Sample records for improving employment opportunities

  1. Employment-based health benefits and public-sector coverage: opportunity for leadership. (United States)

    Darling, Helen


    In this commentary, Helen Darling, speaking from the large-employer perspective, responds to James Robinson's paper on the mature health insurance industry, which faces declining opportunities with employer-based health benefits and growing but less appealing public-sector opportunities for management and other services. The similar needs of public and private employers and payers provide an opportunity for leadership, accelerating innovation and using value-added services to improve safety, quality, and efficiency of health care for all.

  2. 47 CFR 25.601 - Equal employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunities. 25.601 Section 25.601 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Equal Employment Opportunities § 25.601 Equal employment opportunities...

  3. 77 FR 43498 - Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity (United States)


    ... on the basis of age; the Equal Pay Act of 1963, which prohibits sex-based wage discrimination; and... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1614 RIN Number 3046-AA73 Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  4. 45 CFR 1616.6 - Equal employment opportunity. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 1616.6 Section 1616.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION ATTORNEY HIRING § 1616.6 Equal employment opportunity. A recipient shall adopt employment qualifications, procedures, and policies that meet the...

  5. Internships, employment opportunities, and research grants (United States)



    As an unbiased, multidisciplinary science organization, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is dedicated to the timely, relevant, and impartial study of the health of our ecosystems and environment, our natural resources, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the natural hazards that threaten us. Opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students and faculty to participate in USGS science are available in the selected programs described below. Please note: U.S. citizenship is required for all government positions.This publication has been superseded by USGS General Information Product 165 Grant Opportunities for Academic Research and Training and USGS General Information Product 166 Student and Recent Graduate Employment Opportunities.This publication is proceeded by USGS General Information Product 80 Internships, Employment Opportunities, and Research Grants published in 2008.

  6. 44 CFR 19.130 - Effect of employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.130 Effect of employment opportunities... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of employment opportunities. 19.130 Section 19.130 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  7. 40 CFR 35.935-6 - Equal employment opportunity. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 35.935-6 Section 35.935-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-6 Equal employment opportunity. Contracts...

  8. 28 CFR 42.303 - Evaluation of employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... job categories; (2) An analysis of all recruitment and employment selection procedures for the... methods and sources, interview procedures, test administration and test validity, educational prerequisites, referral procedures and final selection methods, to insure that equal employment opportunity is...

  9. 7 CFR 18.3 - Development and adoption of equal employment opportunity programs. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development and adoption of equal employment opportunity programs. 18.3 Section 18.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN THE STATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.3 Development and adoption of equal employment opportunity programs. (a) Submission....

  10. An Equal Employment Opportunity Sensitivity Workshop (United States)

    Patten, Thomas H., Jr.; Dorey, Lester E.


    The equal employment opportunity sensitivity workshop seems to be a useful training device for getting an organization started on developing black and white change agents. A report on the establishment of such a workshop at the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM). Includes charts of design, characteristics, analysis of results, program…

  11. Partnership in Opportunities for Employment through Technologies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Partnership in Opportunities for Employment through Technologies in the ... POETA will work with designated local partners to provide training for youth at risk. ... of the program; a Web-based civic education module for use in POETA centres; ...

  12. 40 CFR 5.130 - Effect of employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.130 Effect of employment opportunities. The obligation to comply with these Title IX...

  13. 75 FR 70342 - Privacy Act; System of Records: Equal Employment Opportunity Records (United States)


    ... users are given cyber security awareness training which covers the procedures for handling Sensitive but.... State-09 SYSTEM NAME: Equal Employment Opportunity Records. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified... apply to the Equal Employment Opportunity Records, State-09. DISCLOSURE TO CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCIES...

  14. 45 CFR 86.7 - Effect of employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 86.7 Effect of employment opportunities. The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated...

  15. An Aging Workforce: Employment Opportunities and Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Professor, Institute of Economic Sciences


    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed significant changes in the structure of unemployment in the global labour market. This is corroborated by the fact that the global workforce is rapidly aging and the share of people aged 50 and over in the structure of the labour market is increasing. In line with this trend, unemployment issues should be considered as a global problem that cannot be fully resolved at the level of any individual country separately.The main objective of this paper is to throw some light on the aging workforce and the elderly population’s opportunity to realise their right to work and be treated equally with younger age groups. Hence, the paper simultaneously focuses on the age and gender discrimination of elderly population in terms of their employment prospects. The aim of our research is not only to point out certain stereotypes concerning the elderly labour force, but also to stress that unless preconditions for overcoming these stereotypes are created and employment opportunities are given to this segment of the labour force, full employment as an ultimate goal of global economic policy cannot be achieved. It is in accordance with these considerations that we offer a model to achieve this goal.

  16. 45 CFR 2543.81 - Equal employment opportunity. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal employment opportunity. 2543.81 Section 2543.81 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance §...

  17. Visual Power Data Files for Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Visual Powerfiles for EEO is an information management and reporting system designed to meet Federal requirements for the agency's Equal Employment Opportunity...

  18. Norm Divergence, Opportunity Structure and Utilization of Self-Employed Immigrants' Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco


    of immigrants' qualifications has come up to the surface of political and societal debate in Denmark. The focus of this study was challenges to that utilization. Focusing on opportunity structure and the formal and informal components of the concept and self-employment among migrants as one of the major...... the distribution of all self-employed migrants with national background in third countries with regard to (a) Business line: What they were doing and (b) Educational level: What was the level of their formal education. In order to make comparisons possible we had extracted data on 10% of self-employed with native...... sets of factors: One was the formal as well as the informal, e.g., substantially experienced by self employed immigrants, opportunity structure and the second was the type of qualifications that were required and developed in the informal economy, that produced and utilized specific comparative...

  19. New Opportunities for Employment in the 1990's. (United States)

    Fellendorf, George W.

    Changes already well underway in the world of work will affect the opportunities for full employment, and these changes will have an impact upon all working persons, including the hearing impaired. In the year 2000, many more women, more older persons, and more individuals with different language backgrounds and cultures will be in the work force.…

  20. 24 CFR 570.466 - Additional application submission requirements for Pockets of Poverty-employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... requirements for Pockets of Poverty-employment opportunities. 570.466 Section 570.466 Housing and Urban... application submission requirements for Pockets of Poverty—employment opportunities. Applicants for Action Grants under the Pockets of Poverty provision must describe the number and, to the extent possible, the...

  1. Hibernia production opportunities: A report on business and employment opportunities within the production phase of Hibernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The offshore industry in Newfoundland is evolving into a new phase as construction of the Hibernia offshore platform continues and plans are being developed for the operation of the facility to extract oil from deposits on the Grand Banks. A study was conducted to identify the business and employment opportunities available to Newfoundland firms and individuals during Hibernia's production phase. To operate the platform, the Hibernia Management and Development Company (HMDC) and its contractors will employ ca 700-800 people directly. Average annual expenditures will be ca $400 million over the project life of 19 y. Ca 38% of these expenditures represent the operator's own costs, with the rest spent on downhole services, modifications and repairs, logistics and transportation, replacement equipment and materials, and routine maintenance. It is clearly stated that in formulating strategies to pursue production phase opportunities, companies must understand the greenfield characteristics of the Hibernia oil field and the implications that has on the operator's philosophy to procuring goods and services. Paramount to the discussion on procurement is the operator's choice of contracting out and performing services in-house. A number of approaches used by North Sea operators to procure goods and services are reviewed, and a trend is noted toward partnering agreements which are defined as multipurpose, long-term contractual relationships. HMDC is considering entering such agreements. HMDC's employment policies are outlined and business opportunities are described in alphabetical order by sector, giving a description of the opportunity, contracting strategy, and a list of typical companies involved in the sector. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  2. The Role of Perceived Workplace Development Opportunities in Enhancing Individual Employability (United States)

    Martini, Mattia; Cavenago, Dario


    This paper explores the effects on workers' employability of workplace development opportunities during employment as perceived by the workers themselves. Data was collected through a survey conducted in 2012 in Italy using a sample of 558 workers. The aim was to test the effects of participation in training courses, workplace learning…

  3. Leveraging Employer Practices in Global Regulatory Frameworks to Improve Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Saleh


    Full Text Available Work is an important part of life, providing both economic security and a forum to contribute one’s talents and skills to society, thereby anchoring the individual in a social role. However, access to work is not equally available to people with disabilities globally. Regulatory environments that prohibit discrimination and support vocational training and educational opportunities constitute a critical first step toward economic independence. However, they have not proven sufficient in themselves. In this article, we aim to infuse deeper consideration of employer practice and demand-side policy reforms into global policy discussions of the right to work for people with disabilities. We begin by documenting the employment and economic disparities existing for people with disabilities globally, followed by a description of the international, regional, and local regulatory contexts aiming to improve labor market outcomes for people with disabilities. Next, we examine how policies can leverage employer interests to further address inequalities. We discuss employer policies and practices demonstrated in the research to facilitate recruitment, hiring, career development, retention, and meaningful workplace inclusion. The goal of the article is to synthesize existing international literature on employment rights for people with disabilities with the employer perspective.

  4. 41 CFR 101-4.130 - Effect of employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 101-4.130 Effect of... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effect of employment opportunities. 101-4.130 Section 101-4.130 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  5. Energy transition: constraint or opportunity for growth and employment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco


    This note aims at examining whether environmental policies associated with energy transition are either a brake on, or an opportunity for economic growth. In order to so, the authors compare France's situation with that of its economic partners (Germany, Spain, Italy) in terms of energy price, and of share of employment in polluting industries. They also examine the influence of an increase of energy prices on employment and competitiveness of French manufacturing companies. They finally show that energy transition implies a structural change which may result in an actual creation of green jobs. They finally propose three recommendations regarding economic policy

  6. Future Employment Opportunities for US Geoscience Graduates - a View From Historical Trends (United States)

    Keane, C. M.; Milling, M. E.


    The geosciences in the United States has experienced a number of major booms and busts, but today has become, as a discipline, less dependent on the immediate fortunes of the natural resources industries. However, the actual employment distribution has not changed substantially in the last fifteen years, with the petroleum industry remaining by and far the single largest employer of geoscientists in the United States, and even more as a level of contributing to GNP. However, most of the geoscience professional ranks in industry were filled prior to and during the last major boom which ended in 1986. Most of this workforce is now heading into retirement and though total geoscience workforce demand is not likely to grow; substantial employment opportunities do and will exist as these individuals retire. However, this picture is more complicated than in the past. Most industries, both the traditional geoscience employers, such as petroleum, mining, and environment, and non-traditional, such as telecommunications, are increasingly global in their operations and perspectives. This increasing globalization means that US graduates now compete not only against graduates from other schools in the US, but throughout the world. When coupled with preferences for not hiring people in as expatriates for overseas assignment, US graduates face an increasingly competitive, but rewarding job market. The proverbial leveling of the playing field is also seen in the rapid rise in international membership of traditionally American professional and scientific societies. This internationalization is hardly discouraged within the culture of science, and is one that US students will need to embrace to compete effectively in the future for employment in the geosciences. One major change that will be necessitated is the adjustment of parts of academia to the new realities of preparing students for future employment within the discipline. Currently most US geoscience graduate programs are

  7. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's New Guidelines. (United States)

    Oneglia, Stewart B.; Cornelius, Susan French


    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's new guidelines, although untested in court, are consistent with prior Title VII case law in the areas of racial harassment and employer liability and more expansive though consistent with existing sexual harassment case law. They should also establish some specificity in the parameters of sexual…

  8. Experiential Education Employment Opportunities in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria: Options and Informational Resources. (United States)

    Walker, William


    Discusses educational employment (EE) opportunities for students in German-speaking countries, and the implementation of EE programs by American colleges and universities. Also lists internship and EE opportunities administered by colleges, universities, and other organizations in the United States, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. (six…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stoilkovska


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the problem of the concept of equal employment opportunities in the HR recruitment and selection process. Due to the fact that in these processes, both the HR managers and the applicants are involved, this research is conducted separately among them. Thus, it will be determined if both sides share the same opinion with respect to the existence of this concept in the mentioned processes. Providing equal employment opportunities is crucial for any company and represents a key for selecting the real employees. Therefore, the research includes the existence of prejudices in the recruitment and selection process such as discrimination based on national and social origin, gender and sexual orientation, age, political affiliation etc. As an essential part of this concept, the legislation in the Republic of Macedonia and its impact in the process of generating equal opportunities will be considered.

  10. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction (United States)

    Adewale, T. M.


    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  11. A Systematic Assessment of Employer Equal Employment Opportunity Efforts as a Means of Reducing the Gender Earnings Gap


    Graham, Mary E.; Hotchkiss, Julie L.


    A gender earnings gap has persisted for many years in the United States. This gap is somewhat remarkable in light of reductions in gender-related occupational segregation, the narrowing of human capital differences between women and men, and government and employer-initiated efforts to enhance opportunities for women. In this article we argue that federal employment laws and current oversight mechanisms help maintain the gender earnings gap by encouraging small, separate, parts: pay discrim...

  12. What do we Know About Improving Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Dudley


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is the most commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in children. Adults with ASD have some of the poorest employment outcomes in comparison to others with disabilities. While data in Canada is limited, roughly 25 per cent of Americans living with ASD are employed and no more than six per cent are competitively employed. Most earn less than the national minimum hourly wage, endure extended periods of joblessness and frequently shuffle between positions, further diminishing their prospects. Poor employment outcomes result in lower quality of life and often lead to steep economic costs. Governments are wise to pay attention to the poor employment outcomes as the high numbers of children now diagnosed with ASD will become adults in the future in need of employment opportunities. Improving employment outcomes for those living with ASD is an important policy objective. Work opportunities improve quality of life, economic independence, social integration, and ultimately benefit all. Adults with ASD can succeed with the right supports. Fortunately, there are many emerging policy and program options that demonstrate success. This paper conducts a review of studies and provides policy recommendations based on the literature, to help governments identify appropriate policy options. Some key factors are both those that are unique to the individual and the external supports available; namely school, work, and family. For example, factors that contribute to successful employment for people living with ASD may include IQ, social skills and self-determination, but for all, even for the less advantaged, external assistance from schools, employers and family can help. Inclusive special education programs in high school that offer work experiences are critical as are knowledgeable employers who can provide the right types of accommodation and leadership. In the work environment the use of vocational and rehabilitative supports, from

  13. Communist Cadres and Market Opportunities: Entry into Self-employment in China, 1978-1996 (United States)

    Wu, Xiaogang


    This paper examines the patterns of entry into self-employment in urban and rural China and across different reform stages, focusing on how communist cadres have responded to new market opportunities. Analysis of data from a national representative survey shows that both education and cadre status deter people from entry into self-employment in…

  14. Anesthesiology leadership rounding: identifying opportunities for improvement. (United States)

    Gravenstein, Dietrich; Ford, Susan; Enneking, F Kayser


    Rounding that includes participation of individuals with authority to implement changes has been advocated as important to the transformation of an institution into a high-quality and safe organization. We describe a Department of Anesthesiology's experience with leadership rounding. The Department Chair or other senior faculty designate, a quality coordinator, up to four residents, the ward charge nurse, and patient nurses participated in rounds at bedsides. During a 23-month period, 14 significant opportunities to improve care were identified. Nurses identified 5 of these opportunities, primary team physicians 2, the rounding team 4, and patients or their family members another 3. The anesthesiology service had sole or shared responsibility for 10 improvements. A variety of organizations track specific measures across all phases of the patient experience to gauge quality of care. Chart auditing tools for detecting threats to safety are often used. These measures and tools missed opportunities for improvement that were discovered only through rounding. We conclude that the introduction of leadership rounding by an anesthesiology service can identify opportunities for improving quality that are not captured by conventional efforts.

  15. Productivity improvement opportunities at Navy public works activities


    Dieffenbach, Richard Jacob


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study identifies six principal opportunities for productivity improvement at Navy Public Works in-house maintenance activities: improving work assignment, increasing shop supervisor effectiveness, reducing long lunches and early quits (through understanding of work impediments as demotivational contributors), improving service order management, improving job quality and miscellaneous opportunities. Activity "productivity opportu...

  16. 75 FR 53724 - Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information... (United States)


    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OFFICE Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB 3046-0046; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The published document in the Federal Register of August 2...

  17. Understanding the South African waste sector: The economic and employment opportunities it provides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K


    Full Text Available -1 The 20th WasteCon Conference and Exhibition 6-10 October 2014 The Lord Charles Hotel, Somerset West, Cape Town Understanding the South African waste sector: The economic and employment opportunities it provides L. Godfrey, CSIR Natural Resources...

  18. 75 FR 45173 - Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information... (United States)


    ...) Form, Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB No. 3046-0046 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... add an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) form, Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB... with other demographic information, as part of their organizational self-analyses to determine whether...

  19. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina


    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  20. A Response to Proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Regulations on Employer-Sponsored Health, Safety, and Well-Being Initiatives. (United States)


    The aim of this study was to identify areas of consensus in response to proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 regulations on employer-sponsored health, safety, and well-being initiatives. The consensus process included review of existing and proposed regulations, identification of key areas where consensus is needed, and a methodical consensus-building process. Stakeholders representing employees, employers, consulting organizations, and wellness providers reached consensus around five areas, including adequate privacy notice on how medical data are collected, used, and protected; effective, equitable use of inducements that influence participation in programs; observance of reasonable alternative standards; what constitutes reasonably designed programs; and the need for greater congruence between federal agency regulations. Employee health and well-being initiatives that are in accord with federal regulations are comprehensive, evidence-based, and are construed as voluntary by employees and regulators alike.

  1. Academic Principles versus Employability Pressures: A Modern Power Struggle or a Creative Opportunity? (United States)

    Jameson, Jill; Strudwick, Kate; Bond-Taylor, Sue; Jones, Mandy


    This paper considers both the difficulties and the opportunities created by the mounting political pressures on UK universities to increase the "employability" of undergraduate students. Using the subject of criminology as an example, the paper considers tensions that can be created when practitioners are brought into the academy to…

  2. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal


    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  3. Work, Health, And Worker Well-Being: Roles And Opportunities For Employers. (United States)

    McLellan, Robert K


    Work holds the promise of supporting and promoting health. It also carries the risk of injury, illness, and death. In addition to harms posed by traditional occupational health hazards, such as physically dangerous workplaces, work contributes to health problems with multifactorial origins such as unhealthy lifestyles, psychological distress, and chronic disease. Not only does work affect health, but the obverse is true: Unhealthy workers are more frequently disabled, absent, and less productive, and they use more health care resources, compared to their healthy colleagues. The costs of poor workforce health are collectively borne by workers, employers, and society. For business as well as altruistic reasons, employers may strive to cost-effectively achieve the safest, healthiest, and most productive workforce possible. Narrowly focused health goals are giving way to a broader concept of employee well-being. This article explores the relationship between health and work, outlines opportunities for employers to make this relationship health promoting, and identifies areas needing further exploration. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Non-Formal Education, Out-of-School Learning Needs and Employment Opportunities: Evidence from Mali (United States)

    Weyer, Frederique


    Non-formal education (NFE) is now considered as playing a critical role in the achievement of the objective of Education for All, by reaching the learning needs of youth and adults who do not have access to formal education, increasing their employment opportunities and therefore contributing to poverty alleviation. Yet there is still insufficient…

  5. Improving Youth Employment Policies in Francophone Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa's persistent job crisis calls for more effective employment policies, including training programs and support for job searches. This project will address the crisis through recommendations that will improve employment policies in francophone Africa. Youth employment initiatives in Africa Over the last two decades, ...

  6. Impact of personal competencies and market value of type of occupation over objective employability and perceived career opportunities of young professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bargsted


    Full Text Available The research of employability shows tension in the social field of career, where variables such as market value, gender, and personal skills are important. The aim of this study was to identify the predicted weight of market value of type of occupation, sex, and career competences (self-efficacy, pro-activity, and locus of control over objective employability and perceived opportunities for a future career and satisfaction of young professionals. In this study, 294 graduates from 27 different undergraduate degree programs participated, describing their labor situation, satisfaction with career opportunities, and their level in the studied competences. Each type of occupation has a specific market value score, according to national and international criteria. It was possible to identify that the market value of their occupations had significant effects on objective employability (p < .000, f = .48. Also, self-efficacy and locus of control were significant predictors of perceived employability opportunities (p < .000, f = .26. This predictive value of personal variables was different between males (p = .011, f = .82, and females (p < .000, f = .34, and between occupations with low market value (p=.016, f=.45, medium market value (p < .000, f = .34, and high market value (p = .006, f = .21, which allows the development of specific intervention strategies to promote equality in labor opportunities and job placement.

  7. From Dignity to Employment - Newly arrived immigrants and refugees’ interpretations of opportunities to improve labor market participation through the Introduction Program


    Ediassen, Tora


    Master i International Social Welfare and Health Policy The aim of this thesis is to explore how newly arrived immigrants and refugees interpret their opportunities to improve labor market participation through the Introduction Program. The thesis is based on qualitative interviews with six former participants of the program situated in Oslo, Norway. The Introduction Program is an activation program designed to qualify newly arrived immigrants and refugees for economic indep...

  8. Operational validation - current status and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.


    The design of nuclear plant systems and operational practices is based on the application of multiple defenses to minimize the risk of occurrence of safety and production challenges and upsets. With such an approach, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of design and operational features in preventing upset challenges should be known. A longstanding industry concern is the adverse impact errors in human performance can have on plant safety and production. To minimize the risk of error occurrence, designers and operations staff routinely employ multiple design and operational defenses. However, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of defensive features in minimizing error occurrence are generally only known in a qualitative sense. More importantly, the margins to error or upset occurrence provided by combinations of design or operational features are generally not characterized during design or operational validation. This paper provides some observations and comments on current validation practice as it relates to operational human performance concerns. The paper also discusses opportunities for future improvement in validation practice in terms of the resilience of validation results to operating changes and characterization of margins to safety or production challenge. (author)

  9. 75 FR 62301 - National Disability Employment Awareness Month, 2010 (United States)


    ... and talents of all our citizens. No individual in our Nation should face unnecessary barriers to... Disability Employment Awareness Month, we renew our focus on improving employment opportunities and career... access to technology, with advances in areas such as closed captioning, delivery of emergencyinformation...

  10. University management-improvements and dilemma in the of equal opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Equal opportunity is a relatively new concept which first of all must be understood, and then implemented as a premise and note as a result of current activities. Equal opportunity in organizations is a new way of achieving results and the modern management puts it as a necessary principle among old ones, such as benchmarking, corporate governance, customer relatioship marketing, experience curve, strategies alliances etc. This paper explains the equal opportunity in higher education institutions, their improvements and dilemma sin implementing equal opportunities.

  11. The Importance of Employment Contract for Umsida Quality Employees Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Fatimah Mediawati


    Full Text Available The absence of employment contracts in UMSIDA recognized cause some problems. Especially in improving the performance of employees. Issues a little more disturbing harmonious labor relations between employees and UMSIDA. In the terminology of the Labour Act, employment contract terms it is known as the Employment Agreement. Where the existence of labor agreement / contract employment is expected to harmonize the working relationship with the employer in accordance with the applicable rules. The existence of employment contracts is also a legal instrument which according to researchers ought to be put forward in efforts to increase the qualifications and competence of employees. By contract it will also avoid things that are not desirable in an employment relationship, because each party will always carry out their rights and responsibilities are aligned and balanced. Tranquility in the work and the guarantee of legal protection are expected to improve employee performance especially towards quality UMSIDA 2020. So this study explored further the urgency employment contract once its design. How To Cite: Mediawati, N., & Phahlevy, R. (2015. The Importance of Employment Contract for Umsida Quality Employees Improvement. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 141-156. doi:

  12. Data visualization unlocks improvement opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remple, G.A.; Galbraith, M.


    The modern uranium mill generates a vast amount of raw data from various sources including control systems, operator logsheets, assay results and environmental monitoring, which is frequently stored in separate databases. Implementation of software at the McClean Lake mill that includes an integrated, web-based view of these multiple and disparate data sources has provided better tools in the effort to manage this 'data load', and extract the information required to enhance process understanding and support the continuous improvement and decision making processes. This paper outlines the opportunities, challenges, and milestones of this software project. (author)

  13. Improving the Timeliness of Equal Employment Opportunity Complaint Processing in Department of Defense (United States)


    1964 (Title VII) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act amendment to Title VII, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Age Discrimi- nation in Employment Act of...Act of 1964 (Title VII) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act amendment to Title VII, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Age Discrimination in...EEO programs uti - lize training on the EEO complaint process and framing of claims and that they use more-structured investigation requests

  14. Optimistic about sustainable growth and employment. An entrepreneurial vision on the opportunities for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Dutch economy can benefit from the significant perspectives that are offered by economic developments in Asia and South America by utilizing and expanding its current strengths. Sustainable growth and full employment are within reach. Cutbacks and reforms must not be 'depressing' but deliver additional growth and new opportunities. That is the core message of 'optimistic, the long-term vision of VNO-NCW (The Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers), MKB (Netherlands Federation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) and LTO Nederland (Dutch Federation of Agriculture and Horticulture). Their thoughts and plans with regard to strengthening the position of the Netherlands in the economic world top should play a role in the run-up to the elections and in forming the cabinet. [nl

  15. Well-being improvement in a midsize employer: changes in well-being, productivity, health risk, and perceived employer support after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy. (United States)

    Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y


    To evaluate employee well-being change and associated change in productivity, health risk including biometrics, and workplace support over 2 years after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy. This was an employer case study evaluation of well-being, productivity (presenteeism, absenteeism, and job performance), health risk, and employer support across three employee assessment spanning 2 years. Employee well-being was compared with an independent sample of workers in the community. Well-being and job performance increased and presenteeism and health risk decreased significantly over the 2 years. Employee well-being started lower and increased to exceed community worker averages, approaching significance. Well-being improvement was associated with higher productivity across all measures. Increases in employer support for well-being were associated with improved well-being and productivity. This employer's well-being strategy, including a culture supporting well-being, was associated with improved health and productivity.

  16. The effectiveness of skills training for improving outcomes in supported employment. (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T; Aalto, Steve; Becker, Deborah R; Ogden, John S; Wolfe, Rosemarie S; Schiavo, Diane; Wallace, Charles J; Xie, Haiyi


    This study evaluated whether a supplementary skills training program improved work outcomes for clients enrolled in supported employment programs. Thirty-five recently employed clients with severe mental illness who were receiving supported employment services at a free-standing agency were randomly assigned to participate in either the workplace fundamentals program, a skills training program designed to make work more "successful and satisfying," or treatment as usual. Knowledge of workplace fundamentals (for example, identifying workplace stressors, problem solving, and improving job performance) was assessed at baseline and at nine months; employment outcomes and use of additional vocational services were tracked for 18 months. Clients in the workplace fundamentals group (N=17) improved more in knowledge of workplace fundamentals than those in the control group (N=18) at the nine-month follow-up, but the two groups did not differ in the number of hours or days worked, salary earned, or receipt of additional vocational services over the 18-month period. In general, clients in this study had higher educational levels and better employment outcomes than clients in most previous studies of supported employment, making it difficult to detect possible effects of the skills training intervention on work. Supplementary skills training did not improve work outcomes for clients who were receiving supported employment.

  17. 29 CFR 1615.140 - Employment. (United States)



  18. The measurement of employment benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtraw, D


    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income.

  19. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.


    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  20. Predicting Employment Outcomes for Consumers in Community College Short-Term Training Programs (United States)

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Benz, Michael R.; Yovanoff, Paul; Kato, Mary McGrath; Lindstrom, Lauren


    Postsecondary education has been linked to improved access to employment opportunities for individuals with and without disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with increased employment outcomes for Vocational Rehabilitation consumers enrolled in community college short term occupational skill training programs.…

  1. Employment and Growth | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Improving childcare options to create better economic opportunities for women in Nairobi slums. Language English. Read more about Accroître l'inclusion financière pour les femmes et les jeunes vulnérables : Proyecto Capital. Language French. Read more ...

  2. Employment and Growth | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our investments increase employment and economic opportunities for women and youth. ... The Employment and Growth program seeks to enhance the employment and economic opportunities of ... The untold story: IDRC supported researchers transform economic policy in Africa ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  3. Social Services programs for social inclusion through employment: facing challenges of transverslity, multidimensionality and creation of job opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Martínez-Virto


    Full Text Available In a context without employment and with high labour precarity it is necessary to rethink the activation commitments linked to the inclusion policies of social services. The main goal of this paper is to debate about the limitations, potentialities and differences in terms of inclusion capacity, about 9 socio labour programs of social services. The analysis identifies three key outcomes: the need of collaboration between social services and employment departments, the importance of creating employment opportunities for people at risk of social exclusion and guaranty the multidimensionality of the intervention. Especially in a context of high unemployment and low quality jobs. These results highlight the need to reconsider the care system that, in line of European recommendations, must focus on social investment policies.

  4. Hospital employment of physicians does not improve quality


    Robbins RA


    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Annals of Internal Medicine posted a manuscript online today reporting that the growing trend of physician employment by hospitals does not improve quality (1). In 2003, approximately 29% of hospitals employed members of their physician workforce, a number that rose to 42% by 2012. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of U.S. acute care hospitals between 2003 and 2012 and examined mortality rates, 30-day readmission rate...

  5. University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center opportunities for improvement project. (United States)

    Breslin, Tara M; Waldinger, Marcy; Silver, Samuel M


    The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center (UMCCC) Opportunities for Improvement project involved a detailed patient-level medical record review, feedback to medical providers and clinical leadership, and discussion of potential predictors of discordant or delayed care. The medical record review revealed that reasons for discordant or delayed care were well documented by clinical providers, and medical comorbidity was the most common predisposing factor. Another common theme was the difficulty in obtaining treatment records for patients who received a portion of their care outside UMCCC. The project provided a valuable opportunity to examine established processes of care and data collection and consider how the newly implemented electronic health record might support future efforts aimed at improving efficiency and communication among providers.

  6. Information Technology: Opportunities for Improving Acquisitions and Operations (United States)


    1GAO, Federal Chief Information Officers : Opportunities Exist to Improve Role in Information Technology Management, GAO-11-634...approach and a collaborative relationship among agency executives (e.g., Chief Financial Officer and agency component leadership) had stopped 45...executives, including Chief Financial Officers and executives of major bureaus and component agencies for whom the technology is serving, to ensure that

  7. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... encourage referral of qualified minority or female applicants. (F) Encouraging present employees to refer... who make decisions on placement and promotion that minority employees and females are to be considered... groups and female employees equal opportunity for positions which lead to higher positions. Inquiring as...

  8. Student and recent graduate employment opportunities (United States)



    As an unbiased, multidisciplinary science organization, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is dedicated to the timely, relevant, and impartial study of the health of our ecosystems and environment, our natural resources, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the natural hazards that affect our lives. Opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as recent graduates, to participate in USGS science are available in the selected programs described in this publication. Please note: U.S. citizenship is required for all government positions.

  9. Exploration of the potential employment opportunities in the field of renewable energies in ''Wadi AL-ajal''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzain, Gassem


    This inductive research is located within the theme of the management and development of renewable energy systems. In brief, It introduces the potential and ability of renewable energies available in “Wadi AL-ajal”, which is located south-west of Libya, in providing many job opportunities; in addition to power generation. Several proposed investment models in solar, wind and biomass energies in this paper show -via statistical approach- how to provide a variety of job opportunities according to investment activities proposed in the three mentioned fields of renewable energies. In conclusion, the paper confirms the availability of the earlier mentioned renewable energies in varying amounts and varying degrees, they are all able to create jobs and employment of advanced technology, which are necessary for any national program for sustainable development, with the support of economic stimuli that affect investment, such as; the market activation, human resources, and finance.(author)

  10. Developing leadership as a trainee- opportunities, barriers and potential improvements. (United States)

    Doherty, Rachel; Lawson, Sara; Mc Laughlin, Laura; Donaghy, Grainne; Courtney, Julia; Gardiner, Keith


    The General Medical Council explicitly state that doctors completing training should demonstrate capabilities in leadership and teamwork. 1 However, most trainees receive little formal training in leadership. In March 2017, at the Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management (FMLM) Northern Ireland Regional Conference, a workshop on developing leadership skills as a trainee was hosted and the views of doctors in training regarding current opportunities, potential barriers and improvements were sought. In Northern Ireland presently there are a number of opportunities available for trainees to gain experience in leadership - both by learning through observation and learning through experience. These range from informal activities which do not require significant time commitment to focused, immersive leadership experiences such as ADEPT (Achieve Develop Explore Programme for Trainees) 2 , and the Royal College of Physicians' Chief Registrar scheme. 3 Several barriers to developing leadership have been identified, including limited understanding of what constitutes leadership, a lack of senior support and little formal recognition for trainees leading teams. Time pressures, frequently rotating jobs, limited resources and difficulty upscaling can also undermine the sustainability of improvement and other leadership projects. Incorporating awareness of and training in leadership skills, as well as greater engagement with senior leaders and managers, at an early stage in training could promote understanding and encourage trainees. Formalising leadership roles within training posts may improve experience. Deaneries and Trusts can also enable leadership opportunities by facilitating study leave, raising awareness amongst supervisors, and providing career enhancing incentives for interested trainees.

  11. What Do We Know About Improving Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Dudley


    Full Text Available WHY IS THIS AN IMPORTANT ISSUE? An estimated 1 in 86 children are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD1 making it the most commonly diagnosed childhood neurological condition in Canada.2 Adults living with ASD3 have the poorest employment outcomes of those with disabilities. Most earn less than the national minimum hourly wage, endure extended periods of joblessness and frequently shuffle between positions, further diminishing their prospects. These poor employment outcomes result in lower quality of life and often lead to steep economic costs. WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH TELL US? Employment success increases quality of life Employment enhances quality of life, cognitive functioning and overall well-being of persons with ASD by increasing economic self-sufficiency, financial security, independent living, community participation and self-esteem.4, 5, 6 Unfortunately, employment outcomes for those living with ASD are poor; only 25 per cent of adults with ASD are employed, most of this group is considered high-functioning and only six per cent are competitively employed.7, 8 Success in employment is attributable to a combination of individual characteristics, external supports and policy enabling employment opportunities.

  12. Improving low-wage, midsized employers' health promotion practices: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Sopher, Carrie J; Kuniyuki, Alan; Ghosh, Donetta L; Henderson, Shelly; Martin, Diane P; Weaver, Marcia R; Williams, Barbara; Albano, Denise L; Meischke, Hendrika; Diehr, Paula; Lichiello, Patricia; Hammerback, Kristen E; Parks, Malcolm R; Forehand, Mark


    The Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) offers evidence-based intervention strategies to prevent chronic disease. The American Cancer Society (ACS) and the University of Washington Health Promotion Research Center co-developed ACS Workplace Solutions (WPS) to improve workplaces' implementation of Community Guide strategies. To test the effectiveness of WPS for midsized employers in low-wage industries. Two-arm RCT; workplaces were randomized to receive WPS during the study (intervention group) or at the end of the study (delayed control group). Forty-eight midsized employers (100-999 workers) in King County WA. WPS provides employers one-on-one consulting with an ACS interventionist via three meetings at the workplace. The interventionist recommends best practices to adopt based on the workplace's current practices, provides implementation toolkits for the best practices the employer chooses to adopt, conducts a follow-up visit at 6 months, and provides technical assistance. Employers' implementation of 16 best practices (in the categories of insurance benefits, health-related policies, programs, tracking, and health communications) at baseline (June 2007-June 2008) and 15-month follow-up (October 2008-December 2009). Data were analyzed in 2010-2011. Intervention employers demonstrated greater improvement from baseline than control employers in two of the five best-practice categories; implementing policies (baseline scores: 39% program, 43% control; follow-up scores: 49% program, 45% control; p=0.013) and communications (baseline scores: 42% program, 44% control; follow-up scores: 76% program, 55% control; p=0.007). Total best-practice implementation improvement did not differ between study groups (baseline scores: 32% intervention, 37% control; follow-up scores: 39% intervention, 42% control; p=0.328). WPS improved employers' health-related policies and communications but did not improve insurance benefits design, programs, or tracking. Many

  13. Employment of women in mauritian industry: opportunity or exploitation?


    Hein C


    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on industrial sector employment of woman workers in Mauritius - based on interviews and a 1977 survey, examines the conditions (lower minimum wages, higher labour productivity, less absenteeism and easier human relations) dictating employer preference for female industrial workers, discusses motivations, employment by age group, marital status and educational level, job satisfaction and employment policy issues, and includes questionnaire. Bibliography pp. 33 an...

  14. Equal employment opportunity plan development guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this publication is to provide instructions for the development of EEO Plans for Fiscal Year 1979. It supplements the National EEO Plan for the Department of Energy issued in August 1978 (DOE/S-0002). The material included should be used immediately as guidance to develop, document, and implement subordinate echelon commitments to EEO. A schedule for the development and submission of EEO Plans is included. Most of the continuing requirements will be published at a later date as part of the directives system. Any comments or helpful suggestions concerned with the program outlined would be appreciated by the Office of Equal Opportunity.

  15. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.


    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  16. Internship – tool for improving the employability of Economic Science graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia SUMEDREA


    Full Text Available Romania's economy has undergone major changes as a result of various technological, economic and social factors, so that the labor market has undergone major changes too, which puts more acute the problem of youth employability. The article presents the results of a project to develop human resources financed by European Union funds aimed at improving the way students realize internship, the ultimate goal of implementation of the project being to accustom students with employers' demands and rigors of a job to thus contribute to increasing the employability of future graduates of economic studies. Internship results are presented by taking into account the students’ opinions and some suggestions are made in order to improve this activity in the future.

  17. Structured behavioral interview as a legal guarantee for ensuring equal employment opportunities for women: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Alonso


    Full Text Available Abstract Equal employment opportunities for women are a legal requirement in many legal environments, including the United States (US and European Union (EU legislations. In this context, indirect discrimination in the access to jobs is an illegal practice. For this reason, personnel selection procedures must be fair for protected-by-law groups. Specifically, gender discrimination is the focus of research on employment interviews. This article presents a meta-analysis of gender differences in the scores in structured behavioral interviews (SBI. A database was created consisting of studies conducted with real candidates and employees. Psychometric meta-analysis methods were applied. The results showed that the SBI is fair for women and men and does not show evidence of adverse impact and indirect discrimination. Implications for the practice of personnel selection are discussed and future research is suggested.

  18. State-level employment, accessibility and rurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Abington


    Full Text Available Employment and economic growth in rural areas as a policy issue has been recently highlighted by the federal government. In August 2011, the White House released a report entitled “Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America”. While the document listed various programs and policies that have reportedly benefited rural America, it also stated that rural communities are still facing many challenges. For example, many rural communities have lower incomes and higher poverty rates than more urban areas. One possible reason for rural communities being at a disadvantage compared to urban areas involves transportation, especially in terms of journey to work. Thus, one can ask how employment rates vary with accessibility, as measured by journey to work times, as well as location (rural versus urban. Using 2007 state level data, OLS analysis is used to examine the relationship between employment rates and journey to work times and rurality. The analysis confirms that employment rates decrease with increased journey to work times. However, measures of rurality were only marginally significant and the negative coefficient on each measure indicates that employment rates decrease with greater urbanization. Improving accessibility between (very rural and larger areas might improve employment opportunities. Although weighing the benefits of such (reduced unemployment against the costs of providing better highways or public transit might lead to a different conclusion.

  19. An analysis of the procedural components of supported employment programs associated with employment outcomes.


    McDonnell, J; Nofs, D; Hardman, M; Chambless, C


    This study examined the relation between the procedural components of supported employment programs and employment outcomes for 120 individuals with disabilities. These individuals were involved in supported employment programs established through the Utah Supported Employment Project. The results suggest that successful implementation of supported employment services led to ongoing employment of study participants in community work sites, increased wages, and ongoing opportunities for worker...

  20. Improved NN-GM(1,1 for Postgraduates’ Employment Confidence Index Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang


    Full Text Available Postgraduates’ employment confidence index (ECI forecasting can help the university to predict the future trend of postgraduates’ employment. However, the common forecast method based on the grey model (GM has unsatisfactory performance to a certain extent. In order to forecast postgraduates’ ECI efficiently, this paper discusses a novel hybrid forecast model using limited raw samples. Different from previous work, the residual modified GM(1,1 model is combined with the improved neural network (NN in this work. In particullar, the hybrid model reduces the residue of the standard GM(1,1 model as well as accelerating the convergence rate of the standard NN. After numerical studies, the illustrative results are provided to demonstrate the forecast performance of the proposed model. In addition, some strategies for improving the postgraduates’ employment confidence have been discussed.

