inspection

  4. Improved plant availability by advanced condition based inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, Harry J.M.; Noteboom, Jan W; Welberg, Paul G.M.; Bruijn, Leo E

    2004-06-01

    An industrial plant has to operate safely, reliably and efficiently at the lowest possible cost. Plant availability plays an important role regarding economic life optimisation. Industrial installations that are under pressure and are operating at high temperatures have a limited life due to creep and fatigue. It is, therefore, of critical importance to know the location of any possible weak spots in the installation. To avoid safety risks, unplanned plant shutdown and, as a consequence, high costs for unavailability, cycling and repair, periodic inspections and strain measurements are recommended. A Speckle Image Correlation Analysis (SPICA) system enables on-stream measurement of deformation due to creep in critical areas like the heat-affected zone in welds. Plant management and operators use the strain measurements to take action when necessary and, consequently, prevent failures. In those plants that have been provided with SPICA-technology for some years plant availability has improved significantly as a result. Another important development for yielding improved availability concerns steam drums. During some 20 years, KEMA has been performing automated ultrasonic steam drum inspections from outside. The Dutch authorities accepted this methodology in this period as an alternative (rather than an addition) after several pilot projects. An advantage of this inspection methodology is the possibility to record of the inspection results and possibility of thus trending these data. The resulting reduction of through time appeared a major benefit for plant owners. Since the authorities adopted the RBI approach during the last 10 years, another advantage of the inspection methodology became apparent: complete scanning and recording of the inspection data of circumferential and longitudinal (butt and fillet) welds, inspection of nozzle welds and inner radius as well as corrosion mapping has been covering all higher risk areas in these drums. This enhanced inspection

  5. Improving of State Regional Policy Mechanism at Risks` Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tarasovich Lukysha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modernization and innovatization were defined as the ways of improvement of the state policy of regional development from the safety perspective. They stipulate the following: 1 avoidance of the possible risks of the development of regions providing for the refusal of the unreliable programs and projects, unreasonable taking on credit and other kinds of loans; 2 risk sharing and convergence, as well as the reduction of their influence on the results of administrative activity; 3 determination and prevention of negative effect of risks. It was offered to carry out the improvement of the state policy of the development of regions with the help of the forming of stable organizational and informational network and system. It was specified that the difference between the latter is in the fact that the organizational and informational system concerns the financial side of administrative activity in regions. This means that it ensures the observance of the principle of transparency. While the organizational and informational network reflects its procedural side with the concept of openness being the basis of such activity. The improvement of the procedure of the organization of state administration of risks of the regional development was proved. It was established that organization of the state administration of the risks of regions development has a form of a chain: “provision of power and powers to the public authority → establishment of the new structural unit or addition of the existing administrative formations, approval of the functional regulations, official duties, etc. → competitive selection of the officials, their training, retraining, consulting → performance by them of the direct tasks on the detection and the prevention of the negative influence of dangers and threats.”

  6. An improved control method of battery energy storage system for hourly dispatch of photovoltaic power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Control of BES for smoothing and hourly dispatch of a PV farm output is developed. • Optimal control strategy for SOC and size of BES are evaluated using GA. • Effectiveness of the control system has been investigated for the case of Malaysia. • The proposed optimal SOC feedback controller has been found effective. • Payback calculations of BES investment is given to highlight the economic benefits. - Abstract: The effects of intermittent cloud and changes in temperature cause a randomly fluctuated output of a photovoltaic (PV) system. To mitigate the PV system impacts particularly on a weak electricity network, battery energy storage (BES) system is an effective means to smooth out the power fluctuations. Consequently, the net power injected to the electricity grid by PV and BES (PV/BES) systems can be dispatched smoothly such as on an hourly basis. This paper presents an improved control strategy for a grid-connected hybrid PV/BES systems for mitigating PV farm output power fluctuations. A feedback controller for BES state of charge is proposed, where the control parameters are optimized using genetic algorithm (GA). GA-based multi objective optimization utilizes the daily average PV farm output power profile which was obtained from simulation using the historical PV system input data of Malaysia. In this way, the optimal size for the BES is also determined to hourly dispatch a 1.2 MW PV farm. A case study for Malaysia is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme using PSCAD/EMTDC software package. Furthermore, the validation of results of the proposed controller and BES size on the actual PV system output data are also given. Finally, a simple payback calculation is presented to study the economical aspects of the BES investment on the proposed mitigation strategy under Malaysian Feed-in Tariff program

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  8. Postharvest Application of Spermidine Polyamine on the Storage Quality and Vase Life of Mango (Mangifera indica L. in Dipped Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Sadat Hosseini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mango (Mangifera indica is a tropical fruit native to India whose global production in 2014 reached nearly 45 million tones. Mango is a commercially important fruit and improvement in its storage is of special importance. Mango is a Climacteric fruit whose ripening is done by exogenous or endogenous ethylene. In plants, Polyamines such as spermine, spermidine, and putrescine contradict ethylene because of a common precursor (s-adenosyl methionine (SAM. During ripening, different qualitative and nutritional changes occur in the fruit, e. g. changes in color, tissue softening, accumulation of sugars and organic acids, and great changes in taste, flavor, aroma and plant biochemical materials. Fruit ripening is a complicated process, complementary to fruit development, and a start to its senescence. In general, senescence of a fruit is related to loss of membrane lipids, destabilization of membrane matrix, and lipid peroxidation. Recently, naturally active biological products are applied in a large amount for increasing the storage life and quality of the fruits and delaying their senescence.This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different concentrations of spermidine on the quality and vase life of a local mango variety of Minab. Materials and Methods: Healthy fruits, uniform in size, shape, color, and degree of maturity were selected from a mango orchard in Minab and their original physical and chemical characteristics on the first day were measured after washing with water and drying. Statistical analysis of data was done by a general linear model (GLM with SAS (version 9.1 and mean comparisons were performed using Duncan's multiple range test. Treatment solution in the rate of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM spermidine (SIGMA was made and its pH was set to 5 using NaOH. One liter of distilled water was used in the control treatment. The treated samples were immersed in solutions of different concentrations of spermidine just

  9. Production of aflatexin B1 in wheat grains under different environmental storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Bothaina, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Fungal flora of stored wheat grains and the production of aflatoxin B 1 by Aflavus in wheat grains under different environmental conditions were examined. Aspergillus, Penicillium,. Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicouccum, Verticilium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Altenaria were the predominant fungi isolated from the collected non-disinfected grains. Aspergillus spp, were only isolated from surface disinfected grains. Of 223 aspergillus spp, isolates only 128 found to aflatoxin producing and all aflatoxin producing-fungi belonged to the Aflavus group. Results demonstrate that Aflavus could produce maximum concentration of aflatoxin B 1 in grains at 20% moisture (163.5 MOU g/kg). The highest concentration of aflatoxin B 1 was produced by Aflavus (10 5 spores/g) in wheat grains with 20% moisture after 20 days at 30 degree and 92.40 % R.H. The aflatoxin production did not increase monotonously as a function of inoculum density

  10. Depression storage and infiltration effects on overland flow depth-velocity-friction at desert conditions: field plot results and model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rossi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1 overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2 field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3 the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying

  11. Impact of storage conditions on seed germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L. at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed storage conditions and different temperatures (5˚C, 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, 30˚C and 26˚C/21˚C during germination and seedling development on seed germination, shoot length and germination rate of wild oat (Avena fatua L. was examined. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a period of ten days and shoot length was measured on the last day, while germination rates were calculated from those measurements. The results showed that seed storage under controlled conditions (T1: temperature 24±1°C, humidity 40-50%; T2: temperature 26±1°C, humidity 70-80% and T3: temperature 4˚C for periods of 3 (t1 and 12 (t2 months had a significant influence on germination of wild oat seeds. The percentage of germinated seeds under all examined temperatures was higher when they were stored for 12 months under controlled temperature and humidity. The results also showed that temperature had a significant effect on the percentage of germination and germination rate of A. fatua seeds. The highest total germination occurred at 15˚C temperature (T1: t1 - 41.25%, t2 - 44.37%; T2: t1 - 28.13%, t2 - 34.37%; T3: t1 - 10.63%, t2 - 12.50%. Germination percentage under an alternating day /night photoperiod at 26˚C/21˚C temperature was higher in all treatment variants (T1: t1 - 8.13%, t2 - 10.00%; T2: t1 - 11.87%, t2 - 13.13%; T3: t1 - 2.42%, t2 - 2.70% than germination in the dark at 25˚C, 30˚C and 5˚C.

  12. The Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziari, Anastasia; Aakko, Juhani; Kumar, Himanshu; Tölkkö, Satu; du Toit, Elloise; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika; Rautava, Samuli

    2017-11-01

    Human milk is the optimal source of complete nutrition for neonates and it also guides the development of infant gut microbiota. Importantly, human milk can be supplemented with probiotics to complement the health benefits of breastfeeding. Storage of human milk for limited periods of time is often unavoidable, but little is known about the effect of different storage conditions (temperature) on the viability of the added probiotics. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated how different storage conditions affect the viability of two specific widely used probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bb12), in human milk by culturing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that LGG and Bb12 remained stable throughout the storage period. Thus, we conclude that human milk offers an appropriate matrix for probiotic supplementation.

  13. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  14. Improved Storage Stability of Meal, Ready-To-Eat Cheese Spread Under Heat-Stressing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    7 3.2 Hunter L*a*b Colorimetry ...10 4.2 Hunter L*a*b Colorimetry ...testing, the study consisted of L*a*b* colorimetry , photography, emulsion stability testing, and First Strike Ration™ field testing at Fort Bragg, NC

  15. Influence of packaging and conditions of storaging on content of mineral water Guber-Srebrenica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Dragana D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral waters are found in nature in greater depths most often in reduction conditions, so after surfacing their content alters in contact with oxygen, which is caused by oxidation of certain components. Due to this, efforts were made to make these waters more stabile so they could be used after certain time. This work monitors the stability of Guber (Argentaria-Srebrenica water exposed to light and with addition of ascorbic acid. The methods of analysis and the parameters analyzed are: gravimetric (SO2-4, suspended solids, total dry residue at 180°C, conductometry (electric conductivity, volumetric (Al3+, spectrometric (SiO2 and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, K+, Ca2+, Na+ i Cu2+. Obtained results of water analysis, after retaining water in PET (polyethylentereftalate and glass bottles, in certain time intervals, show that significant changes of concentration of Fe2+, Al3+, K+, Ca2+, pH value and electric conductivity occurred. Concentration of iron Fe2+ has been slightly changed after 120 days, in sample stabilized with 0,2 g ascorbic acid, while concentrations of Al and K+ were changing the same as without adding of stabilizer. Samples of water in glass packaging without added stabilizer are less stable compared to samples which were retained in PET packaging.

  16. Conditioning and storage of spent fuel cladding hulls by rolling and embedding in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spenk, G.; Frotscher, H.; Graebner, H.; Kapulla, H.

    1981-01-01

    Under a contract with the European Atomic Energy Community the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, KfK, developed a conditioning process for LWR cladding waste. After compaction of the hulls by rolling they are embedded in a concrete matrix. In addition to basic data of the cladding waste, the compaction process, consisting of a dosage system and a rolling mill, is described. Several embedding techniques are possible, but a final selection has still to be made. Best results will probably be achieved by a vacuum technique. To characterize the waste product, leach tests have been started. The compression strength of compacted hulls embedded in concrete was determined to 2300 N.cm -2 . Hydrogen release due to radiolyses lies around 3 μl.g -1 sub(concrete).Mrad -1 which corresponds to the values expected on account of the water content of the samples. Less hydrogen was determined in samples with Zircaloy added. The tritium release of tritiated Zircaloy hulls embedded in concrete is greatly dependent on temperature and irradiation. At 100 0 C and with γ-irradiation the tritium release is about two orders of magnitude higher compared with experiments without irradiation. The thermal conductivity of samples of Zircaloy hulls embedded in concrete was determined to be 1.4W.m -1 .K -1 . (author)

  17. Replenishment policy for non-instantaneous deteriorating items in a two storage facilities under inflationary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra K. Jaggi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under inflationary conditions with partially backlogged shortages. In today’s market structure consumers are looking for goods for which there is a delay in deterioration. At the same time, the consumers’ willingness to wait has been decreased over time, which leads to lost sales. Moreover in financial decision-making, the effects of inflation and time value of money cannot be oblivious to an inventory system. In this scenario, managing inventory of goods remains a challenging task for the decision makers, who may also have to rent warehouse under different prevailing factors such as, bulk discount, limited space in the retail outlet, or increasing inflation rates. With a focus on reduction of costs and increasing customer service, warehouse decision models are crucial for an organization’s profitability. Hence a mathematical model has been developed in the view of above scenario, in order to determine the optimal policy for the decision maker, by minimizing the present worth of total cost. The optimization procedure has been illustrated by a numerical example and detailed sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution has been performed to showcase the effect of various parameters. Managerial implications has also been presented to aid the decision making process.

  18. Cropland versus Gariga schrubland on soil organic carbon storage under Mediterranen climatic condition of Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Santoro, A.; Poma, I.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is the largest among the terrestrial pool and it plays a key role to mitigate climate change. The restoration of SOC pool represents a potential sink for atmospheric CO2. Land use is one of the most important factors controlling organic carbon content. The main land uses throughout the Mediterranean are croplands (olive, wheat and vineyards) and scrublands. The land abandonment or the reclamation of land is changing the cover of scrubland and cropland. This will change the carbon cycle. The aim of this work is determining the direction and magnitude of soil organic change associated with land use change under Mediterranean Climatic Conditions. Using both historic record and land cover crop maps we estimated the effect of land cover change on the stock carbon from 1972 to 2008 in Sicily. A system of paired plots was established on Mollic Gypsiric cambisol and Gypsiric cambisol on agriculture and rangeland land uses. The study sites were selected at the natural reserve "Grotta di S. Ninfa", in the West of Sicily. Soil samples (24) were taken at 20 and 40 cm depth, air dried and sieved at 2 mm. Dry aggregate size fractions selected were >1000 µm, 1000-500 µm, 500-250 µm, 250-63 µm, 63-25 µm and <25 µm. The results show that gariga increase the organic matter in soil, mainly on the organic horizon. Key worlds: Land use change, Soil organic Carbon , Mediterranean, aggregates, gariga, cropland.

  19. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide

  20. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide minimal

  1. Magmatic storage conditions, decompression rate, and incipient caldera collapse of the 1902 eruption of Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Benjamin J.

    2014-08-01

    Phase equilibria experiments and analysis of natural pumice and phenocryst compositions indicate the 1902 Santa Maria dacite was stored at ~ 140-170 MPa and 840-850 °C prior to eruption. H2O-saturated, cold-seal experiments conducted in vessels with an intrinsic log fO2 of NNO + 1 ± 0.5 show that the natural phase assemblage (melt + plagioclase + amphibole + orthopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxides + apatite) is stable from approximately 115-140 MPa at temperatures below ~ 825 °C, to ~ 840-860 °C at 150 MPa, to > 850 and Ridolfi et al., 2010) applied to experimental samples suggest two populations of amphiboles, phenocrysts grown during the experiments and inherited xenocrysts, but the pressure-temperature conditions returned by the geothermobarometer are routinely > 50 MPa and > 50 °C greater than experimental run conditions; precise estimates of magmatic conditions based solely upon amphibole composition are likely inaccurate. The experimental results and analysis of natural crystals suggest that although the natural amphiboles likely record a broad range of magmatic conditions, only the lower bounds of that range reflect pre-eruptive storage conditions. Comparison of Santa Maria microlite abundances with decompression experiments examining other silicic systems from the literature suggests that the 1902 dacite decompressed at the rate of ~ 0.005 to 0.01 MPa/s during the eruption. Applying the decompression rate with the previously described eruption rate of approximately 2-3 × 108 kg/s (Williams and Self, 1983; Carey and Sparks, 1986) to the conduit model CONFLOW reveals that the eruption conduit was dike-like with an along-strike length > 1 km. Despite depositing ~ 20 km3 of dacite tephra (equivalent to ~ 8.5 km3 magma), the 1902 eruption did not form an obvious caldera. This work suggests that collapse of the dike-like conduit terminated the eruption, preventing full caldera collapse.