  1. Hospital employment of physicians does not improve quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Annals of Internal Medicine posted a manuscript online today reporting that the growing trend of physician employment by hospitals does not improve quality (1. In 2003, approximately 29% of hospitals employed members of their physician workforce, a number that rose to 42% by 2012. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of U.S. acute care hospitals between 2003 and 2012 and examined mortality rates, 30-day readmission rates, length of stay, and patient satisfaction scores for common medical conditions for 803 hospitals that switched to the employment model compared with 2085 control hospitals that did not switch. Switching hospitals were more likely to be large (11.6% vs. 7.1% or major teaching hospitals (7.5% vs. 4.5% and less likely to be for-profit institutions (8.8% vs. 19.9% (all p values <0.001. The authors used Medicare Provider Analysis and Review File (MedPAR from 2002 to 2013 to calculate hospital-level risk-adjusted performance on mortality ...

  2. Low-wage maternal employment and parenting style. (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P; Bentler, Peter M; Franke, Todd M


    This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Participation in employment predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less negative parenting style over time. Employment at time 1 was associated with a reduced likelihood of receiving welfare in the interim between times 1 and 2, less financial strain at time 2, and (through these) a decrease in mothers' depressive symptoms at time 2. Fewer depressive symptoms at time 2, in turn, predicted less negative parenting style, net of the mothers' earlier demographic, mental health, and parenting characteristics. Mothers with higher education attainment were more likely to be employed (and to earn more) at both time points. Implications of these findings for welfare policies are discussed.

  3. Practice improvement, part II: trends in employment versus private practice. (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Roett, Michelle A


    A growing percentage of physicians are selecting employment over solo practice, and fewer family physicians have hospital admission privileges. Results from surveys of recent medical school graduates indicate a high value placed on free time. Factors to consider when choosing a practice opportunity include desire for independence, decision-making authority, work-life balance, administrative responsibilities, financial risk, and access to resources. Compensation models are evolving from the simple fee-for-service model to include metrics that reward panel size, patient access, coordination of care, chronic disease management, achievement of patient-centered medical home status, and supervision of midlevel clinicians. When a practice is sold, tangible personal property and assets in excess of liabilities, patient accounts receivable, office building, and goodwill (ie, expected earnings) determine its value. The sale of a practice includes a broad legal review, addressing billing and coding deficiencies, noncompliant contractual arrangements, and potential litigations as well as ensuring that all employment agreements, leases, service agreements, and contracts are current, have been executed appropriately, and meet regulatory requirements. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  4. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas


    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria


    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  5. Survival prediction algorithms miss significant opportunities for improvement if used for case selection in trauma quality improvement programs. (United States)

    Heim, Catherine; Cole, Elaine; West, Anita; Tai, Nigel; Brohi, Karim


    Quality improvement (QI) programs have shown to reduce preventable mortality in trauma care. Detailed review of all trauma deaths is a time and resource consuming process and calculated probability of survival (Ps) has been proposed as audit filter. Review is limited on deaths that were 'expected to survive'. However no Ps-based algorithm has been validated and no study has examined elements of preventability associated with deaths classified as 'expected'. The objective of this study was to examine whether trauma performance review can be streamlined using existing mortality prediction tools without missing important areas for improvement. We conducted a retrospective study of all trauma deaths reviewed by our trauma QI program. Deaths were classified into non-preventable, possibly preventable, probably preventable or preventable. Opportunities for improvement (OPIs) involve failure in the process of care and were classified into clinical and system deviations from standards of care. TRISS and PS were used for calculation of probability of survival. Peer-review charts were reviewed by a single investigator. Over 8 years, 626 patients were included. One third showed elements of preventability and 4% were preventable. Preventability occurred across the entire range of the calculated Ps band. Limiting review to unexpected deaths would have missed over 50% of all preventability issues and a third of preventable deaths. 37% of patients showed opportunities for improvement (OPIs). Neither TRISS nor PS allowed for reliable identification of OPIs and limiting peer-review to patients with unexpected deaths would have missed close to 60% of all issues in care. TRISS and PS fail to identify a significant proportion of avoidable deaths and miss important opportunities for process and system improvement. Based on this, all trauma deaths should be subjected to expert panel review in order to aim at a maximal output of performance improvement programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  6. 47 CFR 22.321 - Equal employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... and employment practices and adopt positive recruitment, training, job design and other measures... Communications Commission (FCC), or other appropriate agency. Where a substantial number of applicants are..., the FCC or other appropriate agency if they believe they have been discriminated against. (C) Placing...

  7. Prioritize Improvement Opportunities Identified In Self-Assessment Using Multi-Criteria Fuzzy Group Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Ghassem Faraj Pour


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Efforts to improve the quality are one of the prerequisites for the success of individual companies and for the competitiveness of all whole companies. In the field of improvement and excellence business excellence models answer to the question that what the better organization is what goals and concepts they follow and according to what standards they behave. The EFQM excellence model can be transition from multiplicity to unity of different existing models. The most important approaches of these models are self-assessment and identifying improvement areas in an organization. On the other side organizations which are at lower level of total quality management will encounter so many areas to improve when using this model and implementing of self-improvement. Choosing the most important key problems are always the main challenges and because of resource constraints and strategic goals organizations have to prioritize identified improvement opportunities. This paper introduces a model for prioritizing and choosing the most significant improvement opportunities using the organization Business Excellence team members and because the analysis and decision making atmosphere for excellence team members is not generally complete with accurate information it seems using of fuzzy decision can be very helpful.

  8. The gender composition of the medical profession in Mexico: implications for employment patterns and physician labor supply. (United States)

    Knaul, F; Frenk, J; Aguilar, A M


    The gender composition of the medical profession is changing rapidly in many parts of the world, including Mexico. We analyze cross-sectional and longitudinal data on sex differences in physician employment from household employment surveys. The results suggest that Mexico is a particularly interesting example of the feminization of physician employment. Female enrollment in medical school increased from 11% in 1970 to about 50% in 1998. The increased participation of women in medicine seems to be accompanied by differences in employment patterns that could generate significant reductions in the total supply of physician hours of service. Women physicians are unemployed at a much higher rate than men and hence account for half of underused physician human capital. The results suggest that improved educational opportunities do not translate automatically into equal employment opportunities.

  9. Improving entrepreneurial opportunity recognition through web content analytics (United States)

    Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu; Azmi, Azwiyati


    The ability to recognize and develop an opportunity into a venture defines an entrepreneur. Research in opportunity recognition has been robust and focuses more on explaining the processes involved in opportunity recognition. Factors such as prior knowledge, cognitive and creative capabilities are shown to affect opportunity recognition in entrepreneurs. Prior knowledge in areas such as customer problems, ways to serve the market, and technology has been shows in various studies to be a factor that facilitates entrepreneurs to identify and recognize opportunities. Findings from research also shows that experienced entrepreneurs search and scan for information to discover opportunities. Searching and scanning for information has also been shown to help novice entrepreneurs who lack prior knowledge to narrow this gap and enable them to better identify and recognize opportunities. There is less focus in research on finding empirically proven techniques and methods to develop and enhance opportunity recognition in student entrepreneurs. This is important as the country pushes for more graduate entrepreneurs that can drive the economy. This paper aims to discuss Opportunity Recognition Support System (ORSS), an information support system to help especially student entrepreneurs in identifying and recognizing business opportunities. The ORSS aims to provide the necessary knowledge to student entrepreneurs to be able to better identify and recognize opportunities. Applying design research, theories in opportunity recognition are applied to identify the requirements for the support system and the requirements in turn dictate the design of the support system. The paper proposes the use of web content mining and analytics as two core components and techniques for the support system. Web content mining can mine the vast knowledge repositories available on the internet and analytics can provide entrepreneurs with further insights into the information needed to recognize

  10. Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.


    As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

  11. 4 CFR 7.2 - Equal employment opportunity. (United States)


    ... eliminating minority and women underrepresentation. (c) Statutory rights and remedies. Nothing in this order... continuing programs for the recruitment of members of minorities and women for positions in GAO in a manner designed to eliminate underrepresentation of minorities and women in the various categories of employment...

  12. Gender Roles against Opportunities for Entrepreneurship


    Umam, Khoirul


    Micro, Small and Medium Business activities have a very important role in promoting the economy because this sector has been tested to have resistance to the economic crisis. Micro, Small and Medium Business has wide employment opportunities that can improve people's welfare. But the facts above are not as easy as Micro, Small and Medium Also has some problems, where small businesses Often face natural exa interest of ions with various Difficulties, such as capital constra...

  13. Marginal socio-economic effects of an employer's efforts to improve the work environment. (United States)

    Rezagholi, Mahmoud


    Workplace health promotion (WHP) strongly requires the employer's efforts to improve the psychosocial, ergonomic, and physical environments of the workplace. There are many studies discussing the socio-economic advantage of WHP intervention programmes and thus the internal and external factors motivating employers to implement and integrate such programmes. However, the socio-economic impacts of the employer's multifactorial efforts to improve the work environment need to be adequately assessed. Data were collected from Swedish company Sandvik Materials Technology (SMT) through a work environment survey in April 2014. Different regression equations were analysed to assess marginal effects of the employer's efforts on overall labour effectiveness (OLE), informal work impairments (IWI), lost working hours (LWH), and labour productivity loss (LPL) in terms of money. The employer's multifactorial efforts resulted in increasing OLE, decreasing IWI and illness-related LWH, and cost savings in terms of decreasing LPL. Environmental factors at the workplace are the important determinant factor for OLE, and the latter is where socio-economic impacts of the employer's efforts primarily manifest.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia-Mihaela GROSU


    Full Text Available This article discusses the need for educators in business schools to become more involved in discovering and cultivating not only hard skills, but also soft skills, in order to prepare students to meet the requirements of their potential employers. At the level of business undergraduate studies in Romania, educational activities focusing on soft skills (such as intercultural communication, positive attitude, flexibility become essential for increasing students’ employability chances. Foreign language teachers who use a communicative teaching method are specifically involved in such activities. But do these courses cover the entire range of top soft skills required by business executives? What is done in the classroom and what can be improved? The present study will attempt to find the answers to these questions and to formulate suggestions for a more focused approach to soft skills development through foreign language courses.

  15. Adaptation and Employment of Special Groups of Manpower. Implementing an Active Manpower Policy; Conclusions of the Manpower and Social Affairs Committee. (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Conclusions are presented indicating the role which public bodies, employers, trade unions, and other private groups can play in improving the employment opportunities of special groups, such as older workers, workers with family responsibilities, and workers of rural origin engaged in non-agricultural employment. Because of the increasing number…

  16. Effects of Non-Employment in Early Work-Life on Subsequent Employment Chances of Individuals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, A.R.C.M.; Wolbers, M.H.J.


    In this article, the effects of non-employment in early work-life on subsequent employment chances of individuals in the Netherlands are examined. A main concern is whether the experience of non-employment in the beginning of the career (permanently) damages a workers later employment opportunities

  17. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali


    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  18. Effective Strategies To Improve the Employment of SSI/SSDI Participants. (United States)

    Radtke, Jean, Ed.

    This document is for administrators, rehabilitation counselors, and other professionals who support the employment of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients with disabilities. It contains strategies for vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs to improve an SSI or SSDI…

  19. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi My Linh Hoang


    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  20. Breastfeeding and employment: an assessment of employer attitudes. (United States)

    Libbus, M Kay; Bullock, Linda F C


    Both research and anecdotal reports suggest that maternal employment is associated with failure to initiate breastfeeding and early breastfeeding attrition. The objective of this study was to describe the experience with and attitudes toward breastfeeding of a sample of employers in a small Midwestern city in the United States. Based on an analysis of 85 mail-out questionnaires, we found that less than half of the employers had personal experience with breastfeeding. A large percentage of the sample, however, indicated that they would be willing to facilitate women who wished to breastfeed or express milk in the workplace. However, these employers also stated that they saw little value to their business of supporting breastfeeding in the work environment. Thus, enhancement of breastfeeding opportunity in the work environment may come as a result of public and employer education but, more likely, will require some type of directive from official sources.

  1. Iraqi Police Development Program: Opportunities for Improved Program Accountability and Budget Transparency (United States)


    support, and aviation) raise red flags about the program’s fund requirements. This report identifies opportunities for improved program...tum now to the PSC audit coordination issue you raised. SIGlR unfailingly coordinates aJI of its State-related audits with State OIG prior to

  2. School-Based Supported Employment: A Comprehensive Supported Employment Program for Mildly Mentally Retarded Youth. (United States)

    Morgan, Valda B.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Supported employment opportunities can help to meet the transition needs of individuals enrolled in special education programs. A review of related literature discusses characteristics of supported employment program participants, the need for individual transition planning, the school's role and responsibility, vocational planning, benefits,…

  3. Labour Market Flexibility between Risk and Opportunity for Gender Equality Analyses of Self-employment, Part-time Work, and Job Autonomy


    König, Stefanie


    The dissertation “Labour Market Flexibility between Risk and Opportunity for Gender Equality – Analyses of Self-employment, Part-time Work, and Job Autonomy” addresses the main research question: Is flexibility the key to a less gendered labour market, or does it rather foster more traditional roles and gender inequality? In four empirical studies, different aspects in life were investigated in order to gain a holistic understanding of gender inequalities related to flexibility at work: the d...

  4. The Potential Effects of Federal Health Insurance Reforms on Employment Arrangements and Compensation


    Marcus Dillender; Carolyn J. Heinrich; Susan N. Houseman


    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) presents an opportunity to significantly improve compensation for American workers. A potential concern, though, is that employers will circumvent the employer mandate by increasing their use of workers in staffing arrangements that are not covered by the mandate: workers averaging less than 30 hours per week, working on a temporary basis, or working in organizations with fewer than 50 full-time employees. In this paper, we shed light on the likely effects that t...

  5. The potential of technology for enhancing individual placement and support supported employment. (United States)

    Lord, Sarah E; McGurk, Susan R; Nicholson, Joanne; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth A; Tauscher, Justin S; Becker, Deborah R; Swanson, Sarah J; Drake, Robert E; Bond, Gary R


    The potential of technology to enhance delivery and outcomes of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment. IPS supported employment has demonstrated robust success for improving rates of competitive employment among individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Still, a majority of those with serious mental illnesses are not employed (Bond, Drake, & Becker, 2012). The need to promote awareness of IPS and expand services is urgent. In this study, we describe ways that technologies may enhance delivery of IPS supported employment across the care continuum and stakeholder groups. Directions for research are highlighted. published literature, clinical observations, IPS learning collaborative. Technology has the potential to enhance direct service as well as workflow in the IPS supported employment process, which may lead to improved fidelity and client outcomes. Mobile and cloud technologies open opportunities for collaboration, self-directed care, and ongoing support to help clients obtain and maintain meaningful employment. Research is needed to evaluate efficacy of technology-based approaches for promoting client employment outcomes, to identify provider and organization barriers to using technology for IPS delivery, and to determine effective strategies for implementing technology with IPS in different settings and with diverse client audiences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Riswati


    Full Text Available This research analyzes the challenges for Indonesian economy towards the implementation ofASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA especially on employment opportunity in Indonesia.Using regression technique, the labour cost and change in fix capital are statistically significant ininfluencing the employment opportunity. This result implies that ACFTA will challenge the Indonesiancompetitiveness due to increasing labour cost, while ACFTA also potentially increases capitalflow from China which has ambiguous impacts on labour absorption. The SWOT (Strength,Weakness, Opportunity and Threat analysis recommends for Indonesian government to improvecomprehensive strategy of national industry to be more competitive to China products.Keywords: ACFTA, employment opportunity, structural equation modelJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15, F42

  7. Rural-urban migration and urban employment opportunities in Nigeria. (United States)

    Okpara, E E


    The author suggests that most studies of rural-urban migration in the third world today are based on the European experience during the Industrial Revolution. He contends that the assumption that most migrants find wage employment in a rapidly growing modern industrial sector is not valid, particularly in Western Africa, where the pace of industrialization lags behind the rate of urbanization. Data from Nigeria are used to show that many potential migrants are aware of this situation and migrate seeking self-employment in informal sector trading activities.

  8. ICT-based Innovation and Employability for Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios A Pappas


    Full Text Available The utilization of ICTs in creating new jobs and eliminating gender based inequalities in employability and entrepreneurship, employs increasingly more researchers, governments and organizations around the world. In this article we analyze the current situation regarding the impact of ICTs, social networks and media on creating new opportunities for the employability of women. We also present the new market requirements, the new e-skills that will be acquired by women in order to take advantage of new labor market opportunities. Finally special reference is made to new trends in women's entrepreneurship as well as the supportive role of ICTs.

  9. 2001: Employment Odyssey or Opportunity for Persons with Handicapping Conditions? (United States)

    Linari, Ronald F.; Belmont, Robert M.


    Implications of trends in population, families, communications, automation, the environment, and employment changes are noted for the training and employment of handicapped persons. The need for emphasis in vocational education on generalizability, job readiness and vocational adjustment skills, and job analysis is stressed. (CL)

  10. Resignification of Educational E-innovation to Enhance Opportunities for Graduate Employability in the Context of New University Degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Torres Valdés


    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a training programme based on an Action-Research methodology that has been applied in two subjects of Event Organization, Protocol and Institutional Relations undergraduate and Master’s degrees. Through a teaching methodology called «learning by doing», students are encouraged to understand, internalise and apply the potential of technology in this field of knowledge, by means of building their personal brand as a key for digital literacy and professional empowerment. Thus, firstly this work proposes a review of the use of technology in teaching, with the goal of resignifying the concept of educational e-innovation from a transdisciplinary approach, which promotes progress in education ranging from technological to social innovation (technological-education-cultural-relational. Then, both the specific features and activities designed to build the students’ personal brands during the course as well as the research methodology applied to analyze the results are described. The methodology is based on a longitudinal «ex post-facto» approach through a panel sample survey. Finally, results demonstrate how this training programme has allowed graduates to improve their employability and career development opportunities from then on, encouraging active participation and self-directed learning. Initial conclusions encourage us to apply this experience to larger groups and new university degrees in the higher education context.

  11. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus


    Full Text Available The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of population, the rapid adoption of labor-saving technologies, the manifold expansion of world trade, and the dramatic shift from manual labor to white collar work. In an increasingly globalized labor market, current nation-centric theories and models of employment need to be replaced with a human-centered global perspective complemented by new indicators that recognize the central and essential contribution of employment to human economic welfare. Employment and economy are subsets of society and their growth is driven by the more fundamental process of social development. A vast array of unmet social needs combined with an enormous reservoir of underutilized social resources – technological, scientific, educational, organizational, cultural and psychological – can be harnessed to dramatically expand employment opportunities and achieve full employment on a global basis. This paper examines the theoretical basis, policy issues and strategies required to eradicate unemployment nationally and globally.

  12. 29 CFR 1604.5 - Job opportunities advertising. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job opportunities advertising. 1604.5 Section 1604.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.5 Job opportunities advertising. It is a violation of title VII for a help-wanted...

  13. Music venues and hearing loss: Opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Brug, J.; Raat, H.


    This study explores the opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions in order to reduce the risk for music-induced hearing loss in people who attend music venues. Individual semi-structured interviews were held with 20 representatives of music venues and of governmental

  14. Efforts Towards Gender Equity in Academic and Employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job-opportunities specify educational levels, types and quality, which an applicant must have to secure the job opportunity. As such ... in narrowing down the gap between female and male university students' enrolment in academic programmes and academics, technical and administrative staff in employment opportunities.

  15. Depression Care Management: Can Employers Purchase Improved Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Rost


    Full Text Available Fourteen vendors are currently selling depression care management products to US employers after randomized trials demonstrate improved work outcomes. The research team interviewed 10 (71.4% of these vendors to compare their products to four key components of interventions demonstrated to improve work outcomes. Five of 10 depression products incorporate all four key components, three of which are sold by health maintenance organizations (HMOs; however, HMOs did not deliver these components at the recommended intensity and/or duration. Only one product delivered by a disease management company delivered all four components of care at the recommended intensity and duration. This “voltage drop,” which we anticipate will increase with product implementation, suggests that every delivery system should carefully evaluate the design of its depression product before implementation for its capacity to deliver evidence-based care, repeating these evaluations as new evidence emerges.

  16. Ovarian Cancer and BRCA1/2 Testing: Opportunities to improve clinical care and disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eKarakasis


    Full Text Available Without prevention or screening options available, ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive tract. High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC is the most common histologic subtype, and the role of germline BRCA1/2 mutation in predisposition and prognosis is established. Given the targeted treatment opportunities with PARP inhibitors, a predictive role for BRCA1/2 mutation has emerged. Despite recommendations to provide BRCA1/2 testing to all women with histologically confirmed HGSOC, uniform implementation remains challenging. The opportunity to review and revise genetic screening and testing practices will identify opportunities where universal adoption of BRCA1/2 mutation testing will impact and improve treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Improving education and awareness of genetic testing for women with cancer, as well as the broader general community, will help focus much needed attention on opportunities to advance prevention and screening programs in ovarian cancer. This is imperative not only for women with cancer, those at risk of developing cancer, but also for their first-degree relatives. In addition, BRCA1/2 testing may have direct implications for patients with other types of cancers, many which are now being found to have BRCA1/2 involvement.

  17. Sustained employability of workers in a production environment: design of a stepped wedge trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-benefit of the POSE program. (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; de Boer, Michiel R; Brouwer, Sandra; Soer, Remko; Reneman, Michiel F


    Sustained employability and health are generating awareness of employers in an aging and more complex work force. To meet these needs, employers may offer their employees health surveillance programs, to increase opportunities to work on health and sustained employability. However, evidence for these health surveillance programs is lacking. The FLESH study (Functional Labour Evaluation for Sustained Health and employment) was developed to evaluate a comprehensive workers' health promotion program on its effectiveness, cost-benefit, and process of the intervention. The study is designed as a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial with randomisation at company plant level and is carried out in a large meat processing company. Every contracted employee is offered the opportunity to participate in the POSE program (Promotion Of Sustained Employability). The main goals of the POSE program are 1) providing employee's insight into their current employability and health status, 2) offering opportunities to improve employability and decrease health risks and 3) improving employability and health sustainably in order to keep them healthy at work. The program consists of a broad assessment followed by a counselling session and, if needed, a tailored intervention. Measurements will be performed at baseline and will be followed up at 20, 40, 60, 80, 106 and 132 weeks. The primary outcome measures are work ability, productivity and absenteeism. Secondary outcomes include health status, vitality, and psychosocial workload. A cost-benefit study will be conducted from the employers' perspective. A process evaluation will be conducted and the satisfaction of employer and employees with the program will be assessed. This study provides information on the effectiveness of the POSE program on sustained employment. When the program proves to be effective, employees benefit by improved work ability, and health. Employers benefit from healthier employees, reduced sick leave (costs) and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Enăchescu


    Full Text Available South West region covers an area of 29,212 km2, approximately 12.25% of the country (238391 km ² and includes five counties: Dolj, Olt, Valcea, Mehedinti and Gorj. It is bordered by Bulgaria, Serbia and South Muntenia, Central and West. From the total workforce of 828,900 people, 332,300 people are employed in farming, forestry and fishing (40% and only 4500 in the areas of information and communications, respectively in 6600 other activities. The regional unemployment rate was 7.7% in 2011 compared to 7.6% nationally, 7.1% for women respectively 8.3% for men, a level very close to the national average[5][7]. We presented these statistics to highlight the region's potential in the development of e-work activities that would increase employment levels both in urban population and especially in rural areas, low unemployment and thus the local population migration and support sustainable development of the region. This paper aims to analyze the opportunity to develop complementary activities of e-work employment for the South West region.

  19. In-vivo job development training among peer providers of homeless veterans supported employment programs. (United States)

    Gao, Ni; Dolce, Joni; Rio, John; Heitzmann, Carma; Loving, Samantha


    This column describes a goal-oriented, time-limited in vivo coaching/training approach for skills building among peer veterans vocational rehabilitation specialists of the Homeless Veteran Supported Employment Program (HVSEP). Planning, implementing, and evaluating the training approach for peer providers was intended, ultimately, to support veterans in their goal of returning to community competitive employment. The description draws from the training experience that aimed to improve the ability of peer providers to increase both rates of employment and wages of the homeless veterans using their services. Training peers using an in vivo training approach provided a unique opportunity for the veterans to improve their job development skills with a focus to support employment outcomes for the service users. Peers who received training also expressed that learning skills through an in vivo training approach was more engaging than typical classroom trainings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Quality improvement initiatives: the missed opportunity for health plans. (United States)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Sara; Lennert, Barbara


    The increase in healthcare cost without direct improvements in health outcomes, coupled with a desire to expand access to the large uninsured population, has underscored the importance of quality initiatives and organizations that provide more affordable healthcare by maximizing value. To determine the knowledge of managed care organizations about quality organizations and initiatives and to identify potential opportunities in which pharmaceutical companies could collaborate with health plans in the development and implementation of quality initiatives. We conducted a survey of 36 pharmacy directors and 15 medical directors of different plans during a Managed Care Network meeting in 2008. The represented plans cover almost 74 million lives in commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid programs, or a combination of them. The responses show limited knowledge among pharmacy and medical directors about current quality organizations and initiatives, except for quality organizations that provide health plan quality accreditation. The results also reveal an opportunity for pharmaceutical companies to collaborate with private health plans in the development of quality initiatives, especially those related to drug utilization, such as patient adherence and education and correct drug utilization. Our survey shows clearly that today's focus for managed care organizations is mostly limited to the organizations that provide health plan quality accreditation, with less focus on other organizations.





    People who belongs to underdeveloped and developing countries, focus on getting employment in different developed countries. In the recent past years the number of people working in different countries has increased dramatically. In Pakistan it’s a trend of moving to different countries to get better employment opportunities. For employment Hong Kong, Singapore, UAE, and Saudi Arabia are considered as the favorable countries for the Pakistanis. Despite the fact, these countries don’t offer fa...

  2. Employment of Handicapped People in Leisure Occupations. (United States)

    Compton, David M.; Vinton, Dennis A.

    In response to the need for up-to-date information on employment opportunities for handicapped people in the leisure occupations, a national survey was conducted to determine both existing levels of employment and employer practices. The survey was sent to 500 agencies and businesses representing four leisure occupational subclusters: travel,…

  3. [Employment opportunities and job satisfaction in the field of Public Health: a survey among recent graduates of the Hygiene and Preventive Medicine residency in Italy]. (United States)

    Soncini, Francesco; Odone, Anna; Lalic, Tijana; Miduri, Alessia; Paroni, Samuel; Vezzosi, Luigi; Privitera, Gaetano; Signorelli, Carlo


    We conducted an on-line survey among 255 specialists in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine in Italy who completed their training between October 2014 and July 2016, to assess their training experience, employment opportunities and current job satisfaction. Response rate was 49%. Mean age was 35 years. A high employment rate within two years from obtaining specialist qualification was reported by the 125 specialists who completed the questionnaire (76% are currently employed). The three main work settings of the participating specialists are hospital health directions (37%), universities (19%) and local Prevention Departments (16%). Two thirds (66%) have temporary positions and only 6% permanent positions. Job, pay, and training satisfaction are often below expectations with geographical differences that would need to be further investigated.

  4. Army Roof Management and Improvement Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, David


    ... - about $200 million annually. Systemic, integrated solutions offer the Army a great opportunity to save millions of dollars annually in repair and replacement costs, and to avoid incidental costs incurred due to interrupted...

  5. Improving children’s mobility and access to socio-economic opportunities: A synthesis of literature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M


    Full Text Available the population of many such countries consists of children and young persons. Improving mobility and access to socio-economic opportunities for this group is crucial if the Millennium Development Goals of Universal Primary Education, Promotion of Gender Equity...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna ZHGUR


    Full Text Available Introduction: People with intellectual disabilities (ID are often excluded from the labour market and face many obstacles on their way to employment. Aim: The main aim is giving the persons with ID a possibility to participate in occasional employment, providing them suitable work skills, sustainable knowledge and competencies, as well as suitable skills for more active life. Materials and methods: We analysed 90 evaluation questionnaires (filled out by students, mentors, parents and craftsmen, during a 3-year project (September 2013 - October 2015. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient and Chi-square test were used for statistical data analysis. Results: We determined the level of satisfaction expressed by parents, mentors and students, related to guided employment (χ2 = 1,07; p > 0,05; χ2 = 0,04; p > 0,05;χ2 = 0,04; p > 0,05. Workshops were balanced with theoretical and practical content (χ2 = 16,58; p 0,05, craftsmen (ϱ = 0,79; p 0,05. Conclusion: Implementation of selected workshops, related to guided employment showed that employment of people with ID is possible under professional guidance of mentors.

  7. “I WILL SURVIVE” A Construct Validation Study on the Measurement of Sustainable Employability Using Different Age Conceptualizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M. Le Blanc


    Full Text Available Though the importance of sustainable employability throughout people's working life is undisputed, up till now only one attempt for a conceptual definition has been made (van der Klink et al., 2016. Following the suggestions to further refine and improve this definition recently put forward by Fleuren et al. (2016, we propose an approach to sustainable employability that is based on the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO framework, and incorporates three indicators: the ability, the motivation, and the opportunity to continue working, respectively. As sustainable employability is considered to be an important aspect of successful aging at work, this study used four different conceptualizations of aging at work to set up convergent and divergent validity of our operationalization of sustainable employability: calendar age, organizational age (job and organizational tenure, functional age (work ability, and life-span age (partner and children. We formulated several hypotheses that were tested by analyzing data from an online survey among 180 employees from Dutch public service organizations who filled out a questionnaire on different age concepts, and their ability, motivation, and opportunity to continue working. Multiple regression analyses were performed, and results showed that the four conceptualizations of aging were differently related to the three indicators of sustainable employability. Life-span age, in terms of having children, had the strongest negative relationship with the ability to continue working, organizational age (i.e., organizational tenure had the strongest negative relationship with the motivation to continue working, and functional age had the strongest negative relationship with the opportunity to continue working. Moreover, functional age was significantly negatively related to the other two indicators of sustainable employability too, while life-span age appeared to enhance the ability and motivation to continue

  8. Pregnancy-related mortality in California: causes, characteristics, and improvement opportunities. (United States)

    Main, Elliott K; McCain, Christy L; Morton, Christine H; Holtby, Susan; Lawton, Elizabeth S


    To compare specific maternal and clinical characteristics and contributing factors among the five leading causes of pregnancy-related mortality to develop focused clinical and public health prevention programs. California pregnancy-related deaths from 2002-2005 were identified with enhanced surveillance using linked birth and death certificates. A multidisciplinary committee reviewed medical records, autopsy reports, and coroner reports to determine cause of death, clinical and demographic characteristics, chance to alter outcome, contributing factors (at health care provider, facility, and patient levels), and quality improvement opportunities. The five leading causes of death were compared with each other and with the overall California birth population. Among the 207 pregnancy-related deaths, the five leading causes were cardiovascular disease, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage, venous thromboembolism, and amniotic fluid embolism. Among the leading causes of death, we identified differing patterns for race, maternal age, body mass index, timing of death, and method of delivery. Overall, there was a good-to-strong chance to alter the outcome in 41% of deaths, with the highest rates of preventability among hemorrhage (70%) and preeclampsia (60%) deaths. Health care provider, facility, and patient contributing factors also varied by cause of death. Pregnancy-related mortality should not be considered a single clinical entity. Reducing mortality requires in-depth examination of individual causes of death. The five leading causes exhibit different characteristics, degrees of preventability, and contributing factors, with the greatest improvement opportunities identified for hemorrhage and preeclampsia. These findings provide additional support for hospital, state, and national maternal safety programs.

  9. Innovative Employment Practices for Older Americans. (United States)

    Root, Lawrence S.; Zarrugh, Laura H.

    Many companies recognize the importance of including older persons in the labor force, but barriers still exist that limit their productive employment. Negative stereotypes may influence hiring and promotion decisions, and training opportunities may be closed. A study was conducted of private sector employment programs/practices that are intended…

  10. Access to Employment: People with Disabilities. (United States)

    Pierce, Patricia A.


    Reports the findings of Lou Harris and Associates (1987) on what employers are doing to employ people with disabilities and what their experiences with disabled employees have been. Presents strategies that provide a model for addressing the needs of the disabled population and provide them with opportunities. (JS)

  11. Women--Their Access to Education and Employment (United States)

    Literacy Discussion, 1975


    The Unesco National Commissions carried out a series of studies simultaneously in Argentina, the Ivory Coast, Lebanon, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka regarding the relationship between the educational opportunities and the opportunities of employment open to women. Basic conclusions of international scope are presented. (LH)

  12. 75 FR 55392 - Employment Network Report Card (United States)


    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2010-0046] Employment Network Report Card AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of Webinar and National Teleconference Call listening sessions--announcing two opportunities for SSA to hear public comments on Employment Network...

  13. Employability of Nursing Care Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donik Barbara


    Full Text Available Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students’ and employers’ point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates’ employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between the self-evaluation of competences and students’ academic performance.

  14. Ahead of the Curve: Why America's Leading Employers Are Addressing the Needs of New and Expectant Parents. (United States)

    Shore, Rima

    Increasing numbers of employed parents of young children, increasing work-family conflict experienced by these parents, and the importance of early experience for children's brain development combine to suggest opportunities for business organizations to improve their competitiveness and compassion. This report draws upon data from the National…

  15. A multi-state assessment of employer-sponsored quality improvement education for early-career registered nurses. (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida K; Seltzer, Joanna R


    Increasing participation of registered nurses (RNs) in quality improvement (QI) is a promising strategy to close the health care quality chasm. For RNs to participate effectively in hospital QI, they must have adequate QI knowledge and skills. This descriptive study assessed employer-sponsored QI education and RNs' preparedness across a wide range of QI steps and processes. RNs from 15 U.S. states who were employed in hospitals and were initially licensed to practice in 2007 to 2008 were surveyed. Fewer than one third of respondents reported being very prepared across all measured QI topics. More than half reported receiving zero hours of training in these same topics in the last year. Lack of educational offerings on the topic was the top reason respondents gave for not obtaining QI training. The QI education offered by employers to RNs could be substantially improved. Nurse educators play a critical role in making these improvements. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Economic benefits of employment transportation services : final report (United States)


    This report examines the benefits that accrue from employment transportation services implemented as a result of changes in welfare policy, namely the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996. Employment transp...

  17. Monitoring of Opportunities for Development of Self-Employment in the Novosibirsk Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mikhailovna Volovskaya


    Full Text Available The article, based on data of three sociological researches held in the Novosibirsk Oblast, considers development problems of self-employment among the unemployed population as one of the directions of the active policy promoting population’s employment and reducing unemployment. The dynamics of recovery from unemployment is studied, namely the unemployed population’s willingness and readiness for self-employment, the focus on its specific types, as well as on the necessary forms of support. The research has revealed favorable changes and trends in life and consciousness of unemployed citizens and their attitude to self-employment: the decreasing amount of citizens compelled to as little money as possible on most necessary things and living in poverty, growing incomes from self-employment in personal subsidiary plots, the increasing amount of people ready for self-employment, social mobility and self-reliance. But paternalistic moods of half of the respondents and the dominance of passive and compelled strategies raise concerns. It has been concluded that the majority of the respondents considers self-employment as a phenomenon of considerable potential, which does not save from unemployment, but is capable of providing the fulfilment of needs of a considerable part of rural population for working and earning money. Besides income as a means of living, self-employment forms an important position of the unemployed social activity, as opposed to social dependency. Measures to support the self-employed should be implemented either at the federal or at regional level. This would promote the increase in business activity, the growth of middle class and the general increase in Russian economic efficiency

  18. Self-Employment for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: Advantages and Strategies. (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Nemec, Patricia B; Smith, Carina


    Self-employment is an alternative to wage employment and an opportunity to increase labor force participation by people with psychiatric disabilities. Self-employment refers to individuals who work for themselves, either as an unincorporated sole proprietor or through ownership of a business. Advantages of self-employment for people with psychiatric disabilities, who may have disrupted educational and employment histories, include opportunities for self-care, additional earning, and career choice. Self-employment fits within a recovery paradigm because of the value placed on individual preferences, and the role of resilience and perseverance in business ownership. Self-employment creates many new US jobs, but remains only a small percentage of employment closures for people with psychiatric disabilities, despite vocational rehabilitation and Social Security disability policies that encourage it. This commentary elucidates the positive aspects of self-employment in the context of employment challenges experienced by individuals with psychiatric disabilities and provides recommendations based on larger trends in entrepreneurship.

  19. Understanding patient willingness to recommend and return: a strategy for prioritizing improvement opportunities. (United States)

    Burroughs, T E; Davies, A R; Cira, J C; Dunagan, W C


    Beginning in April 1995, an ongoing, comprehensive measurement system has been developed and refined at BJC Health System, a regional integrated delivery and financing system serving the St Louis metropolitan area, mid-Missouri, and Southern Illinois, to assess patient satisfaction with inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, outpatient surgery, and emergency care. This system has provided the mechanism for identifying opportunities, setting priorities, and monitoring the impact of improvement initiatives. Satisfaction with key components of the care process among 23,361 patients (7,083 inpatients, 8,885 patients undergoing outpatient tests/procedures, 5,356 patients undergoing outpatient surgery, and 2,037 patients receiving emergency care) at 15 BJC Health System facilities was assessed through weekly surveys administered in April 1995 through December 1996. Structural equation models were developed to identify the key predictors of patient advocation-willingness to return for or recommend care. Across all venues of care the compassion provided to patients had the strongest relationship to patient advocation. Within each venue of care, however, a slightly different set of secondary factors emerged. The resulting models provided important information to help prioritize competing improvement opportunities in BJC Health System. In one hospital, a general medicine unit working for several years with little success to improve its patient satisfaction decided to focus on two primary factors predicting patient advocation: nursing care delivery and compassionate care. Root cause analysis was used to determine why two items-staff willingness to help with questions/concerns and clear explanation about tests and procedures-were rated low. On the basis of feedback from phone interviews with discharged patients, the care delivery process was changed to encourage patients to ask questions. Across the next two quarters, this unit experienced significant improvements in both

  20. Discrimination in Public Employment: The Evolving Law. (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    This monograph reviews the current status of constitutional, statutory, and case law governing public employers' obligations to assure equal employment opportunities and employees' rights to nondiscriminatory treatment. An initial overview of the legal framework discusses federal equal protection mandates including the guarantee of equal…

  1. Opportunities to Improve Skills and to Teach and Train Others: Employee Outcomes in the United States and Japan (United States)

    Lee, HaeNim; McNamara, Tay K.; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Lee, Jungui


    Opportunities to improve skills and opportunities to teach or train others may be associated with job satisfaction, work engagement and organizational commitment. The analysis reported in this paper used a subsample of 823 employees within two Japanese and three American worksites. We tested not only the direct relationships of each type of…

  2. UK doctors and equal opportunities in the NHS: national questionnaire surveys of views on gender, ethnicity and disability. (United States)

    Lambert, Trevor; Surman, Geraldine; Goldacre, Michael


    To seek doctors' views about the NHS as an employer, our surveys about doctors' career intentions and progression, undertaken between 1999 and 2013, also asked whether the NHS was, in their view, a good 'equal opportunities' employer for women doctors, doctors from ethnic minority groups and doctors with disabilities. Surveys undertaken in the UK by mail and Internet. UK medical graduates in selected graduation years between 1993 and 2012. Respondents were asked to rate their level of agreement with three statements starting 'The NHS is a good equal opportunities employer for…' and ending 'women doctors', 'doctors from ethnic minorities' and 'doctors with disabilities'. Of first-year doctors surveyed in 2013, 3.6% (78/2158) disagreed that the NHS is a good equal opportunities employer for women doctors (1.7% of the men and 4.7% of the women); 2.2% (44/1968) disagreed for doctors from ethnic minorities (0.9% of white doctors and 5.8% of non-white doctors) and 12.6% (175/1387) disagreed for doctors with disabilities. Favourable perceptions of the NHS in these respects improved substantially between 1999 and 2013; among first-year doctors of 2000-2003, combined, the corresponding percentages of disagreement were 23.5% for women doctors, 23.1% for doctors from ethnic minorities and 50.6% for doctors with disabilities. Positive views about the NHS as an equal opportunities employer have increased in recent years, but the remaining gap in perception of this between women and men, and between ethnic minority and white doctors, is a concern. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  3. Workplace Discrimination and Visual Impairment: A Comparison of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Charges and Resolutions under the Americans with Disabilities Act and Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act (United States)

    Victor, Callie M.; Thacker, Leroy R.; Gary, Kelli W.; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.; Copolillo, Al


    To guarantee equal opportunities and treatment in employment for individuals with disabilities, Congress enacted Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1992. This law states, "No covered entity shall discriminate against a qualified individual on the basis of disability in regard to job application procedures, the hiring,…

  4. Corporate culture and the employment of persons with disabilities. (United States)

    Schur, Lisa; Kruse, Douglas; Blanck, Peter


    This article addresses key questions arising from the economic and social disparities that individuals with disabilities experience in the United States. For instance, "What role does corporate culture play in the employment of people with disabilities?" "How does it facilitate or hinder their employment and promotional opportunities, and how can corporations develop supportive cultures that benefit people with disabilities, non-disabled employees, and the organization as a whole?" Corporate culture can create attitudinal, behavioral, and physical barriers for workers and job applicants with disabilities. This research concludes that if the employment prospects of people with disabilities are to be improved significantly, attention must be paid to the ways in which corporate culture creates or reinforces obstacles to employees with disabilities, and how these obstacles can be removed or overcome. Ultimately, we will make the case that corporate culture and societal attitudes must change if people with disabilities are to be accepted and incorporated fully into the workplace. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Dissemination, Implementation, and Improvement Science Research in Population Health: Opportunities for Public Health and CTSAs. (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N; Inkelas, Moira


    The complex, dynamic nature of health systems requires dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) sciences to effectively translate emerging knowledge into practice. Although they hold great promise for informing multisector policies and system-level changes, these methods are often not strategically used by public health. More than 120 stakeholders from Southern California, including the community, federal and local government, university, and health services were convened to identify key priorities and opportunities for public health departments and Clinical and Translational Science Awards programs (CTSAs) to advance DII sciences in population health. Participants identified challenges (mismatch of practice realities with narrowly focused research questions; lack of iterative learning) and solutions (using methods that fit the dynamic nature of the real world; aligning theories of change across sectors) for applying DII science research to public health problems. Pragmatic steps that public health and CTSAs can take to facilitate DII science research include: employing appropriate study designs; training scientists and practicing professionals in these methods; securing resources to advance this work; and supporting team science to solve complex-systems issues. Public health and CTSAs represent a unique model of practice for advancing DII research in population health. The partnership can inform policy and program development in local communities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Employment Change and Business Prospects in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosovka Đ Ognjenovic


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine whether some previous knowledge about business prospects affects companies’ decisions about new employment in Serbia. In order to investigate this assumption a set of firm level data for 2012 is used. Following the theoretical approach that put an employer in a position to make various decisions about employment within the company, the trichotomous logit model is employed for the estimation of outcomes of possible companies’ decisions with respect to a set of independent variables. We find that the level of employment in the year that precedes companies’ decisions and relative changes in the number of employees in two successive years, as well as age and size of the company to some extent, affect companies’ decisions about new employment. The most important finding of our research is that the companies that experienced fluctuations in the number of employees and upgraded their business opportunities in the previous period hesitate to make decisions on the engagement of new workers, whereas those companies that lost some business opportunities rather decide to downsize the total number of employees.