  2. Improving Wind Farm Dispatchability Using Model Predictive Control for Optimal Operation of Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Halamay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the use of model-based predictive control for energy storage systems to improve the dispatchability of wind power plants. Large-scale wind penetration increases the variability of power flow on the grid, thus increasing reserve requirements. Large energy storage systems collocated with wind farms can improve dispatchability of the wind plant by storing energy during generation over-the-schedule and sourcing energy during generation under-the-schedule, essentially providing on-site reserves. Model predictive control (MPC provides a natural framework for this application. By utilizing an accurate energy storage system model, control actions can be planned in the context of system power and state-of-charge limitations. MPC also enables the inclusion of predicted wind farm performance over a near-term horizon that allows control actions to be planned in anticipation of fast changes, such as wind ramps. This paper demonstrates that model-based predictive control can improve system performance compared with a standard non-predictive, non-model-based control approach. It is also demonstrated that secondary objectives, such as reducing the rate of change of the wind plant output (i.e., ramps, can be considered and successfully implemented within the MPC framework. Specifically, it is shown that scheduling error can be reduced by 81%, reserve requirements can be improved by up to 37%, and the number of ramp events can be reduced by 74%.

  3. Crop improvement using life cycle datasets acquired under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi eMochida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crops are exposed to various environmental stresses in the field throughout their life cycle. Modern plant science has provided remarkable insights into the molecular networks of plant stress responses in laboratory conditions, but the responses of different crops to environmental stresses in the field need to be elucidated. Recent advances in omics analytical techniques and information technology have enabled us to integrate data from a spectrum of physiological metrics of field crops. The interdisciplinary efforts of plant science and data science enable us to explore factors that affect crop productivity and identify stress tolerance-related genes and alleles. Here, we describe recent advances in technologies that are key components for data driven crop design, such as population genomics, chronological omics analyses, and computer-aided molecular network prediction. Integration of the outcomes from these technologies will accelerate our understanding of crop phenology under practical field situations and identify key characteristics to represent crop stress status. These elements would help us to genetically engineer designed crops to prevent yield shortfalls because of environmental fluctuations due to future climate change.

  4. Crop improvement using life cycle datasets acquired under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Keiichi; Saisho, Daisuke; Hirayama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Crops are exposed to various environmental stresses in the field throughout their life cycle. Modern plant science has provided remarkable insights into the molecular networks of plant stress responses in laboratory conditions, but the responses of different crops to environmental stresses in the field need to be elucidated. Recent advances in omics analytical techniques and information technology have enabled us to integrate data from a spectrum of physiological metrics of field crops. The interdisciplinary efforts of plant science and data science enable us to explore factors that affect crop productivity and identify stress tolerance-related genes and alleles. Here, we describe recent advances in technologies that are key components for data driven crop design, such as population genomics, chronological omics analyses, and computer-aided molecular network prediction. Integration of the outcomes from these technologies will accelerate our understanding of crop phenology under practical field situations and identify key characteristics to represent crop stress status. These elements would help us to genetically engineer "designed crops" to prevent yield shortfalls because of environmental fluctuations due to future climate change.

  5. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  6. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  7. An improved power flow method based on extended chain-table storage structure for distribution network with PV nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Su, Chi

    2014-01-01

    with a reduced memory size. The voltage error of each PV node is adjusted by a reactive power adjusting strategy. The adjusting strategy is based on a multi-variable linear function with an accelerating factor. Finally, this new improved power flow method is realized by the software system developed in VC......Based on an extended chain-table storage structure, an improved power flow method is presented, which can be applied to a distribution network with multi PV nodes. The extended chain-table storage structure is designed on the basis of address-pointer technology describing the radial topology...... and the corresponding case study has been done. The experimental data and the further analysis have proved that this method can calculate the power flow of a distribution network with multi PV nodes precisely and fast. © 2014 IEEE....

  8. Improvements to methods for assisted discharge of coal and ash from storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.; Richards, D.G. [CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom)

    1999-03-01

    The project studied the effects of vibration on coal in storage and assessed the effect of changes in vibration parameters, with respect to changes in physical properties of coal, to the flow of material through the storage system. An effective technique was developed for the measurement of transmission of vibration through coal residing in storage vessels, at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory scale to large industrial plant. Significant parameters affecting vibration transmission were impact position (discharge was favoured by application near the outlet), and bulk density of the stored material. Use was made of computer-based discrete element modelling (DEM) techniques for studying vibrations. 27 refs., 62 figs., 13 tabs., 1 app.

  9. Reducing a solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s energy consumption by applying real-time occupancy sensors and chilled water storage tanks throughout the summer: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an innovative occupancy and chilled water storage-based operation mode. • This mode was implemented to the solar-assisted air-conditioning system. • It permits to save 42% of total electrical energy during one cooling period. • It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. • It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study describes an innovative occupancy and chilled-water storage-based operation sequence implemented in a solar-assisted air-conditioning system. The core purpose of this solar-assisted air-conditioning system is to handle the cooling and heating load of the Solar Energy Research Centre (CIESOL), thus minimising its environmental impact. In this study, the cooling mode was investigated with special attention focused on the chilled-water storage circuit. The critical concern is that the solar-assisted air-conditioning system should always operate considering the actual load conditions, not using an abstract maximum load that is predetermined during the system’s design process, which can lead to energy waste during periods of low occupancy. Thus, the fundamental problem is to identify the optimum operation sequence for the solar-assisted air-conditioning system that provides the best energy performance. The significance of this work lies in the demonstration of a new operation strategy that utilises real-time occupancy monitoring and chilled-water storage tanks to improve the efficiency of solar-assisted air-conditioning systems, thereby reducing their electricity consumption. Adopting this strategy resulted in a large energy-saving potential. The results demonstrate that during one cooling period, it is possible to conserve approximately 42% of the total electrical energy consumed by the system prior to the adoption of this operation strategy

  10. Radioecological condition assessment and remediation criteria for sites of spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the russian northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, Nataliya; Titov, Alex; Novikova, Natalia; Kiselev, Mikhail; Romanov, Vladimir; Sneve, Malgorzata; Smith, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation have a regulatory cooperation programme which is concerned with management of the nuclear legacy in northwest Russia, and, in particular, the remediation of facilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management at the former Shore Technical Bases at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha Village. New regulatory guidance documents have been developed, necessary because of the special abnormal situation at these sites, now designated as Sites of Temporary Storage, but also because of the transition from military to civilian regulatory supervision and the evolving regulatory system in the Russian Federation. This paper presents the progress made and on-going projects in 2008 which involve development of the radio-ecological basis for identifying radiation supervision area boundaries and a system of recommended dose constraints and derived control levels for protection of workers and the public. Unconditional guarantee of long-term radioecological protection serves as the basis for criteria development. Non-exceedance of these dose constraints and control levels implies compliance with radiological protection objectives related to the residual contamination. Dose reduction below proposed dose constraint values must also be carried out according to the optimization principle. A number of remediation strategies are considered, corresponding to different future land use assumptions, including interim continued use in a nuclear context. The developed criteria relate to conditions of facilities and surrounding areas at the sites of temporary storage after completion of their remediation, and during the interim stages of remediation, depending upon the remediation strategy adopted. (author)

  11. Clayey cap-rocks reactivity in presence of CO2 in deep geological storage conditions: experimentation/modeling integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Credoz, A.

    2009-10-01

    CO 2 capture, transport and geological storage is one of the main solutions considered in the short and medium term to reduce CO 2 and others greenhouse gases emissions towards the atmosphere, by storing CO 2 in deeper geological reservoirs during 100 to 10 000 years. This Ph-D study offers a multi-scale vision of complex clayey cap-rocks reactivity and evolution. These formations are identified for the CO 2 containment and sealing into the reservoir. From the experimental scale on purified clay minerals to integrative modeling at high space and time scales, the strategy developed allowed identifying the main geochemical processes, to check the good agreement between experiment and modeling, and to lay emphasis the operational impacts on long-term cap-rocks integrity. Carbonated cements alteration is likely to open cap-rock porosity and to create preferential reactive pathway for reactive fluid flow. Besides, this could alter the cap-rock structure and the global geo-mechanic properties. Clay minerals alteration, including the illitization process, reduces the clay fraction volume but considerably limits the porosity increase. The illitization process in acidic conditions determined experimentally and by modeling at low and high scale, is coupled with silica precipitation. The final porosity increase control results of these two reactive processes balance. By a fundamental side, this study reveals new kinetic parameters of clay minerals and highlights new structural transformations. By an operational side, this study contributes to the acquisition of qualitative data (long-term reactive pathways of clayey cap-rocks, coupled reactivity carbonates/clays) and quantitative data (CO 2 penetration distance into the cap-rock) to partly answer to the performance and safety assessment CO 2 capture and geological storage. (author)