  7. Opportunities in Government for Students of Green Chemistry (United States)

    The presentation focuses on opportunities for students in green chemistry to apply their skills and knowledge in a government setting. Several examples of on-going work as well as opportunities for employment in local, state and federal positions will be discussed.

  8. Sustained employability of workers in a production environment: design of a stepped wedge trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-benefit of the POSE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Holland Berry J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained employability and health are generating awareness of employers in an aging and more complex work force. To meet these needs, employers may offer their employees health surveillance programs, to increase opportunities to work on health and sustained employability. However, evidence for these health surveillance programs is lacking. The FLESH study (Functional Labour Evaluation for Sustained Health and employment was developed to evaluate a comprehensive workers’ health promotion program on its effectiveness, cost-benefit, and process of the intervention. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial with randomisation at company plant level and is carried out in a large meat processing company. Every contracted employee is offered the opportunity to participate in the POSE program (Promotion Of Sustained Employability. The main goals of the POSE program are 1 providing employee’s insight into their current employability and health status, 2 offering opportunities to improve employability and decrease health risks and 3 improving employability and health sustainably in order to keep them healthy at work. The program consists of a broad assessment followed by a counselling session and, if needed, a tailored intervention. Measurements will be performed at baseline and will be followed up at 20, 40, 60, 80, 106 and 132 weeks. The primary outcome measures are work ability, productivity and absenteeism. Secondary outcomes include health status, vitality, and psychosocial workload. A cost-benefit study will be conducted from the employers’ perspective. A process evaluation will be conducted and the satisfaction of employer and employees with the program will be assessed. Discussion This study provides information on the effectiveness of the POSE program on sustained employment. When the program proves to be effective, employees benefit by improved work ability, and health. Employers benefit

  9. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan


    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631

  10. Employers' perspectives of students in a master of public health (nutrition) program. (United States)

    Fox, Ann; Emrich, Teri


    Efforts to support workforce development led to the launch of a new master of public health program aimed at improving access to graduate studies for practising nutrition professionals. The first cohort of students identified employer support as a key determinant of their success. In order to identify ways of addressing both student and employer needs, we explored the perspectives of students' employers. Seventeen in-depth, semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with employers. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcripts were organized using NVivo software and coded thematically. All employers indicated support for employee education and development in principle, but most faced practical challenges related to limited staffing during education leaves. Organizational policies varied considerably across employer groups. Collective agreements that guided education policy were seen to ensure consistent support for employees, but also to limit creative approaches to education support in some situations. Employers highly valued graduate student projects that were directly related to the workplace; these projects presented opportunities for collaboration among the university, students, and employers. Universities need to work with employers and other stakeholders to identify ways of overcoming barriers to public health nutrition graduate education and workforce development.

  11. The effectiveness of artificial intelligent 3-D virtual reality vocational problem-solving training in enhancing employment opportunities for people with traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Man, David Wai Kwong; Poon, Wai Sang; Lam, Chow


    People with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience cognitive deficits in attention, memory, executive functioning and problem-solving. The purpose of the present research study was to examine the effectiveness of an artificial intelligent virtual reality (VR)-based vocational problem-solving skill training programme designed to enhance employment opportunities for people with TBI. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of the above programme with that of the conventional psycho-educational approach. Forty participants with mild (n = 20) or moderate (n = 20) brain injury were randomly assigned to each training programme. Comparisons of problem-solving skills were performed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Tower of London Test and the Vocational Cognitive Rating Scale. Improvement in selective memory processes and perception of memory function were found. Across-group comparison showed that the VR group performed more favourably than the therapist-led one in terms of objective and subjective outcome measures and better vocational outcomes. These results support the potential use of a VR-based approach in memory training in people with MCI. Further VR applications, limitations and future research are described.

  12. Social capital through workplace connections: opportunities for workers with intellectual disabilities. (United States)

    Hall, Allison Cohen; Kramer, John


    Using qualitative methods, this study examined the experiences of individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) in sheltered workshops and compared them to those in community employment. In particular, the study investigated how employment affects opportunities for the creation of social capital. Primary respondents were individuals with ID and secondary respondents were family members and employment services staff. Findings revealed that a form of social capital was created through workplace connections. Community employment did not increase social capital per se, but it did produce opportunities not available in the workshop. The role of family members emerged as critical in the support of community employment and its potential for social capital development.

  13. What's up with the self-employed? A cross-national perspective on the self-employed's work-related mental well-being. (United States)

    Gevaert, Jessie; Moortel, Deborah De; Wilkens, Mathijn; Vanroelen, Christophe


    Although many governments actively stimulate self-employment, their work-related mental well-being remains understudied. The aim of current study is to investigate the mental well-being of different types of self-employed, testing whether mental well-being differences among self-employed are explained by the presence of work characteristics that are in accordance with the ideal-typical image of the "successful entrepreneur" (e.g. creativity, willingness to take risks, innovativeness, high intrinsic motivation, skilfulness and the ability of recognizing opportunities). Moreover, we investigate the relation of country-level "entrepreneurial climate" and the individual mental well-being of self-employed. For this purpose, data from the European Working Conditions Survey, round 6 (2015) was analysed, including 5448 cases, originating from the 28 EU-member states. Multilevel random intercepts modelling was used to investigate associations of both individual- and country-level characteristics with mental well-being. We found that motivation, the ability to recognize opportunities, and finding it easy to be self-employed positively influences the mental well-being of self-employed. Respondents with these characteristics are often medium-big employers, while farmers, dependent freelancers and own account workers generally have less of these features and tend to have lower levels of mental well-being. At the country-level, positive entrepreneurship perception relates to more advantageous mental health scores in self-employed. These results implicate that policies promoting self-employment should be (more) concerned with the work-related characteristics of (future) self-employed.

  14. Education, Work, and Motherhood in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Review of Equality Challenges and Opportunities for Women with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaynesh Tefera


    Full Text Available This study looks at the equality challenges and opportunities for women with disabilities in low and middle income countries (LMICs to participate and succeed in education, employment and motherhood. It is based on a systematic review of the literature from academic and non-governmental organization databases. The search of these databases yielded 24 articles, which were subsequently passed through open, axial, and selective coding. The resulting review found that women with disabilities in LMICs have severe difficulty participating and succeeding in education, employment and motherhood due to a number of interrelated factors: (i hampered access to education, employment, intimacy and marriage, (ii stigma and cultural practices resulting in discrimination and prejudice, and (iii lack of support from family, teachers and institutions—all of which are exacerbated by poverty. Support from families, communities, the government, and non-governmental organizations improves women’s ability to fulfil their social roles (as students, employees and mothers, resulting in a better quality of life. Strategies that create awareness, minimize poverty and facilitate justice may improve the opportunities for women with disabilities in LMICs to participate in education, employment and motherhood, as well as their ability to succeed in these domains.

  15. Employing organizational modeling and simulation of the KC-135 depot's flight controls repair cell


    Paskin, Matthew A.; Trevino, Alice W.; Ferrer, Geraldo; Dillard, John T.


    Today’s environment of increased operations tempo is stressing the KC- 135 Stratotanker fleet. With an 80-year life span expectancy, effectively maintaining these aircraft is challenging. This research modeled the KC- 135 programmed depot maintenance (PDM) flight controls repair cell to identify improvement opportunities within the repair process. Computational organizational modeling (COM) incorporates the human element along with organizational design theory. By employing ...

  16. Indonesia Poverty Reduction Strategies: Shifting policies to promote employment in the poorest four deciles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Adji


    Full Text Available This paper observes the working status and conditions of people who fall into the poorest four deciles in Indonesia. The research aims to provoke policy shifts in the drive to accelerate poverty reduction in Indonesia, taking a longer view of people being more employable and less dependent; also identifying the dominant factors preventing people from moving out of poverty and improving their life quality. By comparing elements of gender, age, education and health against employment status and opportunities. Simultaneously social assistance and protection programs are evaluated in relation to their stated target groups to determine their suitability and their impact.

  17. Learning from Schools That Close Opportunity Gaps (United States)

    LaCour, Sarah E.; York, Adam; Welner, Kevin; Valladares, Michelle Renée; Kelley, Linda Molner


    The Schools of Opportunity Project recognizes public high schools that employ research-based practices to close opportunity gaps. The commended schools illustrate how school quality can and should be measured by far more than just test scores. In doing so, they offer exemplars and a path forward for the nation's schools. The selection criteria for…

  18. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.


    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  19. 12 CFR 268.101 - General policy for equal opportunity. (United States)


    ... Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 621 et seq.), the Equal Pay Act (29 U.S.C. 206(d)), or the... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General policy for equal opportunity. 268.101... RESERVE SYSTEM RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Board Program To Promote Equal Opportunity § 268.101...

  20. Developing improved opportunities for the recycling and reuse of materials in road, bridge, and construction projects. (United States)


    The use of recycled and reused materials in transportation construction reduces consumption of non-renewable : resources. The objective of this research was to develop opportunities for improving the recycling and reuse of : materials in road and bri...

  1. Improving work outcomes of dysthymia (persistent depressive disorder) in an employed population. (United States)

    Adler, David A; Lerner, Debra; Visco, Zachary L; Greenhill, Annabel; Chang, Hong; Cymerman, Elina; Azocar, Francisca; Rogers, William H


    To test the effectiveness of a work-focused intervention (WFI) on the work outcomes of employed adults with dysthymia. This subgroup analysis from a randomized controlled trial compares an initial sample of 167 employees (age: ≥45 years), screened for dysthymia using the PC-SAD without current major depressive disorder randomized to WFI (n=85) or usual care (UC) (n=82). Study sites included 19 employers and five additional organizations. Telephone-based WFI counseling (eight, twice monthly 50-min sessions) provided work coaching and modification, care coordination and cognitive behavioral therapy. Adjusted mixed effects models compared the WFI vs. UC group preintervention to 4-month postintervention change in at-work limitations measured by the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Secondary outcome analysis compared the change in self-reported absences and depression symptom severity (Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9 scores). Work productivity loss scores improved 43.0% in the WFI group vs. 4.8% in UC (difference in change: P<.001). Absence days declined by 58.3% in WFI vs. 0.0% in UC (difference in change: P=.09). Mean PHQ-9 depression symptom severity declined 44.2% in WFI vs. 5.3% in UC (difference in change: P<.001). At 4 months, the WFI was more effective than UC on two of the three outcomes. It could be an important mental and functional health improvement resource for the employed dysthymic population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulations Test Impact Of Education, Employment, And Income Improvements On Minority Patients With Mental Illness. (United States)

    Alegria, Margarita; Drake, Robert E; Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Metcalfe, Justin; Liu, Jingchen; DiMarzio, Karissa; Ali, Naomi


    Social determinants of health, such as poverty and minority background, severely disadvantage many people with mental disorders. A variety of innovative federal, state, and local programs have combined social services with mental health interventions. To explore the potential effects of such supports for addressing poverty and disadvantage on mental health outcomes, we simulated improvements in three social determinants-education, employment, and income. We used two large data sets: one from the National Institute of Mental Health that contained information about people with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and another from the Social Security Administration that contained information about people who were disabled due to severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our simulations showed that increasing employment was significantly correlated with improvements in mental health outcomes, while increasing education and income produced weak or nonsignificant correlations. In general, minority groups as well as the majority group of non-Latino whites improved in the desired outcomes. We recommend that health policy leaders, state and federal agencies, and insurers provide evidence-based employment services as a standard treatment for people with mental disorders. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Opportunities to Investigate the Steering System for Improvement of Truck Driving Properties under Critical Road Conditions (United States)

    Gidlewski, Mirosław


    Application of an electric steering system in a truck gives new opportunities to obtain desirable and safe motion path under critical road conditions. Analysis of the opportunity to take advantage of the steering system for improvement of truck driving properties will be carried out on the basis of the results of model tests. The paper describes model of the vehicle applied in simulation tests and methodology as well as anticipated results. The scheduled tests will be carried out within the framework of an research project No. NN509 568439 headed by the author.

  4. Building professionalism and employability skills: embedding employer engagement within first-year computing modules (United States)

    Hanna, Philip; Allen, Angela; Kane, Russell; Anderson, Neil; McGowan, Aidan; Collins, Matthew; Hutchison, Malcolm


    This paper outlines a means of improving the employability skills of first-year university students through a closely integrated model of employer engagement within computer science modules. The outlined approach illustrates how employability skills, including communication, teamwork and time management skills, can be contextualised in a manner that directly relates to student learning but can still be linked forward into employment. The paper tests the premise that developing employability skills early within the curriculum will result in improved student engagement and learning within later modules. The paper concludes that embedding employer participation within first-year models can help relate a distant notion of employability into something of more immediate relevance in terms of how students can best approach learning. Further, by enhancing employability skills early within the curriculum, it becomes possible to improve academic attainment within later modules.

  5. Access to employment among African migrant women living with HIV in France: opportunities and constraints. (United States)

    Gerbier-Aublanc, Marjorie; Gosselin, Anne


    HIV in France particularly affects sub-Saharan migrants as they accounted for 31% of the new diagnoses in 2013. The objective of this study is to investigate the access to and the experience of employment among migrant women living with HIV in France. We use a mixed-method approach. The quantitative data come from the ANRS Parcours study, a life-event survey conducted in 2012-2013 in 70 health centres which collected year-by-year detailed information on living conditions about 755 sub-Saharan women migrants in the greater Paris region (470 with HIV and 285 without HIV). The qualitative data have been collected independently in the same region through socio-ethnographic observations and interviews conducted in 8 HIV-positive migrant organisations and among 35 women-members from 2011 to 2013. Two main results are noteworthy. First, being HIV-positive unexpectedly gives sub-Saharan migrant women a quicker access to employment thanks to the social support they find in migrant organisations: in the third year in France in median (versus 5th year among HIV-negative group). This effect of being HIV-positive on the access to employment remains all things being equal in a discrete-time logistic regression (aOR [95% CI] HIV+: 1.4[1.1;1.8]). Second, their employment situation remains strongly shaped by the racial division of work existing in France and they develop individual strategies to negotiate this constraint: for example, temporary jobs and working as health mediators. The type of jobs they find, mainly in the care sector, force them to carefully hide their HIV status because they fear discrimination at work. Not only migrant women endure structural discrimination in a segmented labour market, but they also anticipate HIV-related discrimination related to caring activities. Thus, the design and implementation of programmes that address stigma should consider structural discrimination to improve PLWHA's working experiences.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Wikipedia: Opportunities for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Koo


    Full Text Available Wikipedia, a free and collaborative Internet encyclopedia, has become one of the most popular sources of free information on the Internet. However, there have been concerns over the quality of online health information, particularly that on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate several page attributes of articles on CAM in the English Wikipedia. A total of 97 articles were analyzed and compared with eight articles of broad categories of therapies in conventional medicine using the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the Wikipedia editorial assessment grading, 4% of the articles attained “good article” status, 34% required considerable editing, and 56% needed substantial improvements in their content. The median daily access of the articles over the previous 90 days was 372 (range: 7–4,214. The median word count was 1840 with a readability of grade 12.7 (range: 9.4–17.7. Medians of word count and citation density of the CAM articles were significantly lower than those in the articles of conventional medicine therapies. In conclusion, despite its limitations, the general public will continue to access health information on Wikipedia. There are opportunities for health professionals to contribute their knowledge and to improve the accuracy and completeness of the CAM articles on Wikipedia.

  7. Valuing the human asset - the impact of university placements on academic performance and graduate employment amongst management students (United States)

    Brooks, R.


    The employment market for graduates is competitive with employers requiring appropriate work experience in addition to academic qualifications. Sandwich courses, where up to a year is spent in industry, provide an opportunity for structured work experience to be gained alongside studying. Benefits of placements include improved academic performance and the development of transferable skills to increase employability. This paper evaluates the impact of placements on academic performance and graduate employment among management students. Analysing performance data and graduate destinations data, results indicate that management students completing a placement are more likely to perform better academically with improvements in their personal grades between year 2 and the final year. Additionally, a qualitative themed analysis of student experiences indicates placement students feel more confident in engaging with the graduate recruitment process, with a better understanding of their personal skills and an ability to articulate their experience in relation to the workplace.

  8. Challenges and opportunities for improving food quality and nutrition through plant biotechnology. (United States)

    Francis, David; Finer, John J; Grotewold, Erich


    Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology. The recently acquired ability to precisely edit plant genomes by modifying native genes without introducing new genetic material offers new opportunities to rapidly exploit natural variation, create new variation and incorporate changes with the goal to generate more productive and nutritious plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Informality and employment vulnerability: application in sellers with subsistence work (United States)

    Garzón-Duque, María Osley; Cardona-Arango, María Doris; Rodríguez-Ospina, Fabio León; Segura-Cardona, Angela María


    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. METHODS We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The concept of informal economy is dispersed and suggested as synonymous with employment vulnerability. As a polysemic term, it generates confusion and difficulty in identifying defined profiles of employment vulnerability in informal subsistence workers, who sell their products on the streets and sidewalks of cities. The lack of a clear concept and profile of employment vulnerability for this type of workers generates a restriction on defined actions to reduce employment vulnerability. The profiles could facilitate access to the acquisition of assets that support their structure of opportunities, facilitating and mediating in the passage from vulnerability to social mobility with opportunities. We propose as a concept of employment vulnerability for subsistence workers in the informal sector, the condition of those who must work by day to eat at night, who have little or no ownership of assets, and who have a minimum structure of opportunities to prevent, face, and resist the critical situations that occur daily, putting at risk their subsistence and that of the persons who are their responsibility, thus making the connection between social and employment vulnerability. PMID:29020122

  10. Informality and employment vulnerability: application in sellers with subsistence work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Osley Garzón-Duque


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. METHODS We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The concept of informal economy is dispersed and suggested as synonymous with employment vulnerability. As a polysemic term, it generates confusion and difficulty in identifying defined profiles of employment vulnerability in informal subsistence workers, who sell their products on the streets and sidewalks of cities. The lack of a clear concept and profile of employment vulnerability for this type of workers generates a restriction on defined actions to reduce employment vulnerability. The profiles could facilitate access to the acquisition of assets that support their structure of opportunities, facilitating and mediating in the passage from vulnerability to social mobility with opportunities. We propose as a concept of employment vulnerability for subsistence workers in the informal sector, the condition of those who must work by day to eat at night, who have little or no ownership of assets, and who have a minimum structure of opportunities to prevent, face, and resist the critical situations that occur daily, putting at risk their subsistence and that of the persons who are their responsibility, thus making the connection between social and employment vulnerability.

  11. Informality and employment vulnerability: application in sellers with subsistence work. (United States)

    Garzón-Duque, María Osley; Cardona-Arango, María Doris; Rodríguez-Ospina, Fabio León; Segura-Cardona, Angela María


    To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers. The concept of informal economy is dispersed and suggested as synonymous with employment vulnerability. As a polysemic term, it generates confusion and difficulty in identifying defined profiles of employment vulnerability in informal subsistence workers, who sell their products on the streets and sidewalks of cities. The lack of a clear concept and profile of employment vulnerability for this type of workers generates a restriction on defined actions to reduce employment vulnerability. The profiles could facilitate access to the acquisition of assets that support their structure of opportunities, facilitating and mediating in the passage from vulnerability to social mobility with opportunities. We propose as a concept of employment vulnerability for subsistence workers in the informal sector, the condition of those who must work by day to eat at night, who have little or no ownership of assets, and who have a minimum structure of opportunities to prevent, face, and resist the critical situations that occur daily, putting at risk their subsistence and that of the persons who are their responsibility, thus making the connection between social and employment vulnerability.

  12. Opportunities for cost reduction and improved environmental impact in the lead and lead/acid battery industries (United States)

    Lewis, N.

    The opportunities for cost reduction through improved environmental performance exist in many companies, but often are not realized. This paper describes the efforts of a typical firm — Calder Industrial Materials (CIM) — that is experiencing ever-tighter environmental controls and profit erosion through the effects of new environmental legislation. At the same time, however, CIM sees opportunities to reduce its environmental burden and cut costs. As the story unfolds, readers may well discover many parallels with their own companies. It may even spur some into action, for remember, every £1000 saved requires ten times the turnover to generate the same profit.

  13. The law, policy, and ethics of employers' use of financial incentives to improve health. (United States)

    Madison, Kristin M; Volpp, Kevin G; Halpern, Scott D


    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) turns to a nontraditional mechanism to improve public health: employer-provided financial incentives for healthy behaviors. Critics raise questions about incentive programs' effectiveness, employer involvement, and potential discrimination. We support incentive program development despite these concerns. The ACA sets the stage for a broad-based research and implementation agenda through which we can learn to structure incentive programs to not only promote public health but also address prevalent concerns. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  14. Do job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy improve employment relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R A Oeij


    Full Text Available This study investigated whether improving the employment relationship does more depend on negotiation selfefficacy or on task outonomy for a sample of employees from a Dutch telecom company. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation and the effect of integrative negotiation on psychological contract breach. Results indicate that employees negotiate more integratively when they have higher negotiation self-efficacy, compared to employees with more task autonomy. Empirical support was found for the prediction that higher negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy correlates with less psychological contract breach.

  15. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare. (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W


    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches.

  16. Predictors of employment for young adults with developmental motor disabilities. (United States)

    Magill-Evans, Joyce; Galambos, Nancy; Darrah, Johanna; Nickerson, Christy


    To identify the personal, family, and community factors that facilitate or hinder employment for young adults with developmental motor disabilities. Quantitative methods with an embedded qualitative component were used. Seventy-six persons between the ages of 20 and 30 years of age (Mean = 25, SD = 3.1) with a diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or spina bifida completed questionnaires addressing factors such as depression, and participated in a semi-structured interview that allowed participants to describe their experiences with education, employment, transportation, and other services. Almost half of the participants (n = 35) were not currently employed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender (females were less likely to be employed), IQ (lower IQ associated with unemployment), and transportation dependence accounted for 42% of the variance in employment. Themes emerging from content analysis of the interviews supported the findings related to transportation barriers. Social reactions to disability limited employment opportunities, and participants often felt stuck in terms of employment options with limited opportunities for advancement. Transportation is a significant barrier to employment and innovative solutions are needed. Issues related to gender need to be considered when addressing employment inequities for persons with primarily motor disabilities.

  17. Horticultural Careers for Persons with Mental Retardation. Expanding Opportunities. (United States)

    Dehart-Bennett, Mary E.; Relf, Diane


    Horticulture careers provide therapeutic, rewarding employment for persons with mental retardation. Rehabilitation experts should become aware of the potential employment opportunities in horticulture so that individuals with disabilities can receive the training and job placement support they need. (Author)

  18. Employer perceptions of the employability of workers in a social business. (United States)

    Krupa, Terry; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Lysaght, Rosemary; Kirsh, Bonnie


    This study examined employer perceptions of employability of job candidates working in a social business for people with mental illnesses. Using an analogue research design, 99 employers participated in a simulated job hiring process, rating 2 applicants on potential to do the job, fit with workplace culture and likelihood of hiring. One job applicant worked in a social business, and the second was either (a) working in a conventional business, (b) with employment lapse attributable to mental health issues, or (c) with an unexplained employment lapse. Paired samples t tests were used to compare ratings. Qualitative data were collected regarding the rationale for rankings and a content analysis was conducted. Employer rankings were significantly higher for the applicant working in a social business compared to either applicant with an employment lapse. Employers rated the candidate working in a conventional business significantly higher compared with the candidate in a social business only on ratings of likelihood to hire. Employers valued the recency of work experience in the social business, citing concerns about risks associated with employment lapses. Their comments suggested a lack of understanding of the nature of social business. Experience in a social business appears to lessen the disadvantage of unemployment in the job hiring process, but does not appear to be ranked on par with experience in the conventional workforce. The social business sector could benefit from considering ways to publically portray these work opportunities to enhance acceptance and inclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Energy efficiency improving opportunities in a large Chinese shoe-making enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Yang


    Energy consumption and energy intensity reduction opportunities are quite different from one enterprise to another. It is necessary to understand how much energy is used at individual enterprise, where the most energy is consumed and what the best opportunities are to invest in energy efficiency. Auditing energy efficiency was recently undertaken in one of the top 1000 largest Chinese enterprises. The objectives of this paper are to fill a gap in the literature of auditing energy efficiency for a Chinese manufacturing enterprise and to share the audited energy efficiency results. This paper concludes that if the enterprise invests USD 1.9 million to improve energy efficiency, the investment will be recovered in about 18 months. The net present value of the investment would be about USD 9.8 million at a discount rate of 12%. The investment will reduce a large amount of energy consumption at the enterprise based on its figures in 2008, including 15% of electricity, 40% of fuel oil, and 54% of diesel. Carbon reduction is also very cost-effective. Investment of one dollar in the enterprise will help cut carbon emission by 7.95 kg per year and generate $5.3 net revenue in the economic lifetime of the invested technology.

  20. What do medical students understand by research and research skills? Identifying research opportunities within undergraduate projects. (United States)

    Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah; Drewery, Sarah; Elton, Sarah; Emmerson, Catherine; Marshall, Michelle; Smith, John A; Stark, Patsy; Whittle, Sue


    Undergraduate research exposure leads to increased recruitment into academic medicine, enhanced employability and improved postgraduate research productivity. Uptake of undergraduate research opportunities is reported to be disappointing, and little is known about how students perceive research. To investigate opportunities for undergraduate participation in research, recognition of such opportunities, and associated skills development. A mixed method approach, incorporating student focus and study groups, and documentary analysis at five UK medical schools. Undergraduates recognised the benefits of acquiring research skills, but identified practical difficulties and disadvantages of participating. Analysis of 905 projects in four main research skill areas - (1) research methods; (2) information gathering; (3) critical analysis and review; (4) data processing - indicated 52% of projects provided opportunities for students to develop one or more skills, only 13% offered development in all areas. In 17%, project descriptions provided insufficient information to determine opportunities. Supplied with information from a representative sample of projects (n = 80), there was little consensus in identifying skills among students or between students and researchers. Consensus improved dramatically following guidance on how to identify skills. Undergraduates recognise the benefits of research experience but need a realistic understanding of the research process. Opportunities for research skill development may not be obvious. Undergraduates require training to recognise the skills required for research and enhanced transparency in potential project outcomes.

  1. Factors Influencing Employment and Employability for Persons with Disability: Insights from a City in South India. (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srikrishna S; Murthy, G V S; Shamanna, B R; Allagh, Komal P; Pant, Hira B; John, Neena


    There is a lack of evidence on barriers faced by persons with disability in accessing employment opportunities in India. This study was undertaken to ascertain both employee and employer perceptions on barriers existing among Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled sectors to employ persons with disabilities. Two hundred participants from six IT/IT-enabled sector organizations were included in the study; study was conducted at Hyderabad, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the participants. Physical access to and within the worksite was highlighted as a concern by 95% of respondents. Majority perceived that communication, attitude of people, discrimination, harassment at work place, and information were critical barriers. Only 3.8% of employers were aware that their company had a written policy on employing persons with disabilities. Employers stated that commitment and perseverance were important facilitators among persons with disabilities. Evidence from this study will help in planning need-based employment for persons with disabilities.

  2. 20 CFR 636.9 - Opportunity for informal review. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opportunity for informal review. 636.9 Section 636.9 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMPLAINTS, INVESTIGATIONS AND HEARINGS § 636.9 Opportunity for informal review. (a) Parties to a complaint under § 636.10 may choose to waive their rights to an...

  3. Opportunities and Challenges of Cloud Computing to Improve Health Care Services (United States)


    Cloud computing is a new way of delivering computing resources and services. Many managers and experts believe that it can improve health care services, benefit health care research, and change the face of health information technology. However, as with any innovation, cloud computing should be rigorously evaluated before its widespread adoption. This paper discusses the concept and its current place in health care, and uses 4 aspects (management, technology, security, and legal) to evaluate the opportunities and challenges of this computing model. Strategic planning that could be used by a health organization to determine its direction, strategy, and resource allocation when it has decided to migrate from traditional to cloud-based health services is also discussed. PMID:21937354

  4. Opportunities and challenges of cloud computing to improve health care services. (United States)

    Kuo, Alex Mu-Hsing


    Cloud computing is a new way of delivering computing resources and services. Many managers and experts believe that it can improve health care services, benefit health care research, and change the face of health information technology. However, as with any innovation, cloud computing should be rigorously evaluated before its widespread adoption. This paper discusses the concept and its current place in health care, and uses 4 aspects (management, technology, security, and legal) to evaluate the opportunities and challenges of this computing model. Strategic planning that could be used by a health organization to determine its direction, strategy, and resource allocation when it has decided to migrate from traditional to cloud-based health services is also discussed.

  5. Maternal employment in low- and middle-income countries is associated with improved infant and young child feeding. (United States)

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Ickes, Scott B


    Women's employment improves household income, and can increase resources available for food expenditure. However, employed women face time constraints that may influence caregiving and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. As economic and social trends shift to include more women in the labor force in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a current understanding of the association between maternal employment and IYCF is needed. We investigated the association between maternal employment and IYCF. Using cross-sectional samples from 50 Demographic and Health Surveys, we investigated the association between maternal employment and 3 indicators of IYCF: exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among children aged employed, informally employed, or nonemployed. We used meta-analysis to pool associations across all countries and by region. According to pooled estimates, neither formal [pooled odds ratio (POR) = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.03] nor informal employment (POR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.16), compared to nonemployment, was associated with EBF. Children of both formally and informally employed women, compared to children of nonemployed women, had higher odds of meeting MDD (formal POR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.35, 1.60; informal POR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and MMF (formal POR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.26; informal POR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.24). Sensitivity analyses indicated that compared to nonemployed mothers, the odds of continued breastfeeding at 1 y were lower among formally employed mothers (POR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.98) and higher among informally employed mothers (POR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40). Efforts to promote formalized employment among mothers may be an effective method for improving diet diversity and feeding frequency in LMICs. Formally employed mothers may benefit from support for breastfeeding to enable continued breastfeeding through infancy. This trial was registered at as NCT03209999.

  6. Challenges and opportunities for the development of regional employment infrastructure for young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga Bentsionovna Frants


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the problem of youth employment, including nonaged minors, and some of the reasons forming these problems. The paper was written basing on the results of two research studies - (monitoring the state of the labour market for young people and analysis of the institutional environment for the development of the youth labour - conducted in 2010 by the order of the Ministry of Physical Culture, Sports and Youth Policy of Sverdlovsk region. On the basis of studying the youth employment problems, youth employment exchange functions as an element of social and economic infrastructure in the region, the content of legal enactments at different levels, some approaches to the formation of an optimal model of public administration processes for youth employment are suggested.

  7. Invited review: Opportunities for genetic improvement of metabolic diseases. (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Parker Gaddis, K L; Koeck, A; Bastin, C; Abdelsayed, M; Gengler, N; Miglior, F; Heringstad, B; Egger-Danner, C; Stock, K F; Bradley, A J; Cole, J B


    Metabolic disorders are disturbances to one or more of the metabolic processes in dairy cattle. Dysfunction of any of these processes is associated with the manifestation of metabolic diseases or disorders. In this review, data recording, incidences, genetic parameters, predictors, and status of genetic evaluations were examined for (1) ketosis, (2) displaced abomasum, (3) milk fever, and (4) tetany, as these are the most prevalent metabolic diseases where published genetic parameters are available. The reported incidences of clinical cases of metabolic disorders are generally low (less than 10% of cows are recorded as having a metabolic disease per herd per year or parity/lactation). Heritability estimates are also low and are typically less than 5%. Genetic correlations between metabolic traits are mainly positive, indicating that selection to improve one of these diseases is likely to have a positive effect on the others. Furthermore, there may also be opportunities to select for general disease resistance in terms of metabolic stability. Although there is inconsistency in published genetic correlation estimates between milk yield and metabolic traits, selection for milk yield may be expected to lead to a deterioration in metabolic disorders. Under-recording and difficulty in diagnosing subclinical cases are among the reasons why interest is growing in using easily measurable predictors of metabolic diseases, either recorded on-farm by using sensors and milk tests or off-farm using data collected from routine milk recording. Some countries have already initiated genetic evaluations of metabolic disease traits and currently most of these use clinical observations of disease. However, there are opportunities to use clinical diseases in addition to predictor traits and genomic information to strengthen genetic evaluations for metabolic health in the future. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao


    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  9. Is there a Nexus between Social Entrepreneurship and the Employability of Graduates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandyoli Bulelwa


    Full Text Available Social entrepreneurs have, in several ways, been regarded as engines of intense socioeconomic development. They are also famous for intervening with projects for society’s problems that are often either inadvertently ignored or inadequately managed by mainstream society. The issue of graduate employability has gained increased tension around the world especially in emerging markets such as South Africa. Currently, suggestions are that considering the avowed contribution of social entrepreneurs, it may be worthwhile to start examining how they can assist with graduate employability in South Africa. This paper, therefore, takes an exploratory yet focused scrutiny of the social entrepreneurship ecosystem to find out the likelihood of social entrepreneurs participating in programs that prepare students for the workplace, thereby reducing graduate unemployability. This is a conceptual paper that has benefitted from an extensive review of literature. Conclusions are drawn therefrom to suggest that opportunities exist for social entrepreneurs to provide practical, project-based learning opportunities for college and university students so that by the time they graduate, they have attained reasonable work-readiness levels that stand them in good stead for employment. While the authors propose an intensive empirical study of the subject matter, we are equally positive that this paper may be used to advance the current platforms of engagement of the role of social entrepreneurs or grow innovative methods that provide graduates with a better chance to be successful in the working environment. In short, this paper calls for sustained discussions on how social entrepreneurs can improve graduate employability.

  10. Why Third World urban employers usually prefer men. (United States)

    Anker, R; Hein, C


    Males outnumber female employees by 3 to 1 in the modern sector of developing countries; moreover, women tend to be concentrated in a limited number of occupations. This underrepresentation of women in employment in Third World countries is generally attributed to the restricted supply of qualified women willing and able to work away from home in modern sector occupations. However, this approach pays insufficient attention to the demand for labor and the recruitment policy of employers. Employer concerns and perceptions that limit the overall demand for women workers and thereby reduce their employment opportunities include the need for pregnancy and maternity leave and protection, absenteeism, turnover, and cultural restrictions. Among the factors that contribute to the sexual segmentation of the labor market are protective legislation that excludes women from certain sectors of the labor market, sex-typing of jobs, and employer perceptions that women lack muscular strength, are not effective supervisors, and cannot work well with men. At the same time, women are preferred for certain jobs because of their greater docility, acceptance of lower wages, household-type skills, and sex appeal. The general factor limiting employment opportunities for women is the employer's perception that women are more costly and less productive than male employees. This perception is directly related to women's role in childbearing and rearing, and is reinforced by legislation that places the costs of maternity leave, nursing breaks, and child care directly on the employer. Thus, women's childbearing and family responsibilities not only limit their availability for work but also discourage employers from hiring them.

  11. Producing Cochrane systematic reviews-a qualitative study of current approaches and opportunities for innovation and improvement. (United States)

    Turner, Tari; Green, Sally; Tovey, David; McDonald, Steve; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Pestridge, Charlotte; Elliott, Julian


    Producing high-quality, relevant systematic reviews and keeping them up to date is challenging. Cochrane is a leading provider of systematic reviews in health. For Cochrane to continue to contribute to improvements in heath, Cochrane Reviews must be rigorous, reliable and up to date. We aimed to explore existing models of Cochrane Review production and emerging opportunities to improve the efficiency and sustainability of these processes. To inform discussions about how to best achieve this, we conducted 26 interviews and an online survey with 106 respondents. Respondents highlighted the importance and challenge of creating reliable, timely systematic reviews. They described the challenges and opportunities presented by current production models, and they shared what they are doing to improve review production. They particularly highlighted significant challenges with increasing complexity of review methods; difficulty keeping authors on board and on track; and the length of time required to complete the process. Strong themes emerged about the roles of authors and Review Groups, the central actors in the review production process. The results suggest that improvements to Cochrane's systematic review production models could come from improving clarity of roles and expectations, ensuring continuity and consistency of input, enabling active management of the review process, centralising some review production steps; breaking reviews into smaller "chunks", and improving approaches to building capacity of and sharing information between authors and Review Groups. Respondents noted the important role new technologies have to play in enabling these improvements. The findings of this study will inform the development of new Cochrane Review production models and may provide valuable data for other systematic review producers as they consider how best to produce rigorous, reliable, up-to-date reviews.

  12. Employer Perceptions of Student Informational Interviewing Skills and Behaviors (United States)

    Orr, Claudia; Sherony, Bruce; Steinhaus, Carol


    Employers continue to report that soft skills are critically important in obtaining employment and achieving long-term career success. Given the challenging job market for college graduates, business school faculty need to provide practical opportunities for students to develop their soft skills in professional settings. A longitudinal study was…

  13. Improving Science and IT Literacy by Providing Urban-Based Environmental Science Research Opportunities (United States)

    Cuff, K. E.; Corazza, L.; Liang, J.


    A U.C. Berkeley-based outreach program known as Environmental Science Information Technology Activities has been in operation over the past four years. The primary aim of the program is to provide opportunities for grades 9 and 10 students in diverse East San Francisco Bay Area communities to develop deeper understandings of the nature and conduct of science, which will increase their capacity to enroll and perform successfully in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in the future. Design of the program has been informed by recent research that indicates a close relationship between educational activities that promote the perception of STEM as being relevant and the ability to foster development of deeper conceptual understandings among teens. Accordingly, ESITA includes an important student-led environmental science research project component, which provides participants with opportunities to engage in research investigations that are directly linked to relevant, real-world environmental problems and issues facing their communities. Analysis of evidence gleaned from questionnaires, interviews with participants and specific assessment/evaluation instruments indicates that ESITA program activities, including after-school meetings, summer and school year research projects, and conference preparations and presentations has provided students with high-quality inquiry science experiences that increased their knowledge of STEM and IT concepts, as well as their understanding of the nature of the scientific enterprise. In addition, the program has achieved a high degree of success in that it has: enhanced participants' intellectual self-confidence with regard to STEM; developed deeper appreciation of how scientific research can contribute to the maintenance of healthy local environments; developed a greater interest in participating in STEM-related courses of study and after school programs; and improved attitudes toward STEM. Overall



    Yusoff, Norhayati Mat; Zahari, Mohd Salehuddin Mohd; Ahmad, Zamri; Isa, Nina Farisha; Ghani, Fatimah Abd


    The increasing participating rates of disable youth in hospitality higher career educationcan clearly be seen in many countries including Malaysia. This group has been identified as a key equity group for several years on the basis of their overall participating level, progression rates and the employments outcomes they achieve after completion their special education. This study empirically compares the barriers and constraints of employment among the young male and female hearing impaired g...

  15. Opportunistic maintenance considering non-homogenous opportunity arrivals and stochastic opportunity durations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Ba, H.; Cholette, M.E.; Borghesani, P.; Zhou, Y.; Ma, L.


    Many systems and manufacturing processes undergo intermittent operation due to external factors (e.g. weather, low market prices), offering opportunities to conduct maintenance with reduced production losses. Making use of appropriate opportunities can thus lead to significant reduction in the total cost of maintenance and improvement in productivity. In this paper, an opportunistic maintenance (OM) model is developed considering two critical properties of real world opportunities: (i) non-homogeneous opportunity arrivals and (ii) stochastic opportunity duration. The model enables exploiting downtime cost savings from “partial” opportunities (stops shorter than the required maintenance time) thus extending the potential benefit of OM. The criteria for accepting maintenance opportunities are found by minimizing the single-cycle total cost. A closed form expression of the single-cycle total cost is derived for a given PM/OM policy and then a Genetic Algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. Numerical results are presented to assess the benefit of opportunistic maintenance and the marginal benefit of considering partial opportunities. Results indicate that significant savings can be achieved by considering OM. Moreover, it is shown that the novel consideration of partial opportunities significantly increase the benefit of OM. - Highlights: • Opportunistic and time-based preventive maintenance jointly optimized. • Non-homogeneous opportunity arrivals and stochastic durations considered. • “Partial” opportunities considered for the first time. • Opportunity duration thresholds used as a decision criterion. • Numerical study conducted to evaluate benefit of optimized policy.

  16. Gender Differences in Rural Off-farm Employment Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates gender differences in spatial mobility with respect to participation in off-farm employment in rural Tanzania. The mobility issue arises because the recent increase in women participation in off-farm employment is likely to saturate the local labor market/off-farm opportunities and dampen the rural ...

  17. Employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA primary care patients. (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; Yosef, Matheos; Levine, Debra S; Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Erin M; Henry, Jennifer; Nelson, C Beau; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Sripada, Rebecca K; Harrod, Molly; Valenstein, Marcia


    Prior research found lower employment rates among working-aged patients who use the VA than among non-Veterans or Veterans who do not use the VA, with the lowest reported employment rates among VA patients with mental disorders. This study assessed employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA patients treated in primary care settings, and examined how depression and anxiety were associated with these outcomes. The sample included 287 VA patients treated in primary care in a large Midwestern VA Medical Center. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted examining associations between socio-demographic and clinical predictors of six employment domains, including: employment status, job search self-efficacy, work performance, concerns about job loss among employed Veterans, and employment barriers and likelihood of job seeking among not employed Veterans. 54% of respondents were employed, 36% were not employed, and 10% were economically inactive. In adjusted analyses, participants with depression or anxiety (43%) were less likely to be employed, had lower job search self-efficacy, had lower levels of work performance, and reported more employment barriers. Depression and anxiety were not associated with perceived likelihood of job loss among employed or likelihood of job seeking among not employed. Single VA primary care clinic; cross-sectional study. Employment rates are low among working-aged VA primary care patients, particularly those with mental health conditions. Offering primary care interventions to patients that address mental health issues, job search self-efficacy, and work performance may be important in improving health, work, and economic outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. 75 FR 16000 - Temporary Employment of Foreign Workers in the United States (United States)


    ... out the policies of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), that a nonimmigrant alien worker not be admitted to fill a particular temporary job opportunity unless no qualifed U.S. worker is available to fill the job opportunity, and unless the employment of the foreign worker in the job opportunity will not...

  19. Motivation in Construction Innovation: Commercial Opportunities, Problem-Solving and Passion for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chang Yean


    Full Text Available This article analyses motivations for innovation in construction using the service sector adaptation of the Sectoral System of Innovation (SSI framework. Interviews and site visits were conducted with four Malaysian firms. Innovation in construction is similar to the service sector. There is evidence of technology-push, capability-push and demand-pull; capability push is the most important. Construction firms innovate to gain commercial opportunities, to solve project-related problems and to improve processes. By simplifying construction work, process innovation saves time and costs, increasing efficiency and productivity, and providing increased competitiveness. Innovation is also motivated by committed and passionate actors within construction firm.

  20. Employment and self-employment in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Julie; Karoly, Lynn A


    We use data from the monthly Current Population Survey to examine the short- and longer-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on the labor market outcomes of prime-age individuals in the most affected states--Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi--and for evacuees in any state. We focus on rates of labor force participation, employment, and unemployment, and we extend prior research by also examining rates of self-employment. With the exception of Mississippi, employment and unemployment one year after the hurricane were at similar rates as the end of 2003. This aggregate pattern of labor market shock and recovery has been observed for other disasters but masks important differences among subgroups. Those evacuated from their residences, even temporarily, were a harder-hit group, and evacuees who had yet to return to their pre-Katrina state up to one year later were hit especially hard; these findings hold even after controlling for differences in observable characteristics. We also find evidence of an important role for self-employment as part of post-disaster labor market recovery, especially for evacuees who did not return. This may result from poor job prospects in the wage and salary sector or new opportunities for starting businesses in the wake of Katrina.

  1. "It's about fitting in with the organisation": A qualitative study of employers of nurse practitioners. (United States)

    Leidel, Stacy; Hauck, Yvonne; McGough, Shirley


    To explore the views of employers about the value nurse practitioners (NPs) add to health services, enablers and barriers to employing NPs, and intentions to employ NPs or expand NP services in the future. Research on Australian NPs has focused on NPs' experiences or patient-related factors like waiting times. Few studies have explored NP roles from the perspective of employers. Australian NPs employed by the private sector are eligible for reimbursement by the national health insurance scheme (Medicare Australia), potentially generating revenue for employers and broadening their career opportunities. We aimed to explore private sector employers' views on the barriers and facilitators to employing NPs and to identify factors affecting NP employability. A qualitative descriptive exploratory study. Employers of NPs from 23 private and nonprofit health services in Western Australia were interviewed. Inductive content analysis was used to explore the data. Enablers to employing an NP included enhanced customer service and improved health outcomes. Barriers to employing an NP included lack of financial benefit and inadequate experience or qualifications. Employers also identified future directions for NP employability, such as filling a gap that added value to the health service. Employers wanted NPs to work towards a shared vision of patient care that aligned with organisational needs. Findings can inform NP education and workforce planning to optimally meet employer and patient health needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Going Beyond the Norm: The Case for Incorporating Evaluative Mediation into Department of Defense Employment Discrimination Complaints (United States)


    System: Investigation of Equal Employment Opportunity Complaints (2015). 10 Protected information can include social security numbers, date of birth...complaint based on illegal discrimination with the Equal Opportunity Office. Evaluative mediation involves having a mediator with expertise in labor and...employment law evaluate the complaint’s strengths and weaknesses and help the parties reach resolution based on this evaluation. The Equal Employment

  3. The Multiplier Effect of the Development of Forest Park Tourism on Employment Creation in China (United States)

    Shuifa, Ke; Chenguang, Pan; Jiahua, Pan; Yan, Zheng; Ying, Zhang


    The focus of this article was employment creation by developing forest park tourism industries in China. Analysis of the statistical data and an input-output approach showed that 1 direct job opportunity in tourism industries created 1.15 other job opportunities. In the high, middle, and low scenarios, the total predicted employment in forest park…

  4. Nuclear Weapons Sustainment: Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency (United States)


    Enhance Transparency Report to Congressional Committees December 2015 GAO-16-23 United States Government Accountability Office United...SUSTAINMENT Improvements Made to Budget Estimates Report, but Opportunities Remain to Further Enhance Transparency Why GAO Did This Study DOD and DOE are...modernization plans and (2) complete, transparent information on the methodologies used to develop those estimates. GAO analyzed the departments

  5. Employment, energy, and economic growth in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J


    The author examines the complex relationships between energy use, employment opportunities, and economic growth as they apply to the Australian economy and concludes that state and federal governments should collaborate to analyze the employment impacts of the various energy strategies. He sees the need for changes in the political and economic environment as well as in the way energy is used before Australia can return to full employment. While low or zero energy growth policies would not, by themselves, solve the unemployment problem, most new jobs have been created in the labor-intensive service industries. 25 references. (DCK)

  6. 24 CFR 570.904 - Equal opportunity and fair housing review criteria. (United States)


    ...) Actions to use minority and women's business firms. The Department will review a recipient's performance... to encourage use of minority and women's business enterprises described in Executive Orders 11625... relating to equal employment opportunity, equal opportunity in services, benefits and participation, and is...

  7. Exploring the challenges experienced by people with disabilities in the employment sector in Australia: Advocating for inclusive practice- a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Ruhindwa


    Full Text Available People with disabilities are generally not considered as able participants in the workforce (paid or volunteer work and therefore, they often experience exclusion from participating in mainstream employment opportunities. People with disabilities experience various barriers to employment, such as discrimination in the workplace, stigma, prejudice and stereotypes. However, some people with disabilities participate in the workforce and make valuable contributions towards economic development, social capital and wider society. This literature review summarises published research findings about the challenges that people with disabilities experience in pursuing employment opportunities, including volunteering and paid positions; and in undertaking these roles. Furthermore, it explores possible interventions to improve employment outcomes that are effective from the perspectives of people with disabilities. Findings indicate that effective practice takes an inclusive approach and allows clients to take ownership of solutions in relation to addressing the challenges they experience in the employment sector. For this reason, two different community development projects, which particularly focused on employment challenges for people with disabilities, as well as outlining strategies and solutions that promote client ownership were reviewed. Additionally, employment support techniques and strategies, as well as human rights’ principles on work and employment for people with disabilities will be debated. Finally, implications for research and practice for the rehabilitation counselling profession and the disability employment services sector are discussed. Keywords: disability, employment barriers, challenges, vocational rehabilitation, community development, labour market, social inclusion, human rights, strategies & interventions

  8. Processes of Middle-Class Reproduction in a Graduate Employment Scheme (United States)

    Smart, Sarah; Hutchings, Merryn; Maylor, Uvanney; Mendick, Heather; Menter, Ian


    Teach First is an educational charity that places graduates to teach in "challenging" schools for two years. It is marketed as an opportunity to develop employability while "making a difference". In this paper, I examine the process of class reproduction occurring in this graduate employment scheme through examining the…

  9. Shadow Employment in Transition - A Matter of Choice or No Choice?


    Cichocki, Stanislaw; Tyrowicz, Joanna


    Shadow employment may follow from two main labour market failures. In the first, official market labour taxation distortions make it ineffective for some agents to engage in registered employment due to a tax wedge, which makes the revenues from unofficial employment higher than the corresponding official ones (tax evasion hypothesis). The alternative explanation draws to labour market tightness - for workers regular employment may be unattainable, which results in seeking earning opportuniti...

  10. Rural Non Farm Employment in Assam: Trends and Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrama Goswami


    Full Text Available This study explores the rural labour market in Assam. The Work Participation Rates (WPR for males has increased during the period 1993-94 to 2009-10, whereas the same for females has been fluctuating around a lower level of 15 to 20 per cent. Thus, unemployment rates for females have been higher than males. A sector-wise distribution of workers shows that the proportion of males employed in the farm sector has been declining in favour of the Non-Farm Sector (NFS, while the females are more concentrated in the farm sector. Thus, females stand in a more disadvantageous situation in the rural labour market as indicated by their low WPR, higher unemployment rates and low level of diversification into NFS. However, gender equality is necessary for growth. This is more so with regard to education and employment. India has introduced the concept of inclusive growth in the Eleventh Five Year Plan. Inclusive growth ensures opportunities for all sections of the population, with a special emphasis on the poor, particularly women and young people, who are most likely to be marginalised. A rapidly growing population in India has not only increased the size of the rural labour force but has also led to fragmentation of land holdings. Thus, this sector alone cannot create additional employment opportunities, even in high growth agriculture states of India. This has led to the growth of a vibrant non-farm sector. The study comes up with the suggestion that the NFS, with its greater potential of employment generation, can not only solve the unemployment problem, but can also lead to the increased access of women to resources and employment opportunities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Farkas


    Full Text Available Ensuring equal opportunities is a priority for CEO-s and decision makers, however, it is often not put into practice. Changes in recent years along with the priorities of the EU and the efforts made to banish discrimination becoming more prominent brought with themselves a pressure on firms to provide equal opportunities for the different under-privileged social groups. In Hungary the Act CXXV of 2003 on discrimination and equal opportunities lists the groups in need of protection. The law requires employers with more than fifty employees to have an equal opportunities program. In spite of this, these programs are often general and do not implement the changes and goals identified after the assessment. Still, strategies and plans are only worth how much of them are realized. Our article is about the conscious principles of the Hungarian business sector about equality and whether there are regional differences. We compare answers given by both employers and employees on the subject of the extent to which the above mentioned principles are realized by the management and whether the employees experience these changes. Our theory is that the prioritisation of equal opportunities in firms is more the result of access to project funds than that of inner initiative from the firm's management. We analyse our research questions using a quantitative method on a regionally representative national sample. We examined 992 firms with special attention on those and their employees who had some sort of written guidelines on equal opportunities and plans on implementing these. In our paper we give a short review on the importance of equal opportunities, it's manifestation in HR management and it's written declaration, the so called Equal Opportunities Plan (EOP. The efforts of the EU and access to financial resources for the EU projects as a condition our hypotheses are that (1 at least 30% of the firms studied have written guidelines or declaration on equal

  12. Second Career Opportunities for Older Persons. (United States)

    Institute of Lifetime Learning, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet describes some of the employment opportunities available to older adults and discusses procedures for obtaining the training for, and actually beginning, a second career. Covered in the individual sections of the brochure are the following topics: characteristics and attitudes of older workers, long-range planning, employment…

  13. Employment factors for wind and solar energy technologies: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, L.; van der Zwaan, B.


    In this paper we present an up-to-date literature review on employment opportunities associated with the deployment of renewable energy technology. We identified approximately 70 studies and data sources published over the past decade that report analysed or observed employment impacts of renewable

  14. Depressed mood, usual activity level, and continued employment after starting dialysis. (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian; Johansen, Kirsten L


    When patients start dialysis, their employment rate declines and disability benefits are an option. With patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics including disability income status controlled, we investigated the significance of depressed mood and usual activity level as predictors of patients' continued employment after dialysis start. Incident patients from 296 randomly selected dialysis clinics were surveyed in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS). Participants provided information about employment status, disability income status, education, depressive symptoms measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and usual activity level/energy expenditure measured by the Human Activity Profile. Age, gender, race, insurance, diabetes, inability to ambulate or transfer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular conditions, and hemoglobin and serum albumin values at treatment start were obtained from US Renal Data System files. Dialysis modality was defined at time of interview. Among 585 CDS participants who worked in the previous year, 191 (32.6%) continued working after dialysis start. On the basis of the PHQ-2 cutoff score ≥3, 12.1% of patients who remained employed had possible or probable depression, compared with 32.8% of patients who were no longer employed. In adjusted analyses, higher Human Activity Profile scores were associated with increased likelihood of continued employment, and there was a borderline association between lower PHQ-2 scores and continued employment. Screening and management of depressive symptoms and support for increased activity level may facilitate patients' opportunity for continued employment after dialysis start, along with generally improving their overall quality of life.

  15. 16 CFR 1000.17 - Office of Equal Employment Opportunity and Minority Enterprise. (United States)


    ... policies. The Office manages the discrimination complaint process, including the adjudication of discrimination complaints, and facilitates Affirmative Employment Program (AEP) planning for women, minorities...

  16. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness. (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M


    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach.

  17. Practical Solutions for Addressing Labor-Related Barriers to Bhutan's Private Employment Growth


    World Bank Group


    This note provides practical solutions for addressing the labor-related barriers that impede Bhutan's private sector employment growth: (i) lack of workers with relevant experience and skills, (ii) restrictions on employing non-Bhutanese workers, and (iii) lack of interest among Bhutanese workers in private sector employment opportunities (Enterprise Survey 2015). This note draws on intern...

  18. A systematic review of missed opportunities for improving tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS control in Sub-saharan Africa: what is still missed by health experts? (United States)

    Keugoung, Basile; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fotsing, Richard; Macq, Jean; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart


    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis are major public health problems. In 2010, 64% of the 34 million of people infected with HIV were reported to be living in sub-Saharan Africa. Only 41% of eligible HIV-positive people had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Regarding tuberculosis, in 2010, the region had 12% of the world's population but reported 26% of the 8.8 million incident cases and 254000 tuberculosis-related deaths. This paper aims to review missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis prevention and care. We conducted a systematic review in PubMed using the terms 'missed'(Title) AND 'opportunities'(Title). We included systematic review and original research articles done in sub-Saharan Africa on missed opportunities in HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care. Missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care can be classified into five categories: i) patient and community; ii) health professional; iii) health facility; iv) local health system; and v) vertical programme (HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis control programmes). None of the reviewed studies identified any missed opportunities related to health system strengthening. Opportunities that are missed hamper tuberculosis and/or HIV/AIDS care in sub-Saharan Africa where health systems remain weak. What is still missing in the analysis of health experts is the acknowledgement that opportunities that are missed to strengthen health systems also undermine tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and care. Studying why these opportunities are missed will help to understand the rationales behind the missed opportunities, and customize adequate strategies to seize them and for effective diseases control.

  19. Persistent inter-industry wage differences: Rent sharing and opportunity costs


    Abowd, John M.; Kramarz, Francis; Lengermann, Paul Lengermann; McKinney, Kevin L.; Roux, Sébastien


    We reconsider the potential for explaining inter-industry wage differences by decomposing those differences into parts due to individual and employer heterogeneity, respectively. Using longitudinally linked employer-employee data, we estimate the model for the United States and France. The part arising from individual heterogeneity can be theoretically and empirically related to the worker's opportunity wage rate. The part arising from employer heterogeneity can similarly be related to produc...

  20. Identifying Eating Occasion-Based Opportunities to Improve the Overall Diets of Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore


    Full Text Available Adolescents in Australia have a poor dietary intake, leading to large numbers of them being at risk for inadequate intake of micronutrients, and excessive intake of less healthful dietary components. This study examined dietary intakes at multiple eating occasions to identify opportunities for more targeted recommendations and strategies to improve dietary intakes among adolescents. Data from the first 24-h recall of 14–18 years old in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analysed (n = 772. Participant-defined eating occasions were classified as breakfast, lunch, dinner or other eating occasions combined. The mean percent contribution to the total day intake of top shortfall nutrients (calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, iron, discretionary calories, saturated fat, free sugars and sodium, as well as nutrient density, the foods consumed and the percent of consumers at each eating occasion, were calculated. Breakfast had the lowest prevalence of consumers (81%, contributed the least to total daily energy (14.6% and almost a quarter of daily calcium and iron. Other eating occasions combined contributed 47.5% of free sugars and were top contributors of daily calcium (34.6% and magnesium (31.7%. Discretionary foods contributed 32.4% of the energy at lunch, and the sodium content at lunch was 415 mg/1000 kJ. Key opportunities identified for adolescents were to increase breakfast consumption, given the high nutrient densities of breakfasts consumed; improve overall lunch quality, particularly the sodium content; promote the intake of milk, fruit and a variety of vegetables at both lunch and dinner; maintain healthful choices at in-between meal eating occasions while focusing on decreasing the intake of discretionary foods.

  1. The big five factors and faking behaviors in employment interviews


    Nguyen, Phuong Thi Bang; Thomassen, Malene


    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Leadership and Organizational Psychology - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 Research shows how it is not unusual for job applicants to fake during employment interviews. Faking can deteriorate the quality of the interview result, and lead to wrong hiring decisions. According to the model of faking likelihood in the employment interview, capability, willingness and opportunity to fake influence the extent to which faking happens in employment ...

  2. 24 CFR 135.11 - Other laws governing training, employment, and contracting. (United States)


    ... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR LOW- AND VERY LOW... requirement to pay prevailing wages determined under Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a—276a-7) and implementing... with the requirement to pay prevailing wage rates, as determined or adopted by HUD, to laborers and...

  3. The Times They Are A-Changin': Declining Immigrant Employment Opportunities in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Husted, Leif; Scott, Kirk


    This article compares and contrasts male immigrant labor market experiences in Sweden and Denmark during the period 1985-1995. Using register-based panel data sets from Sweden and Denmark, a picture of the employment assimilation process of immigrants from Norway, Poland, and Turkey is presented....... The comparative approach shows that immigrants in Sweden and Denmark experienced similar declines in employment prospects between 1985 and 1995 despite quite different developments of aggregate labor market conditions. A possible explanation is that the changing organizational structure - toward more flexible...... work organization - has resulted in a decrease in the attractiveness of immigrant employees due to the increasing importance of country-specific skills and informal human capital...

  4. Guidelines for Improving Employer Effectiveness in Interviewing Disabled Applicants. (United States)

    Cole, Joyce Couch; Bragman, Ruth


    This article presents a five-step, structured format to be used in preparing employers for conducting interviews with disabled applicants. Described in this article is a straightforward, convenient tool that can also be used by rehabilitation personnel when providing awareness training and employer education. (Author)

  5. ‘Placement budgets’ for supported employmentimproving competitive employment for people with mental illness: study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordt Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vocational integration of people with mental illness is poor despite their willingness to work. The ‘Individual Placement and Support’ (IPS model which emphasises rapid and direct job placement and continuing support to patient and employer has proven to be the most effective vocational intervention programme. Various studies have shown that every second patient with severe mental illness was able to find competitive employment within 18 months. However, the goal of taking up employment within two months was rarely achieved. Thus, we aim to test whether the new concept of limited placement budgets increases the effectiveness of IPS. Methods/Design Six job coaches in six out-patients psychiatric clinics in the Canton of Zurich support unemployed patients of their clinic who seek competitive employment. Between June 2010 and May 2011 patients (N=100 are randomly assigned to three different placement budgets of 25h, 40h, or 55h working hours of job coaches. Support lasts two years for those who find a job. The intervention ends for those who fail to find competitive employment when the respective placement budgets run out. The primary outcome measure is the time between study inclusion and first competitive employment that lasted three months or longer. Over a period of three years interviews are carried out every six months to measure changes in motivation, stigmatization, social network and social support, quality of life, job satisfaction, financial situation, and health conditions. Cognitive and social-cognitive tests are conducted at baseline to control for confounding variables. Discussion This study will show whether the effectiveness of IPS can be increased by the new concept of limited placement budgets. It will also be examined whether competitive employment leads in the long term to an improvement of mental illness, to a transfer of the psychiatric support system to private and vocational networks, to an increase

  6. Building Professionalism and Employability Skills: Embedding Employer Engagement within First-Year Computing Modules (United States)

    Hanna, Philip; Allen, Angela; Kane, Russell; Anderson, Neil; McGowan, Aidan; Collins, Matthew; Hutchison, Malcolm


    This paper outlines a means of improving the employability skills of first-year university students through a closely integrated model of employer engagement within computer science modules. The outlined approach illustrates how employability skills, including communication, teamwork and time management skills, can be contextualised in a manner…

  7. 29 CFR 1620.8 - “Employer,” “employee,” and “employ” defined. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âEmployer,â âemployee,â and âemployâ defined. 1620.8 Section 1620.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.8 “Employer,” “employee,” and “employ” defined. The words “employer,” “employee...

  8. 41 CFR 60-50.2 - Equal employment policy. (United States)


    ..., upgrading, demotion, or transfer: Recruitment or recruitment advertising; layoff or termination; rates of... opportunities. Special attention shall be directed toward executive and middle-management levels, where... ethnic groups. (8) Use of the religious and ethnic media for institutional and employment advertising. ...

  9. 76 FR 76475 - Employment Network (EN) Report Card (United States)


    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0096] Employment Network (EN) Report Card AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Webinar and National Teleconference Call Listening Sessions--Announcing Two Opportunities for SSA to Hear Public Comments on Draft Revised Ticket to...

  10. Young people’s and employers’ perceptions of equal opportunities in the world of work


    Malhi, Harshinder Kaur


    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This study investigates how young people and employers perceive equal opportunities in the world of work. Events such as the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry (Macpherson, 1999), the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 and other legislation to promote equal opportunities, for example, Employment Equality Regulations, 2003 (Phillips, 2007, p.36) have placed this issue high on the political and educatio...

  11. Opportunities for health and safety professionals in environmental restoration work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, A.E.


    The safety of workers in waste management and in environmental restoration work is regulated in large part by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Many of the OSHA rules are given in Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, of Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Section 120 of 29 CFR 1910 specifically addresses hazardous waste operations and emergency response operations. The remainder of this discussion focuses on clean-up operations. The purpose of this paper is to review areas of employment opportunity in environmental restoration work for health and safety professionals. Safety and health risk analyses are mentioned as one area of opportunity, and these analyses are required by the standards. Site safety and health supervisors will be needed during field operations. Those who enjoy teaching might consider helping to meet the training needs that are mandated. Finally, engineering help both to separate workers from hazards and to improve personal protective equipment, when it must be worn, would benefit those actively involved in environmental restoration activities

  12. Managerial Opportunism: Monitoring Financial Risk of Malaysian Shariah-compliant Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziatul Waznah Ghazali


    Full Text Available Managerial opportunism, such as earnings management, is a rampant, but often discreet, among certain managers. Agency theory and the notion of conflict of interest are used as bases to assume that managers would resolve to engage with inappropriate activities for their personal benefits. Distortion of earnings would erode investor confidence and is detrimental to the capital market. The Islamic capital market with Shariah-compliant firms is expected not to engage in activities that go against the religion code of conduct. The main purpose of this study is to investigate managerial opportunism among Shariah-compliant companies, specifically the relationship between real earnings management and the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow. This study employs 4,115 data from 694 sample companies for five years (2009–2013. Findings conclude that the risk of financial distress, leverage, and free cash flow have a significant relationship with earnings management among Shariah-compliant companies. This study provides evidence that further improvements on corporate governance are necessary to ensure that Shariah-compliant companies adhere with the Shariah requirement.

  13. Higher education attainment does not improve the adult employment outcomes of adolescents with ill health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander


    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether attaining a higher education improves the chances of employment in adulthood amongst those who had a chronic health condition in adolescence. Using longitudinal analysis of twelve waves of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, conducted between 2001 and 2012, a cohort of adolescents aged 15 to 21 in Wave 1 were followed through to age 24 (n=624. The results show that those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence were2.4 times more likely to  not be employed at age 24 compared to those who did not have a chronic health condition (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.4, p=0.0024.  The results were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment at age 24, health status at age 24 and household income poverty status at age 24. Amongst those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence there was no significant difference in the likelihood of being employed for those with a Year 12 and below (p=0.1087 level of education attainment or those with a Diploma, Certificate III or IV (p=0.6366 compared to those with a university degree. Education attainment was not shown to mitigate the impact of having a chronic health condition during adolescence on adult employment outcomes. Keywords: employment; chronic health conditions; poverty; living standards; longitudinal.

  14. Identifying PHM market and network opportunities. (United States)

    Grube, Mark E; Krishnaswamy, Anand; Poziemski, John; York, Robert W


    Two key processes for healthcare organizations seeking to assume a financially sustainable role in population health management (PHM), after laying the groundwork for the effort, are to identify potential PHM market opportunities and determine the scope of the PHM network. Key variables organizations should consider with respect to market opportunities include the patient population, the overall insurance/employer market, and available types of insurance products. Regarding the network's scope, organizations should consider both traditional strategic criteria for a viable network and at least five additional criteria: network essentiality and PHM care continuum, network adequacy, service distribution right-sizing, network growth strategy, and organizational agility.

  15. The effect of new business creation on employment growth in regions facing population decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfmann, Heike; Koster, Sierdjan

    Particularly in declining regions, new businesses creation is seen as a means to secure (future) employment opportunities. However, the way in which new business creation exerts its influence on employment is not evident. Do start-ups in these areas influencing employment change as they do in growth

  16. Project SEARCH UK--Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel


    Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The…

  17. 75 FR 63763 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment (United States)


    .... Name of individual who will be making the oral presentation on behalf of the commenter. E-mail address of the individual who will be making the oral presentation. If available, the number assigned to your... employment and this rulemaking are. To better understand parties' comments and have an opportunity to...

  18. Mental health system governance in Nigeria: challenges, opportunities and strategies for improvement. (United States)

    Abdulmalik, J; Kola, L; Gureje, O


    A health systems approach to understanding efforts for improving health care services is gaining traction globally. A component of this approach focuses on health system governance (HSG), which can make or mar the successful implementation of health care interventions. Very few studies have explored HSG in low- and middle-income countries, including Nigeria. Studies focusing on mental health system governance, are even more of a rarity. This study evaluates the mental HSG of Nigeria with a view to understanding the challenges, opportunities and strategies for strengthening it. This study was conducted as part of the project, Emerging Mental Health Systems in Low and Middle Income Countries (Emerald). A multi-method study design was utilized to evaluate the mental HSG status of Nigeria. A situational analysis of the health policy and legal environment in the country was performed. Subsequently, 30 key informant interviews were conducted at national, state and district levels to explore the country's mental HSG. The existing policy, legislative and institutional framework for HSG in Nigeria reveals a complete exclusion of mental health in key health sector documents. The revised mental health policy is however promising. Using the Siddiqi framework categories, we identified pragmatic strategies for mental health system strengthening that include a consideration of existing challenges and opportunities within the system. The identified strategies provide a template for the subsequent activities of the Emerald Programme (and other interventions), towards strengthening the mental health system of Nigeria.

  19. Supported Employment Improves Cognitive Performance in Adults with Autism (United States)

    Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.


    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…

  20. Genome editing for crop improvement: Challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Abdallah, Naglaa A; Prakash, Channapatna S; McHughen, Alan G


    Genome or gene editing includes several new techniques to help scientists precisely modify genome sequences. The techniques also enables us to alter the regulation of gene expression patterns in a pre-determined region and facilitates novel insights into the functional genomics of an organism. Emergence of genome editing has brought considerable excitement especially among agricultural scientists because of its simplicity, precision and power as it offers new opportunities to develop improved crop varieties with clear-cut addition of valuable traits or removal of undesirable traits. Research is underway to improve crop varieties with higher yields, strengthen stress tolerance, disease and pest resistance, decrease input costs, and increase nutritional value. Genome editing encompasses a wide variety of tools using either a site-specific recombinase (SSR) or a site-specific nuclease (SSN) system. Both systems require recognition of a known sequence. The SSN system generates single or double strand DNA breaks and activates endogenous DNA repair pathways. SSR technology, such as Cre/loxP and Flp/FRT mediated systems, are able to knockdown or knock-in genes in the genome of eukaryotes, depending on the orientation of the specific sites (loxP, FLP, etc.) flanking the target site. There are 4 main classes of SSN developed to cleave genomic sequences, mega-nucleases (homing endonuclease), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR/Cas nuclease system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR-associated protein). The recombinase mediated genome engineering depends on recombinase (sub-) family and target-site and induces high frequencies of homologous recombination. Improving crops with gene editing provides a range of options: by altering only a few nucleotides from billions found in the genomes of living cells, altering the full allele or by inserting a new gene in a targeted region of

  1. 78 FR 51187 - Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity (United States)


    ... contributing to the mission of the FCA. Workplace Harassment It is the policy of the FCA to provide a work... harassment, either physical or verbal. The FCA will not tolerate harassment in the workplace for any reason... on sexual orientation and status as a parent; Executive Order 13166 (Improving Access to Services for...

  2. 43 CFR 27.6 - Equal opportunity implementation. (United States)


    ... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED UNDER PERMITS, RIGHTS-OF-WAY, PUBLIC LAND ORDERS, AND OTHER FEDERAL AUTHORIZATIONS... in offering services, opportunities, or benefits to minority groups and women, and all areas of employment in which it could be deficient in the utilization of minority groups and women and all areas of...

  3. Career Opportunities in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. (United States)

    Glover, Trienne

    This pamphlet discusses career and employment opportunities in chemical engineering. Necessary college preparation is described and median salaries by degree are tabulated. Nontraditional careers in chemistry are also described. Future demand for chemists and chemical engineers is projected to 1985 and the availability of jobs for women and…

  4. Sex work and modes of self-employment in the informal economy: diverse business practices and constraints to effective working. (United States)

    Pitcher, Jane


    This article draws on research with adult sex workers in indoor settings in Great Britain to explore diverse forms of self-employment, employment relationships and small business development, set within the context of changes to the wider economy. It considers how external constraints such as the legal context, social stigma and dominant policy discourses can impact on sex workers' autonomy and actively work against their safety and wellbeing. The article argues that broad policy and legal approaches which fail to recognise the complexity of sex work constrain sex workers' opportunities for business development and improvement of their working circumstances. It suggests the need for recognition of sex work as legitimate labour, as a prerequisite for policy changes to support sex workers and pave the way for improved working conditions, not only in managed settings but also facilitating collective arrangements and independent lone working.

  5. Improving Work Outcome in Supported Employment for Serious Mental Illness: Results From 2 Independent Studies of Errorless Learning. (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Zarate, Roberto; Glynn, Shirley M; Turner, Luana R; Smith, Kellie M; Mitchell, Sharon S; Sugar, Catherine A; Bell, Morris D; Liberman, Robert P; Kopelowicz, Alex; Green, Michael F


    Heterogeneity in work outcomes is common among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). In 2 studies, we sought to examine the efficacy of adding errorless learning, a behavioral training intervention, to evidence-based supported employment to improve SMI work outcomes. Work behavior problems were targeted for intervention. We also explored associations between early work behavior and job tenure. For both studies (VA: n = 71; community mental health center: n = 91), randomization occurred at the time of job obtainment with participants randomized (1:1) to either errorless learning plus ongoing supported employment or ongoing supported employment alone and then followed for 12 months. Dependent variables included job tenure, work behavior, and hours worked and wages earned per week. For the primary intent-to-treat analyses, data were combined across studies. Findings revealed that participants in the errorless learning plus supported employment group stayed on their jobs significantly longer than those in the supported employment alone group (32.8 vs 25.6 wk). In addition, differential treatment effects favoring errorless learning were found on targeted work behavior problems (50.5% vs 27.4% improvement from baseline to follow-up assessment). There were no other differential treatment effects. For the prediction analyses involving work behavior, social skills explained an additional 18.3% of the variance in job tenure beyond levels of cognition, symptom severity, and past work history. These data support errorless learning as an adjunctive intervention to enhance supported employment outcomes and implicate the relevance of workplace social difficulties as a key impediment to prolonged job tenure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.

  6. Iraqi primary care system in Kurdistan region: providers' perspectives on problems and opportunities for improvement. (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S; Sondorp, Egbert; Vaughan, Kelsey


    As part of a comprehensive study on the primary health care system in Iraq, we sought to explore primary care providers' perspectives about the main problems influencing the provision of primary care services and opportunities to improve the system. A qualitative study based on four focus groups involving 40 primary care providers from 12 primary health care centres was conducted in Erbil governorate in the Iraqi Kurdistan region between July and October 2010. A topic guide was used to lead discussions and covered questions on positive aspects of and current problems with the primary care system in addition to the priority needs for its improvement. The discussions were fully transcribed and the qualitative data was analyzed by content analysis, followed by a thematic analysis. Problems facing the primary care system included inappropriate health service delivery (irrational use of health services, irrational treatment, poor referral system, poor infrastructure and poor hygiene), health workforce challenges (high number of specialists, uneven distribution of the health workforce, rapid turnover, lack of training and educational opportunities and discrepancies in the salary system), shortage in resources (shortage and low quality of medical supplies and shortage in financing), poor information technology and poor leadership/governance. The greatest emphasis was placed on poor organization of health services delivery, particularly the irrational use of health services and the related overcrowding and overload on primary care providers and health facilities. Suggestions for improving the system included application of a family medicine approach and ensuring effective planning and monitoring. This study has provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that negatively affect the primary care system in Iraq's Kurdistan region from the perspective of primary care providers. From their experience, primary care providers have a role in informing the community and

  7. Innovative Approaches to Creating Opportunities and Incorporating ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given widespread population growth in Africa and the inadequacy of the formal sector in generating employment opportunities for youth, there is a widespread fear that gains in poverty ... From this evidence, researchers will determine the sources of growth and the ... University of Nairobi ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  8. Improving Education and Employment for Disadvantaged Young Men: Proven and Promising Strategies. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #10-04 (United States)

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.


    Low high school graduation rates and sharply declining employment rates among disadvantaged youth have led to increasing numbers of youth who are disconnected from both school and work. What programs and policies might prevent these disconnections and improve educational and employment outcomes, particularly among young men? We review the evidence…

  9. 76 FR 38743 - Proposed Information Collection (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity: Comment Request (United States)


    ..., religion, gender, national origin age, physical or mental disability and/or reprisal for prior Equal Employment Opportunity activity complete VA Form 4939 to file a complaint of discrimination. Affected Public... (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Human Resources and Administration...

  10. How to use pre-employment medical examinations and comply with Anti-Discrimination legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, D. [Sparke Helmore Solicitors and Notaries, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    The law including legislation such as the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1983 imposes stringent obligations on employers to ensure the health and safety of their employees. The use of pre-employment medical examinations is one tool that employers can use to assess the suitability of applicant for a particular position and protect themselves from persecution or claims for compensation or damages. At the same time, however, legislation such as The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (Commonwealth) (DDA) and The Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (New South wales) (ADA) affords protection to individuals against discrimination. This legislation is intended to ensure, as far as is practicable, that people with disabilities are treated equally to other members of the community and are brought into the mainstream of our society as far as possible. It makes it unlawful for employers to discriminate against prospective employees because of their disability. In the context of pre-employment medicals, the protection from discrimination is designed to ensure that job applicants with disabilities have as much opportunity to obtain employment as able bodied applicants. Employers must ensure that they use pre-employment medical examinations in a way that is both relevant for their workplace and complies with the requirements of Anti-Discrimination legislation. The definition of discrimination in the Federal and State Acts is virtually identical except for variations in the type and extent of various exceptions. Complainants are free to choose between State and Federal jurisdiction in situations which are covered by both. While the Equal Opportunity Tribunal (State) cannot order damages in excess of 40,000,000 dollars there is no limit on the amount of damages the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (Federal) can award.

  11. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  12. Supply chain cost improvement opportunities through streamlining cross-border operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Havenga


    Full Text Available The Cross-Border Road Transport Agency (CBRTA in South Africa aims to encourage and facilitate trade between South Africa and its neighbouring countries. The CBRTA sponsored a study by Stellenbosch University (SU to determine the logistics cost impact of cross-border delays between South Africa and its major neighbouring trading partners, and prioritise opportunities for improvement. SU is the proprietor of both a comprehensive freight demand model and a logistics cost model for South Africa, which enable extractions and extensions of freight flows and related costs for specific purposes. Through the application of these models, the following information is identified and presented in this paper: South Africa’s most important border posts (based on traffic flows; a product profile for imports and exports through these border posts; the modal split (road and rail; the annual logistics costs incurred on the corridors feeding the border posts, as well as the additional costs incurred due to border delays. The research has proved that the streamlining of border-post operations that take a total supply chain view (i.e. of both border operations and those that could be moved from the border is beneficial.