  12. Performance Improvement of V-Fe-Cr-Ti Solid State Hydrogen Storage Materials in Impure Hydrogen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Ulrich; Oertel, Daria; Diemant, Thomas; Bonatto Minella, Christian; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Dittmeyer, Roland; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2018-01-17

    Two approaches of engineering surface structures of V-Ti-based solid solution hydrogen storage alloys are presented, which enable improved tolerance toward gaseous oxygen (O 2 ) impurities in hydrogen (H 2 ) gas. Surface modification is achieved through engineering lanthanum (La)- or nickel (Ni)-rich surface layers with enhanced cyclic stability in an H 2 /O 2 mixture. The formation of a Ni-rich surface layer does not improve the cycling stability in H 2 /O 2 mixtures. Mischmetal (Mm, a mixture of La and Ce) agglomerates are observed within the bulk and surface of the alloy when small amounts of this material are added during arc melting synthesis. These agglomerates provide hydrogen-transparent diffusion pathways into the bulk of the V-Ti-Cr-Fe hydrogen storage alloy when the remaining oxidized surface is already nontransparent for hydrogen. Thus, the cycling stability of the alloy is improved in an O 2 -containing hydrogen environment as compared to the same alloy without addition of Mm. The obtained surface-engineered storage material still absorbs hydrogen after 20 cycles in a hydrogen-oxygen mixture, while the original material is already deactivated after 4 cycles.

  13. Optimization of the elaboration conditions of an adsorber for the hydrogen storage; Optimisation des conditions d'elaboration d'un adsorbant pour le stockage d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, V.; Mareche, J.F.; Furdin, G. [Nancy-1 Univ. Henri Poincare, UMR - CNRS 7555, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Szczurek, A.; Albiniak, A. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Laboratory for Lignites and Carbon Adsorbents, Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum and Coal (Poland); Latroche, M. [Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, ICMPE, UMR 7182, CNRS, 94 - Thiais (France); Celzard, A. [Nancy-Univ., ENSTIB, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, UMR CNRS 7555, 88 - Epinal (France)

    2008-07-01

    The microporous carbon are very efficient adsorbents for the hydrogen storage, because of pores size under 2 nm. This study describes the optimization of the elaboration conditions for a carbon adsorbent for the hydrogen storage by adsorption. The storage capacity has been measured at 25 C for 20 MPa and also at 77 K for pressures between 6 and 9 MPa. the porous texture characterization has been realized by four molecule probes of increasing diameter: CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and CCl{sub 4}. (A.L.B.)

  14. Chloroform-assisted phenol extraction improving proteome profiling of maize embryos through selective depletion of high-abundance storage proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhui Xiong

    Full Text Available The presence of abundant storage proteins in plant embryos greatly impedes seed proteomics analysis. Vicilin (or globulin-1 is the most abundant storage protein in maize embryo. There is a need to deplete the vicilins from maize embryo extracts for enhanced proteomics analysis. We here reported a chloroform-assisted phenol extraction (CAPE method for vicilin depletion. By CAPE, maize embryo proteins were first extracted in an aqueous buffer, denatured by chloroform and then subjected to phenol extraction. We found that CAPE can effectively deplete the vicilins from maize embryo extract, allowing the detection of low-abundance proteins that were masked by vicilins in 2-DE gel. The novelty of CAPE is that it selectively depletes abundant storage proteins from embryo extracts of both monocot (maize and dicot (soybean and pea seeds, whereas other embryo proteins were not depleted. CAPE can significantly improve proteome profiling of embryos and extends the application of chloroform and phenol extraction in plant proteomics. In addition, the rationale behind CAPE depletion of abundant storage proteins was explored.

  15. Improving classroom practices: the impact of leadership, school organizational conditions, and teacher factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoonen, E.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are challenged to improve classroom practices as they are expected to enhance students’ motivation. While leadership, school organizational conditions and teacher factors are considered essential for improving classroom practices, more should be known about the interplay between school

  16. Design of Energy Storage Control Strategy to Improve the PV System Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Mingyu; Yang, Zilong; Wang, Yibo

    2016-01-01

    Random fluctuation of PV power is becoming a more and more serious problem affecting the power quality and stability of grid as the PV penetration keeps increasing recent years. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposed a control strategy of energy storage system based on Model Predictive Contr...

  17. Improvement in Performance of a Thermochemical Heat Storage System by Implementing an Internal Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaeini, M.; Saris, L.; Zondag, H.A.; Rindt, C.C.M.

    A lab-scale prototype of a thermochemical heat storage system, employing a water-zeolite 13X as the working pair, is designed and optimized for providing hot tap water. During the hydration process, humid air is introduced to the packed bed reactor filled with dehydrated zeolite 13X, and the

  18. Improvement of the variable storage coefficient method with water surface gradient as a variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variable storage coefficient (VSC) method has been used for streamflow routing in continuous hydrological simulation models such as the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for more than 30 years. APEX operates on a daily time step and ...

  19. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical confinement for improved energy storage density in BNT-BT-KNN lead-free ceramic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Aditya; Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul, E-mail: rahul@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, 175 001 (India)

    2014-08-15

    With the advent of modern power electronics, embedded circuits and non-conventional energy harvesting, the need for high performance capacitors is bound to become indispensible. The current state-of-art employs ferroelectric ceramics and linear dielectrics for solid state capacitance. However, lead-free ferroelectric ceramics propose to offer significant improvement in the field of electrical energy storage owing to their high discharge efficiency and energy storage density. In this regards, the authors have investigated the effects of compressive stress as a means of improving the energy storage density of lead-free ferroelectric ceramics. The energy storage density of 0.91(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.07BaTiO{sub 3}-0.02(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ferroelectric bulk ceramic was analyzed as a function of varying levels of compressive stress and operational temperature .It was observed that a peak energy density of 387 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained at 100 MPa applied stress (25{sup o}C). While a maximum energy density of 568 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained for the same stress at 80{sup o}C. These values are indicative of a significant, 25% and 84%, improvement in the value of stored energy compared to an unloaded material. Additionally, material's discharge efficiency has also been discussed as a function of operational parameters. The observed phenomenon has been explained on the basis of field induced structural transition and competitive domain switching theory.

  1. Mechanical confinement for improved energy storage density in BNT-BT-KNN lead-free ceramic capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of modern power electronics, embedded circuits and non-conventional energy harvesting, the need for high performance capacitors is bound to become indispensible. The current state-of-art employs ferroelectric ceramics and linear dielectrics for solid state capacitance. However, lead-free ferroelectric ceramics propose to offer significant improvement in the field of electrical energy storage owing to their high discharge efficiency and energy storage density. In this regards, the authors have investigated the effects of compressive stress as a means of improving the energy storage density of lead-free ferroelectric ceramics. The energy storage density of 0.91(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.07BaTiO3-0.02(K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ferroelectric bulk ceramic was analyzed as a function of varying levels of compressive stress and operational temperature .It was observed that a peak energy density of 387 mJ.cm-3 was obtained at 100 MPa applied stress (25oC. While a maximum energy density of 568 mJ.cm-3 was obtained for the same stress at 80oC. These values are indicative of a significant, 25% and 84%, improvement in the value of stored energy compared to an unloaded material. Additionally, material's discharge efficiency has also been discussed as a function of operational parameters. The observed phenomenon has been explained on the basis of field induced structural transition and competitive domain switching theory.

  2. Milk processed by pulsed electric fields: evaluation of microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics, and selected nutrients at different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Fernández, Sulmer; Esquivel, Heracleo; Dunne, Patrick C; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology was used to pasteurize raw milk under selected treatments. Processing conditions were: temperature 20, 30, and 40 °C, electric field 30.76 to 53.84 kV/cm, and pulse numbers 12, 24, and 30 for skim milk (SM), and 12, 21, and 30 for whole milk (WM) (2 μs pulse width, monopolar). Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, density, color, solids nonfat [SNF]) and composition (protein and fat content) were measured after processing. Shelf life of SM and WM was assessed after processing at 46.15 kV/cm, combined with temperature (20 to 60 °C) and 30 pulses. Mesophilic and psychrophilic loads and pH were evaluated during storage at 4 and 21 °C. Results showed minor variations in physicochemical properties after processing. There was an interesting trend in SM in SNF, which decreased as treatment became stronger; similar behavior was observed for fat and protein, showing a 0.18% and 0.17% decrease, respectively, under the strongest conditions. Protein and fat content decreased in WM samples treated at 40 °C, showing a decrease in protein (0.11%), and an even higher decrease in fat content. During storage, PEF-treated milk samples showed higher stability at 4 °C with minor variations in pH; after 33 d, pH was higher than 6. However samples at 21 °C showed faster spoilage and pH dropped to 4 after 5 d. Growth of mesophilic bacteria was delayed in both milks after PEF processing, showing a 6- and 7-log cycles for SM and WM, respectively, after day 25 (4 °C); however, psychrophilic bacteria grew faster in both cases. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology in the pasteurization of liquid food products has shown positive results. Processing times can be reduced considerably, which in turn reduces the loss of nutrients and offers important savings in energy. PEF has been used successfully to pasteurize some liquid foods, but it is still not used commercially in milk pasteurization, although several trials have shown

  3. E-waste management challenges in Iran: presenting some strategies for improvement of current conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Nowrouz, Parviz; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Nazari, Jalil; Hashemi, Ahmad Asl; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in Iran, owing to an increase in consumption of electrical and electronic equipment. Nevertheless, as is the case in some other countries, E-waste management has not received sufficient attention. For the successful implementation of any waste management plan (including an E-waste management plan), the availability of sufficient and accurate information on the quantities and composition of the waste generated and on current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. At present, in Iran, there is no available and accurate information that describes the characteristics and generation rate of E-waste or the actual practice of management and handling of the waste. For this initial study, eight electronic products were selected for the determination of their E-waste generation rate in the country, and two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessment of the current condition of E-waste management. The study found that the amount of E-waste generation in the country for the eight selected electronic items alone was 115,286, 112,914 and 115,151 metric tons in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Of the types of electronic items included in the study, televisions, with an average of 42.42%, and PCs, with an average of 32.66% accounted for the greatest proportions of the total mass of E-waste generated during 2008-2010. Currently, despite the fact that primary legislation for E-waste management (as part of general waste legislation) exists in Iran, this primary legislation has not yet been implemented. In practical terms, there is no definite policy or plan for the allocation of funds to prepare suitable equipment and facilities for the management and recycling of E-waste at the end of the products' useful life. Proposed improvements in current conditions are identified, first by considering other countries' experiences and then suggesting specific practical policies, rules, and regulations that should be

  4. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: hslee80@kiu.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seungmin [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoonsung [Department of Electric and Energy Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Donghee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •It is important to develop power and energy management system to save operating cost. •An 100 kWh of SFES is effective to decrease peak power and energy consumption. •Operation cost saving can be achieved using superconducting flywheel energy storage. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  5. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •It is important to develop power and energy management system to save operating cost. •An 100 kWh of SFES is effective to decrease peak power and energy consumption. •Operation cost saving can be achieved using superconducting flywheel energy storage. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed

  6. Study of the influence of storage conditions on the quality and migration levels of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate-bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Luis; Poyatos, M Teresa; Muñoz, Lucía; La Rubia, M Dolores; Pacheco, Rafael; Ramos, Natividad

    2017-06-01

    The main objectives of this study are to determine the presence of antimony in water stored in polyethylene terephthalate bottles and the influence of temperature and time over the migration levels. For this purpose, Sb determination was carried out in water at different experimental conditions: storage for one to three weeks at 25 to 80 ℃; long-term (six months) storage at room temperature between 16 and 24 ℃ and storage in car during summer which is a common consumer's habit. In addition, water quality analysis was developed after different time-temperature storage conditions. All the samples at the end of their storage conditions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.50 and 0.80 µg/L, respectively. The results for the bottled water stored during six months indicated that the average Sb concentration was 0.332 ± 0.015 µg/L. This value is below the European maximum permissible migration level of 5 µg/L. With regard to the newly bottled water, no Sb was detected at the initial time for all temperatures studied. However, the Sb concentration in water increased with both time and temperature. The levels of Sb started exceeding the European limits when the samples were stored at 60 ℃ for two weeks.

  7. The use of potato fibre to improve bread physico-chemical properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Diantom, Agoura; Vittadini, Elena

    2016-03-15

    Bread staling reduction is a very important issue for the food industry. A fibre with high water holding capacity, extracted from potato peel, was studied for its ability to reduce bread staling even if employed at low level (0.4 g fibre/100 g flour). Physico-chemical properties (water activity, moisture content, frozen water content, amylopectin retrogradation) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance molecular mobility were characterised in potato fibre added bread over 7 days of storage. Potato fibre addition in bread slightly affected water activity and moisture content, while increased frozen water content and resulted in a softer bread crumb, more importantly when the optimal amount of water was used in the formulation. Potato fibre also reduced (1)H NMR molecular mobility changes in bread crumb during storage. Potato fibre addition in bread contributed to reduce bread staling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation Heat Transfer Modeling Improved for Phase-Change, Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jacqmin, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Spacecraft solar dynamic power systems typically use high-temperature phase-change materials to efficiently store thermal energy for heat engine operation in orbital eclipse periods. Lithium fluoride salts are particularly well suited for this application because of their high heat of fusion, long-term stability, and appropriate melting point. Considerable attention has been focused on the development of thermal energy storage (TES) canisters that employ either pure lithium fluoride (LiF), with a melting point of 1121 K, or eutectic composition lithium-fluoride/calcium-difluoride (LiF-20CaF2), with a 1040 K melting point, as the phase-change material. Primary goals of TES canister development include maximizing the phase-change material melt fraction, minimizing the canister mass per unit of energy storage, and maximizing the phase-change material thermal charge/discharge rates within the limits posed by the container structure.

  9. Research on Power System Scheduling Improving Wind Power Accommodation Considering Thermal Energy Storage and Flexible Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chenlu; Cui, Xue; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    In the case of rapid development of wind power and heavy wind curtailment, the study of wind power accommodation of combined heat and power system has become the focus of attention. A two-stage scheduling model contains of wind power, thermal energy storage, CHP unit and flexible load were constructed. This model with the objective function of minimizing wind curtailment and the operation cost of units while taking into account of the total coal consumption of units, constraint of thermal energy storage and electricity-heat characteristic of CHP. This paper uses MICA to solve the problem of too many constraints and make the solution more feasible. A numerical example showed that the two stage decision scheduling model can consume more wind power, and it could provide a reference for combined heat and power system short-term operation

  10. The metal-carbon-fluorine system for improving hydrogen storage by using metal and fluorine with different levels of electronegativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Young-Seak [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, BK21-E2M, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea); Park, Soo-Jin [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    In order to improve the capacity of hydrogen storage using activated carbon nanofibers, metal and fluorine were introduced into the activated carbon nanofibers by electrospinning, heat treatment, and direct fluorination. The pore structure of the samples was developed by the KOH activation process and investigated using nitrogen isotherms and micropore size distribution. The specific surface area and total pore volume approached 2800 m{sup 2}/g and 2.7 cc/g, respectively. Because of the electronegativity gap between the two elements (metal and fluorine), the electron of a hydrogen molecule can be attracted to one side. This reaction effectively guides the hydrogen molecule into the carbon nanofibers. The amount of hydrogen storage was dramatically increased in this metal-carbon-fluorine system; hydrogen content was as high as 3.2 wt%. (author)

  11. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  12. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Stationary Energy Storage System Locating and Sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang; Zhongping Yang; Fei Lin; Wei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    The application of a stationary ultra-capacitor energy storage system (ESS) in urban rail transit allows for the recuperation of vehicle braking energy for increasing energy savings as well as for a better vehicle voltage profile. This paper aims to obtain the best energy savings and voltage profile by optimizing the location and size of ultra-capacitors. This paper firstly raises the optimization objective functions from the perspectives of energy savings, regenerative braking cancellation a...

  13. An Improved Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage System in Light Rail Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Long Cheng; Wei Wang; Shaoyuan Wei; Hongtao Lin; Zhidong Jia

    2018-01-01

    A single-objective optimization energy management strategy (EMS) for an onboard hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for light rail (LR) vehicles is proposed. The HESS uses batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The main objective of the proposed optimization is to reduce the battery and SC losses while maintaining the SC state of charge (SOC) within specific limits based on the distance between consecutive LR stations. To do this, a series of optimized SOC limits is used to prevent the SC from ...