  13. Improving Hospital Services Based on Patient Experience Data: Current Feedback Practices and Future Opportunities. (United States)

    Kaipio, Johanna; Stenhammar, Hanna; Immonen, Susanna; Litovuo, Lauri; Axelsson, Minja; Lantto, Minna; Lahdenne, Pekka


    Patient feedback is considered important for healthcare organizations. However, measurement and analysis of patient reported data is useful only if gathered insights are transformed into actions. This article focuses on gathering and utilization of patient experience data at hospitals with the aim of supporting the development of patient-centered services. The study was designed to explore both current practices of collecting and utilizing patient feedback at hospitals as well as future feedback-related opportunities. Nine people working at different hierarchical levels of three university hospitals in Finland participated in in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that current feedback processes are poorly planned and inflexible. Some feedback data are gathered, but not systematically utilized. Currently, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive picture of the situation. One future hope was to increase the amount of patient feedback to be able to better generalize and utilize the data. Based on the findings the following recommendations are given: attention to both patients' and healthcare staff's perspectives when collecting feedback, employing a coordinated approach for collecting and utilizing patient feedback, and organizational transformation towards a patient-centric culture.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available People who belongs to underdeveloped and developing countries, focus on getting employment in different developed countries. In the recent past years the number of people working in different countries has increased dramatically. In Pakistan it’s a trend of moving to different countries to get better employment opportunities. For employment Hong Kong, Singapore, UAE, and Saudi Arabia are considered as the favorable countries for the Pakistanis. Despite the fact, these countries don’t offer favorable and secured working environment to the immigrants, but still people prefer to go there for better earnings. Employment issues such as low wage rate, preference to residents, absence of contractual nexus, and sexual abuse etc. are common. This study aims to identify the major gaps in the implementation of laws regarding immigrant work force and the conditions of immigrants working in these countries. The study is qualitative and the respondents are those who have work experience of minimum three years. The results of this study shows that employers hardly follow labor laws for the immigrant work force, where as some countries have a clear policy which is enforced by their government. There is a dire need to do legislation regarding the rights of immigrant workforce and its implementation.

  15. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle. (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon


    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact.

  16. Improving Stewardship of Marine Resources: Linking Strategy to Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciska von Heland


    Full Text Available The need for improved stewardship of coastal and marine resources is evident worldwide. However, complex ecosystem dynamics, institutional inertia, and budgetary constraints impede such action. This study explores how networks of change-oriented individuals or “institutional entrepreneurs” can introduce new types of human-environment interaction. The focus is on investigating the interplay between the strategies of institutional entrepreneurs and broader system dynamics that shape the context in which they are working, and possible impacts of institutional entrepreneurship on marine governance. We explore these issues in the context of Wakatobi National Park in eastern Indonesia. We suggest that creating links between different social spheres, such as between marine resource management and spirituality or between marine resource management and education, may accelerate the development of a new ecosystem stewardship. We further suggest that the use of media has significant power to show alternative futures, but that media may also serve to objectify certain resource users and increase the complexity of marine resource management. In general, institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in capturing and managing opportunity to open up space for experimentation and novel ideas, for example by linking their ideas to broader political priorities. Yet, such strategies bear the risk of institutional capture. Finally, institutional entrepreneurs sometimes have vested interests in certain solutions that may forsake experimentation toward a sustainable future.

  17. Opportunities and constraints facing informal street traders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small income and the limited ability of the government and the formal business sector to provide sufficient employment opportunities to people in the economically active age categories are two of the main reasons for informal trading in South African cities. As a result, the informal street trading sector plays an important ...

  18. A situation analysis of public health interventions, barriers, and opportunities for improving maternal nutrition in Bihar, India. (United States)

    Noznesky, Elizabeth A; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Martorell, Reynaldo


    Maternal underweight and anemia are highly prevalent in Bihar, especially among adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years. Although numerous programs and platforms exist for delivering efficacious interventions for improving maternal nutrition, the coverage and quality of these interventions are low. To examine existing interventions for reducing maternal undernutrition in Bihar and identify barriers to and opportunities for expanding their coverage and quality. The research was conducted in New Delhi and Bihar between May and August 2010. Forty-eight key informant interviews were conducted with policy makers, program managers, and service providers at multiple levels. Secondary data were collected from survey reports and program documents. All data were analyzed thematically. Barriers to the delivery and uptake of interventions to improve maternal nutrition include the shortage of essential inputs, low prioritization of maternal undernutrition, sterilization bias within the family planning program, weak management systems, poverty, gender inequality, caste discrimination, and flooding. In order to overcome barriers and improve service delivery, the current government and its partners have introduced structural reforms within the public health system, launched new programs for underserved groups, developed innovative approaches, and experimented with new technologies. Since coming to power, the Government of Bihar has achieved impressive increases in the coverage of prioritized health services, such as institutional deliveries and immunization. This success presents it with an excellent opportunity to further reduce maternal and infant mortality by turning its attention to the serious problem of maternal undernutrition and low birthweight.

  19. Comments on "Duality of Female Employment in Pakistan". (United States)

    Duncan, A


    Data problems and substantive issues relating to an article on female employment problems in Pakistan are critiqued. It is noted that the emphasis was on demand factors in explaining the level and pattern of female employment, when it is evident that supply and demand are linked by cultural norms which vary among women in their degree of segregation/domestic responsibilities. Productivity and income of women by occupation is also important for policy analysis. The supply factors that affect women according to their income group are level of education, degree of segregation/domestic responsibility, and income/satisfaction level. Employers' biases are clear demand side factors. In the example of the upper income class group, women work due to higher levels of education and experience, their greater liberation from domestic duties, and the professional satisfaction derived from work; constraints are appropriate education and training, employers' gender discrimination, and higher satisfaction from domestic roles. Women's segregation as a supply factor is stronger in middle and low income groups; hence, employment is lower. Income generation is very important among low income groups, which creates a greater force to seek employment, but without the necessary skills or education and with household responsibilities; their employment is predominately in the informal sector with low productivity and income. Policy interventions to increase welfare and productivity must be different for each class or group. For upper income women, employers must not discriminate against women in hiring and firing, and more educational and training opportunities must be provided. In the middle income group, access to education an employment and more employment opportunities in a culturally acceptable framework are needed. Respectability of jobs, for instance in the service sector, is an important factor. In the low income group, productivity increases are the goal. Access to credits, and new

  20. Physician assistant wages and employment, 2000-2025. (United States)

    Quella, Alicia; Brock, Douglas M; Hooker, Roderick S


    This study sought to assess physician assistant (PA) wages, make comparisons with other healthcare professionals, and project their earnings to 2025. The Bureau of Labor Statistics PA employment datasets were probed, and 2013 wages were used to explore median wage differences between large employer categories and 14 years of historical data (2000-2013). Median wages of PAs, family physicians and general practitioners, pharmacists, registered nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physical therapists were compared. Linear regression was used to project the PA median wage to 2025. In 2013, the median hourly wage for a PA employed in a clinical role was $44.70. From 2000 to 2013, PA wages increased by 40% compared with the cumulative inflation rate of 35.3%. This suggests that demand exceeds supply, a finding consistent with similar clinicians such as family physicians. A predictive model suggests that PA employment opportunities and remuneration will remain high through 2025.

  1. Water Technology Innovation: 10 Market Opportunities (United States)

    The Water Technology Innovation Blueprint offers an overview of market opportunities that include conserving and recovering energy, recovering nutrients, improving water infrastructure, reducing costs for water monitoring, and improving water quality.

  2. Study on the situation of female employment in the Guangxi Zhuangzhu autonomous region. (United States)

    Liu, B


    This study examined the gap between the female labor force and employment opportunities in Guangxi Zhuangzhu Autonomous Region (GZAR) in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census and the 1% sample survey in 1995. GZAR has undergone recent market reforms. In 1995, the total number of employed persons was 24,520,500, of whom 46.8% were women; 46.3% were employed women in 1990. Female employment grew by 8.3% during 1990-95; male employment grew by 5.8%. GZAR has a higher rate of female employment than other provinces. The female employment rates in GZAR, Guangdong, and Guizhou were fairly stable. Rates were the highest in the middle age group and lowest among the old and young. Women in GZAR begin work at an earlier age. The higher female employment rate is attributed to expansion of the light and service industries and migration of males outside home areas. During 1990-95, the number of women working declined in agriculture and increased in light industry and service sectors, especially in wholesale and retail trades, finance and insurance, and restaurants. Women in professions increased. Female professionals were 331/10,000 in GZAR, 410/10,000 in Guizhou, and 743/10,000 in Guangdong. Female professionals were better educated than male professionals. The percentage of illiterates and semiliterates declined by 3.0% for women and 1.8% for men. More women than men worked in areas that required strength. Female unemployment was high; reemployment was higher for males. Four suggestions are made to improve women's economic position.

  3. New Evidence to Enhance Employment and Education for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A decade of continuous growth, coupled with enhanced social investment, has reduced poverty and increased labour market opportunities in Latin America. However, some groups - in particular women and youth - are yet to see the benefits of this growth. Despite higher educational levels, the employment outlook for young ...

  4. Connecting Disadvantaged Youth to Quality Employment using ICTs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The first phase of the program supported 35 projects involving more than 19 000 youths ... learning, job coaching and online access to job market opportunities. ... United States ... Reports. Connecting disadvantaged youth to quality employment through the ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics ...

  5. Chalenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Barbosa Silva Carvalho


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review and statistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the business environment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employment and income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with high innovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with some degree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, and the introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways of modernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign direct investments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows that investments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy for investment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil.

  6. An overview of women's work and employment in Azerbaijan


    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.; Hughie-Williams, M.; Ramos Martin, N.


    This report provides information on Azerbaijan on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and employment. _Hist...

  7. From service delivery to solution delivery: commissioning for health improvement. (United States)

    Shircore, Richard; Ladbury, Patrick


    The further division of responsibilities between commissioners and providers in England will have far-reaching consequences and opportunities for developing and enhancing health improvement. Commissioners will have the opportunity to craft local solutions to local issues. To be effective, these local responses need to tackle the core determinants of health and to build the social capital that is at the heart of all communities that enjoy high standards of health. This paper argues that the new arrangements mark an evolution of the Beveridge model of healthcare (centralized, top down and professionally prescribed) to a post-Beveridge model characterized by it being decentralized, localized and utilizing professional skills in the pursuit of client and community satisfaction and engagement rather than a narrowly defined professional perspective. This paper indicates some of the key conceptual changes commissioners need to employ to take advantage of the emerging opportunities. It is argued that the new arrangements will only be fully effective if commissioners of health improvement programmes ensure they factor in health promotion and social marketing expertise, both in the strategic and operational phases of commissioning. Finally, predictions are made about changes in the values and characteristics of current health improvement organizations.

  8. Enhancing Opportunities for Vulnerable Youth: Hearing their Voices ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Latin America has reduced poverty and increased labour market opportunities. ... They have higher educational levels, but the employment outlook remains low. ... but in most cases, they have been not effective in reaching marginalized youth. ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's ...

  9. Equality of employment opportunities for nurses at the point of qualification: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Harris, Ruth; Ooms, Ann; Grant, Robert; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie; Chu, Christine Sek Fun; Sayer, Jane; Burke, Linda


    Securing employment after qualification is of utmost importance to newly qualified nurses to consolidate knowledge and skills. The factors that influence success in gaining this first post are not known. The study aimed to describe the first post gained after qualification in terms of setting, nature of employment contract and geographical distribution and explore the relationship between a range of factors (including ethnicity) and employment at the point of qualification. An exploratory study using structured questionnaires and secondary analysis of data routinely collected by the universities about students and their progress during their course. The study was conducted in eight universities within a large, multicultural city in the UK as part of the 'Readiness for Work' research programme. Eight hundred and four newly qualified nurses who had successfully completed a diploma or degree from one of the universities; a response rate of 77% representing 49% of all graduating students in the study population. Data were collected by self-completed semi-structured questionnaires administered to students at the time of qualification and at three months post-qualification. Routinely collected data from the universities were also collected. Fifty two percent of participants had been offered a job at the point of qualification (85% of those who had applied and been interviewed). Of these, 99% had been offered a nursing post, 88% in the city studied, 67% in the healthcare setting where they had completed a course placement. 44% felt "confident" and 32% "very confident" about their employment prospects. Predictors of employment success included ethnicity, specialty of nursing and university attended. Predictors of confidence and preparedness for job seeking included ethnicity, nursing specialty, gender and grade of degree. Newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups were less likely to get a job and feel confident about and prepared for job seeking. This


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs-Foldi Emese


    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  11. Towards a Diagnostic Instrument to Identify Improvement Opportunities for Quality Controlled Logistics in Agrifood Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst


    Full Text Available  Western-European consumers have become not only more demanding on product availability in retail outlets but also on other food attributes such as quality, integrity, and safety. When (redesigning food supply-chain networks, from a logistics point of view, one has to consider these demands next to traditional efficiency and responsiveness requirements. The concept ‘quality controlled logistics’ (QCL hypothesizes that if product quality in each step of the supply chain can be predicted in advance, goods flows can be controlled in a pro-active manner and better chain designs can be established resulting in higher product availability, constant quality, and less product losses. The paper discusses opportunities of using real-time product quality information for improvement of the design and management of ‘AgriFood Supply Chain Networks’, and presents a preliminary diagnostic instrument for assessment of ‘critical quality’ and ‘logistics control’ points in the supply chain network. Results of a tomato-chain case illustrate the added value of the QCL concept for identifying improvement opportunities in the supply chain as to increase both product availability and quality. Future research aims for the further development of the diagnostic instrument and the quantification of costs and benefits of QCL scenarios.

  12. Trapped Between Ableism And Neoliberalism : Critical Reflections On Disability And Employment In India


    Kumar, Arun; Sonpal, Deepa; Hiranandani, Vanmala


    Despite affirmative actions such as reservations in government employment, incentives and subsidies to employers, tax exemptions to persons with disabilities, skill-development trainings etc, employment for persons with disabilities continues to be characterised by lower work-force participation, lower wages, lack of career advancement opportunities, and discrimination at the workplace. Simultaneously, social security benefits have been declining due to shrinking state role. With the ratifica...

  13. To what extent do fiscal regimes equalize opportunities for income acquisition among citizens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, John E; Aaberge, Rolf; Colombino, Ugo


    This paper employs the theory of equality of opportunity, described in Roemer’s book (Equality of Opportunity, Harvard University Press, 1998), to compute the extent to which tax-and-transfer regimes in 11 countries equalize opportunities among citizens for income acquisition. Roughly speaking......, equality of opportunity for incomes has been achieved in a country when it is the case that the distributions of post-fisc income are the same for different types of citizen, where a citizen’s type is defined by the socio-economic status of his parents. Intuitively, a country will have equalized...

  14. Biological opportunities for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.S.; Debus, S.H.


    An overview is presented of existing biological technologies for the recovery of copper and uranium. Engineering and biological challenges and opportunities in these areas are discussed. New opportunities for the bio oxidation of refractory goal ore are described. Techniques for the development of new strains of microorganisms for commercial metal recovery applications are discussed with special reference to the use of genetic manipulation for bacterial strain improvement. (author)

  15. Conference Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons (United States)

    Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Feb. 11, 1997 -- Expanding Your Horizons, a conference for girls grades 6 - 9 and Employed Women, Girls Incorporated of Metro Denver, King Soopers, McDonalds, the TCI Adult Program and the

  16. 20 CFR 638.541 - Job Corps training opportunities. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Job Corps training opportunities. 638.541 Section 638.541 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.541 Job Corps...

  17. 22 CFR 139.7 - Qualifications for participation as an employer in the United States. (United States)


    .... employers must: (a) Provide job/training opportunities that: (1) Correspond to one of the occupational areas... assignment rotations, and/or training opportunities, which offer promotion potential if job performance is... same or similar work. (d) Agree not to petition for a change of immigration status or non-immigrant...

  18. An overview of women's work and employment in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.; Hughie-Williams, M.; Ramos Martin, N.


    This report provides information on Azerbaijan on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the

  19. Career opportunities in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganstern, K.H.


    The application of radiation and radioisotopes is finally coming into its own after a long and hesitant gestation period. Overshadowed since the inception of the ''Nuclear Age'' by nuclear power generation, this area nevertheless provides real and challenging opportunities involving many different technical specialties and professional skills. Career opportunities are becoming available in those areas involving the use of radioactive isotopes in research, medicine, and industrial process control, and the employment of large radiation outputs, from either accelerator or isotopes, for industrial process applications

  20. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) for Youth in MENA : Policies to Promote Employment Opportunities


    Cava, Gloria La; Rossotto, Carlo Maria; Paradi-Guilford, Cecilia


    On January 18, 2011, the Arab Development Summit Youth Forum met in Sharm-el-Sheikh, Egypt, aiming to provide young Arab leaders and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) entrepreneurs with the opportunity for dialogue with Arab decision makers, providing recommendations on how to empower youth in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) through ICT. Tunisia's Jasmine revolution and...

  1. Equality of Opportunity for Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Daniel Gerszon; Ramos, Xavier


    A growing literature has tried to measure the extent to which individuals have equal opportunities to acquire income. At the same time, policy makers have doubled down on efforts to go beyond income when measuring well- being. We attempt to bridge these two areas by measuring the extent to which...... individuals have equal opportunities to achieve a high level of well-being. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to measure well-being in four different ways including incomes. This makes it possible to determine if the way well-being is measured matters for identifying who the opportunity......-deprived are and for tracking inequality of opportunity over time. We find that, regardless of how well-being is measured, the same people are opportunity-deprived and equality of opportunity has improved over the past 20 years. This suggests that going beyond income has little relevance if the objective is to provide equal...

  2. Improved response time of flexible microelectromechanical sensors employing eco-friendly nanomaterials. (United States)

    Fan, Shicheng; Dan, Li; Meng, Lingju; Zheng, Wei; Elias, Anastasia; Wang, Xihua


    Flexible force/pressure sensors are of interest for academia and industry and have applications in wearable technologies. Most of such sensors on the market or reported in journal publications are based on the operation mechanism of probing capacitance or resistance changes of the materials under pressure. Recently, we reported the microelectromechanical (MEM) sensors based on a different mechanism: mechanical switches. Multiples of such MEM sensors can be integrated to achieve the same function of regular force/pressure sensors while having the advantages of ease of fabrication and long-term stability in operation. Herein, we report the dramatically improved response time (more than one order of magnitude) of these MEM sensors by employing eco-friendly nanomaterials-cellulose nanocrystals. For instance, the incorporation of polydimethysiloxane filled with cellulose nanocrystals shortened the response time of MEM sensors from sub-seconds to several milliseconds, leading to the detection of both diastolic and systolic pressures in the radial arterial blood pressure measurement. Comprehensive mechanical and electrical characterization of the materials and the devices reveal that greatly enhanced storage modulus and loss modulus play key roles in this improved response time. The demonstrated fast-response flexible sensors enabled continuous monitoring of heart rate and complex cardiovascular signals using pressure sensors for future wearable sensing platforms.

  3. Sexual Harassment: An Employment Issue. A CUPA Monograph. (United States)

    Deane, Nancy H.; Tillar, Darrel L.

    A practical approach to the prevention of sexual harassment is considered, and a study of sexual harassment as perceived by victims, the courts, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is presented. Attention is directed to the sociology of sexual harassment and to the following possible responses available to victims of harassment:…

  4. 20 CFR 664.420 - What are leadership development opportunities? (United States)


    ..., including team leadership training; (e) Training in decision-making, including determining priorities; and... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are leadership development opportunities? 664.420 Section 664.420 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Identifying Opportunities for Exploiting Cross-Layer Interactions in Adaptive Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Weingart


    Full Text Available The flexibility of cognitive and software-defined radio heralds an opportunity for researchers to reexamine how network protocol layers operate with respect to providing quality of service aware transmission among wireless nodes. This opportunity is enhanced by the continued development of spectrally responsive devices—ones that can detect and respond to changes in the radio frequency environment. Present wireless network protocols define reliability and other performance-related tasks narrowly within layers. For example, the frame size employed on 802.11 can substantially influence the throughput, delay, and jitter experienced by an application, but there is no simple way to adapt this parameter. Furthermore, while the data link layer of 802.11 provides error detection capabilities across a link, it does not specify additional features, such as forward error correction schemes, nor does it provide a means for throttling retransmissions at the transport layer (currently, the data link and transport layer can function counterproductively with respect to reliability. This paper presents an analysis of the interaction of physical, data link, and network layer parameters with respect to throughput, bit error rate, delay, and jitter. The goal of this analysis is to identify opportunities where system designers might exploit cross-layer interactions to improve the performance of Voice over IP (VoIP, instant messaging (IM, and file transfer applications.

  6. A Survey of Employment Opportunities in the Atmospheric Sciences, 1981-1991. (United States)

    Hanson, Howard P.


    Results from an analysis of 11 years of the AMS Employment Announcements newsletter are discussed. The strongest signals in the record of various job categories are the annual cycle in advertisements of tenure-track faculty positions and the interannual variations in the overall market, which are dominated by private-sector positions. On average, there are 23±9 new positions announced each month, with maxima in March and November and the minimum in July. The overall market grew throughout the mid-1980s, but has declined in recent years.

  7. Evaluation of a Team Project Based Learning Module for Developing Employability Skills


    Janice Whatley


    This paper presents a case study, in which a new module, aimed at enhancing students’ employ-ability skills, is evaluated. Employability skills for graduates from higher education are regarded as essential outcomes from their degree programmes, but it can be difficult to provide appropriate opportunities to develop these skills in the context of their studies. This paper describes a new module, called Live Projects, designed to provide project based learning on campus, but involv-ing local bu...

  8. Boosting Low-Income Children's Opportunities to Succeed Through Direct Income Support. (United States)

    Sherman, Arloc; DeBot, Brandon; Huang, Chye-Ching


    Direct income supports have long been known to substantially reduce the extent and depth of poverty. Evidence suggests that they can also bolster children's opportunities to succeed and enhance long-term mobility. A growing body of research, for example, links income from 2 related tax credits for working families-the Earned Income Tax Credit and the Child Tax Credit-to benefits for children in those families, such as improved birth weight, better school outcomes, and increased rates of employment in adulthood. Similarly, the introduction of food stamps has been found to improve not only the birth weight of infants given access to the program but also their educational achievement, as well as indicators of health, well-being, and self-sufficiency decades later. These are striking research results for income support that is not typically thought of as improving children's health or education. The mechanisms through which these income supports lead to such benefits are likely varied and complex, but emerging research suggests that helping families with children afford basic necessities can reduce the added stress of financial difficulties, preventing downstream neuroendocrine and biochemical changes that affect children's longer-term outcomes. These findings have important implications for policy makers. Research suggests that potential weakening of the safety net would not only substantially increase poverty, but also have damaging long-term effects on children. Policy makers should reject funding cuts and instead strengthen the safety net, which this analysis suggests could reduce poverty further and also enhance children's opportunities to succeed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Supply Chain Management for Improved Energy Efficiency: Review and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Marchi


    Full Text Available Energy efficiency represents a key resource for economic and social development, providing substantial benefits to different stakeholders, ranging from the entities which develop energy efficient measures to everyone in society. In addition to cost savings, multiple benefits can be achieved by supporting a better alignment between energy issues and strategic business priorities: e.g., improved competitiveness, profitability, quality, etc. Thus, energy efficiency can be a strategic advantage, not just a marginal issue, for companies. However, most firms, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs, face many problems and, in some cases, hostility when trying to effectively implement energy efficiency actions. The most dominant barriers are the access to capital and the lack of awareness (especially in terms of life cycle cost effects. The supply chain viewpoint represents one of the main opportunities for overcoming those barriers and improving energy performance even for weaker companies. Since the current literature on energy efficiency and practical approaches to ensure energy efficiency mainly focus on energy performance on a single-firm basis, this paper aims to provide a systematic review of papers on the integration of energy efficiency in supply chain design and management published in academic journal, thereby defining potential research streams to close the gaps in the literature. A number of literature reviews have been published focusing on specific aspects of sustainable or on green supply chain management; however, to the best of our knowledge, no review has focused on the energy efficiency issue. Firstly, the present paper shows how considering energy consumption in supply chain management can contribute to more energy-efficient processes from a systemic point of view. Then, the review methodology used is defined and the sampled papers are analyzed and categorized based on the different approaches they propose. From these

  10. Employer-provided health insurance and hospital mergers. (United States)

    Garmon, Christopher


    This paper explores the impact of employer-provided health insurance on hospital competition and hospital mergers. Under employer-provided health insurance, employer executives act as agents for their employees in selecting health insurance options for their firm. The paper investigates whether a merger of hospitals favored by executives will result in a larger price increase than a merger of competing hospitals elsewhere. This is found to be the case even when the executive has the same opportunity cost of travel as her employees and even when the executive is the sole owner of the firm, retaining all profits. This is consistent with the Federal Trade Commission's findings in its challenge of Evanston Northwestern Healthcare's acquisition of Highland Park Hospital. Implications of the model are further tested with executive location data and hospital data from Florida and Texas.

  11. Research Opportunities for Fischer-Tropsch Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Nancy B.


    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was discovered in Germany in the 1920's and has been studied by every generation since that time. As technology and chemistry, in general, improved through the decades, new insights, catalysts, and technologies were added to the Fischer-Tropsch process, improving it and making it more economical with each advancement. Opportunities for improving the Fischer-Tropsch process and making it more economical still exist. This paper gives an overview of the present Fischer-Tropsch processes and offers suggestions for areas where a research investment could improve those processes. Gas-to-liquid technology, which utilizes the Fischer Tropsch process, consists of three principal steps: Production of synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from natural gas, the production of liquid fuels from syngas using a Fischer-Tropsch process, and upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Each step will be studied for opportunities for improvement and areas that are not likely to reap significant benefits without significant investment

  12. Opportunities to improve the conversion of food waste to lactate: Fine-tuning secondary factors. (United States)

    RedCorn, Raymond; Engelberth, Abigail S


    Extensive research has demonstrated the potential for bioconversion of food waste to lactate, with major emphasis on adjusting temperature, pH, and loading rate of the fermentation. Each of these factors has a significant effect on lactate production; however, additional secondary factors have received little attention. Here we investigate three additional factors where opportunities exist for process improvement: freezing of samples during storage, discontinuous pH control, and holdover of fermentation broth between fermentations. Freezing samples prior to fermentation was shown to reduce the production rate of lactate by 8%, indicating freeze-thaw should be avoided in experiments. Prior work indicated a trade-off in pH control strategies, where discontinuous pH control correlated with higher lactate accumulation while continuous pH control correlated with higher production rate. Here we demonstrate that continuous pH control can achieve both higher lactate accumulation and higher production rate. Finally, holding over fermentation broth was shown to be a simple method to improve production rate (by 18%) at high food waste loading rates (>140 g volatile solids L -1 ) but resulted in lower lactate accumulation (by 17%). The results inform continued process improvements within the waste treatment of food waste through fermentation to lactic acid.

  13. Improving Continuing Professional Development opportunities for radiographers: A single centre evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Barry J.; Wade, Demetri


    Purpose: This study aimed to identify current barriers to CPD and generate ideas for strategies to overcome these issues. Further aims were to gather an overview of respondents' understanding and opinions of CPD. Methods: An online survey was used to acquire information from departmental band 5 and band 6 radiographers. Descriptive statistical analysis and thematic analysis were performed to understand demographics and individuals' behaviours and experiences. Findings: Radiographers (n = 33) were sent an invitation via email providing a response rate of 75.8% (n = 25), with 20 females (80%) and 5 males (20%). 52% (n = 13) dedicate less than three hours a month. Participants highlighted time restraint as their biggest barrier to CPD. They also indicated a reluctance to use their own time to undertake work-related learning, despite exhibiting positive attitudes towards CPD. Radiographers see CPD as a vital and necessary, career-long learning process and they recognise the impacts on service provision. The notion of dedicated study time was unanimously suggested as the best approach to increase commitment to CPD. Conclusion: Radiographers demonstrated positive opinions of CPD, yet it was evident that many are not undertaking activities during their own time and it was acknowledged that opportunities during work time are limited. The provision of study time in work was suggested as an approach to improve radiographer's opportunities to complete CPD. Training sessions underlining the necessity of CPD in maintaining registration, what constitutes CPD and reinforcement of the benefits of systematic recording of CPD should be provided. - Highlights: • 80% believe they do not do enough CPD, 52% dedicate less than 3 h a month. • Radiographers are aware of the positive impact of learning on development. • Training should be given as a strategy to address radiographers' CPD inactivity. • The overarching theme relating to barriers to CPD is

  14. Inequality of Opportunity and Income Inequality in Nine Chinese Provinces, 1989-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Zhang, Yingqiang


    's own choices (''effort''). What is the relationship between income inequality and inequality of opportunity? For this purpose we use data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey collected from nine provinces during the period 1989 to 2006. The CHNS has detailed information about incomes and other...... factors enabling us to construct a host of circumstance and effort variables for the offspring. We find that China has a substantial degree of inequality of opportunity. Parental income and parents' type of employer explain about two thirds of the total inequality of opportunity. Notably, parental...

  15. Equal opportunities in the public and private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Monica Ardeleanu


    Full Text Available Equal opportunities are a goal to achieve in Romania at the legislative and institutional/ organizational level.In terms of legislation Romania has made progress, but the institutional mechanisms of the government dealing with gender equality issues are not functioning properly, are not generating a concreate impact on the equal opportunities for women and men.For this reason there is no specific and significant political commitmentto these issue of gender equality in Romania. Gender discrimination is addressed both by anti-discrimination and equal opportunities laws.Equality,fairness and non-discrimination in the workplace environment are present as objective requirements of economic, social and ethical behavior that goes beyond the labor market. Theoretically, on the labor market , both public and private sectors do not accept direct or indirect discrimination at the workplace, espeially during the process of recruitment , training , development, promotion, establishment, payment of the salary and benefits. In practice , the legislation regarding the equal opportunities and equal treatment it is not respected by the employers all the time.Promotion of the policies at the national and organizational level, focused on ensuring equal opportunities , will enhance the social cohesion of the population that will generate economic growrh overall.

  16. How do employment tax credits work? An analysis of the German inheritance tax


    Franke, Benedikt; Simons, Dirk; Voeller, Dennis


    Employment tax credit programs have been repeatedly used during economic crises, although their usefulness is empirically contestable. The objective of this paper is to quantify the tax effects of employment tax credit programs. A recent revision of the German inheritance tax law provides an eminent opportunity to analyze the effects caused by such a preferential treatment. The tax liability depends on a company’s future employment expenses. Hence, we use micro-level data of ...

  17. The Implications of Contractual Terms of Employment for Women and Leadership: An Autoethnographic Study in UK Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vicary


    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the implications of casual, non-permanent forms of employment that have become a common cultural practice in higher education. It proposes that contractual terms of employment have important implications for women and leadership in higher education, since to pursue leadership, usually one must first gain permanency in an organization, in contractual terms. Based on an autoethnographic study by a female academic in a UK higher education institution, the article illustrates that temporary forms of employment, should they be protracted, can stifle leadership aspirations due to lack of career progression opportunities and lead to a sense of alienation from the target community of practice, and even to personal difficulties, such as feelings of isolation and poor self-esteem. The article discusses theoretical and practical implications for women’s leadership arising from the findings and makes recommendations for improvements in practice in the higher education sector. The findings and recommendations from this study will also be relevant to other organizational contexts where casual or temporary, fixed term, zero-hours non-permanent forms of employment are common.

  18. 76 FR 55946 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) Program... (United States)


    ... Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) Program: Extension With Non-Substantive Revisions AGENCY: Employment and..., ``Certification Workload and Characteristics of Certified Individuals, Work Opportunity Tax Credit'' and provided... submit this report using the Internet-based Tax Credit Reporting System of the Enterprise Business...

  19. Sensitivity improvement of a laser interferometer limited by inelastic back-scattering, employing dual readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinders, Melanie; Schnabel, Roman


    Inelastic back-scattering of stray light is a long-standing and fundamental problem in high-sensitivity interferometric measurements and a potential limitation for advanced gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. The emerging parasitic interferences cannot be distinguished from a scientific signal via conventional single readout. In this work, we propose the subtraction of inelastic back-scatter signals by employing dual homodyne detection on the output light, and demonstrate it for a table-top Michelson interferometer. The additional readout contains solely parasitic signals and is used to model the scatter source. Subtraction of the scatter signal reduces the noise spectral density and thus improves the measurement sensitivity. Our scheme is qualitatively different from the previously demonstrated vetoing of scatter signals and opens a new path for improving the sensitivity of future GW detectors and other back-scatter limited devices. (paper)

  20. Perioperative hair removal: A review of best practice and a practice improvement opportunity. (United States)

    Spencer, Maureen; Barnden, Marsha; Johnson, Helen Boehm; Fauerbach, Loretta Litz; Graham, Denise; Edmiston, Charles E


    The current practice of perioperative hair removal reflects research-driven changes designed to minimize the risk of surgical wound infection. An aspect of the practice which has received less scrutiny is the clean-up of the clipped hair. This process is critical. The loose fibers represent a potential infection risk because of the micro-organisms they can carry, but their clean-up can pose a logistical problem because of the time required to remove them. Research has demonstrated that the most commonly employed means of clean-up, the use of adhesive tape or sticky mitts, can be both ineffective and time-consuming in addition to posing an infection risk from cross-contamination. Recently published research evaluating surgical clippers fitted with a vacuum-assisted hair collection device highlights the potential for significant practice improvement in the perioperative hair removal clean-up process. These improvements include not only further mitigation of potential infection risk but also substantial OR time and cost savings.

  1. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.


    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  2. Unveiling information on opportunity costs in REDD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delacote, Philip; Palmer, Charles; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim


    Improving information about individual opportunity costs of deforestation agents has the potential to increase the efficiency of REDD when it takes the form of a payment for environmental services scheme. However, objectives pursued in REDD projects may vary across policy makers. Within a theoret......Improving information about individual opportunity costs of deforestation agents has the potential to increase the efficiency of REDD when it takes the form of a payment for environmental services scheme. However, objectives pursued in REDD projects may vary across policy makers. Within...... objectives in REDD-affected communities, having full information makes no difference to overall welfare as rents remain with agents. The amount of deforestation avoided will at least be as high as under asymmetric information. These results are illustrated with data collected on opportunity costs in Amazonas...

  3. What Employees Look for in First and Subsequent Employers. (United States)

    Bewayo, Edward D.


    A questionnaire was distributed to 1,060 employees of 33 companies. It asked about motivations for choosing first-time and subsequent employers. Results showed that employees generally choose their first full-time job for advancement opportunities, benefits, and skills usage, while salary is a chief consideration for job changers. (CH)

  4. Handbook for Home Economics Pre-Employment Laboratory Education Teachers. (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This handbook for home economics pre-employment laboratory education (PELE) teachers is divided into ten chapters. The first chapter provides detailed descriptions of each PELE program and possible career opportunities related to each program. Chapter 2 expounds upon the importance of the advisory council to the program. The third chapter…

  5. Opportunities for implementation of concepts and tools lean production aiming to improve competitiveness of enterprises of shoe APL Jaú / SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Favoni


    Full Text Available Lean production has been applied by organizations around the world as part of strategy to reduce waste in their value stream intending to improve performance. Despite the use of lean production concepts and tools have continually been introduced in different companies, the literature shows the most of application is identified in large companies than in Small-and  Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs. The reason can be the lack of financial and human resources available to the lean initiatives in these enterprises. However, a wide range of concepts and techniques of lean production can be applied without considerable financial investments. This paper aims to study the opportunities and difficulties of lean production applicability in SMEs. Case research was developed in three SMEs of industrial cluster of Jaú/SP and the results suggest that these companies face similar difficulties. Nevertheless, the study confirms that there are several opportunities to implement lean production concepts and techniques which can lead to improve performance in these companies.



    Dr. Mohan A.K


    Employment status is one of the developmental indicators of nation. For this two things are vital, one is availability of employment opportunities and second is skillful workforce. Employment and skills are linked with many other social, economic and demographic factors. India is hoping to excel economically using its youth power. Hence many skill development programmes linked with employment options are being provided to youth by government and non-government agencies. However, the issue of ...

  7. Facilitating employment opportunities for adults with intellectual and developmental disability through parents and social networks. (United States)

    Petner-Arrey, Jami; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Lysaght, Rosemary


    People with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) have historically had high unemployment and underemployment rates and continue to face significant barriers to attaining and sustaining employment. The purpose of this research, conducted in Ontario, Canada was to better understand the experiences of people with IDD gaining and keeping productivity roles. We used qualitative semi-structured interviews with 74 participants with IDD and their families or caregivers as proxies regarding the employment of a person with IDD. We selected a sample of persons from three different geographic regions in Ontario, Canada, and analyzed data through coding methods consistent with a grounded theory approach. Our results demonstrate the importance of parents and other members of social and family networks relative to connecting with work options and sustaining work over time, especially through continued advocacy and investment. Parents helped individuals with IDD negotiate the right job fit, though they often encountered challenges as a result of their efforts. Practitioners must understand how to support parents to be effective advocates for their adult children with IDD, assist them to develop and maintain their social networks and help them to avoid caregiver burnout. Implications for Rehabilitation People with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) face numerous challenges in indentifying work options and overcoming barriers to employment. Parents and other non-paid support members of social networks can be instrumental in ensuring that persons with IDD not only secure initial job placements, but also sustain employment and employment alternatives. Professionals that support persons with IDD can direct their efforts to helping persons with IDD develop strong social connections, as well as helping parents to prevent burnout.

  8. Evaluating opportunities for direct contracting between employers and physician-hospital organizations. (United States)

    Straley, P F; Swaim, C R


    Employers seeking to reduce health care expenditures are turning to direct contracting as a way to control provider cost increases. In a direct contract, the participation of third parties is minimized. The health care provider and a corporate buyer directly negotiate a price agreement for the delivery of health care services. However, as managed care penetration increases, the ability of hospitals and physicians to assume risk while providing high quality, cost effective care will be paramount. Physicians and hospitals who choose to work together may find a physician-hospital organization an effective vehicle to meet the current and future market challenges of direct contracting.

  9. Youth Employment and the Minimum Wage. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session. (United States)

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This congressional hearing contains testimony about the problem of youth unemployment and about the relationship between youth employment opportunities and the minimum wage. A special focus is the administration's proposal for the enactment of a youth employment opportunity wage, under which youth below the age of 20 could be paid 75 percent of…

  10. Consequences of Partner Incarceration for Women's Employment. (United States)

    Bruns, Angela


    Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).

  11. 40 CFR 7.60 - Prohibitions and requirements relating to employment. (United States)


    ..., segregate, or classify applicants or employees in any way that adversely affects their opportunities or... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions and requirements relating to employment. 7.60 Section 7.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL...

  12. 20 CFR 664.820 - Who is eligible to receive services under Youth Opportunity Grants? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is eligible to receive services under Youth Opportunity Grants? 664.820 Section 664.820 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Opportunity Grants § 664.820 Who is eligible to...

  13. Older Workers and Federal Work Programs: The Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP). (United States)

    Choi, Eunhee


    Federal older worker programs are attracting attention due to the growing number of older workers across the world. They are uniquely situated to provide out-of-market work opportunities to older job seekers, who often find their age a barrier to securing desirable jobs. In 2004, the Korean government established its own program, the Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP); however, literature for international readers on this innovative program is lacking. Thus, this article aims to provide an in-depth description of KSEP and a brief comparison between the Senior Community Service Employment Program in the U.S. and KSEP. The unique characteristics of KSEP include having the dual program foci on supplemental income and social participation; expanding work opportunities in the private sector beyond community-based jobs; accepting participants who are financially disadvantaged as well as those with a high desire for social participation regardless of their income; and broadening work opportunities for those with professional skills beyond repetitive, simple, and temporary jobs. This article may offer helpful insights to older worker advocates from various countries in creating or modifying their programs.