  14. Energy Storage System Control Algorithm by Operating Target Power to Improve Energy Sustainability of Smart Home

    OpenAIRE

    Byeongkwan Kang; Kyuhee Jang; Sounghoan Park; Myeong-in Choi; Sehyun Park

    2018-01-01

    As energy issues are emerging around the world, a variety of smart home technologies aimed at realizing zero energy houses are being introduced. Energy storage system (ESS) for smart home energy independence is increasingly gaining interest. However, limitations exist in that most of them are controlled according to time schedules or used in conjunction with photovoltaic (PV) generation systems. In consideration of load usage patterns and PV generation of smart home, this study proposes an ES...

  15. Leveraging Cloud Computing to Improve Storage Durability, Availability, and Cost for MER Maestro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, George W.; Powell, Mark W.; Callas, John L.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2012-01-01

    The Maestro for MER (Mars Exploration Rover) software is the premiere operation and activity planning software for the Mars rovers, and it is required to deliver all of the processed image products to scientists on demand. These data span multiple storage arrays sized at 2 TB, and a backup scheme ensures data is not lost. In a catastrophe, these data would currently recover at 20 GB/hour, taking several days for a restoration. A seamless solution provides access to highly durable, highly available, scalable, and cost-effective storage capabilities. This approach also employs a novel technique that enables storage of the majority of data on the cloud and some data locally. This feature is used to store the most recent data locally in order to guarantee utmost reliability in case of an outage or disconnect from the Internet. This also obviates any changes to the software that generates the most recent data set as it still has the same interface to the file system as it did before updates

  16. Research on Improved VSG Control Algorithm Based on Capacity-Limited Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A large scale of renewable energy employing grid connected electronic inverters fail to contribute inertia or damping to power systems, and, therefore, may bring negative effects to the stability of power system. As a solution, an advanced Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG control technology based on Hamilton approach is introduced in this paper firstly to support the frequency and enhance the suitability and robustness of the system. The charge and discharge process of power storage devices forms the virtual inertia and damping of VSG, and, therefore, limits on storage capacity may change the coefficients of VSG. To provide a method in keeping system output in an acceptable level with the capacity restriction in a transient period, an energy control algorithm is designed for VSG adaptive control. Finally, simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT to demonstrate the correctness of the algorithm. The demonstration shows: (1 the proposed control model aims at better system robustness and stability; and (2 the model performs in the environment closer to practical engineering by fitting the operation state of storage system.

  17. Comparative study of deterioration procedure in chemical-leavened steamed bread dough under frozen storage and freeze/thaw condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-08-15

    Successive freeze/thaw (FT) cycle was a widely used empirical approach to shorten the experimental period since it could accelerate frozen dough deterioration compared with frozen storage (FS). In order to compare the effect of FS and FT cycle on deterioration procedure of chemical-leavened steamed bread dough, kinetic studies of bread quality indices were performed and the relationships between bread quality and dough components were further established. Results showed that degradation of steamed bread loaf volume and firmness followed first-order kinetics during FS and zero-order kinetics during FT, respectively. Glutenin macropolymers (GMP) depolymerization and dough weight loss occurred steadily throughout FS and FT. Significant enhancement of damaged starch and crystallinity were observed at the later FS period and FT cycle. Multiple regression study led to the conclusion that dough weight loss contributed the most to the reduced bread loaf volume under FS whereas GMP depolymerization dominated under FT condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality changes during frozen storage of blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris with antioxidant, α-tocopherol, under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zulema Valencia-Perez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh blue shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris muscle was stored with antioxidants under different conditions: ANTIOX 2%, packed in bilayer film of polyamide-low density polyethylene film (PA-LDPE with 2% α-tocopherol; ANTIOX 4%, packed in PA-LDPE film with 4% α-tocopherol; and ANTIOX-GLAZED, samples stored glazed with 2% α-tocopherol. Shrimps packed in PA-LDPE without α-tocopherol were used as CONTROL. All samples were stored at –20 °C for 120 days. As compared to the CONTROL, the shrimp stored with the antioxidant showed lower lipid oxidation (0.10-0.14 vs 1.58 mgMA/kg of muscle, lost less firmness and astaxanthin content. ANTIOX 2% and ANTIOX-GLAZED showed the lowest concentrations of formaldehyde (0.081-0.083 μM/g. There were no significant differences in color and sensory properties, but differences in the integrity of the muscle fibers were observed. The treatments with α-tocopherol maintained the shrimp muscle quality during frozen storage. However, no significant differences were found between these treatments.

  19. Effects of Pretreatments and Storage Conditions on the Stability of Orange Peel Carotenoids (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids, being colorful pigments with colors ranging from yellow to red, are important in food industry providing both lipophilic and hydrophilic groups, provitamin A activity and anticarciogenic properties. The commercial value of carotenoids is closely related to the color stability. Therefore, this work aims to study the stability of enzyme extracted carotenoid pigments under different processing and storage conditions. Orange peels from the wastes of fruit juice production were used as a potential rich source of pigments. Orange peel samples were either directly extracted or pretreatments of blanching, 0.2% sodium-bisulfıte solution or combinations of these two were applied. Extracted pigments were stored at 4 oC, 25 oC (under light and dark and 40 oC. Stability of enzyme extracted pigments were higher than that of solvent extracted whereas pretreatments were resulted in pigment loss. Half-life, defined as the time corresponding 50% loss of pigments, of the samples stored at 4 oC was 78 days in directly extracted, 27 days in blanched, 31 days in Na-bisulfite treated and 30 days in the combination of the last two. This work can be considered as a preliminary study on the industrial scale production and potential usage of the carotenoid pigments as fully natural food coloring agent in food systems.

  20. Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks

  1. Effects of Cooling Rates on Hydride Reorientation and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Alloy Claddings under Interim Dry Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Su-Jeong; Kim, Myeong-Su; Won, Chu-chin; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    As-received Zr-Nb cladding tubes and 600 ppm hydrogen-charged tubes were employed to evaluate the effects of cladding cooling rates on the extent of hydride reorientation from circumferential hydrides to radial ones and mechanical property degradations with the use of cooling rates of 2, 4 and 15 °C/min from 400 °C to room temperature simulating cladding cooling under interim dry storage conditions. The as-received cladding tubes generated nearly the same ultimate tensile strengths and plastic elongations, regardless of the cooling rates, because of a negligible hydrogen content in the cladding. The 600 ppm-H cladding tubes indicate that the slower cooling rate generated the larger radial hydride fraction and the longer radial hydrides, which resulted in greater mechanical performance degradations. The cooling rate of 2 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 758 MPa and a plastic elongation of 1.0%, whereas the cooling rate of 15 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 825 MPa and a plastic elongation of 15.0%. These remarkable mechanical property degradations of the 600 ppm-H cladding tubes with the slowest cooling rate may be characterized by cleavage fracture surface appearance enhanced by longer radial hydrides and their higher fraction that have been precipitated through a relatively larger nucleation and growth rate.

  2. Storage conditions for stability of offline measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide after collection for epidemiologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Yoshiko; Otani, Naruhito; Hasunuma, Hideki; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Shima, Masayuki

    2012-11-02

    The measurement of fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) is valuable for the assessment of airway inflammation. Offline measurement of FeNO has been used in some epidemiologic studies. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO after collection has not been fully clarified. In this study, the effects of storage conditions on the stability of FeNO measurement in exhaled air after collection for epidemiologic research were examined. Exhaled air samples were collected from 48 healthy adults (mean age 43.4 ± 12.1 years) in Mylar bags. FeNO levels in the bags were measured immediately after collection. The bags were then stored at 4°C or room temperature to measure FeNO levels repeatedly for up to 168 hours. In the bags stored at room temperature after collection, FeNO levels were stable for 9 hours, but increased starting at 24 hours. FeNO levels remained stable for a long time at 4°C, and they were 99.7% ± 7.7% and 101.3% ± 15.0% relative to the baseline values at 24 and 96 hours, respectively. When the samples were stored at 4°C, FeNO levels gradually decreased with time among the subjects with FeNO ≥ 51 ppb immediately after collection, although there were almost no changes among the other subjects. FeNO levels among current smokers increased even at 4°C, although the values among ex-smokers decreased gradually, and those among nonsmokers remained stable. The rate of increase was significantly higher among current smokers than among nonsmokers and ex-smokers from 9 hours after collection onwards. Storage at 4°C could prolong the stability of FeNO levels after collection. This result suggests that valid measurements can be performed within several days if the samples are stored at 4°C. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO levels differed in relation to initial FeNO values and cigarette smoking.