  14. Near-misses are an opportunity to improve patient safety: adapting strategies of high reliability organizations to healthcare. (United States)

    Van Spall, Harriette; Kassam, Alisha; Tollefson, Travis T


    Near-miss investigations in high reliability organizations (HROs) aim to mitigate risk and improve system safety. Healthcare settings have a higher rate of near-misses and subsequent adverse events than most high-risk industries, but near-misses are not systematically reported or analyzed. In this review, we will describe the strategies for near-miss analysis that have facilitated a culture of safety and continuous quality improvement in HROs. Near-miss analysis is routine and systematic in HROs such as aviation. Strategies implemented in aviation include the Commercial Aviation Safety Team, which undertakes systematic analyses of near-misses, so that findings can be incorporated into Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Other strategies resulting from incident analyses include Crew Resource Management (CRM) for enhanced communication, situational awareness training, adoption of checklists during operations, and built-in redundancy within systems. Health care organizations should consider near-misses as opportunities for quality improvement. The systematic reporting and analysis of near-misses, commonplace in HROs, can be adapted to health care settings to prevent adverse events and improve clinical outcomes.

  15. The use of the psychological contract to explain self-perceived employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sok, J.; Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.


    This study examines the relationship between the psychological contract and self-perceived employability (intra-organizational mobility intentions, employee development and perceived labor market opportunities). A survey was completed by 247 alumni of the Hotelschool The Hague, a hotel management

  16. Evaluation of effects of program for improving skills and motivation for employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica


    Full Text Available Contemporary programs that have been implemented in order to help unemployed reduce time for finding a job are based on clear theoretical background and empirical evidence. In addition to providing opportunities to learn necessary skills, these programs also incorporate important psychological components which will be addressed in this paper. The goal of these interventions is to reduce time for finding a job, prevent long-term unemployment and negative effects of unemployment on individuals“ mental health. The paper presents evaluation of the effects of these psychological interventions. The program was based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (2005, Bandura’s social-cognitive theory (1997 and cognitive-behavior theory of behavioral change (Meichenbaum, 1993. The goal of this program was to help unemployed individuals take an active role in finding a job, reduce time for finding a job and prevent negative effects of unemployment on their mental health. The target group of the program were young unemployed individuals ages 19 - 30, with at least high school level of education. Evaluation study was conducted on a sample of 92 male and female individuals who attended 3-day psychological program. Participants filled out five short scales specifically designed to assess variables that were targeted for change, such as, active approach to finding a job, attitudes toward process of employment, self-efficacy and resilience to frustrations and obstacles. Scales were administered before and after the training. Evaluation results, based on these pre and post measures, showed significant positive effects of this program on all five variables.

  17. Self-employment as a solution for attitudinal barriers: a case study. (United States)

    Quinton, Melanie C


    This paper uses a case study to examine attitudinal barriers to employment and underemployment. We follow the career path of PR, a woman with multiple physical impairments, as she seeks financial independence through several employment strategies. In these, she faced attitudinal barriers and employment situations without opportunity for advancement. Eventually, PR opens her own business, turning to an alternative loan program to acquire the funds necessary to purchase a ready-made vehicle that matches her needs for accessible transportation. Use of this vehicle to provide delivery services for her business has more than doubled her income.

  18. Gender Equality in Employment Utilizing Female Social Entrepreneurship in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407629459; Charitakis, Stelios


    Greek women are severely affected by the on-going financial crisis. They deal with the effects of unemployment and they experience a marginalised position in the Greek labour market due to deep-rooted stereotypes which result in inequality of employment opportunities. Greece has ratified the CEDAW

  19. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter


    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...... preference for tackling unemployment through a host of activation and training measures and seeking to get the unemployed into work as fast as possible. Other ways of problematizing and handling unemployment seem excluded by default....

  20. An Evaluation of Employability in Maritime Degree Programmes: The Undergraduate Students' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ŞEREMET


    Full Text Available In this study, the main aim is to investigate opinions of the students who study in 4th grade of the department of maritime transportation and management engineering of the maritime faculty on employability potential of the maritime degree programmes. In accordance with this purpose, in 2014-2015 academic year, opinions of 154 final year students (candidate seafarer from three different universities were qualitatively assessed. The major finding of the study is that professional experience based on internship causes various differences in the perception of seafarer candidates towards the profession and in their choice of profession. Moreover, the students' self-assessment on their transferable skills development showed that foreign language skills were not well improved, which is principally one of the most necessities in the job market. As a result, according to the opinions of the students it can be said that practical education and internship opportunities of the department make the biggest contribution to the profession. Nevertheless, after graduation, they feel that they might meet some challenges in the job market such as job shortages and tendency to lowering rates in the wages. The study was finalised by a set of suggestions which might help to improve employability potential of the programmes as well as the quality of student's learning experience in maritime programmes.

  1. Explaining entrepreneurial performance of solo self-employed from a motivational perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Nardo; Liebregts, Werner|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338990038; van Stel, André

    This paper investigates whether start-up motivation (opportunity versus necessity) influences entrepreneurial performance of an important subset of entrepreneurs, viz. the solo self-employed. We also explore to what extent human capital measures mediate this relation. We use a unique

  2. An Assessment of Future Employment Opportunities for Individuals Trained in the Automotive Trades. Working Paper. (United States)

    California State Dept. of Employment Development, Sacramento.

    The California Youth Authority (CYA) planned to offer a training program covering all aspects of the automotive trades to wards during their incarceration. Through analysis, it showed future job opportunities exist, due to increased job numbers and high turnover rate, for persons trained in the automotive trades in California over a 10-year period…

  3. Methodological proposal for theoretical analysis professional skills and its impact on employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Almanza Jiménez


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the level of employability of Engineers in Business Management Institute of Technology graduates Lazaro Cardenas in terms of their Professional competencies based on the initial hypothesis. The professional competencies have a direct positive relationship in which employability through the application of the survey method in Likert applied to both clusters, analysis of findings which show the impact of skills on employability, the existence of a positive correlation of both direct and opportunity was conducted to develop creativity and innovation through entrepreneurship.

  4. 76 FR 42131 - Agency Information Collection Activities: DHS Individual Complaint of Employment Discrimination (United States)


    ... Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 621 et seq.) (age), the Equal Pay Act (29 U.S.C. 206(d)) (sex... Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). DHS previously published this information...: It is the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal opportunity in employment...

  5. The flipped classroom: practices and opportunities for health sciences librarians. (United States)

    Youngkin, C Andrew


    The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services.

  6. Skills for Employment: Scaling Up Technical and Vocational ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help prepare youth in East and Southern Africa for economic opportunities, and improve the skills of new labour market entrants and existing workers. It will enhance the quality, relevance, and inclusiveness of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in the region. Youth and job opportunities ...

  7. Employment and First Year Experience of Beginner Primary School Teachers at Private Educational Institutions


    Turgay ÖNTAŞ


    In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative ...

  8. Opportunities for public procurement procedures efficiency and optimization improvement


    Junevičius, Algis; Ereminaitė, Simona


    Public procurement is one of the most actual problems of economics and a potential instrument of successful public policy, which can control money flows and manipulate the appearance of corruption opportunities. Procurement practices are relatively new in the public sector, but everyone knows the complicated regulation and coordination of this process. Despite the fact that society often discus about public procurement problems, the regulation of this process requires an in-depth evaluation b...

  9. 76 FR 62289 - National Disability Employment Awareness Month, 2011 (United States)


    ..., and out- build the rest of the world. During National Disability Employment Awareness Month, we... opportunity to apply for jobs, and it will allow Federal employees to better use technology at work. To win... for all people. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this third day of October, in the year...

  10. Who opts for self-employment after retirement? A longitudinal study in the Netherlands. (United States)

    van Solinge, Hanna


    Self-employment among older age groups is rising. A better understanding of the role of self-employment in extending the working lives of individuals is, therefore, relevant from a policy perspective. By bridging the gap in the literature on work/retirement decision-making and entrepreneurship, the present study examines the factors associated with entry into self-employment post-retirement, after a worker has left a regular salaried position. This decision is modelled as a choice between full retirement and prolonged labour force participation, in the form of either a typical wage-providing job or self-employment. Data were derived from the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Work and Retirement Panel, an ongoing longitudinal survey of older workers (50 years and over) employed by three private sector organisations and employed as civil servants in the Netherlands. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The results of this study show that the decision to pursue self-employment is primarily taken by retirees with relatively high levels of financial and human capital (wealth and educational attainment), those possessing entrepreneurial attitudes (high self-efficacy scores) and those who perceive their retirements to be completely involuntary. The results lend support to self-employment being selected as a postretirement path through opportunity rather than out of necessity. The fact that the retirements of the studied population were generally quite early, while not considered involuntary also suggests that the timing of the decision to retire may be driven by the emergence of new (business) opportunities.

  11. Instructional and Career Guidance in STEM: An Improvement Initiative to Create Opportunities for Female High School Students (United States)

    Belcher, Aaron Heath

    The purpose of this disquisition is to disseminate an improvement initiative in a public high school that addressed female Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) disparity in STEM classes. In this high school current instructional and career guidance practices were inadequate in providing female STEM students opportunities to experience relevant instruction in STEM through the application of real world practices. The improvement initiative identified four interventions using qualitative research that addressed the question, how do instructional and career guidance practices that emphasize the real world application of STEM impact the academic choices and career aspirations of female STEM students? The interventions include (1) instructional feedback (2) instructional resources, (3) career coaching, and (4) community college partnership. These interventions were chosen as a result of insider research methods that followed a scan, focus, summarize framework for understanding the problem. The aim of the improvement initiative was to develop structured protocols that impact STEM classroom and career guidance practices. An intervention team intended to identify opportunities for female STEM students to experience the real world application of STEM. First, the research context is explained. Then, a review of the literature explains foundation knowledge that led to the conceptual and leadership framework. Next, the research methodology is outlined including design and participants, survey instruments, procedures, timeline, and measures. The research methodology is followed by an analysis of data for instructional and career guidance practice efficacy. Finally, a discussion of the initiative and its outcome are illustrated through the stories of three female STEM students. As a result of these stories, the intervention team developed STEM classroom observation protocols. These protocols can be used by school leaders as a structure for STEM instruction and career

  12. WP 97 - An overview of women's work and employment in Zimbabwe


    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin


    This report provides information on Zimbabwe on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and employment. History...

  13. WP 92 - An overview of women's work and employment in Azerbaijan


    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin


    This report provides information on Azerbaijan on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and employment. _Hist...

  14. A case study of population health improvement at a Midwest regional hospital employer. (United States)

    Long, D Adam; Sheehan, Paula


    This article reviews the population health improvement initiative of a Midwest regional hospital employer. Services included health risk assessments, health education, and motivational health coaching conducted telephonically. Outcomes categories for this program evaluation comprised participation rates, participant satisfaction, health status and behavior change, productivity change, health care claims savings, and return on investment. Participation rates varied widely with incentive structure, although retention of participants in coaching programs averaged 89%. The participant satisfaction rate for the last 14 months of interventions was 96%. Four years of population health status and behavior trending showed significant improvements in smoking status, dietary fat and fiber intake, exercise, mental health (ie, stress, effects depressive symptoms in the past year, life satisfaction), readiness to change (ie, diet, exercise, stress, smoking, body weight), perceptions of overall health, an index of good health habits, sum of lifestyle health risks, and sum of risks and chronic conditions. Body mass index showed nonsignificant improvements during the years of greatest participation (years 2 to 4). Indicators of productivity demonstrated improvements as well. These gains were noted for employees across all health risk statuses, which suggests population health improvement strategies can influence productivity even for healthy employees. Program year 3 was evaluated for health care claims savings using a 2-stage multivariate regression approach. Stage 1 was a computation of propensity-to-participate scores. Stage 2 was an estimation of per member per month (PMPM) claims savings for participant cohorts using a propensity score-weighted linear regression analysis. Participants averaged $40.65 PMPM savings over the control population. Program return on investment, including incentive costs and vendor fees, was 2.87:1.

  15. Harnessing the market: The opportunities and challenges of privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The decision to privatize comes from a policy determination that the Government no longer needs particular assets or no longer needs to be in control of all the means by which products or services are obtained or delivered. Most broadly defined, privatization substitutes, in whole or in part, private market mechanisms for the traditional Government role as employer, financier, owner, operator, and/or regulator of a product or service. This definition admits a wide variety of actions, from innovative contractual arrangements to outright divestiture of activities or assets. But all of these actions share common objectives: to remove the agency from those activities that are not inherently governmental functions or core business lines; to improve the management of remaining activities; to reduce the costs of doing business; and to shift greater performance and financial risk to the private sector. This report by the Privatization Working Group provides an indepth analysis of the major issues that surround privatization within the Department of Energy (DOE). The report divides privatization initiatives at the DOE into three major types: divestiture of functions, contracting out, and asset transfers. It includes the results of a survey of the entire DOE system that identifies more than 200 potential privatization opportunities. The report also includes 13 case studies that explore actual DOE privatization efforts over the past 2 years. Additionally, it summarizes the key legal authorities that govern each of the three types of privatization opportunities in the DOE. The report makes a series of recommendations and outlines accompanying actions that will help the DOE seize the opportunities presented by privatization and confront its challenges.

  16. Opportunities outside private practice before 1860. (United States)

    Deacon, Harriet; van Heyningen, Elizabeth


    This chapter discusses the restrictions and opportunities which salaried employment offered Cape doctors in the pay of government and charitable organisations during the first two thirds of the nineteenth century. Although Cape doctors often acted as agents of the colonial state there were many nuances within this relationship. While military doctors played an important role in the profession during the first few decades of the century, by the 1840s civilian doctors were beginning to assert greater influence in Cape Town, if not yet in the Eastern Cape. Hospital posts and an expanding network of charitable organisations and government-funded district surgeoncies provided part-time employment for some doctors throughout the colony. This helped urban-based doctors to sustain practices and encouraged more doctors to practice in the smaller country towns serving large farming areas.

  17. Social media in paediatric heart disease: professional use and opportunities to improve cardiac care. (United States)

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Lee, Joyce M; Pasquali, Sara K


    Social media is any type of communication utilising electronic technology that follows two guiding principles: free publishing or sharing of content and ideas and group collaboration and inter-connectedness. Over the last 10 years, social media technology has made tremendous inroads into all facets of communication. Modalities such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are no longer viewed as new communication technologies. Owing to their tremendous usage, they are now common ways to conduct a dialogue with individuals and groups. Greater than 91% of teenagers and 89% of young adults routinely use social media. Further, 24% of teenagers reported being online "almost constantly". These forms of communication are readily used by individuals cared for in the field of paediatric cardiology; thus, they should carry significant interest for cardiology care providers; however, social media's influence on medicine extends beyond use by patients. It directly affects all medical providers, both users and non-users. Further, social media has the ability to improve care for patients with paediatric heart disease. This article details social media's current influence on paediatric cardiology, including considerations for professional use of social media and potential opportunities to improve cardiac care.

  18. Pediatric Price Transparency: Still Opaque With Opportunities for Improvement. (United States)

    Faherty, Laura J; Wong, Charlene A; Feingold, Jordyn; Li, Joan; Town, Robert; Fieldston, Evan; Werner, Rachel M


    Price transparency is gaining importance as families' portion of health care costs rise. We describe (1) online price transparency data for pediatric care on children's hospital Web sites and state-based price transparency Web sites, and (2) the consumer experience of obtaining an out-of-pocket estimate from children's hospitals for a common procedure. From 2015 to 2016, we audited 45 children's hospital Web sites and 38 state-based price transparency Web sites, describing availability and characteristics of health care prices and personalized cost estimate tools. Using secret shopper methodology, we called children's hospitals and submitted online estimate requests posing as a self-paying family requesting an out-of-pocket estimate for a tonsillectomy-adenoidectomy. Eight children's hospital Web sites (18%) listed prices. Twelve (27%) provided personalized cost estimate tool (online form n = 5 and/or phone number n = 9). All 9 hospitals with a phone number for estimates provided the estimated patient liability for a tonsillectomy-adenoidectomy (mean $6008, range $2622-$9840). Of the remaining 36 hospitals without a dedicated price estimate phone number, 21 (58%) provided estimates (mean $7144, range $1200-$15 360). Two of 4 hospitals with online forms provided estimates. Fifteen (39%) state-based Web sites distinguished between prices for pediatric and adult care. One had a personalized cost estimate tool. Meaningful prices for pediatric care were not widely available online through children's hospital or state-based price transparency Web sites. A phone line or online form for price estimates were effective strategies for hospitals to provide out-of-pocket price information. Opportunities exist to improve pediatric price transparency. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. 'Students-as-partners' scheme enhances postgraduate students' employability skills while addressing gaps in bioinformatics education. (United States)

    Mello, Luciane V; Tregilgas, Luke; Cowley, Gwen; Gupta, Anshul; Makki, Fatima; Jhutty, Anjeet; Shanmugasundram, Achchuthan


    Teaching bioinformatics is a longstanding challenge for educators who need to demonstrate to students how skills developed in the classroom may be applied to real world research. This study employed an action research methodology which utilised student-staff partnership and peer-learning. It was centred on the experiences of peer-facilitators, students who had previously taken a postgraduate bioinformatics module, and had applied knowledge and skills gained from it to their own research. It aimed to demonstrate to peer-receivers, current students, how bioinformatics could be used in their own research while developing peer-facilitators' teaching and mentoring skills. This student-centred approach was well received by the peer-receivers, who claimed to have gained improved understanding of bioinformatics and its relevance to research. Equally, peer-facilitators also developed a better understanding of the subject and appreciated that the activity was a rare and invaluable opportunity to develop their teaching and mentoring skills, enhancing their employability.

  20. 76 FR 36567 - Delegation of Authority for the Office of Departmental Equal Employment Opportunity (United States)


    ...'s EEO program be organized and structured to maintain a workplace that is free from discrimination... public's expectations of fair housing without discrimination, but also to HUD's employment of a workforce...

  1. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity. (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie


    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Re-engineering pre-employment check-up systems: a model for improving health services. (United States)

    Rateb, Said Abdel Hakim; El Nouman, Azza Abdel Razek; Rateb, Moshira Abdel Hakim; Asar, Mohamed Naguib; El Amin, Ayman Mohammed; Gad, Saad abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Mohamed Salah Eldin


    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for improving health services provided by the pre-employment medical fitness check-up system affiliated to Egypt's Health Insurance Organization (HIO). Operations research, notably system re-engineering, is used in six randomly selected centers and findings before and after re-engineering are compared. The re-engineering model follows a systems approach, focusing on three areas: structure, process and outcome. The model is based on six main components: electronic booking, standardized check-up processes, protected medical documents, advanced archiving through an electronic content management (ECM) system, infrastructure development, and capacity building. The model originates mainly from customer needs and expectations. The centers' monthly customer flow increased significantly after re-engineering. The mean time spent per customer cycle improved after re-engineering--18.3 +/- 5.5 minutes as compared to 48.8 +/- 14.5 minutes before. Appointment delay was also significantly decreased from an average 18 to 6.2 days. Both beneficiaries and service providers were significantly more satisfied with the services after re-engineering. The model proves that re-engineering program costs are exceeded by increased revenue. Re-engineering in this study involved multiple structure and process elements. The literature review did not reveal similar re-engineering healthcare packages. Therefore, each element was compared separately. This model is highly recommended for improving service effectiveness and efficiency. This research is the first in Egypt to apply the re-engineering approach to public health systems. Developing user-friendly models for service improvement is an added value.

  3. Perceptions of French private veterinary practitioners’ on their role in organic dairy farms and opportunities to improve their advisory services for organic dairy farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C


    are – from private veterinary practitioners’ point of views- i) to describe the roles of veterinarians today in organic dairy farmers’ animal health promotion strategies, ii) to identify factors related to organic farming which determine their role on organic dairy farms, and, iii) to identify opportunities...... for improvement of veterinarians’ advisory services for organic dairy herds. Fourteen veterinarians, providing herd health advisory services to dairy farmers, were interviewed using qualitative semi-structured research interviews. A modified approach to Grounded Theory was used for data collection and analysis...... veterinarians considered that there was no direct economic interest for them in the organic dairy sector and that could diminish their willingness to invest in this sector. Possible opportunities for improvement were identified; for example proposing more proactively advice via existing organisations, by making...

  4. Leverage as a State Variable for Employment, Inventory Accumulation, andFixed Investment


    Charles W. Calomiris; Athanasios Orphanides; Steven A. Sharpe


    The importance of a firm's balance sheet for determining its investment and employment decisions is the central assumption of macroeconomic models of 'debt deflation' or 'debt overhang.' According to these models, firm investment decisions are influenced not only by the fundamental opportunity set of the firm, but also by the firm's existing financial condition, especially its leverage. This paper tests that assumption by examining whether the responsiveness of employment, investment, and inv...

  5. Opportunities for Using Building Information Modeling to Improve Worker Safety Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Alomari


    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM enables the creation of a digital representation of a designed facility combined with additional information about the project attributes, performance criteria, and construction process. Users of BIM tools point to the ability to visualize the final design along with the construction process as a beneficial feature of using BIM. Knowing the construction process in relationship to a facility’s design benefits both safety professionals when planning worker safety measures for a project and designers when creating a project’s design. Success in using BIM to enhance safety partly depends on the familiarity of project personnel with BIM tools and the extent to which the tools can be used to identify and eliminate safety hazards. In a separate, ongoing study, the authors investigated the connection between BIM and safety to document the opportunities, barriers, and impacts. Utilizing an on-line survey of project engineers who work for construction firms together with a comprehensive literature review, the study found those who use BIM feel that it aids in communication of project information and project delivery, both of which have been found to have positive impacts on construction site safety. Further, utilizing the survey results, the authors apply the binary logistic regression econometric framework to better understand the factors that lead to safety professionals believing that BIM increases safety in the work place. In addition, according to the survey results, a large percentage of the engineers who use BIM feel that ultimately it helps to eliminate safety hazards and improve worker safety. The study findings suggest that improvements in safety performance across the construction industry may be due in part to increased use of BIM in the construction industry.

  6. Micro and macrolevel determinants of women's employment in six Arab countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Verloo, M.M.T.


    We analyzed determinants of women's employment with data for 40,792 women living in 103 districts of 6 Arab countries. We tested a new theoretical framework that addresses the roles of needs, opportunities, and values at multiple levels. At the microlevel (individual, family), socioeconomic factors,

  7. Concepts of Scenario Methods in Improvement of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Bielinska-Dusza


    Full Text Available Purpose of the study, principal objectives, scope of the investigation, methods employed results and principal conclusion. Uncertainty makes both theoreticians and practicioners face new tasks to fulfil. Enterprises, in order to win the competitive struggle must constantly improve their processes and structures. On the other hand, thinking in the categories of the future becomes really difficult nowadays. This creates particularly convenient conditions to apply scenario methods. In connection with the above, the purpose of this study is to characterize the essence of scenario methods employed in enterprise development. The article addresses the issue of factors conditioning proper selection of methods in the enterprise development process, the principles of scenario planning and the opportunities to apply other techniques and methods in scenario planning.

  8. Organizations' Ways of Employing Early Retirees: The Role of Age-Based HR Policies. (United States)

    Oude Mulders, Jaap; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop


    We examine whether from an organizational perspective it is possible to distinguish different ways of employing early retirees and explore how the employment of early retirees is related to the application of 4 age-based human resource (HR) policies, namely demotion, offering training opportunities to older workers, offering early retirement, and allowing flexible working hours. We perform a latent class analysis on a sample of 998 Dutch organizations in order to categorize them based on 3 dimensions of their employment of early retirees. We then run a multinomial logistic regression to relate the employment of early retirees to the 4 age-based HR policies. We distinguish 4 types of organizations based on their way of employing early retirees: nonusers (52.6%), users for mainly standard work (20.8%), users for mainly nonstandard work (9.8%), and users for standard and nonstandard work (16.7%). We find that organizations that apply demotion, offer early retirement, and allow flexible working hours are more likely to be users for mainly standard work. Also, organizations that do not offer early retirement are less likely to employ early retirees. Age-based HR policies, especially demotion, offering early retirement, and allowing flexible working hours, are conducive to the employment of early retirees for mainly standard work. Broader implementation of these policies may provide opportunities for older workers to make a more gradual transition from work to retirement. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Hurricane Loss Estimation Models: Opportunities for Improving the State of the Art. (United States)

    Watson, Charles C., Jr.; Johnson, Mark E.


    The results of hurricane loss models are used regularly for multibillion dollar decisions in the insurance and financial services industries. These models are proprietary, and this “black box” nature hinders analysis. The proprietary models produce a wide range of results, often producing loss costs that differ by a ratio of three to one or more. In a study for the state of North Carolina, 324 combinations of loss models were analyzed, based on a combination of nine wind models, four surface friction models, and nine damage models drawn from the published literature in insurance, engineering, and meteorology. These combinations were tested against reported losses from Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew as reported by a major insurance company, as well as storm total losses for additional storms. Annual loss costs were then computed using these 324 combinations of models for both North Carolina and Florida, and compared with publicly available proprietary model results in Florida. The wide range of resulting loss costs for open, scientifically defensible models that perform well against observed losses mirrors the wide range of loss costs computed by the proprietary models currently in use. This outcome may be discouraging for governmental and corporate decision makers relying on this data for policy and investment guidance (due to the high variability across model results), but it also provides guidance for the efforts of future investigations to improve loss models. Although hurricane loss models are true multidisciplinary efforts, involving meteorology, engineering, statistics, and actuarial sciences, the field of meteorology offers the most promising opportunities for improvement of the state of the art.

  10. Opportunity recognition: delineating the process and motivators for serial entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban


    Full Text Available Opportunity recognition is a fundamental research issue in entrepreneurship which this paper empirically investigates for serial entrepreneurs. Initially key definitions and boundary conditions of opportunity recognition are explored to elucidate the relevant motivators driving serial entrepreneurs. After operationalising the various concepts, data is collected by surveying serial entrepreneurs (n= 77 based on pre-determined selection criteria. Since the study’s objective is to build solid theory on these new phenomena, descriptive analysis on the empirical results is provided. To test the hypotheses inferential statistics employing parametric and non-parametric tests are used. The findings reveal that the opportunity recognition behaviours are manifest among serial entrepreneurs, with few significant differences on how many new, major businesses have been pursued, or whether they can be said to be successes.

  11. The Costs and Benefits of Employing an Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jacob

    Full Text Available Despite an ambition from adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD to be employed, there are limited opportunities for competitive employment for this group. Employment is not only an entitlement enjoyed by others in society, but employing adults with ASD also has economic benefits by decreasing lost productivity and resource costs for this group. Few studies have explored the cost-benefit ratio for employing adults with ASD and even fewer have taken the viewpoint of the employer, particularly applying this situation to ASD. Until such study occurs, employers may continue to be reluctant to employ adults from this group.This review aimed to examine the costs, benefits and the cost-benefit ratio of employing adults with ASD, from a societal perspective and from the perspective of employers.Eight databases were searched for scientific studies within defined inclusion criteria. These databases included CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Emerald, Ovid Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science.Enhancing the opportunities for adults with ASD to join the workforce is beneficial from a societal perspective, not only from an inclusiveness viewpoint, but also from a strict economic standpoint. Providing supported employment services for adults with ASD does not only cut the cost compared with providing standard care, it also results in better outcomes for adults with ASD. Despite the fact that ASD was the most expensive group to provide vocational rehabilitation services for, adults with ASD have a strong chance of becoming employed once appropriate measures are in place. Hence, rehabilitation services could be considered as a worthwhile investment. The current systematic review uncovered the fact that very few studies have examined the benefits, the costs and the cost-benefit ratio of employing an adult with ASD from the perspective of employers indicating a need for this topic to be further explored.

  12. African Mining, Gender and Local Employment (United States)

    Tolonen, A.; Kotsadam, A.


    Access to employment improves women's lives and is listed among the top five priorities for promoting gender equality in the 2012 World Development Report. This paper addresses this issue by exploring women's labor market opportunities in Africa within one very important and growing sector: extractive industries. Africa's opportunities are being transformed by new discoveries of natural resources and their rising prices, and the mining sector is the main recipient of foreign direct investment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Whether the discovery of natural resources is a blessing or a curse to a country's citizens is a contentious issue, and natural resource dependence has been linked to negative outcomes at the national level such as environmental degradation, conflict, elite capture of rents and low female labor force participation. Natural resource extraction has been argued to be a hindrance to women's labor market participation by increasing reservation wages and by decreasing market demand for female labor. We perform the first cross-national study testing these hypotheses with micro-data. To do this we combine survey data on 500,000 women in Sub-Saharan Africa with geo-coded data on 900 large-scale mines (see Figure 1). We treat mine openings and mine closings as natural experiments to explore local labor market changes. Industrial mines generate local structural shifts. Subsistence farming becomes less important for both men and women. However, men shift to skilled manual labor, and women shift to service sector jobs. This contradicts the hypothesis that natural resource extraction is detrimental to women, by not providing them with new job opportunities. However, in support of the hypothesis, women decrease their labor market participation more than men do. A back-of-the-envelope calculation estimates that 90,000 women across Africa benefit from service sector jobs as a direct result of industrial mining in their communities, but 280,000 women leave the labor force

  13. Labor-force participation patterns of older self-employed workers. (United States)

    Quinn, J F


    Self-employed persons work in a less constrained environment than do most wage-and-salary employees. Generally they are not subject to compulsory retirement nor are they affected by institutional rules concerning labor supply. Data from the 1969 and 1971 interviews of the Retirement History Study show that the labor supply and retirement patterns of the self-employed are distinct from those of other workers. The self-employed (espeically "career" self-employed) nearing retirement age are less likely to be out of the labor force, and those who continue in the labor force have a wider variation in the number of hours worked per year. Downward flexibility in hours (the option for gradual retirement) may be an extremely valuable aspect of self-employed status, and one wonders whether other older workers would also choose this pattern if more flexible opportunities were available. Despite these differences, labor-supply decisions of the self-employed are found to be influenced by many of the same factors that affect the rest of the workforce--health, eligibility for social security and pension benefits, the wage rate, and the flow of asset.

  14. Factors affecting employment among people with mobility disabilities in South Korea. (United States)

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jae-Young; Henderson, Terrence


    Employment provides not only income but also opportunities for social participation. This is especially important for people with disabilities, but the employment of disabled people in many countries is subject to significant barriers. This study examines the actual state of employment of people with mobility disabilities in Korea and which characteristics affect employment among people with mobility disabilities. Analysis of responses to the Community Integration Questionnaire and independent variables among the study participants showed that the rate of employment among people with mobility disabilities (34.2%) is much lower than that of the general population (60.3%), with only 13.2% in full-time positions. Gender appeared to be a statistically significant factor influencing employment. Other demographic characteristics such as age, level of education and cohabitation did not influence employment in this study, but people with less severe disability had a higher probability of being employed. Disability acceptance appeared to be a vital factor in the process of vocational rehabilitation. The use of vocational rehabilitation services did not have a significant effect on employment. These results suggest that the role of the formal services system in the employment process of disabled people is insufficient.

  15. ‘Students-as-partners’ scheme enhances postgraduate students’ employability skills while addressing gaps in bioinformatics education (United States)

    Mello, Luciane V.; Tregilgas, Luke; Cowley, Gwen; Gupta, Anshul; Makki, Fatima; Jhutty, Anjeet; Shanmugasundram, Achchuthan


    Abstract Teaching bioinformatics is a longstanding challenge for educators who need to demonstrate to students how skills developed in the classroom may be applied to real world research. This study employed an action research methodology which utilised student–staff partnership and peer-learning. It was centred on the experiences of peer-facilitators, students who had previously taken a postgraduate bioinformatics module, and had applied knowledge and skills gained from it to their own research. It aimed to demonstrate to peer-receivers, current students, how bioinformatics could be used in their own research while developing peer-facilitators’ teaching and mentoring skills. This student-centred approach was well received by the peer-receivers, who claimed to have gained improved understanding of bioinformatics and its relevance to research. Equally, peer-facilitators also developed a better understanding of the subject and appreciated that the activity was a rare and invaluable opportunity to develop their teaching and mentoring skills, enhancing their employability. PMID:29098185

  16. Unemployment, Nonstandard Employment, and Fertility: Insights From Japan's "Lost 20 Years". (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Shibata, Akihisa


    In this study, we examine relationships of unemployment and nonstandard employment with fertility. We focus on Japan, a country characterized by a prolonged economic downturn, significant increases in both unemployment and nonstandard employment, a strong link between marriage and childbearing, and pronounced gender differences in economic roles and opportunities. Analyses of retrospective employment, marriage, and fertility data for the period 1990-2006 indicate that changing employment circumstances for men are associated with lower levels of marriage, while changes in women's employment are associated with higher levels of marital fertility. The latter association outweighs the former, and results of counterfactual standardization analyses indicate that Japan's total fertility rate would have been 10 % to 20 % lower than the observed rate after 1995 if aggregate- and individual-level employment conditions had remained unchanged from the 1980s. We discuss the implications of these results in light of ongoing policy efforts to promote family formation and research on temporal and regional variation in men's and women's roles within the family.

  17. Interest in low-threshold employment among people who inject illicit drugs: implications for street disorder. (United States)

    Debeck, Kora; Wood, Evan; Qi, Jiezhi; Fu, Eric; McArthur, Doug; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas


    Income generation opportunities available to people who use illicit drugs have been associated with street disorder. Among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) we sought to examine street-based income generation practices and willingness to forgo these sources of income if other low-threshold work opportunities were made available. Data were derived from a prospective community recruited cohort of IDU. We assessed the prevalence of engaging in disorderly street-based income generation activities, including sex work, drug dealing, panhandling, and recycling/salvaging/vending. Using multivariate logistic regressions based on Akaike information criterion and the best subset selection procedure, we identified factors associated with disorderly income generation activities, and assessed willingness to forgo these sources of income during the period of November 2008 to July 2009. Among our sample of 874 IDU, 418 (48%) reported engaging in a disorderly income generation activity in the previous six months. In multivariate analyses, engaging in disorderly income generation activities was independently associated with high intensity stimulant use, as well as binge drug use, having encounters with police, being a victim of violence, sharing used syringes, and injecting in public areas. Among those engaged in disorderly income generation, 198 (47%) reported a willingness to forgo these income sources if given opportunities for low-threshold employment, with sex workers being most willing to engage in alternative employment. Engagement in disorderly street-based income generation activities was associated with high intensity stimulant drug use and various markers of risk. We found that a high proportion of illicit drug users were willing to cease engagement in these activities if they had options for causal low-threshold employment. These findings indicate that there is a high demand for low-threshold employment that may offer important opportunities to reduce drug

  18. Enhancing the Employability of Humanities Postgraduates: a Students as Academic Partners Project Report


    Andrews, Maggie; Crutchley, Jody; Jones, Laura; King, Elspeth; Miller, Rosemarie


    In an increasingly competitive employment market, postgraduates need to demonstrate more than the ‘skills, \\ud knowledge, attitudes and experiences that are closely \\ud associated with the research process’ (Golovushkina & \\ud Milligan, 2013: 199). Yet results indicate that Worcester \\ud postgraduate students remain unaware of the full range of \\ud opportunities that exist alongside postgraduate study, and \\ud how this affects their subsequent employability. This \\ud research, undertaken with...

  19. Barriers and Opportunities to Advancing Women in Leadership Roles in Vector Control: Perspectives from a Stakeholder Survey. (United States)

    Hayden, Mary H; Barrett, Erika; Bernard, Guyah; Toko, Eunice N; Agawo, Maurice; Okello, Amanda M; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Ernst, Kacey C


    Increasing the active participation of professional women in vector control (VC) activities may help promote greater gender equity in the workplace and reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases. This stakeholder survey examined the current roles and perspective of professionals employed in the VC sector in Kenya, Indonesia, India, and other countries. The largest barriers that women face in pursuing leadership roles in the VC sector include lack of awareness of career opportunities, limitations based on cultural norms, and the belief that VC is men's work. These barriers could be addressed through improving education and recruitment campaigns, as well as supporting higher education and mentoring programs. Females were almost six times more likely to be encouraged to pursue leadership positions in their organization compared with male respondents (odds ratio = 5.9, P > 0.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 29.42). These findings suggest that once women are recruited into the VC workforce, they face minimal discrimination and have increased leadership opportunities.

  20. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Tollestrup, Christian


    Creating and growing new businesses is basically about turning an entrepreneurial opportunity into future business. In literature the emergence of opportunities is often described as opportunity recognition or opportunity discovery, which points to the understanding that opportunities are out the...

  1. Evaluation of pig production practices, constraints and opportunities for improvement in smallholder production systems in Kenya. (United States)

    Mbuthia, Jackson Mwenda; Rewe, Thomas Odiwuor; Kahi, Alexander Kigunzu


    This study evaluated pig production practices by smallholder farmers in two distinct production systems geared towards addressing their constraints and prospects for improvement. The production systems evaluated were semi-intensive and extensive and differed in remoteness, market access, resource availability and pig production intensity. Data were collected using structured questionnaires where a total of 102 pig farmers were interviewed. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to define the socioeconomic characteristics of the production systems, understanding the different roles that pigs play, marketing systems and constraints to production. In both systems, regular cash income and insurance against emergencies were ranked as the main reasons for rearing pigs. Marketing of pigs was mainly driven by the type of production operation. Finances, feeds and housing were identified as the major constraints to production. The study provides important parameters and identifies constraints important for consideration in design of sustainable production improvement strategies. Feeding challenges can be improved through understanding the composition and proper utilization of local feed resources. Provision of adequate housing would improve the stocking rates and control mating.

  2. Employment outcomes following successful renal transplantation. (United States)

    Eng, Mary; Zhang, Jie; Cambon, Alexander; Marvin, Michael R; Gleason, John


    Data on employment outcomes after successful renal transplantation are few. We conducted this study to identify favorable factors for employment after transplantation. Adult patients rate was obtained where 56% of respondents were employed after transplantation. Race, marital status, previous transplant, and complicated post-operative course did not influence employment. Favorable factors include male gender (p=0.04), younger age (employment (pemployment was 4.9±6.3 months (median three months). Common reasons for unemployment were disability (59%) and retirement (27%). Finally, 7% correctly responded that Medicare benefits end 36 months following transplantation. Potentially modifiable factors to improve employment are earlier referral and better education regarding Medicare eligibility. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Municipal wastewater treatment in Mexico: current status and opportunities for employing ecological treatment systems. (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Roy, Eric D; White, John R


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment in Mexico, as well as to assess opportunities for using ecological treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands. In 2008, Mexico had 2101 MWW treatment plants that treated only 84 m3/s of wastewater (208 m3/s ofMWW were collected in sewer systems). Unfortunately, most treatment plants operate below capacity owing to a lack of maintenance and paucity of properly trained personnel. The main types of treatment systems applied in Mexico are activated sludge and waste stabilization ponds, which treat 44.3% and 18% of the MWW collected, respectively. As in many other developing nations around the world, there is a great need in Mexico for low-cost, low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. In 2005, 24.3 million Mexicans lived in villages of less than 2500 inhabitants and 14.1 million lived in towns with 2500-15,000 inhabitants. An opportunity exists to extend the use of ecological treatment systems to these low population density areas and considerably increase the percentage of MWW that is treated in Mexico. Small-scale and medium-size constructed wetlands have been built successfully in some states, primarily during the past five years. Several barriers need to be overcome to increase the adoption and utilization of ecological wastewater technology in Mexico, including: a lack of knowledge about this technology, scarce technical information in Spanish, and the government's concentration on constructing MWW treatment plants solely in urban areas.

  4. Information and Communication Technologies for Reconstruction and Development: Afghanistan Challenges and Opportunities (United States)


    market advantages and provide business and employment opportunities. Businesses can use cell phones to gain access to information about their domains...and UNDP, New York, 2001. District Communications Network (DCN) Franchisee Business Case Preliminary Recommendation for the MCIT, Alan Chelko, USAID

  5. Women's employment transitions around child bearing. (United States)

    Dex, S; Joshi, H; Macran, S; Mcculloch, A


    Women's increasing participation in the labor force since the 1950s demands that knowledge about their labor supply needs to keep pace with the changing world. One important change has occurred among mothers of small children, they are increasingly working for pay in successive generations, as the break in their employment has become increasingly shorter. Legislation was enacted in the UK to outlaw unequal pay and discrimination in employment on the basis of gender, while statutory maternity leave was introduced in 1976 and extended in 1986. The proportion of mothers taking maternity leave has since increased, as has full-time employment among mothers. The authors examine the transitions into and out of paid work which women make after childbirth, helping to determine whether recent generations of mothers have benefitted from the policy changes, whether all have benefitted equally, and whether any effects persist beyond the period around the first childbirth. Study data are drawn from the fifth sweep of the National Child Development Study (NCDS) 1958 birth cohort at age 33. The experiences of mothers in the 1958 generation suggests that women have begun to benefit from the equal opportunities provisions enacted in Britain during the 1970s. The age of the youngest child is the most important determinant of women's participation over the preschool years, and relatively better educated women have the highest degree of continuity in employment across childbirth.