  3. Accident conditions analysis of spent fuel storage pool RA research reactor in Vinca; Analiza udesnih stanja u odlagalistu isluzenog goriva istrazivackog rektora RA u Vinci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovic, V; Jovic, L [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2000-07-01

    Based on Safety analysis of the spent fuel pool RA research reactor in Vinca, conditions and possibilities accident sequences in present configuration storage facility are considered (author) [Serbo-Croat] Na osnovu Analize sigurnosti odlagalista isluzenog goriva istrazivackog reaktora RA u Vinci razmatraju se uslovi i mogucnosti pojave udesnih stanja u postojecoj konfiguraciji odlagalista (author)

  4. Storage conditions of blood samples and primer selection affect the yield of cDNA polymerase chain reaction products of hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, H. T.; Bresters, D.; Winkel, I. N.; Reesink, H. W.; Weiner, A. J.; Houghton, M.; van der Poel, C. L.; Lelie, P. N.

    1992-01-01

    We have noticed that suboptimal specimen processing and storage conditions may cause false-negative results in the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in plasma or serum. To establish the influence of specimen handling in a serological laboratory on the rate of detection of HCV RNA by the cDNA

  5. Effects of storage conditions before or after high-hydrostatic pressure on inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of storage conditions on subsequent high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oyster meat was investigated. Live oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to ca. 7-8 log MPN/g by feeding and stored at different conditi...

  6. Magma storage conditions of historic Plinian eruptions of Volcán de Colima, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, J.; Arce, J.; Sosa, G.; Gardner, J. E.; Saucedo, R.

    2013-12-01

    Volcán de Colima has a historical record with major explosive eruptions occurring every ~100 years (1606, 1690, 1818, and 1913) followed by intra-Plinian effusive activity. The 1818 and 1913 Plinian eruptions erupted andesitic magmas (Pl > Opx > Cpx >> Hbl + Fe-Ti oxides + Ap and rare resorbed Ol) with homogeneous bulk compositions (1913; 58.3 × 0.5 wt.% SiO2, 1818; 58.9 × 0.2 wt.% SiO2; Saucedo et al., 2010). Instead, intra-Plinian magmas are devoid of hornblende and have compositions of 59-61 wt. % in silica (Savov et al., 2008). Pre-eruptive temperatures of oxide Fe-Ti pairs in 1818 and 1913 products yielded temperatures of 830×20°C colder than intra-Plinian magmas usually >970°C (Luhr et al., 2002) depending on the mineral phase analyzed. Amphibole in 1818 and 1913 products consists of two populations: a) large xenocrysts, with plag-px-Fe-Ti oxide rims with equilibrium pressures and temperatures of 380 MPa and 950 °C (Ridolfi et al., 2010), and b) microphenocryst with equilibrium pressures and temperatures of 190-280 MPa and 870-910 °C, respectively. Some phenocrysts in the 1818 magma have a high pressure core overgrowth by a low pressure rim. In order to understand the storage conditions of Colima explosive magmas we carried out a set of hydrothermal experiments with a 1818 pumice sample. Experiments were water oversaturated and close to the oxygen fugacity of the NNO buffer. Experiments show that amphibole is stable at pressures greater than 75 MPa at 850°C, and greater than 100 MPa at 925°C. For the same range of temperature, plagioclase is stable at pressures below ~210 MPa and 100 MPa, respectively. Experimental plagioclase and experimental glass were analyzed and compared to those from the natural sample, yielding an approximate storage pressure of 210 MPa. This pressure is confirmed by the chemical equilibrium of microphenocrystic amphibole of the natural sample. Given the nearly equivalent composition of the most recent Plinain magmas is

  7. Interactions between fluids and natural clay rich sediments: experimental study in conditions simulating radioactive wastes underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubeuf, V.

    2000-10-01

    The behaviour of clay rich sediments, especially an argilite from Oxfordian of Haute-Marne, a siltite from Albian series of Marcoule (Gard) and a bentonite from Wyoming, were experimentally studied under physical-chemical conditions close of those of an underground radioactive waste storage. The several steps of the creation of the storage in deep formation were simulated experimentally, in particular: - the effect due to oxidation at ambient temperature and moisture degree related to the arrival of air in the gallery, was tested, especially the interaction between acid fluids generated at the micron-scale of the altered pyrite micro-site and the surrounding minerals of the sediment, - the alteration due to weathering (damping/drying cycles) to simulate the effect of a surface storage of the sediments, - and finally, water-rock interactions at 80 and 200 deg C, which reproduce the thermic stress induced by the deposit of type C radioactive containers (stage of re-hydration under thermic stress). The various simulations lead to rather similar behaviour of minerals in the sediment and solutions. Mineralogical, geochemical and crystallographic analyses show that most minerals in sediments are preserved with no evidence of mineral neo-formation. Nevertheless, the study by X-ray diffraction shows variations in the interlayer spacing in relation with modifications of the hydration states. Changes in the interlayer occupancy of the clays are due to cationic exchange of the sodium of the interlayer by the calcium issued from the dissolution of carbonate and gypsum dissolution. I/S like minerals crystal-chemistry generally display little changes in the tetrahedral and octahedral occupancy and a rather good stability of crystal structure. The cationic exchange capacity (CEC) of the clay sediment display un-significant variations: after the damping/drying cycles, the argilite of Haute-Marne has lost about 15 % of their bulk CEC and the effect of acid micro-environment at

  8. Postharvest stilbenes and flavonoids enrichment of table grape cv Redglobe (Vitis vinifera L.) as affected by interactive UV-C exposure and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Pasquale; Pichierri, Arianna; Basile, Teodora; Antonacci, Donato

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and stilbenes are secondary metabolites produced in plants that can play an important health-promoting role. The biosynthesis of these compounds generally increases as a response to biotic or abiotic stress; therefore, in order to achieve as high phenolic accumulation as possible, the interactive effects of storage conditions (temperature and time) and UV-C radiation on polyphenols content in postharvest Redglobe table grape variety were investigated. During a storage time longer than 48h, both cold storage (4°C) and UV-C exposure of almost 3min (2.4kJm(-2)) positively enhanced the content of cis- and trans-piceid (34 and 90μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) together with quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (15 and 140μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) up to three fold respect to control grape samples. Conversely, catechin was not significantly affected by irradiation and storage treatments. With regard anthocyanins, the highest concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-Oglucoside were observed in Redglobe, stored at both room temperature and 4°C, after 5min (4.1kJm(-2)) of UV-C treatment and 24h of storage. Gathered findings showed that combined postharvest treatments can lead to possible "functional" grapes, within normal conditions of market commercialization, responding to the rising consumers demand to have foods that support and promote health. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. 42 CFR 494.110 - Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facility must maintain and demonstrate evidence of its quality improvement and performance improvement... RENAL DISEASE FACILITIES Patient Care § 494.110 Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement. The dialysis facility must develop, implement, maintain, and evaluate an effective, data-driven...

  10. Terminalia arjuna: A novel natural preservative for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of muscle foods

    OpenAIRE

    Insha Kousar Kalem; Z.F. Bhat; Sunil Kumar; Ajay Desai

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the possibility of utilization of Terminalia arjuna as a novel natural preservative in meat products by using chevon sausages as a model system. Chevon sausages were prepared by incorporating different levels of T. arjuna viz. T1 (0.25%), T2 (0.50%) and T3 (0.75%) and were assessed for various lipid oxidative stability and storage quality parameters under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C) conditions. T. arjuna showed a significant (p 

  11. Comparison and improvement of chemical and physical characteristics of low- fat ground beef and buffalo meat patties at frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uriyapongson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of chemical and physical properties of beef and buffalo meat, and eight treatments of their ground meat patties was undertaken. Low-fat patties from both meat were prepared using two types of starches; corn and modified tapioca starch as binding ingredients in the ground meat, and methylcellulose (MC in the batter for patty coating. The patties were stored at -18ºC for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days, then deep fried and analyzed for color, % decrease in diameter and % gain in height, % oil absorption and texture. The results suggested that MC improved outside and inside color of patties (p≤0.05. There was no significant difference of cooking yield between beef and buffalo meat patties. Addition of modified starches and MC provided less % decrease in diameter after frying for frozen buffalo meat patties. Modified starch significantly improved % oil absorption in frozen beef and buffalo patties. Modified starch and MC gave both beef and buffalo meat patties more stable in hardness, chewiness and gumminess during the frozen storage. MC improved texture quality of frozen buffalo meat patties. Fried meat patties had high calories at 15 days of frozen storage.