  6. Better Together: Co-Location of Dental and Primary Care Provides Opportunities to Improve Oral Health. (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Martinez, Ana E; Crall, James J


    Community Health Centers (CHCs) are one of the principal safety-net providers of health care for low-income and uninsured populations. Co-locating dental services in primary care settings provides an opportunity to improve access to dental care. Yet this study of California CHCs that provide primary care services shows that only about one-third of them co-located primary and dental care services on-site. An additional one-third were members of multisite organizations in which at least one other site provided dental care. The remaining one-third of CHC sites had no dental care capacity. Policy options to promote co-location include requiring on-site availability of dental services, providing infrastructure funding to build and equip dental facilities, and offering financial incentives to provide dental care and recruit dental providers.

  7. [Opportunities to improve hospital emergency care of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis]. (United States)

    Navarro-Díaz, Francisco José; Amillo, Mónica; Rosales, María; Panadero, Ana; Ena, Javier


    To identify opportunities to improve the care of adult patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in the emergency room. Retrospective observational study of records for 2010 to 2013. Searching for International Classification of Diseases discharge codes 250.1–250.3 we identified patients who met the following 3 criteria: ketonuria of 100 mg/dL or more, diagnosed diabetes or glucose concentration of 250 mg/dL or more, and venous blood pH below 7.30 (or venous bicarbonate concentration less than 18 mEq/L). We reviewed the cases to extract patient and clinical characteristics and time from triage until diagnosis and start of treatment. The findings were compared with recommendations in clinical practice guidelines. We identified 49 episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (4 mild, 32 moderate, and 13 severe) in 43 patients. The median delay between triage until the first blood test results were available was 142 minutes (range, 59-597 minutes). In 50% of the cases fluid therapy was delayed beyond the time recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Intravenous insulin was also delayed (in 66%) and insuficient intravenous potassium was given in 65%. Sodium bicarbonate was overused (in 50%). Half the patients developed hypokalemia in the hospital. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment were often delayed for patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in our emergency department.

  8. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes. (United States)

    Spoor, Ellen; de Jonge, Jan; Hamers, Jan P H


    Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial) is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1) how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2) what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  9. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamers Jan PH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. Methods/design The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1 how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2 what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  10. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE


    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn


    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in

  12. Critical reflections on the currently leading definition of sustainable employability. (United States)

    Fleuren, Bram Bi; de Grip, Andries; Jansen, Nicole Wh; Kant, Imjert; Zijlstra, Fred Rh


    constitutes functioning in work. This is in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (14), in which functioning is seen from three different perspectives (body, activities, and participation). The ICF underlines the multifaceted and complex nature of functioning in which disease, environmental factors, and personal factors play a role. Similarly, the multifaceted nature of functioning is also illustrated by the fact that different disciplines focus on different aspects to understand functioning at work (15, 16). Second, SE is (partially) defined as the degree to which (i) employees are able to work throughout their entire working lives, and (ii) their work context enables them to do so. This suggests that SE is a set of interacting characteristics of the employee and the work context that codetermine the opportunities and conditions affecting employees' capacity to participate in the labor market throughout their working lives. As such, the definition describes an equal responsibility for employee and employer to maintain the employee's ability to work. This could be considered as a great merit, as research shows how strongly an employee's ability to function is influenced by both the individual, work and work-contextual factors (17). Third, van der Klink et al's definition recognizes that SE is an inherently longitudinal construct as clearly embedded in the words "throughout their working lives". This is essential as "sustainable" necessarily implies a time dimension. Need for further development Despite the aforementioned merits, there are important needs for improvement of van der Klink et al's definition of SE. First, it is not immediately clear from the definition what particular element(s) of the work situation constitute(s) SE. The paper provides some clarity by equating SE with the capability set it propagates, as evidenced by these statements: "… in an accompanying paper also published in this issue, we report on

  13. Gender and Sexual Mores in Educational Employment. A Legal Memorandum. (United States)

    Nolte, M. Chester, Ed.

    Discrimination against women in public employment may soon be coming to an end. Since 1972, when the Equal Opportunity Act was expanded to include public schools, the cause of women's rights has been gaining momentum. Today, although there are no quotas for women and men in education, many districts are under affirmative action mandates to move…

  14. Sustained employability of workers in a production environment : design of a stepped wedge trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-benefit of the POSE program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Brouwer, Sandra; Soer, Remko; Reneman, Michiel F.


    Background: Sustained employability and health are generating awareness of employers in an aging and more complex work force. To meet these needs, employers may offer their employees health surveillance programs, to increase opportunities to work on health and sustained employability. However,

  15. Sustained employability of workers in a production environment: design of a stepped wedge trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-benefit of the POSE program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, B.J.; de Boer, M.R.; Brouwer, S.; Soer, R.; Reneman, M.F.


    Background: Sustained employability and health are generating awareness of employers in an aging and more complex work force. To meet these needs, employers may offer their employees health surveillance programs, to increase opportunities to work on health and sustained employability. However,

  16. Opportunities of Continuing Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Ušeckienė


    , educational background, gender, and social status were surveyed. One of the major preconditions for the development of continuing adult education is the individual’s motivation to learn. It was ascertained that about three quarters (76 % of the respondents have learnt recently, the rest have not. The major factors that determine adults’ learning are increasing requirements in labour market, a need for self-development, expanding horizons and striving to gain more knowledge, have better career opportunities, consequently, improve welfare. The factors having least influence on adults’ learning are the opportunity of the transition to a new career and the possibility to interrelate with new people. It is important to analyse the reasons why adults do not learn. The most common reasons that prevent them from studies are as follows (in priority order: the lack of funds, it is difficult to combine work and studies, it is too late to learn, and it is difficult to combine studies and family matters. Hence, the reasons restricting the opportunities of continuing adult education are closely related to the research data. The respondents indicate the lack of funds for studies. This reflects the same funding problem that institutions organising and conducting adult education face. Therefore, financial possibilities in adult education are a sore problem not only to individuals, but to various organizations and the state as well. The respondents’ claim that it is difficult to combine work and studies reveals that employers are not concerned to encourage and organise employees’ learning; in the circumstances, such career givers’ policy is harmful both to employees and their education, and employers themselves as the quality of human resources comprises staff education, competences, skills, etc. The argument that it is too late to learn is rather abstract. It shows that people are not innovative; they are not interested in new developments and are rather indifferent to changing

  17. Work, employment, and mental illness: expanding the domain of Canadian social work. (United States)

    Shankar, Janki; Barlow, Constance A; Khalema, Ernest


    Despite established evidence that work and employment are an important component of recovery for people who experience mental illness, social work education in Canada seldom offers graduate training or courses on the significance of work in peoples' lives or on the practices involved in helping to gain and retain employment for these individuals. In this article the authors argue that the high levels of unemployment among people who experience mental illness, and the rising incidence of mental health and addictions issues in workplaces, offer the opportunity, as well as the mandate, for social work educators to provide professional education in the area of employment support and assistance.

  18. Increasing Employability by Implementing a Work-Integrated Learning Partnership Model in South Africa--A Student Perspective (United States)

    Taylor, Susanne; Govender, Cookie M.


    In South Africa, 70 per cent of the population is under 35 years old. South Africa has a vision to increase youth employment by focusing on education, training and skills development that will promote employment opportunities. A work-integrated learning (WIL) partnership model was developed to provide students with work experience and to increase…

  19. Ensuring Equitable Opportunities for Delaware's Undocumented Career and Technical School Population (United States)

    Vieni-Vento, Sarah R.


    This executive position paper proposes a legal process by which undocumented students enrolled in career and technical schools can obtain cooperative employment and pursue post-secondary opportunities. The recommended process is based on the current plight of undocumented students who are caught between harsh federal immigration policies and…

  20. The impact of intermediate care services on job satisfaction, skills and career development opportunities. (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan


    The purpose of this study was to examine, in depth, the impact of intermediate care services on staff job satisfaction, skills development and career development opportunities. Recruitment and retention difficulties present a major barrier to the effective delivery of intermediate care services in the UK. The limited existing literature is contradictory, but points to the possibility of staff deskilling and suggests that intermediate care is poorly understood and may be seen by other practitioners as being of lower status than hospital work. These factors have the potential to reduce staff morale and limit the possibilities of recruiting staff. The research is based on interviews with 26 staff from case studies of two intermediate care services in South Yorkshire. Participants reported high levels of job satisfaction, which was because of the enabling philosophy of care, increased autonomy, the setting of care and the actual teams within which the workers were employed. For most disciplines, intermediate care facilitated the application of existing skills in a different way; enhancing some skills, while restricting the use of others. Barriers to career development opportunities were attributed to the relative recency of intermediate care services, small size of the services and lack of clear career structures. Career development opportunities in intermediate care could be improved through staff rotations through acute, community and intermediate care to increase their awareness of the roles of intermediate care staff. The non-hierarchical management structures limits management career development opportunities, instead, there is a need to enhance professional growth opportunities through the use of consultant posts and specialization within intermediate care. This study provides insight into the impact of an increasingly popular model of care on the roles and job satisfaction of workers and highlights the importance of this learning for recruitment and retention of

  1. Examining the Professional Development Experiences and Non-Technical Skills Desired for Geoscience Employment (United States)

    Houlton, H. R.; Ricci, J.; Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C.


    Professional development experiences, such as internships, research presentations and professional network building, are becoming increasingly important to enhance students' employability post-graduation. The practical, non-technical skills that are important for succeeding during these professional development experiences, such as public speaking, project management, ethical practices and writing, transition well and are imperative to the workplace. Thereby, graduates who have honed these skills are more competitive candidates for geoscience employment. Fortunately, the geoscience community recognizes the importance of these professional development opportunities and the skills required to successfully complete them, and are giving students the chance to practice non-technical skills while they are still enrolled in academic programs. The American Geosciences Institute has collected data regarding students' professional development experiences, including the preparation they receive in the corresponding non-technical skills. This talk will discuss the findings of two of AGI's survey efforts - the Geoscience Student Exit Survey and the Geoscience Careers Master's Preparation Survey (NSF: 1202707). Specifically, data highlighting the role played by internships, career opportunities and the complimentary non-technical skills will be discussed. As a practical guide, events informed by this research, such as AGI's professional development opportunities, networking luncheons and internships, will also be included.

  2. Mothers’ Part-time Employment: Associations with Mother and Family Well-being (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion


    The associations between mothers’ part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children’s preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child-rearing years. PMID:22004432

  3. Mothers' part-time employment: associations with mother and family well-being. (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion


    The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.

  4. Human Capital Quality and Development: An Employers' and Employees' Comparative Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Olimpia


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare the employers' and employees' insights on human capital quality defining and human capital development at organisational level, based on a survey carried out in the county of Satu Mare, Romania. Our findings show that as human capital buyers, employers understand by human capital quality professional background and skills, professional behaviour and efficiency and productivity for the organisation. As human capital sellers, for employees human capital quality means health and the ability to learn and to be suitable to the job requirements. Regarding the opportunities to develop the organisational human capital, the views of employers and employees are very different when the level of discussion is international (macro-level. Employees consider that the international environment has a greater impact on human capital development in their organisation as the employers.

  5. Employer Health and Productivity Roadmap™ strategy. (United States)

    Parkinson, Michael D


    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Total Worker Health™ Program defines essential elements of an integrated health protection and health promotion model to improve the health, safety, and performance of employers and employees. The lack of a clear strategy to address the core drivers of poor health, excessive medical costs, and lost productivity has deterred a comprehensive, integrated, and proactive approach to meet these challenges. The Employer Health and Productivity Roadmap™, comprising six interrelated and integrated core elements, creates a framework of shared accountability for both employers and their health and productivity partners to implement and monitor actionable measures that improve health, maximize productivity, and reduce excessive costs. The strategy is most effective when linked to a financially incentivized health management program or consumer-directed health plan insurance benefit design.

  6. Employing Young Talent from Underserved Populations: Designing a Flexible Organizational Process for Assimilation and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Mark Langer


    Full Text Available This article describes an ongoing 13-year-old program designed to improve the ability of organizations to assimilate young talent from underserved populations, mostly students who have recently graduated from high school. Although many firms have internship and orientation programs, few have well-tested organizational approaches for assimilating 17-20 year-olds into their organizations in an efficient and productive manner. The objective of this study is to describe and evaluate the solution introduced by Workforce Opportunity Services (WOS, a non-profit agency that provides organizations with well-trained talent from underserved local communities. The WOS model is a systemic design involving a lead agency (WOS, corporate clients, training partnerships with local colleges and universities, and underutilized human capital. Over 290 students have completed the WOS program and obtained long-term employment, mostly in IT jobs that normally are outsourced. The results of the study show that companies have success employing young talent when they follow the WOS organizational process. Companies need to have patience with WOS student employees, but within six months most members of the WOS program make positive contributions to their sponsoring firm and have a strong likelihood of becoming permanently employed. Implications of the WOS model for organization design are discussed.

  7. Micro- and Macrolevel Determinants of Women's Employment in Six Arab Countries (United States)

    Spierings, Niels; Smits, Jeroen; Verloo, Mieke


    We analyzed determinants of women's employment with data for 40,792 women living in 103 districts of 6 Arab countries. We tested a new theoretical framework that addresses the roles of needs, opportunities, and values at multiple levels. At the microlevel (individual, family), socioeconomic factors, care duties, and traditionalism were important;…

  8. Predicting the effect of disability on employment status and income. (United States)

    Randolph, Diane Smith


    Research shows that participation in employment contributes to life satisfaction for persons with disabilities [18]. Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) sought to prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities in the workplace, however, the ADA's effectiveness remains controversial. This research utilizes data from the disability supplement of the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the impact of disability status on predicting employment status and income. Confounding variables such as gender, age, educational level, race and marital/parental status are examined regarding their influence on results. Results from analysis utilizing zero-order correlation, linear and logistic regression analysis techniques revealed that disability status has a significant predictive effect on inability to work. Furthermore, results continue to show that despite legislation, the higher the level of disability, the lower the employment status (those employed for wages) and income. Finally, disability status, coupled with being female or decreased educational level, consistently shows significance in predicting lower employment status and income than men or non-minorities with disabilities. Future research opportunities and policy implications are discussed with regard to the results presented.

  9. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal. (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet


    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  10. Resisting the "Employability" Doctrine through Anarchist Pedagogies & Prefiguration (United States)

    Osborne, Natalie; Grant-Smith, Deanna


    Increasingly those working in higher education are tasked with targeting their teaching approaches and techniques to improve the "employability" of graduates. However, this approach is promoted with little recognition that enhanced employability does not guarantee employment outcomes or the tensions inherent in pursuing this agenda. The…

  11. Health Benefits In 2015: Stable Trends In The Employer Market. (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Panchal, Nirmita; Whitmore, Heidi; Damico, Anthony; Kenward, Kevin; Long, Michelle


    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2015, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,251 for single coverage and $17,545 for family coverage. Both premiums rose 4 percent from 2014, continuing several years of modest growth. The percentage of firms offering health benefits and the percentage of workers covered by their employers' plans remained statistically unchanged from 2014. Eighty-one percent of covered workers were enrolled in a plan with a general annual deductible. Among those workers, the average deductible for single coverage was $1,318. Half of large employers either offered employees the opportunity or required them to complete biometric screening. Of firms that offer an incentive for completing the screening, 20 percent provide employees with incentives or penalties that are tied to meeting those biometric outcomes. The 2015 survey included new questions on financial incentives to complete wellness programs and meet specified biometric outcomes as well as questions about narrow networks and employers' strategies related to the high-cost plan tax and the employer shared-responsibility provisions of the Affordable Care Act. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Returns to Qualification in Informal Employment: A Study of Urban Youth in Egypt


    Frost, Jon


    Informal employment is a reality for roughly two-thirds of economically active youth in urban Egypt, and it has been argued to be correlated with poverty, poor working conditions, and few opportunities for advancement. This essay analyzes whether informal employment rewards job qualification measures, using survey data from 2006 and a Blinder-Oaxaca wage decomposition. After creating a taxonomy of formal, para-formal, and informal modes of qualification, it is shown that formal public and for...

  13. Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development (United States)

    Ruhm, Christopher J.


    A more pessimistic assessment to study the effects of maternal employment on children's learning abilities is presented. Parental investments during infancy and childhood not only result in improved cognitive development but also in overall improvement in learning abilities.

  14. Renewable energy scenario in India: Opportunities and challenges (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Ganguly, Sourav; Das, Ayanangshu; Sen, Joyjeet; Dey, Sourav


    Majority of the power generation in India is carried out by conventional energy sources, coal and fossil fuels being the primary ones, which contribute heavily to greenhouse gas emission and global warming. The Indian power sector is witnessing a revolution as excitement grips the nation about harnessing electricity from various renewable energy sources. Electricity generation from renewable sources is increasingly recognized to play an important role for the achievement of a variety of primary and secondary energy policy goals, such as improved diversity and security of energy supply, reduction of local pollutant and global greenhouse gas emissions, regional and rural development, and exploitation of opportunities for fostering social cohesion, value addition and employment generation at the local and regional level. This focuses the solution of the energy crisis on judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources, such as biomass, solar, wind, geothermal and ocean tidal energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy scenario of India as well as extrapolates the future developments keeping in view the consumption, production and supply of power. Research, development, production and demonstration have been carried out enthusiastically in India to find a feasible solution to the perennial problem of power shortage for the past three decades. India has obtained application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors too. There are ample opportunities with favorable geology and geography with huge customer base and widening gap between demand and supply. Technological advancement, suitable regulatory policies, tax rebates, efficiency improvement in consequence to R&D efforts are the few pathways to energy and environment conservation and it will ensure that these large, clean resource bases are exploited as quickly and cost effectively as possible. This paper gives an overview of the potential renewable energy resources

  15. Impact of low vision on employment. (United States)

    Mojon-Azzi, Stefania M; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Mojon, Daniel S


    We investigated the influence of self-reported corrected eyesight on several variables describing the perception by employees and self-employed persons of their employment. Our study was based on data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). SHARE is a multidisciplinary, cross-national database of microdata on health, socioeconomic status, social and family networks, collected on 31,115 individuals in 11 European countries and in Israel. With the help of ordered logistic regressions and binary logistic regressions, we analyzed the influence of perceived visual impairment--corrected by 19 covariates capturing socioeconomic and health-related factors--on 10 variables describing the respondents' employment situation. Based on data covering 10,340 working individuals, the results of the logistic and ordered regressions indicate that respondents with lower levels of self-reported general eyesight were significantly less satisfied with their jobs, felt they had less freedom to decide, less opportunity to develop new skills, less support in difficult situations, less recognition for their work, and an inadequate salary. Respondents with a lower eyesight level more frequently reported that they feared their health might limit their ability to work before regular retirement age and more often indicated that they were seeking early retirement. Analysis of this dataset from 12 countries demonstrates the strong impact of self-reported visual impairment on individual employment, and therefore on job satisfaction, productivity, and well-being. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A randomized controlled trial to improve health among women receiving welfare in the US: the relationship between employment outcomes and the economic recession. (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Kairalla, John A; Sheely, Amanda L


    The high prevalence of health conditions among U.S. women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, or 'welfare') impedes the ability of many in this group to move from 'welfare-to-work', and the economic recession has likely exacerbated this problem. Despite this, few interventions have been developed to improve employment outcomes by addressing the health needs of women receiving TANF, and little is known about the impact of economic downturns on the employment trajectory of this group. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the efficacy of a public health nursing (PHN) intervention to address the chronic health condition needs of 432 American women receiving TANF, we examine the effect of the intervention and of recession exposure on employment. We further explore whether intervention effects were modified by select sociodemographic and health characteristics. Both marginal and more robust intervention effects were noted for employment-entry outcomes (any employment, p = 0.05 and time-to-employment, p = 0.01). There were significant effects for recession exposure on employment-entry (any employment, p = 0.002 and time-to-employment, p understanding of the health and employment dynamics among this group of disadvantaged women under variable macroeconomic conditions, and have implications for guiding health and TANF-related policy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seizing opportunities for change at the operational level. (United States)

    Restrepo, Diana; Charron-Latour, Julie; Pourmonet, Hugo; Bassetto, Samuel


    Purpose - This paper presents a method for handling everyday opportunities for improvement, led by floor staff in healthcare institutions. More than 400,000 incidents and accidents were recorded in Quebec healthcare institutions in 2013. The burden of treatment falls on hospital floor staff. The purpose of this paper is to raise the visibility of this problem and support staff better in their efforts to handle opportunities for improvement. Design/methodology/approach - Based on issues identified in the literature, which have been found to exist in various organizations, the method involved reviewing practices in the field, proposing a solution, and testing it to assess its relevance and limitations. The method was tested in partnership with the Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, in the internal medicine unit at Hôtel-Dieu campus. The test lasted three months. Indicators from this test have been compared to results in the literature. Findings - The proposed method presents a 68 per cent increase in ideas generated per person and per week compared to the reference study. The mean time for closing actions was about 41 per cent better (lower) than in the reference case. Research limitations/implications - The test lasted 15 weeks; a longer test is needed to collect more data. Practical implications - The first practical implication of this study was the creation of a method allowing employees to seize opportunities for improvement in their daily work. The application of this method revealed: first, the operational nature of the proposal (empowerment of the work team); second, the operationalization of continuous improvement (71 per cent of ideas were finalized while the initiative was monitored); third, the smooth operation of the mechanism for facilitating continuous improvement (organization of weekly meetings and team participation in these meetings in 90 per cent of cases); and fourth, a shared feeling that intra- and inter-team communication had

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan


    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  19. Improvement of social-economic partnership in the youth labor market segment: the institutional forms and implementation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznyak Maria, I.


    Full Text Available In the paper institutional features and forms of social-economic partnership as regulation institute of a youth segment of labor market are considered. Use of interdisciplinary approach in combination with methodology of institutionalism forms new opportunities for the solution of problems of youth employment through the directions of improvement of tools of social-economic partnership on a youth segment of labor market of the Rostov region. Classification offorms of social-economic partnership in its formal and informal aspects is considered, methods of realization of the mechanism of social- economic partnership at primary and secondary employment of youth are defined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varol DUR


    Full Text Available With its liberal welfare regime and different understanding on social issues, United Kingdom separates from continental European countries. These differences create opportunities for UK’s governments to materialize “most advanced” neo-liberal reforms in the fi eld of public employment services. Not only the current situation of marketized employment services in UK, but also its historical developments provide numbers of positive and negative examples for the countries planning to implement similar reforms.. This study does not reach a conclusion indicating that UK has best or worst practices in this fi eld. However, it suggests that the UK’s example contains very valuable inputs about pros and cons of marketization in public employment services and how this process should manage. In this scope, the study aims to derive lessons from UK case for Turkish public employment services from objective point of view.

  1. Translating scientific advances to improved outcomes for children with sickle cell disease: a timely opportunity. (United States)

    Raphael, Jean L; Kavanagh, Patricia L; Wang, C Jason; Mueller, Brigitta U; Zuckerman, Barry


    Despite the recent advances made in the care of children with sickle cell disease (SCD), premature mortality, especially among older children and young adults, remains a hallmark of this disease. The lack of survival gains highlights the translational gap of implementing innovations found efficacious in the controlled trial setting into routine clinical practice. Health services research (HSR) examines the most effective ways to finance, organize, and deliver high quality care in an equitable manner. To date, HSR has been underutilized as a means to improve the outcomes for children with SCD. Emerging national priorities in health care delivery, new sources of funding, and evolving electronic data collection systems for patients with SCD have provided a unique opportunity to overcome the translational gap in pediatric SCD. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive HSR agenda to create patient-specific evidence of clinical effectiveness for interventions used in the routine care setting, understand the barriers faced by clinicians to providing high quality care, assess and improve the interactions of patients with the health care system, and measure the quality of care delivered to increase survival for all children and young adults with SCD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Encouraging creativity and employability skills in undergraduate microbiologists. (United States)

    Verran, Joanna


    Key skills such as communication and critical thinking are essential for today's microbiology graduate. There are many opportunities within the undergraduate curriculum to help students to use, develop and appreciate their own unique set of skills. This article describes personal experiences of research-led teaching at Manchester Metropolitan University (UK) which have been used successfully to encourage creativity and other employability skills in both large and smaller classroom settings, and through individual student project work. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Opportunity identification and evaluation in franchisee business start-ups


    Brookes, Maureen; Altinay, Levent; Wang, Xuan Lorna; Yeung, Ruth


    Purpose - This paper examines franchisees’ business start-ups from an entrepreneurial perspective, adopting a process representative of entrepreneurship to examine opportunity identification and evaluation by franchisees and to analyse factors that influence this process.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative study was employed and data collected using semi-structured interviews with a sample of service industry franchisees in Macau.\\ud \\ud Findings - The study identifies that so...

  4. Enhancing Student Employability through Ethics-Based Outreach Activities and Open Educational Resources (United States)

    Lewis, David I.


    This paper reports on how science communication final year undergraduate research projects and educational internships can be utilised to provide opportunities for students to develop and utilise key employability skills. In the current difficult economic climate, the report "Working towards your future: Making the most of your time in higher…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Liviu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, professional and personal satisfaction opportunities which are provided by the labour market at local level, in country and abroad. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are presented about Romanian youths' labour market within the European context during the transition period. The impact of the crisis on youths' labour market is analysed, highlighting the challenges and opportunities, the particularities of the newly created jobs and especially the knowledge, skills and competencies requirements (KSC. The authors propose both the improvement of the systems of indicators for defining the potential and presence of youth on the labour market, the economic and social impact of external mobility of young graduates and an integrated scheme of policy measures for promoting adaptability and performance integration on Romanian labour market of youth. Particular attention is paid to presenting policy instruments for halting/diminishing the brain drain and brain shopping phenomena by promoting an attractive (professionally and monetary supply for employment in Romania's local economy. The authors succeed in highlighting the functional links between the education market (labour force supply and labour market (employment demand of the business environment underpinning the requirement of integrated management of labour potential in the years preceding studies' finalization and up to the post-insertion years by multi-criteria analysis models and graduate career tracking

  6. Computers and Communications. Improving the Employability of Persons with Handicaps. (United States)

    Deitel, Harvey M.


    Reviews applications of computer and communications technologies for persons with visual, hearing, physical, speech, and language impairments, as well as the effects of technologies on transportation, work at home, education, and other aspects affecting the employment of the disabled. (SK)

  7. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Zelepouga, Serguei [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gnatenko, Vitaliy [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Saveliev, Alexei [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Jangale, Vilas [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Li, Hailin [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Getz, Timothy [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Mather, Daniel [Digital Engines, New York, NY (United States)


    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  8. Improving the photovoltaic parameters in Quantum dot sensitized solar cells through employment of chemically deposited compact titania blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendra Prasad, M.B., E-mail: [Advanced Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, SavitibaiPhule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla, Pune, 411023 (India); Kadam, Vishal [Advanced Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, SavitibaiPhule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Joo, Oh-Shim [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box No. 131, Chongryang, Seoul, 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Pathan, Habib M. [Advanced Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, SavitibaiPhule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India)


    Incorporation of compact blocking layer at the Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO)/Electrolyte interface is an effective method to improve the device performance in QDSSC through mitigation of electron recombinations at this interface. This paper reports the most facile and cost effective method of depositing a rutile titania Compact Layer (CL) over Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) substrate and its application in titania based CdS QD sensitized solar cells. The deposited compact layers are characterized to study their structural, optical, morphological and electrochemical properties using X-Ray Diffractometry, UV–Visible spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry and Contact Angle measurements. Sandwich solar cells are fabricated using these CL based electrodes and characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Open Circuit Voltage Decay and J-V characteristics. The CL incorporated CdS QDSSC showed more than 100% increase in the photoconversion efficiency (1.68%) as compared to its bare FTO counterpart (0.73%) proving the efficacy of employed strategy. - Highlights: • Deposited titania compact layer by a facile room temperature chemical bath method. • Employed this to mitigate back electron transfer at TCO/Electrolyte interface. • Compact layer incorporation has improved the solar cell performance by 130%.

  9. Estimating the opportunity costs of bed-days. (United States)

    Sandmann, Frank G; Robotham, Julie V; Deeny, Sarah R; Edmunds, W John; Jit, Mark


    Opportunity costs of bed-days are fundamental to understanding the value of healthcare systems. They greatly influence burden of disease estimations and economic evaluations involving stays in healthcare facilities. However, different estimation techniques employ assumptions that differ crucially in whether to consider the value of the second-best alternative use forgone, of any available alternative use, or the value of the actually chosen alternative. Informed by economic theory, this paper provides a taxonomic framework of methodologies for estimating the opportunity costs of resources. This taxonomy is then applied to bed-days by classifying existing approaches accordingly. We highlight differences in valuation between approaches and the perspective adopted, and we use our framework to appraise the assumptions and biases underlying the standard approaches that have been widely adopted mostly unquestioned in the past, such as the conventional use of reference costs and administrative accounting data. Drawing on these findings, we present a novel approach for estimating the opportunity costs of bed-days in terms of health forgone for the second-best patient, but expressed monetarily. This alternative approach effectively re-connects to the concept of choice and explicitly considers net benefits. It is broadly applicable across settings and for other resources besides bed-days. © 2017 The Authors Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Nature-based supportive care opportunities: a conceptual framework. (United States)

    Blaschke, Sarah; O'Callaghan, Clare C; Schofield, Penelope


    Given preliminary evidence for positive health outcomes related to contact with nature for cancer populations, research is warranted to ascertain possible strategies for incorporating nature-based care opportunities into oncology contexts as additional strategies for addressing multidimensional aspects of cancer patients' health and recovery needs. The objective of this study was to consolidate existing research related to nature-based supportive care opportunities and generate a conceptual framework for discerning relevant applications in the supportive care setting. Drawing on research investigating nature-based engagement in oncology contexts, a two-step analytic process was used to construct a conceptual framework for guiding nature-based supportive care design and future research. Concept analysis methodology generated new representations of understanding by extracting and synthesising salient concepts. Newly formulated concepts were transposed to findings from related research about patient-reported and healthcare expert-developed recommendations for nature-based supportive care in oncology. Five theoretical concepts (themes) were formulated describing patients' reasons for engaging with nature and the underlying needs these interactions address. These included: connecting with what is genuinely valued, distancing from the cancer experience, meaning-making and reframing the cancer experience, finding comfort and safety, and vital nurturance. Eight shared patient and expert recommendations were compiled, which address the identified needs through nature-based initiatives. Eleven additional patient-reported recommendations attend to beneficial and adverse experiential qualities of patients' nature-based engagement and complete the framework. The framework outlines salient findings about helpful nature-based supportive care opportunities for ready access by healthcare practitioners, designers, researchers and patients themselves. © Article author(s) (or their

  11. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  12. New research opportunities for roadside safety barriers improvement (United States)

    Cantisani, Giuseppe; Di Mascio, Paola; Polidori, Carlo


    Among the major topics regarding the protection of roads, restraint systems still represent a big opportunity in order to increase safety performances. When accidents happen, in fact, the infrastructure can substantially contribute to the reduction of consequences if its marginal spaces are well designed and/or effective restraint systems are installed there. Nevertheless, basic concepts and technology of road safety barriers have not significantly changed for the last two decades. The paper proposes a new approach to the study aimed to define possible enhancements of restraint safety systems performances, by using new materials and defining innovative design principles. In particular, roadside systems can be developed with regard to vehicle-barrier interaction, vehicle-oriented design (included low-mass and extremely low-mass vehicles), traffic suitability, user protection, working width reduction. In addition, thanks to sensors embedded into the barriers, it is also expected to deal with new challenges related to the guidance of automatic vehicles and I2V communication.

  13. Searching for a Job on the Contemporary Labour Market: The Role of Dispositional Employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Tomas


    Full Text Available By acknowledging the uncertainty and unpredictability of the job search process in an unemployment setting, the present study explored the predictive strength of dispositional employability in job search behaviours. Dispositional employability has been recognized as a potentially important personal resource that promotes job opportunities. However, it has rarely been assessed in an unemployment setting to date. According to recent employability models that differentiate between distal (i.e., personal strengths and proximal (e.g., perceived employability determinants of behaviour on the labour market, we hypoth- esized that: (i dispositional employability relates positively to job search intensity and (ii perception of one’s employment possibilities (i.e., perceived employability serves as an explanatory mechanism of this relationship. The hypothesized structural model was tested among a heterogeneous sample of 533 unemployed persons in Croatia. The results of structural equation modelling provided support for our hypotheses: dispositional employability related positively to job search intensity via perceived employ- ability. Accordingly, nurturing dispositional employability may be beneficial for unemployed persons as it relates positively to engagement in job search behaviour.

  14. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoyana, Robert B.; Smith, Timothy F.


    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: → Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. →Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. → Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  15. Opportunities of real innovation projects for the acquisition of professional competences in Engineering (United States)

    de la Haba, M. J.; Taguas, E. V.; del Campillo, M. C.; Guerrero, J. E.; Pérez-Marín, M. D.


    The internationalization of the curricula and the development of skills for the labor market are core objectives of the Bologna Process. In this work, the structure and the organization of a Master Course "Innovation and New Technologies in Agrifood Engineering", in the University of Cordoba is presented. The theorist contents are focused on: 1) the opportunities (public and private) for the creation of Technology-Based Innovative Enterprises (TBIE) by emphasizing cooperation between stakeholders to enhance the skills of students; 2) the role of the University for supporting them and for collaborating in the "Open Innovation" among companies in different European countries. In the practical topics, the students must use that information for preparing a real innovation project of agrifood products which is tutored by the teachers and is presented and evaluated by a member of CTA (Corporación Tecnológica de Andalucía), an institution of sponsoring of innovation and technological projects. The evaluation of the students about its utility and the organization aspects corresponding to the course 2010-2011 was 4.2 in scale from 0 to 5. In this context, teachers have noted that innovation processes have improved the employability of students as they have been prepared to face the market challenges and opportunities.

  16. Facility's employment practices reflect affirmative action commitment. (United States)

    Glaser, J W; Madden, M J


    The U.S. bishops' statements on racism over the last 40 years have addressed the structural as well as the personal aspects of racial discrimination. They have noted its persistence, described it as a moral and religious problem, and called for aggressive action among Catholics to combat it. "Meaningful equality" for blacks, however, remains a distant dream, the U.S. Supreme Court noted in a recent case involving institutional discrimination, because of the basically disadvantaged position into which blacks are born. As statistics on health, education, work, and standard of living illustrate, the socioeconomic opportunities available to blacks are markedly lower than those available to white Americans. Despite these odds, efforts to improve blacks' chances of contributing to society--through affirmative action programs--have achieved striking results in industry. Hospitals, as major workplaces, likewise should focus greater attention on developing and extending minority employment and advancement programs. Catholic health care facilities especially should evaluate their commitments to affirmative action. Increased efforts to eliminate discrimination in all aspects of a hospital's relationships with the business community as well as with its own employees will cause them to be recognized as symbols of justice not only in the workplace but also in society.

  17. How can the EMMA approach to learning analytics improve employability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Francis; Tammets, Kairit; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen


    In our current society there is a strong need for citizens to work on their employability and to develop key competences. Developing those competences should starts during formal education, but maintained throughout working life. MOOCs can accommodate several of the needs of the lifelong learners.

  18. Minding Their Business: What Employers Look for in School-to-Career Programs. (United States)

    Kazis, Richard


    Besides providing work experiences, employers can help educators improve student performance by influencing public-policy decisions and changing their own employment policies. Employers' reasons for participating in work-based-learning programs include philanthropic interest, particular labor needs, and desire to improve a community's labor…

  19. Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Parenting Style (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.


    This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

  20. Strategies, limitations and opportunities for marker-assisted selection in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekkers, J.C.M.; Werf, H.J. van der


    This chapter reviews the principles, opportunities and limitations for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in livestock and for their use in genetic improvement programmes. Alternate strategies for QTL detection are discussed, as are methods for inclusion of marker and QTL information in genetic evaluation. Practical issues regarding implementation of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for selection in breed crosses and for selection within breeds are described, along with likely routes towards achieving that goal. Opportunities and challenges are also discussed for the use of molecular information for genetic improvement of livestock in developing countries. (author)

  1. Trends and Patterns in Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) Charges. (United States)

    von Schrader, Sarah; Nazarov, Zafar E


    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) protects individuals aged 40 years and over from discrimination throughout the employment process. Using data on ADEA charges from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission from 1993 to 2010, we present labor force-adjusted charge rates demonstrating that the highest charge rates are among those in the preretirement age range, and only the rate of charges among those aged 65 years and older has not decreased. We examine characteristics of ADEA charges including the prevalence of different alleged discriminatory actions (or issues) and highlight the increasing proportion of age discrimination charges that are jointly filed with other antidiscrimination statutes. Through a regression analysis, we find that the likelihood of citing various issues differs by charging party characteristics, such as age, gender, and minority status, and on charges that cite only age discrimination as compared to those that are jointly filed. Implications of these findings for employers are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Employability of genetic counselors with a PhD in genetic counseling. (United States)

    Wallace, Jody P; Myers, Melanie F; Huether, Carl A; Bedard, Angela C; Warren, Nancy Steinberg


    The development of a PhD in genetic counseling has been discussed for more than 20 years, yet the perspectives of employers have not been assessed. The goal of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of the employability of genetic counselors with a PhD in genetic counseling by conducting interviews with United States employers of genetic counselors. Study participants were categorized according to one of the following practice areas: academic, clinical, government, industry, laboratory, or research. All participants were responsible for hiring genetic counselors in their institutions. Of the 30 employers interviewed, 23 envisioned opportunities for individuals with a PhD degree in genetic counseling, particularly in academic and research settings. Performing research and having the ability to be a principal investigator on a grant was the primary role envisioned for these individuals by 22/30 participants. Employers expect individuals with a PhD in genetic counseling to perform different roles than MS genetic counselors with a master's degree. This study suggests there is an employment niche for individuals who have a PhD in genetic counseling that complements, and does not compete with, master's prepared genetic counselors.

  3. End-Stage Renal Disease Outcomes among the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Creatinine Safety Program (Creatinine SureNet): Opportunities to Reflect and Improve. (United States)

    Sim, John J; Batech, Michael; Danforth, Kim N; Rutkowski, Mark P; Jacobsen, Steven J; Kanter, Michael H


    The Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) creatinine safety program (Creatinine SureNet) identifies and outreaches to thousands of people annually who may have had a missed diagnosis for chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to determine the value of this outpatient program and evaluate opportunities for improvement. Longitudinal cohort study (February 2010 through December 2015) of KPSC members captured into the creatinine safety program who were characterized using demographics, laboratory results, and different estimations of glomerular filtration rate. Age- and sex-adjusted rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were compared with those in the overall KPSC population. Among 12,394 individuals, 83 (0.7%) reached ESRD. The age- and sex-adjusted relative risk of ESRD was 2.7 times higher compared with the KPSC general population during the same period (94.7 vs 35.4 per 100,000 person-years; p creatinine measurements, only 13% had a urine study performed (32% among patients with confirmed CKD). Our study found a higher incidence of ESRD among individuals captured into the KPSC creatinine safety program. If the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation were used, fewer people would have been captured while improving the accuracy for diagnosing CKD. Urine testing was low even among patients with confirmed CKD. Our findings demonstrate the importance of a creatinine safety net program in an integrated health system but also suggest opportunities to improve CKD care and screening.

  4. Public Incentives for Hiring and Training Employees: An Employer's Guide. Workforce Brief #8. (United States)

    Bergman, Terri

    The six sections of this brief provide the following information: (1) the types of public incentives available to employers for hiring and training of employees, including increasing economic activity and increasing labor market supply; (2) federally operated incentive programs (Welfare-to-Work Tax Credit, Work Opportunity Tax Credit, Employee…

  5. Academic Benefits of On-Campus Employment to First-Year Developmental Education Students. (United States)

    Wilkie, Carolyn; Jones, Marquita


    A study of 1,012 college freshmen admitted through a developmental studies program and offered employment through a highly structured program of up to 8 work hours/week found those taking maximum advantage of the work opportunity had higher achievement and retention rates than others. Differences by race and gender, and student perceptions, are…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available As companies and individuals to live their best release? What should companies and individuals were the most successful? What job would bring the most satisfaction and opportunities for further development? What would be the fastest way led to the realization of corporate goals and their own? Answers to these questions can be obtained through analysis of employer brand and Analysis of individual potential (AIP. Employer brand analysis and analysis of individual potential is the process of identifying the strengths and potential of the company as well as a person. In this way, determining what it is that a company or person works best, how to motivate people and to the field of application of discovered talent. The main objective of this procedure is the development of an overall as well as personal and professional development of individuals in the direction of those activities and areas that will bring long-term satisfaction

  7. Non-communicable diseases – harnessing the current opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Østergaard, Lise Rosendal


    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) receive growing attention, which brings a unique opportunity to utilise solutions available to address them. These diseases are largely preventable; proven, cost-effective interventions are available; and when NCDs have emerged, means exist to treat them, prevent ...... complications, and to improve quality of life. Yet, there is a lack in progress in responding effectively to NCDs, and the current discussion and research focus predominantly on challenges rather than the opportunities, which this paper outlines....

  8. Employment Gains and Wage Declines: The Erosion of Black Women’s Relative Wages Since 1980




    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions hav...

  9. A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas. (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A


    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.

  10. The association between workers' employability and burnout in a reorganization context: longitudinal evidence building upon the conservation of resources theory. (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; Raeder, Sabine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Wittekind, Anette


    This longitudinal study probes the relationship between employability and burnout among employees from a company undergoing reorganization. We advanced employability as a personal resource that relates negatively to burnout. We expected that this hypothesis would hold for different operationalizations of employability, including (1) job-related and (2) transferable skills, (3) willingness to change jobs and (4) to develop competences, (5) opportunity awareness, (6) self-esteem, and (7) self-perceived employability (i.e., perceived employment opportunities). In a similar vein, we expected that the hypothesis would hold for the different dimensions of burnout; namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. We used longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to test our hypotheses. Employees from a Swiss company undergoing a major reorganization were surveyed at three times with a total time lag of 19 months (Time 1: N = 287; Time 2: N = 128; Time 3: N = 107). Our results indicate that particularly self-esteem, but also job-related and transferable skills as indicators of one's employability were important predictors of burnout, with all relationships being negative. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Age and disability employment discrimination: occupational rehabilitation implications. (United States)

    Bjelland, Melissa J; Bruyère, Susanne M; von Schrader, Sarah; Houtenville, Andrew J; Ruiz-Quintanilla, Antonio; Webber, Douglas A


    As concerns grow that a thinning labor force due to retirement will lead to worker shortages, it becomes critical to support positive employment outcomes of groups who have been underutilized, specifically older workers and workers with disabilities. Better understanding perceived age and disability discrimination and their intersection can help rehabilitation specialists and employers address challenges expected as a result of the evolving workforce. Using U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Integrated Mission System data, we investigate the nature of employment discrimination charges that cite the Americans with Disabilities Act or Age Discrimination in Employment Act individually or jointly. We focus on trends in joint filings over time and across categories of age, types of disabilities, and alleged discriminatory behavior. We find that employment discrimination claims that originate from older or disabled workers are concentrated within a subset of issues that include reasonable accommodation, retaliation, and termination. Age-related disabilities are more frequently referenced in joint cases than in the overall pool of ADA filings, while the psychiatric disorders are less often referenced in joint cases. When examining charges made by those protected under both the ADA and ADEA, results from a logit model indicate that in comparison to charges filed under the ADA alone, jointly-filed ADA/ADEA charges are more likely to be filed by older individuals, by those who perceive discrimination in hiring and termination, and to originate from within the smallest firms. In light of these findings, rehabilitation and workplace practices to maximize the hiring and retention of older workers and those with disabilities are discussed.

  12. Proposal of a classification system for opportunities to innovate in skin care products. (United States)

    Souza, I D da S; Almeida, T L; Takahashi, V P


    What are the opportunities to innovate in a skin care product? There are certainly many opportunities and many technologies involved. In this work, we assumed the role of identifying and categorizing these opportunities to develop a comprehensive and intelligible classification system, which could be used as a tool to support decision-making in different professional contexts. Initially, we employed the Delphi method to identify, discuss and standardize the opportunities to innovate in a skin care product. Finally, we used the classification system obtained in the previous phase to label patent applications, therefore, testing the suitability and utility of the system. At the end of the process, we achieved a 10-category classification system for opportunities to innovate in skin care products, and we also illustrated how this system could be used. The resultant classification system offers a normalized terminology for cosmetic scientists interested in dealing with the particularities of incremental and radical innovations in skin care products. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Addressing Africa's youth employment challenge | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Dec 16, 2015 ... Improving prospects for this generation is critical, given the potential benefits that a “youth dividend” may bring to the continent, if the young are given the skills and opportunities to contribute meaningfully to growth and well being. In 2015, in partnership with the MasterCard Foundation, IDRC commissioned ...

  14. HIPAA brings new requirements, new opportunities. (United States)

    Moynihan, J J; McLure, M L


    The passage of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) brought with it the need for Federal rules to implement the act's simplification and cost-reduction efforts. HHS has published proposed rules related to security for the electronic transmission of health information, privacy of individually identifiable health information, transactions and code sets, and national provider and employer identifiers. Additional proposed rules will be published this year for claims attachments and health plan identifiers. Although HIPAA does not require providers to conduct business electronically, the new standards give providers the opportunity to reduce healthcare administrative costs significantly and undertake electronic commerce efficiently and cost-effectively.

  15. Virtual reality job interview training and 6-month employment outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia seeking employment. (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Fleming, Michael F; Wright, Michael A; Roberts, Andrea G; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D


    Individuals with schizophrenia have low employment rates and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain employment. Virtual reality training has demonstrated efficacy at improving interview skills and employment outcomes among multiple clinical populations. However, the effects of this training on individuals with schizophrenia are unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) at improving job interview skills and employment outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia in a small randomized controlled trial (n=21 VR-JIT trainees, n=11 waitlist controls). Trainees completed up to 10h of virtual interviews using VR-JIT, while controls received services as usual. Primary outcome measures included two pre-test and two post-test video-recorded role-play interviews scored by blinded raters with expertise in human resources and self-reported interviewing self-confidence. Six-month follow-up data on employment outcomes were collected. Trainees reported that the intervention was easy-to-use, helpful, and prepared them for future interviews. Trainees demonstrated increased role-play scores between pre-test and post-test while controls did not (p=0.001). After accounting for neurocognition and months since prior employment, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6month follow-up compared to controls (OR: 8.73, p=0.04) and more training was associated with fewer weeks until receiving a job offer (r=-0.63, pjob interview skills in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6-month follow-up. Future studies could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT within community-based services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila


    To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers' employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care', 'caregivers' inability to substitute mothers' care', 'compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA' and 'employment as disempowering'. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers' employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers' employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.

  17. Youth Employment, Psychosocial Health and the Importance of Person/Environment Fit: A Case Study of Two Scottish Rural Towns. (United States)

    Pavis, Stephen; Platt, Stephen; Hubbard, Gill


    Reports on the employment experiences of young people from two small rural Scottish towns. The majority of available employment was repetitive, and involved poor working conditions and limited opportunity for skill development or promotion. Most respondents recognized that in the longer term such work was detrimental to their quality of life and…

  18. Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrill, Julian; Dart, Eli; Gore, Brooklin; Habib, Salman; Myers, Steven T.; Nugent, Peter; Petravick, Don; Thomas, Rollin


    In February 2015 the third workshop in the CrossConnects series, with a focus on Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology, was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Scientists from fields including astrophysics, cosmology, and astronomy collaborated with experts in computing and networking to outline strategic opportunities for enhancing scientific productivity and effectively managing the ever-increasing scale of scientific data. While each field has unique details which depend on the instruments employed, the type and scale of the data, and the structure of scientific collaborations, several important themes emerged from the workshop discussions. Findings, as well as a set of recommendations, are contained in their respective sections in this report.

  19. Summative Co-Assessment: A Deep Learning Approach To Enhancing Employability Skills and Attributes (United States)

    Deeley, Susan J.


    Service-learning is a pedagogy that combines academic study with service to the community. Voluntary work placements are integral to service-learning and offer students an ideal opportunity to develop their employability skills and attributes. In a service-learning course, it was considered good practice to raise students' awareness of the…

  20. Prevention program at construction worksites aimed at improving health and work ability is cost-saving to the employer: Results from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Dongen, J.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.


    Background: To prolong sustainable healthy working lives of construction workers, a prevention program was developed which aimed to improve the health and work ability of construction workers. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness and financial return from the employers'

  1. School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to increase knowledge about cervical cancer and improve uptake of ... Poor knowledge about cervical cancer plays a role in limiting screening uptake. HPV ... Article Metrics.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities in Scaling-Up Nutrition in Healthcare


    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Samman, Samir


    Healthcare continues to be in a state of flux; conventionally, this provides opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include technological breakthroughs, improved economies and increasing availability of healthcare. On the other hand, economic disparities are increasing and leading to differing accessibility to healthcare, including within affluent countries. Nutrition has received an increase in attention and resources in recent decades, a lot of it stimulated by the rise in obesity,...

  3. Equal Opportunity in the Classroom: Test Construction in a Diversity-Sensitive Environment. (United States)

    Ghorpade, Jai; Lackritz, James R.


    Two multiple-choice tests and one essay test were taken by 231 students (50/50 male/female, 192 White, 39 East Asian, Black, Mexican American, or Middle Eastern). Multiple-choice tests showed no significant differences in equal employment opportunity terms; women and men scored about the same on essays, but minority students had significantly…

  4. Future Policy Directions for Congress in Ensuring Equality of Opportunity: Toward Improved Incentives, Targeting, and Enforcement (United States)

    DeBray, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Ann Elizabeth


    Congress's role in defining and promoting equality of educational opportunity has evolved over the past 55 years since "Brown v. Board of Education." Most recently, all three branches of the federal government have focused more on equality of educational opportunity for "individual" students rather than for protected classes.…

  5. Street Children and Employment Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, H.N.; Njoka, M.


    Although there is a general realization that there are 'people' in the streets, we often take the phenomenon for granted probably because we wake up and go home only to come to the streets the following morning and still find the people. This situation is however changing with the emergence of 'birth' and increase of street children as we begin to take into consideration the category of people to be routinely found on the streets. The phrase 'street children' refer to the children below the statutory adult age living on or found on the streets. These children derive their livelihood from the streets. While the children on the streets may have a 'home' to go to, the latter are an integral part of the street having nowhere to retire to at the end of the day. The street children live in abject poverty and are exposed to many risks. They suffer from malnutrition and deficiency diseases due to low and poor nutrition intake. The street girls get trapped in teenage prostitution quite early in life. Of concern are the issues related to the working street children. Many street children engage in collecting and selling waste paper, bottles and plastics. They are referred to as 'chokora' because of their work of turning garbage upside down as they look for something useful. Unfortunately they have to sell these wastes to powerful forces including people who underpay and harrass them

  6. Status, challenges and marketing opportunities for canning navy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Status, challenges and marketing opportunities for canning navy bean in Kenya. ... improve incomes of smallholder farmers in Kenya; its production and marketing has, however, stagnated. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Opportunities for UAV mapping to support unplanned settlement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal, Series D, Volume 1, 2016, Life and Natural Sciences: Special issue II. Opportunities for ... designing technical interventions (Paar and Rekittke, 2011; UN-Habitat, 2012), as well as improving the .... prioritized interventions.

  8. Good job, bad job: The employment experiences of women in recovery from substance abuse. (United States)

    Sinakhone, Joyce K; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Jason, Leonard A


    Women in metropolitan areas have lower employment participation and employment rates than men. Although women face multiple challenges in the labor market, those who have a history of substance use and are abstinent may have a greater disadvantage in obtaining viable employment opportunities due to factors associated with substance use. No research to date has examined employment experiences among women in recovery from substance use. This study examined employment characteristics and experiences of women who had a history of substance use and lived in sober-living environments in urban areas. Data were collected through telephone interviews to sober living homes that were located in 20 urban areas. Themes identified through thematic analysis included employment challenges, the importance of work to substance abuse recovery, job satisfaction, employment aspirations, and employment support in the sober living home. Employment is important to women in substance abuse recovery, not only as a means for financial support, but also as a life priority. The results highlight how employer scheduling practices, low-level positions, and lack of employment supports impact recovery. Findings provide insight into the need for employment support services, including employer education and flexible policies for women in recovery.

  9. OSHA's bloodborne pathogens rule an opportunity/threat. (United States)

    Weller, S C


    If you supply healthcare linen, OSHA's new ruling comes with a price tag, but it may be a marketing boon as well. The costs of compliance are high--about $1.19 million annually. One of the most costly and important parts of the ruling is the required employer-paid hepatitis B vaccination of employees. But behind the costs, there's good news for the textile rental industry. The opportunity to serve small medical facilities and nursing homes as well as hospitals with reusable healthcare garments could create a revenue source estimated to be at least $177 million a year.

  10. Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: challenges, opportunities, and clinical applications. (United States)

    Wicki, Andreas; Witzigmann, Dominik; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Huwyler, Jörg


    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently available therapies are inadequate and spur demand for improved technologies. Rapid growth in nanotechnology towards the development of nanomedicine products holds great promise to improve therapeutic strategies against cancer. Nanomedicine products represent an opportunity to achieve sophisticated targeting strategies and multi-functionality. They can improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of conventional therapeutics and may thus optimize the efficacy of existing anti-cancer compounds. In this review, we discuss state-of-the-art nanoparticles and targeted systems that have been investigated in clinical studies. We emphasize the challenges faced in using nanomedicine products and translating them from a preclinical level to the clinical setting. Additionally, we cover aspects of nanocarrier engineering that may open up new opportunities for nanomedicine products in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving work-life balance: what can employers and employees do? (United States)

    Herrera, Manuela


    Effective time management can play a big part in reducing stress for busy vets, but too often miscommunication between practice employers and employees can make it harder to achieve a good work-life balance. Manuela Herrera reports on a session at the BVA Congress which considered what vets can do to facilitate better time management in practice.

  12. How useful are skills acquired at adult non-formal education and training centres for finding employment in South Africa? (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette


    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education with courses which foster access to opportunities for skills acquisition and employment and bring about social and economic inclusion. However, many adults who were facing long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. This paper reports on a study which investigated what constitutes favourable conditions ("internal enabling environments") for skills acquisition inside NFET centres leading to employment and how they can be improved to contribute to coordinated efforts of increasing NFET graduates' paid and/or self-employment capacities. The authors found that centres focusing on activities suitable for self-employment during training were more likely to create internal enabling environments for skills acquisition and income generation than centres offering courses designed for entering paid employment. The authors conclude that there appears to be a significant correlation between NFET centres' training programme objectives, financial resources, trainee selection criteria, the process of training needs assessment, and skills acquisition for successful employment outcomes of NFET graduates. Without these internal enabling factors, adult trainees are likely to continue finding it difficult to integrate into the labour market or participate in economic activities and hence break the cycle of poverty and social exclusion.

  13. Nuclear power plant licensing: opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On April 20, 1977, the Commission directed that recently completed licensing actions be reviewed by the staff for the purpose of identifying ways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of NRC nuclear power plant licensing activities. This report summarizes the results of a study undertaken by an internal ad hoc Study Group established in response to that directive. The Study Group limited its considerations to safety and environmental review activities. The background, scope, assumptions and objectives of the study are discussed. A prime assumption of this study was that improvements in the efficiency should not be permitted to reduce the current quality achieved in the licensing process. This consideration underlies the conclusions and recommendations of the study

  14. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila


    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624

  15. Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William


    New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.

  16. Is there an occupational therapy employment crisis within Australia? An investigation into two consecutive cohorts of occupational therapy graduates from a single Victorian University identifying trends in employment. (United States)

    Fay, Pearse; Adamson, Lynne


    Within the context of growing concerns about a potential oversupply of occupational therapist, this research examines when, where and how long new graduates take to gain employment and identifies influences upon the health and university systems. A mixed method research design, using an online survey was adopted to investigate the topic. Two consecutive cohorts of graduates from a single university program were invited to participate. Seventy-five (58%) responses were received, with 63 (84%) currently employed in an occupational therapy role. Of the 12 (16%) not employed, only 3 (4%) described themselves as actively seeking employment in an occupational therapy role. A wide spread of employment settings and scope of practice areas was reported. Findings suggest that occupational therapy graduates are gaining employment in a range of settings and practice areas, relatively quickly. This research adds evidence to the conversation around graduate employment within a region of Australia. The Australian population, health system and university changes are possible factors influencing employment. The research reveals the difficulties in understanding the current situation with limitations in data collected, varied terminology and an ever changing job seeking environment. The research provides a starting point for the occupational therapy profession to further understand the directions the profession is taking. University programs may also benefit by using the research to tailor course content to assist graduates in gaining employment or to present students with the prospects of new employment opportunities. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. New Business Structures Creating Organizational Opportunities and Challenges for Work Disability Prevention. (United States)

    Ekberg, Kerstin; Pransky, Glenn S; Besen, Elyssa; Fassier, Jean-Baptise; Feuerstein, Michael; Munir, Fehmidah; Blanck, Peter


    Purpose Flexible work arrangements are growing in order to develop resource-efficient production and because of advanced technologies, new societal values, changing demographics, and globalization. The article aims to illustrate the emerging challenges and opportunities for work disability prevention efforts among workers in alternate work arrangements. Methods The authors participated in a year-long collaboration that ultimately led to an invited 3-day conference, "Improving Research of Employer Practices to Prevent Disability," held October 14-16, 2015, in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The collaboration included a topical review of the literature, group conference calls to identify key areas and challenges, drafting of initial documents, review of industry publications, and a conference presentation that included feedback from peer researchers and a roundtable discussion with experts having direct employer experience. Results Both worker and employer perspectives were considered, and four common alternate work arrangements were identified: (a) temporary and contingent employment; (b) small workplaces; (c) virtual work/telework; and (d) lone workers. There was sparse available research of return-to-work (RTW) and workplace disability management strategies with regard to alternate work patterns. Limited research findings and a review of the grey literature suggested that regulations and guidelines concerning disabled workers are often ambiguous, leading to unsatisfactory protection. At the workplace level, there was a lack of research evidence on how flexible work arrangements could be handled or leveraged to support RTW and prevent disability. Potential negative consequences of this lack of organizational guidance and information are higher costs for employers and insurers and feelings of job insecurity, lack of social support and integration, or work intensification for disabled workers. Conclusions Future studies of RTW and workplace disability prevention

  18. Women Employment in terms of Gender Inequality across the Provinces of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Inequalities are very important and multi-dimensional problem for all countries in the world. Particularly, the problem is challenging for developing countries due to the presence of not equal opportunities in economic life. This study aims to examine relations between women employment and socio-economic inequalities by using spatial data and techniques across the regions of Turkey. We use women employment’s share in total employment of provinces in 2014 as an indicator of women employment as long as the following variables used as independent are Gender Equality Index, Socio-Economic Development Index, gender based wage gap and household size. To test spatial dimensions of the variables, firstly we perform an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis on all variables for provinces of Turkey. Secondly, we explain spatial econometrics dimensions of women employment in Turkey. The results indicate that spatial regression is statistically significant and have high level of coefficient of determination in terms of spatial lag and error models. The study results indicate the significant relations among independent variables and women employment. Overall, our results show new dimensions of spatial distribution of women employment in Turkey.

  19. A Peer-to-Peer Support Model for Developing Graduate Students' Career and Employability Skills (United States)

    Jones, Narelle; Torezani, Silvia; Luca, Joseph


    Career opportunities for Australian research graduates have expanded in recent years into areas outside academia. However, the employment market is highly competitive, and Australian universities have recognised the need to produce graduates with transferable skills across all sectors, not just academia. The need to provide an infrastructure to…

  20. Disability, gender, and employment relationships in Africa: The case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustina Naami


    Full Text Available The exploratory quantitative study sought to develop an understanding about the relationships among disability, gender and employment in Northern Ghana. A total of 110 individuals with disabilities (20–60 years from various disability groups participated in the study. The results indicate that many persons with disabilities are unemployed, the majority being women. Discrimination is cited as the greatest barrier to the employment of persons with disabilities, particularly women. The majority of persons with disabilities, typically women, live in poverty; given that some are unemployed and those who are employed worked mostly in marginal, seasonal and menial jobs. Persons with disabilities also experience several challenges on the job, including negative perceptions about their capabilities, discrimination and exclusion, irrespective of the employment sector and disability type. Educational interventions such as workshops, documenting and showcasing success stories of persons with disabilities could be helpful to reduce negative perceptions about their capabilities as well as discrimination against them. Government intervention to support persons with disabilities with start-up capital and funding for formal education is also recommended as these two elements were identified respectively as barriers to self-employment and employment in the public/private sectors. Government interventions to create educational opportunities for persons with disabilities are essential given that lower educational attainment affect their employment.

  1. Improving market access opportunities for urban small, medium and micro-enterprises in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Rogerson


    Full Text Available Since the democratic transition of 1994, the promotion of the small, medium and micro-enterprise (SMME economy has been a core focus of South African government policy. With high levels of unemployment and poverty in urban areas, the impact of this policy intervention is most critical for city development. Given South Africa’s chequered history, the national government’s focus is on transforming the prospects for enterprises owned by black South Africans, who were disadvantaged under apartheid. This article examines the range of contemporary policy initiatives to address business constraints on market access and catalyse new market opportunities for black-owned enterprises in urban South Africa. The article concentrates on two themes: 1 building links into private sector supply chains, especially through supplier diversity, and 2 building links into public sector markets through public procurement. It is shown that current policy directions recognise that the national government has a limited capacity to implement SMME improvement and build competitive black-owned SMMEs by itself, which has prompted support for private sector initiatives. In addition, the government is struggling to practice what it preaches and use its own procurement capacity to assist black-owned SMMEs.

  2. 20 CFR 664.810 - How does a Local Board or other entity become eligible to receive a Youth Opportunity Grant? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a Local Board or other entity become eligible to receive a Youth Opportunity Grant? 664.810 Section 664.810 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Opportunity Grants § 664.810...

  3. A partnership-based model for embedding employability in urban planning education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale Blair


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a partnership-based model for embedding employability in urban planning education. The model is based on the author’s experiences of implementing an international project which supported the development of employability skills in urban and regional planning education in Malawi. Since independence, urban planners have typically trained outside the country, attending university in the UK and other Commonwealth countries. More recently, the paradigm has shifted towards in-country education delivered by academic staff cognisant with the opportunities and challenges of development in Malawi. There remains, though, a gap between graduate knowledge of the subject and the skills necessary to pursue a professional career in the sector. Although there is no consensus yet on the meaning of employability in the literature, lessons from the project indicate that academic–public–private collaboration helps incorporate in curriculum skills that employers anticipate. Applicability of these principles is however context dependent, particularly in the emerging economy context where institutional capacity may be less developed compared to elsewhere.

  4. Employment Policies for a Green Economy at the European Union Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mihaela Pociovălișteanu


    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development requires ensuring economic growth and development in terms of environmental protection by providing a bridge between sustainable economic growth, improvement in human health, social justice, employment and environmental protection. Our paper aims to study the situation of green jobs at the European Union level and the relationship between environment and employment, by analysing the link between employment and environmental policies. It highlights the main trends recorded at the European Union level in the field of employment policy to promote green jobs for sustainable economic development. Although there is little effect from environmental policies on employment, the effects are positive, which shows that the relationship between environmental and employment policy should be continued and improved by measures taken at both the macro- and microeconomic levels.

  5. Integrated Management of Migration, Employment, Fiscal Policy and Public Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Vytautas Rutkauskas


    Full Text Available The main idea of the paper states that national migration indicators are closely related with employment opportunities in that country. In addition, the management quality of migration and employment processes is an indicator of the national socio-economic policy competency, while management of these processes is the main purpose of intelligent adjustment of the national fiscal policy and government debt management. The author of the paper selected the formation of the system of quantitative indicators as the main objective of the paper. The system should allow employing government debt possibilities for the selection of proper fiscal policy in order to prevent the transformation of unemployment into the key reason of uncontrolled national inflation. This would be done by revealing the possibilities of fiscal policy to impact on the level and structure of unemployment. Recent globalisation processes and integration possibilities bring a lot of uncertainty to predetermined viability of theoretical assumptions as well as the adequacy of the applied quantitative methods. The paper uses the possibilities of stochastic optimisation and stochastically informed expertise pursuing the possibilities of integrated management of employment, migration processes, fiscal policy and government debt provisions.

  6. The Forms and Types of Youth Employment in the Regional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Cherevko


    Full Text Available The main problems discussed in the article are: the state of two age groups in the labor market and their employment chances under post-crisis conditions. Several lines of research can be singled out in this sphere: first, the people's desire and opportunities to do business; second, the problems of making a career on the main and extra jobs; third, the problems of work yield.

  7. Exploiting the opportunities of Internet and multi-channel pricing : An exploratory research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotgiu, Francesca; Ancarani, Fabio


    Smart firms are not worried about the impact of the Internet on pricing, but realise that they have the unique opportunity to exploit new options and improve their marketing performance. Multi-channel pricing is one of the most interesting opportunities firms can exploit in the digital economy.

  8. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David


    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  9. The Burger Court and the Prima Facie Case in Employment Discrimination Litigation: A Critique. (United States)

    Friedman, Joel William


    The unprincipled and contrived reasoning running through these opinions manifests an intentional effort by the Court to impede litigants' ability to secure their rights to equal employment opportunity by raising the requirements of the prima facie case. Available from Fred B. Rothman & Co., 10368 West Centennial Road, Littleton, CO 80123; sc…

  10. Strategic alliances in healthcare: opportunities for the Veterans Affairs healthcare system. (United States)

    Halverson, P K; Kaluzny, A D; Young, G J


    Strategic alliances are proving to be effective strategies for responding and adapting to changing environments, and as such they offer the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system valuable opportunities for accomplishing the goals of its major reorganization effort. This article begins with an examination of basic strategic-alliance structures that are employed across many different types of industries. Next, consideration is given to the ways in which these basic alliance structures may be adapted to the unique organizations and individuals that serve as providers, purchasers, and consumers of health services. Finally, this article explores how models of strategic alliance in healthcare can be tailored to the specific needs and constraints of the VA healthcare system through an examination of existing and potential alliance opportunities.

  11. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.


    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434

  12. ‘Voluntary’ promises in Employment Law; a study of the legal approach in the United Kingdom & the United States of America


    Hattab, Muayad


    In modern employment relations there has been an increased practice by employers to provide their employees with formal statements including company manuals, work rules, policies, and collective agreements. These ostensibly non-contractual documents, which are ‘voluntary’ or ‘unilaterally’ introduced by the employer, may contain, inter alia, promises of benefits and entitlements such as an equal opportunity policy, an enhanced disciplinary procedure, and redundancy and bonus schemes. The ques...

  13. What’s up with the self-employed? A cross-national perspective on the self-employed’s work-related mental well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Gevaert


    Full Text Available Although many governments actively stimulate self-employment, their work-related mental well-being remains understudied. The aim of current study is to investigate the mental well-being of different types of self-employed, testing whether mental well-being differences among self-employed are explained by the presence of work characteristics that are in accordance with the ideal-typical image of the “successful entrepreneur” (e.g. creativity, willingness to take risks, innovativeness, high intrinsic motivation, skilfulness and the ability of recognizing opportunities. Moreover, we investigate the relation of country-level “entrepreneurial climate” and the individual mental well-being of self-employed. For this purpose, data from the European Working Conditions Survey, round 6 (2015 was analysed, including 5448 cases, originating from the 28 EU-member states. Multilevel random intercepts modelling was used to investigate associations of both individual- and country-level characteristics with mental well-being. We found that motivation, the ability to recognize opportunities, and finding it easy to be self-employed positively influences the mental well-being of self-employed. Respondents with these characteristics are often medium-big employers, while farmers, dependent freelancers and own account workers generally have less of these features and tend to have lower levels of mental well-being. At the country-level, positive entrepreneurship perception relates to more advantageous mental health scores in self-employed. These results implicate that policies promoting self-employment should be (more concerned with the work-related characteristics of (future self-employed. Keywords: Self-employment, Mental well-being, Cross-national, Entrepreneurial characteristics, Entrepreneurial ecosystems, EU 28

  14. Career identity and its impact upon self-perceived employability among Chilean male middle-aged managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazar, G.; van der Heijden, Beatrice


    Economic growth and social development in Chile require a skilled workforce able to adapt to a highly dynamic labour market all of which place new demands for middle-aged workers who have to explore labour markets opportunities to develop and maintain their employability. This research addresses

  15. Challenges and opportunities for improved understanding of regional climate dynamics (United States)

    Collins, Matthew; Minobe, Shoshiro; Barreiro, Marcelo; Bordoni, Simona; Kaspi, Yohai; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Keenlyside, Noel; Manzini, Elisa; O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Sutton, Rowan; Xie, Shang-Ping; Zolina, Olga


    Dynamical processes in the atmosphere and ocean are central to determining the large-scale drivers of regional climate change, yet their predictive understanding is poor. Here, we identify three frontline challenges in climate dynamics where significant progress can be made to inform adaptation: response of storms, blocks and jet streams to external forcing; basin-to-basin and tropical-extratropical teleconnections; and the development of non-linear predictive theory. We highlight opportunities and techniques for making immediate progress in these areas, which critically involve the development of high-resolution coupled model simulations, partial coupling or pacemaker experiments, as well as the development and use of dynamical metrics and exploitation of hierarchies of models.

  16. How do NHS organisations plan research capacity development? Strategies, strengths, and opportunities for improvement. (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Cooke, Jo


    Research that is integral into a 'learning healthcare system' can promote cost effective services and knowledge creation. As such, research is defined as a 'core function' in UK health service organisations, and is often planned through research and development (R&D) strategies that aim to promote research activity and research capacity development (RCD). The discussion focuses around the content of ten R&D strategies for healthcare organisations in England and Scotland, with respect to RCD. These organisations were engaged with a research interest network called ACORN (Addressing Organisational Capacity to do Research Network) that included two Scottish Health Boards, four community and mental health trusts, two provincial district hospitals, and two teaching hospitals. We undertook a thematic documentary analysis of the R&D strategies which identified 11 'core activities' of RCD. The potential for building research capacity in these 'core activities' was established by reviewing them through the lens of a RCD framework. Core activities aimed to 'hard wire' RCD into health organisations. They demonstrated a complex interplay between developing a strong internal organisational infrastructure, and supporting individual career planning and skills development, in turn enabled by organisational processes. They also included activities to build stronger inter-organisational relationships and networks. Practitioner, manager and patient involvement was a cross cutting theme. The potential to demonstrate progress was included in plans through monitoring activity across all RCD principles. Strategies were primarily aimed at research production rather than research use. Developing 'actionable dissemination' was poorly addressed in the strategies, and represents an area for improvement. We describe strengths of RCD planning activities, and opportunities for improvement. We explore how national policy and research funders can influence health systems' engagement in research.

  17. Existing School Buildings: Incremental Seismic Retrofit Opportunities. (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    The intent of this document is to provide technical guidance to school district facility managers for linking specific incremental seismic retrofit opportunities to specific maintenance and capital improvement projects. The linkages are based on logical affinities, such as technical fit, location of the work within the building, cost saving…

  18. Health care spending accounts: a flexible solution for Canadian employers. (United States)

    Smithies, R; Steeves, L


    Flexible benefits plans have grown more slowly in Canada than in the United States, largely because of certain legal and regulatory considerations. Health care spending accounts (HCSAs) provide a cost-effective way for Canadian employers to address the health care benefit needs of a diverse workforce. A flexible health care spending account is a versatile and cost-effective instrument that can be used by Canadian employers that wish to provide a full range of health care benefits to employees. The health care alternatives available through an HCSA can provide employees with an opportunity to customize and optimize their benefits program. Regulatory requirements that an HCSA must meet in order to qualify for available tax advantages are discussed, as are the range of health care services that may be covered.

  19. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia


    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: The Equa...

  20. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia


    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: The Equal Opportuni...

  1. Theories of opportunity creation and effective entrepreneurial actions in opportunity creation context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Jamali


    Full Text Available Created opportunities are refered as the opportunities in which none of the supply and demand parties exists clearly and obviously one or both of them must be created. Therefore, several economic inventions should take place in marketing, franchising, etc. so that opportunity can be created. This perception of opportunity deals with the creation of new markets. In the meantime, identifying some entrepreneurial actions influencing on the creation of entrepreneurial opportunities can provide backgrounds for the formation and empowering the opportunity creation. In this paper, some basic ideas about the creation of entrepreneurial opportunities and the evolution of opportunity creation theories are examined. Then effective actions on the opportunity creation are identified. Finally, the structure of the investigated actions is examined using the DEMATLE Method. The results which were according to the opinions of 15 experts of entrepreneurship showed that leadership, decision making, and strategy actions influence other entrepreneurial actions.

  2. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis. (United States)

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo


    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was 'Traffic' which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the 'personal' and 'economical'. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea.

  3. Theoretical Frameworks to Guide School Improvement (United States)

    Evans, Lisa; Thornton, Bill; Usinger, Janet


    A firm grounding in change theory can provide educational leaders with an opportunity to orchestrate meaningful organizational improvements. This article provides an opportunity for practicing leaders to review four major theories of organizational change--continuous improvement, two approaches to organizational learning, and appreciative inquiry.…

  4. Accessibility, location, and employment center growth. (United States)


    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between accessibility and the : growth of employment centers in order to improve our understanding of how transportation : investments influence the spatial organization of metropolitan area...

  5. Social problems as sources of opportunity – antecedents of social entrepreneurship opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Żur


    Full Text Available Objective: Based on extensive literature review, this paper aims to establish if, why and how, in given environmental and market contexts, social entrepreneurship (SE opportunities are discovered and exploited. It positions social problems as sources of entrepreneurial opportunity. The article presents an integrated process-based view of SE opportunity antecedents and concludes with a dynamic model of SE opportunity. Research Design & Methods: To fulfil its goal, the paper establishes opportunity as unit of research and explores the dynamics of opportunity recognition. To identify the components of SE opportunity through a process-based view, the study follows the steps of critical literature review method. The literature review follows with logical reasoning and inference, which results in the formulation of a model proposition of social entrepreneurship opportunity. Findings: The paper presents a holistic perspective on opportunity antecedents in SE context and introduces social problems, information, social awareness and entrepreneurial mindset  as fundamental components of social entrepreneurship opportunity equation. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to remember for policy makers, investors and partners involved within the social sector, that social problems can be the source of entrepreneurial opportunity. Training, assisting and engaging socially aware entrepreneurs is a promising line of development for all communities. Contribution & Value Added: The major contribution of this study lies in extending the existing body of social entrepreneurship research by providing a new perspective, placing social problem as opportunity in the centre of the discussion.

  6. Opportunities for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Multi-Modal Intra-City Freight Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam


    This poster focuses on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's analysis of opportunities for freight movement energy savings via optimization and integration of existing/emerging intra-city goods delivery modes as well as an assessment of the efficacy and energy consumption impact of new technologies.

  7. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng Lin


    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PEDOT:PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PEDOT:PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PEDOT:PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  8. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Tang, Libin; Chang, Hung Chih; Tai, Shih Hsiang; Yang, Po Kang; Lau, Shu Ping; Chen, Lih Juann; He, Jr-Hau


    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PEDOT:PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PEDOT:PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PEDOT:PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  9. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica


    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  10. Improving the performance of conventional and column froth flotation cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B.J. [CQ Inc., Homer City, PA (United States)


    Many existing mining operations hover on the brink of producing competitively priced fuel with marginally acceptable sulfur levels. To remain competitive, these operations need to improve the yield of their coal processing facilities, lower the sulfur content of their clean coal, or lower the ash content of their clean coal. Fine coal cleaning processes offer the best opportunity for coal producers to increase their yield of high quality product. Over 200 coal processing plants in the U.S. already employ some type of conventional or column flotation device to clean fines. an increase in efficiency in these existing circuits could be the margin required to make these coal producers competitive.

  11. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine


    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  12. Corporate Philanthropy Toward Community Health Improvement in Manufacturing Communities. (United States)

    McHugh, Megan; Farley, Diane; Maechling, Claude R; Dunlop, Dorothy D; French, Dustin D; Holl, Jane L


    Virtually all large employers engage in corporate philanthropy, but little is known about the extent to which it is directed toward improving community health. We conducted in-depth interviews with leaders of corporate philanthropy from 13 of the largest manufacturing companies in the US to understand how giving decisions were made, the extent to which funding was directed towards improving community health, and whether companies coordinate with local public health agencies. We found that corporate giving was sizable and directed towards communities in which the manufacturers have a large presence. Giving was aligned with the social determinants of health (i.e., aimed at improving economic stability, the neighborhood and physical environment, education, food security and nutrition, the community and social context, and the health care system). However, improving public health was not often cited as a goal of corporate giving, and coordination with public health agencies was limited. Our results suggest that there may be opportunities for public health agencies to help guide corporate philanthropy, particularly by sharing community-level data and offering their measurement and evaluation expertise.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hie Ting


    Full Text Available Employability of graduates is a concern in many countries, including Malaysia, and the high unemployment rate among graduates is often attributed to their lack of English proficiency and communication skills. These two distinctive elements are often collated, and it is important to find out which is more important to employers. The study examined the employers’ views on the importance of English proficiency and communication skill for graduates to be employed in the Malaysian private sector. The data were from semi-structured interviews conducted with 10 employers in the private sector who were in the position to recruit staff. The 21,433-word interview transcripts were analyzed. The results revealed that employers in the Malaysian private sector view language proficiency and communication skills as separate qualities. The employers are willing to consider employing candidates with average English proficiency if they have good communication skills, except for jobs which require more communication in English such as customer service and marketing. The results also revealed that good communication skills can increase employability and opportunities for career advancement. The findings highlight the communication skills that universities need to emphasize so that their graduates have the necessary skills to perform well in employment interviews and in their work.

  14. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  15. Puebla Territory-Specific Basket of Goods Strategies and Their Local Repercussions for Employment and Profit: the Case of Xicotepec de Juárez, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario del Roble Pensado Leglise


    Full Text Available Developing a basket of land goods means a systemic strateg y for small farmers because it allows reaching multiple objectives in order to promote territorial competitiveness to access market niches with varied rural goods, strengthen social capital and generate better local levels in employment and income, together with increasing and preserving the environment. This analysis implied the application of a system dynamics model which produced possible future scenarios (through Ve n s i m®DSS 5.8 about employment and income obtained by smallholder coffee farmers from Xicotepec de Juárez municipality in Puebla, regarding the setting of the above mentioned strateg y for rural development. Results showed that this strateg y was implemented successfully and also revealed opportunities for: a improving the development capacity of small farmers; b making the institutional context favorable; c The reinforcement of social capital essential to implement this land strategy.

  16. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John


    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  17. 76 FR 24503 - Agency Information Collection Activities: DHS Individual Complaint of Employment Discrimination (United States)


    ... Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 621 et seq.) (age), the Equal Pay Act (29 U.S.C. 206(d)) (sex... Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104... complaint process. It is the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal opportunity in...

  18. Globalization, social exclusion and work : with special reference to informal employment and gender


    Carr, Marilyn; Chen, Martha


    Looks at three different patterns that limit competitiveness: a) questionable working conditions in export processing zones or within global value chains that are driven by a foreign or multinational enterprise; b) exclusion of self-employed from the internal governance process of the chain; c) import-flooding putting domestic sectors at a disadvantage. Makes policy recommendations for more favourable inclusion opportunities.

  19. Policy development and opportunities in ICT for sustainable food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy development and opportunities in ICT for sustainable food and nutrition ... improved marketing and distribution that would lead to food and nutrition security ... Bridging the digital divide through development and utilization of information ...

  20. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity. Issue Brief (United States)

    Bryant, Rhonda; Harris, Linda; Bird, Kisha


    In 2011, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) created the Forward Promise initiative within its Vulnerable Populations Portfolio to place a strategic emphasis on the needs of middle school- and high school-aged young men of color. RWJF's goal is to strengthen educational opportunities, pathways to employment, and health outcomes for these…