  12. 'I reject your reality and substitute my own'. Why more knowledge about CO2 storage hardly improves public attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.

  13. Conditioning of spent fuel assemblies from the Rossendorf RFR research reactor in transport and storage containers of the type CASTOR MTR 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.; Hofmann, G.

    1994-09-01

    Most of the spent fuel assemblies are temporarily stored in the flooded fuel ponds AB 1 and AB 2 of the RFR, and some are still in the reactor core. The conditioning task described here is part of the RFR spent fuel management concept and covers the safe emplacement of the spent fuel elements in the CASTOR MTR 2 shipping containers and the sealing of the containers in compliance with the nuclear licence issued for the conditioning task. The transfer of the spent fuel assemblies from the present wet storage conditions to the dry storage conditions in the CASTOR MTR 2 containers is done by a mobile manipulation equipment consisting essentially of the transfer sluice gate and a transfer container. Subsequent to conditioning, the shipping containers are to be transported to a licensed intermediate storage facility to await their transport to a national radwaste repository. The technical handling tools for the transfer and manipulation are briefly described, as well as the process steps involved, putting emphasis on the detailed description of processes and the accompanying time frame, so that the conditioning task can be incorporated into the work plan of the entire project. The report further presents the EDP concept established for the task, including the required data archivation and documentation. (orig.) [de

  14. Energy storage and alternatives to improve train voltage on a mass transit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. P.; Rorke, W. S.

    1995-04-01

    The wide separation of substations in the Bay Area Rapid Transit system's transbay tunnel contributes to voltage sag when power demand is high. In the future, expansions to the system will exacerbate this problem by increasing traffic density. Typically, this situation is remedied through the installation of additional substations to increase the system's power capacity. We have evaluated the efficacy of several alternatives to this approach - specifically, installation of an 8 megajoule energy storage system, modification of the existing substations, or reduction of the resistance of the running rails or the third rail. To support this analysis, we have developed a simple model of the traction power system in the tunnel. We have concluded that the storage system does not have sufficient capacity to deal with the expected voltage sags; in this application, the alternatives present more effective solutions. We have also investigated the potential impact of these system upgrades on expected future capital outlays by BART for traction power infrastructure additions. We have found that rail or substation upgrades may reduce the need for additional substations. These upgrades may also be effective on other parts of the BART system and on other traction power systems.

  15. Improved method to demonstrate the structural integrity of high density fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderks, M.; Ungoreit, H.; Kremer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Reracking of existing fuel pools to the maximum extent is desirable from an economical point of view. This goal can be achieved by minimizing the gaps between the spent fuel storage racks. Since the rack design is aimed at enabling consolidated fuel rod storage, additional requirements arise with respect to the design and the structural analysis. The loads resulting from seismic events are decisive for the structural analysis and require a specially detailed and in-depth analysis for high seismic loads. The verification of structural integrity and functionality is performed in two phases. In the first phase the motional behavior of single racks, rows of racks and, where required, of all racks in the pool is simulated by excitation with displacement time histories under consideration of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The displacements from these simulations are evaluated, while the loads are utilized as input data for the structural analysis of the racks and the pool floor. The structural analyses for the racks comprise substantially stress analyses for base material and welds as well as stability analyses for the support channels and the rack outside walls. The analyses are performed in accordance with the specified codes and standards

  16. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  17. Effects of cutting date, outdoor storage conditions, and splitting on survival of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in firewood logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrice, Toby R; Haack, Robert A

    2006-06-01

    The emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. We conducted studies in Michigan to evaluate how different tree cutting dates, outdoor storage conditions, and splitting affected A. planipennis survival in firewood logs. In 2002-2003, we cut logs from A. planipennis-infested ash trees each month, from July to October, and stored half of the logs in shade and half in full sun. In 2003-2004, we tested logs cut July-December; stored in sun versus shade; tarped versus untarped; and whole logs versus split logs. For both years, A. planipennis successfully emerged the summer after cutting from logs that represented all treatments and all cutting dates tested. Adult emergence density was significantly lower in logs cut in July and August. In 2003-2004, A. planipennis adult length was significantly shorter, and percentage of mortality was significantly higher for logs cut in August compared with later months. Emergence density was significantly lower for split logs compared with whole logs for all cutting months except for December. There was no significant difference in adult emergence density between logs stored in full sun versus shade in 2002-2003. In 2003-2004, untarped logs in full sun or shade had significantly lower adult emergence densities than tarped logs in the sun or shade. In conclusion, emergence, survival, and size of A. planipennis was significantly reduced if logs were cut early during larval development (July or August); splitting logs and storing them untarped in full sun or shade further reduced adult emergence. No treatment was 100% effective in preventing adult emergence.

  18. Optimization of storage condition for maintaining long-term viability of nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola as biocontrol agent against pinewood nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian Jie; Hou, Jin Gang; Zhang, Yong An; Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yun Bo; Wang, Yu Zhu; Wang, Qing Hua; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-11-01

    The fungus, Esteya vermicola has been proposed as biocontrol agent against pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In this study, we reported the effects of temperature and different additives on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of E. vermicola formulated by alginate-clay. The viability of the E. vermicola formulation was determined for six consecutive months at temperature ranged from -70 to 25 °C. The fresh conidia without any treatment were used as control. Under the optimal storage conditions with E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation, the results suggested that E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation with a long shelf life could be a non-vacuum-packed formulation that contains 2 % sodium alginate and 5 % clay at 4 °C. Three conidial formulations prepared with additives of 15 % glycerol, 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5 % herbal extraction, respectively significantly improved the shelf life. In addition, these tested formulations retained the same biocontrol efficacy as the fresh conidial against pinewood nematode. This study provided a tractable and low-cost method to preserve the shelf life of E. vermicola.

  19. Modeling and numerical simulation of a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jia; LIANG Jian; CHEN GuangMing; DU RuXu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage. It solves the problem of unreliable solar energy supply by storing the working fluids and hence, functions 24 h per day. First, the working principles are described and the dynamic models for the primary energy storage components are developed. Then, the system is evaluated based on a numerical simulation. Based on the meteorological data of a typical day in a subtropical area, with the area of a solar collector being set at 19.15 m2, whilst the initial charging mass, mass fraction and temperature of the solution are respectively set at 379.5 kg, 54.16% and 34.5 ℃, it is found that the respective coefficients of performance (COP) of the air conditioning system and the en-tire system (including the solar panel) are 0.7771 and 0.4372. In particular, the energy storage density of the system is 206.69 MJ/m3 which is much greater than those of chilled water or hot water storage systems under comparable conditions. This makes the new system much more compact and efficient. Finally, an automatic control strategy is given to achieve the highest COP when solar energy fluctuates.

  20. Flux response of glycolysis and storage metabolism during rapid feast/famine conditions in Penicillium chrysogenum using dynamic (13)C labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Lodewijk; Buijs, Nicolaas A A; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M; Abate, Alessandro; Wahl, S Aljoscha

    2014-03-01

    The scale-up of fermentation processes frequently leads to a reduced productivity compared to small-scale screening experiments. Large-scale mixing limitations that lead to gradients in substrate and oxygen availability could influence the microorganism performance. Here, the impact of substrate gradients on a penicillin G producing Penicillium chrysogenum cultivation was analyzed using an intermittent glucose feeding regime. The intermittent feeding led to fluctuations in the extracellular glucose concentration between 400 μM down to 6.5 μM at the end of the cycle. The intracellular metabolite concentrations responded strongly and showed up to 100-fold changes. The intracellular flux changes were estimated on the basis of dynamic (13) C mass isotopomer measurements during three cycles of feast and famine using a novel hybrid modeling approach. The flux estimations indicated a high turnover of internal and external storage metabolites in P. chrysogenum under feast/famine conditions. The synthesis and degradation of storage requires cellular energy (ATP and UTP) in competition with other cellular functions including product formation. Especially, 38% of the incoming glucose was recycled once in storage metabolism. This result indicated that storage turnover is increased under dynamic cultivation conditions and contributes to the observed decrease in productivity compared to reference steady-state conditions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.